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DOCUMENT CONTROL SHEET

GUIDELINES FOR MARINE OPERATIONS

Offshore Pipelines

May 2003

Rev.

Date

Reformatted version of original document


Reason For Issue

VK

DB

AJS

Author Checked Approved

LOC Doc. Title

Offshore Pipelines

LOC Ref No.

LOCG-GEN-Guideline-007

LOC Field

Marine Operations Guidelines

London Offshore Consultants


Offshore Pipelines

LOCG-GEN-Guideline-007 Rev. 0

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
1.

2.

3.

4.

INTRODUCTION

1.1. Object of the Guidelines

1.2. Other Standards

1.3. Deviation from the Guidelines

1.4. Definitions

DOCUMENTATION

2.1. General

2.2. Key Documents

2.3. Design & Analysis

2.4. Quality Assurance and Safety

2.5. Procurement and Fabrication

2.6. Installation and Offshore Activities

2.7. Construction Records

2.8. Document Retention

WARRANTY SURVEYOR ATTENDANCE

10

3.1. General

10

3.2. Vessel Audits

10

3.3. Onshore Activities

11

3.4. Offshore Activities

11

ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS

13

4.1. Environmental Data

13

4.2. Limiting Environmental Conditions

13

4.3. Environmental Studies

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5.

6.

7.

LOCG-GEN-Guideline-007 Rev. 0

4.4. Environmental Impact

14

SURVEYS AND ROUTE PREPARATION

15

5.1. Route Survey

15

5.2. Geotechnical Surveys

15

5.3. Preparatory Works

16

5.4. Post-Preparation Survey

17

5.5. Post-Lay Survey

17

PIPELINE CONSTRUCTION

18

6.1. Pipelay Spread & Equipment

18

6.2. Pipe, Materials and Equipment Control

18

6.3. Control and Monitoring of Position

19

6.4. Anchor Handling

19

6.5. Dynamic Positioning

21

6.6. Pipelay Start-Up

22

6.7. Pipelay

23

6.8. Pipeline Laydown

25

6.9. Pipeline Abandonment & Recovery

25

6.10.Contingencies

25

6.11.Welding and NDT

26

6.12.Field Joint Coating

27

TOWED PIPELINE INSTALLATION

29

7.1 General

29

7.2. Surface and Near-Surface Tow

30

7.3. Mid-Depth Tow

30

7.4. Off-Bottom Tow

31

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8.

9.

LOCG-GEN-Guideline-007 Rev. 0

7.5. On-Bottom Tow/Full

31

PIPELINE CROSSINGS

33

8.1. General

33

8.2. Design of Crossings

33

8.3. Pipeline Installation

34

FREESPAN RECTIFICATION

35

9.1. Span Survey

35

9.2. Span Criteria and Analysis

35

9.3. Correction

36

10. TRENCHING AND BACKFILLING

37

10.1.General

37

10.2.Trenching Tools

37

10.3.Procedures

38

11. TIE-INS

39

11.1.General

39

11.2.Above Water Tie-In

39

11.3.Subsea Tie-In

40

11.4.Tie-In Procedures

40

12. SHORE APPROACH AND LANDFALL

42

12.1.General

42

12.2 Procedures

42

12.2.Design Requirements

43

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13. TESTING AND COMMISSIONING

44

13.1.Flooding and Cleaning

44

13.2.Gauging

44

13.3.Pressure Testing

44

13.4.Leak Testing

45

13.5.Pipeline Commissioning

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1.

LOCG-GEN-Guideline-007 Rev. 0

INTRODUCTION

1.1.

Object of the Guidelines

1.1.1

These guidelines have been prepared to assist Marine Warranty Surveyors and others
to form a basis for the evaluation of pipeline projects.

1.1.2

The guidelines concern are applicable for a wide range of pipeline projects including, but
not limited to the following:

Subsea pipelines between offshore facilities and landfall.

Inter-field and in-field pipelines.

Estuary and river crossing pipelines.

1.1.3

The guidelines are applicable to both rigid and flexible pipelines for the following
installation methods:

Lay barge installation by S-Lay, J-Lay or reeling.

Installation by towing or pulling.

1.1.4

The guidelines are also applicable to the following associated activities:

Spool piece installation.

Tie-ins (surface and subsea).

J-Tube and I-Tube pull-ins.

Testing and commissioning.

1.2.

Other Standards

1.2.1

These guidelines are to be used in conjunction with international, national and Company
specified codes, standards, regulations and acts applicable to the work. One or more of
the latest editions of the following Codes shall be used, unless prior written approval has
been gained from the Warranty Surveyor to use alternative Codes:

Code of practice for pipelines: Part 3. Pipelines subsea design, construction and
installation. BS 8010: Part 3: 1993. (UK).

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Model Code of Safe Practice in the Petroleum Industry: Part 6 Pipeline Safety Code.
Institute of Petroleum. 4th Edition, December 1982. Plus Supplement, August 1986.
(UK).

Rules for Submarine Pipeline Systems. Det Norske Veritas, April 1981, reprint with
corrections 1982. (Norway).

Recommended Practice for Design, Construction, Operation and Maintenance of


Offshore Hydrocarbon Pipelines. American Petroleum Institute API RP1111, 1993.
(USA).

Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems. ASME Code for Pressure Piping,
B31. ANSI/ASME B31.8 - 1989. Plus Addenda, B31.8a - 1990, B31.8b - 1990 and
B31.8c 1992. USA).

Liquid Petroleum Transportation Piping Systems. ASME Code for pressure Piping, B31.
ANSI/ASME B31.4 - 1979. (USA).

ISO 9000: 1987. Quality Management and Quality Assurance Standards - Guidelines
for Selection and Use. (International Organization for Standardization, Geneva).

1.2.2

The design, fabrication and installation of any beach, on-shore or topside portion of a
pipeline is generally not covered by the above Codes.

Contractor shall use the

recommendations contained in the above Codes for those portions of a pipeline.


1.2.3

Where conflicting requirements are identified in the applicable international, national and
Company specified codes, standards, regulations and acts, Company and/or Contractor
shall clearly highlight and prioritize them.

1.3.

Deviation from the Guidelines

1.3.1

No deviation from these guidelines or the codes, standards, regulations and acts
referred to herein is acceptable without the prior written approval of the Warranty
Surveyor.

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LOCG-GEN-Guideline-007 Rev. 0

1.4.

Definitions

1.4.1

The following definitions are applicable to this document:


AE: Asphalt Enamel.
A&R: Abandonment and Retrieval. Reference to the equipment on a pipelay barge,
which is used to place the pipeline on the seabed and recover it again into the vessel.
Barge: Vessel or ship under its own power or controlled by anchors or tugs.
Beach: All forms of land at the edge of a sea, lake, estuary or river.
Bundle: Two or more pipelines and/or control cables or umbilicals mechanically joined
together.
CTE: Coal Tar Enamel.
Company: Eventual operator and/or owner of the pipeline system.
Contractor: Organization whose work the Warranty Surveyor is to verify.
Design Life: Period of time for which operational conditions of the pipeline are valid.
Design Pressure: Internal contents pressure selected for design purposes.
Double Jointing: Welding of two pipe sections together prior to entry into the main firing
line.
DSV: Diving Support Vessel.
Field Joint: Connection between two pipe joints made up on the barge or beach.
Firing Line: The area on a barge or beach in which welding, tensioning, NDT and field
joint coating are performed.
Guard Vessel:
shipping.

Vessel specifically assigned to patrol an area and warn off other

HAT: Highest Astronomical Tide.


J-Tube (I-Tube): Tube installed on an offshore installation through which a pipeline is
pulled from below sea level to topsides level. J or I refers to the lower end shape for the
tube.
Joint: Basic pipeline section, nominally 12 metres long.
LAT: Lowest Astronomical Tide.

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MAOP: Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure, the maximum internal pressure which
the pipeline is allowed to continuously operate at. Note that an ultimate pressure up to
110% of MAOP is allowed due to valve or pump initiation or cessations.
Mattress: Concrete or bitumen subsea mattress used for protection or for weight.
MSV: Multifunction Support Vessel, incorporating all the functions of a DSV.
NDT: Non-Destructive Testing.
Offshore Installation: Permanent or temporary structure or vessel.
Ordinance: Explosives such as mines, bombs, etc.
Pig:
Device inserted into a pipeline and pushed along by rear pressure. Typical pigging
activities include cleaning and gauging.
Pig Launcher: A device attached to the pipeline system that allows pigs to be inserted
into the system.
Pig Receiver: A device attached to the pipeline system that allows pigs to be trapped
and removed from the system.
Pipelay: Installation of pipelines and pipeline bundles.
Pipeline: Circular tube through which liquids, gasses or fluidized solids are passed.
Pipeline System: Pipeline and all its valves, appurtenances, components and branches
extending between the specifications break points.
PLEM: Pipeline End Manifold.
Pull (Tow) Head: A device on the end of a pipeline or bundle to which a pull (tow) cable
can be attached.
QA: Quality Assurance.
QC: Quality Control, the methods, documents and procedures by which quality is
assured.
Radiation Hardness: Energy level of X-ray radiation used for NDT.
RAO: Response Amplitude Operators of a vessel.
ROV: Remotely Operated Vehicle.
RTJ: Ring Type Joint.
SIMOPS: Simultaneous Operations.

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SMYS: Specified Minimum Yield Strength.


Sub-Contractor: Organization working for or on behalf of Contractor.
Subsea Installation: Offshore Installation, which is normally wholly submerged.
Specification Break: End points of the pipeline system. Typical specification break
points are a subsea manifold, topside pig receiver, emergency shut down valve, first
valve on a permanently moored tanker or topsides and the pipeline connection device
for a transient tanker.
Topsides: Portion of an offshore installation wholly above water level, containing
equipment, machinery, accommodation etc.
Wave Zone: Portion of sea or lake from water line to depth at which loading from wave
action is not the dominating environmental criteria.

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2.

LOCG-GEN-Guideline-007 Rev. 0

DOCUMENTATION

2.1.

General

2.1.1

All documentation shall be prepared, checked and approved by competent persons,


knowledgeable and experienced in the subject matter. Each document shall clearly
indicate those persons responsible for its preparation, checking and approval by means
of a front sheet containing names and signatures. Initials and initialed signatures are
acceptable instead of full names. The front sheet shall additionally identify the document
by name, number, revision and date.

2.1.2

Documentation produced by Sub-Contractors shall be reviewed and approved by


Contractor prior to submission for review by the Warranty Surveyor.

2.1.3

Copies of professional and educational qualifications and Curricula Vitae for all persons
responsible for preparing, checking and approving any project documentation shall be
made available to the Warranty Surveyor on request.

2.2.

Key Documents

2.2.1

The Warranty Surveyor will review documentation covering all aspects of the design,
construction, and installation and testing of the pipeline system and its associated works.
The Warranty Surveyor may additionally review documentation relating to Contractor or
Sub-Contractor standard operating procedures. Documentation to be reviewed, dates
for submission and dates for return will generally be agreed with Company and
Contractor at an early stage of the project.

2.2.2

Documentation covering those subjects listed below will typically be prepared and
available for review:

General

Document Register

Master Schedule

Document Distribution Matrix

Technical Component of Contract with Company

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2.3.

LOCG-GEN-Guideline-007 Rev. 0

Design & Analysis

Basis of Design

Pipeline Route

Wall Thickness

Upheaval Buckling

On-Bottom Stability

Expansion

Allowable Free span Criteria

Cathodic Protection

Weight and Corrosion Coats

Dropped Object and Trawling Protection

Spool pieces and/or Risers

Static Pipelay Analysis

Dynamic Pipelay Analysis (if required)

Environmental Impact Study

Start-up and Laydown Heads

Overall Field Layout Drawing

Pipeline Alignment Sheets

Issued For Construction Drawings

2.4.

Quality Assurance and Safety

Quality Assurance Plan

Quality Control Manual

Quality Plan for Line Pipe

Material Control Procedure

Pipe Tracking System

Safety Plan

Variation Orders

Authorized Deviations

Audit Records

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2.5.

LOCG-GEN-Guideline-007 Rev. 0

Procurement and Fabrication

Line Pipe Specification

Flexible Pipe Specification

Spool piece and Riser Specification

Weight Coat Specification

Weight Coat Application Specification

Corrosion Coat Specification

Corrosion Coat Application Specification

Anode Specification

Anode Attachment Specification

Procedures covering all Fabrication Activities

2.6.

Installation and Offshore Activities

Procedures Covering all Installation and Offshore Activities

SIMOPS Handbook

Pipelay Procedure

Start-Up and Laydown Procedures

Field Jointing and NDT Procedures

Tie-In Procedures

Trenching and Backfilling Procedures

Cleaning and Gauging Procedures

Pigging Procedure

Pressure Testing Procedure

2.7.

Construction Records

Pre-Lay and Post Lay Survey Reports

Material Certificates

Heat Treatment Certificates

Pipeline Component Reference Numbers

NDT Test Results

Inspection Reports

Weld Repair Reports

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Weld Procedure Qualification Certificates

Welder and NDT Operator Qualification Records

Pipe Tensions

Weather Reports

Vessel Positions and Logs

Diving Records

Cleaning and Gauging Records

Hydro test Records

Commissioning Records

As Built Records

2.8.

Document Retention

2.8.1

All design, testing and survey documentation shall be retained for the life of the pipeline
system. Construction documentation shall be retained for a minimum of three years
following commissioning of the pipeline system.

2.8.2

Retained documentation shall be stored in a manner such that it is protected from fire,
theft and degradation.

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3.

LOCG-GEN-Guideline-007 Rev. 0

WARRANTY SURVEYOR ATTENDANCE

3.1.

General

3.1.1

The Warranty Surveyor is responsible for ensuring the pipeline and its associated works
are designed, fabricated, installed, tested and operated to a standard which ensures the
required level of safety is maintained at all times. Attendance at vessel audits, meetings,
onshore and offshore construction is required to ensure these responsibilities are
adhered to.

3.1.2

In principal, the Warranty Surveyor shall be granted unrestricted access to all vessels,
equipment and operations involved in a pipeline project, at any time, upon request. To
ensure all parties are aware of the Warranty Surveyors attendance requirements, these
shall generally be agreed with Company and Contractor at the beginning of the project.
Company shall advise Warranty Surveyor of the start of activities at which he has
requested presence, with a reasonable notification period.

3.1.3

The Warranty Surveyor retains the right of unrestricted access, at times other than
previously agreed, if he has cause to suspect activities may occur that could be
detrimental to the safe and professional execution of the project. Warranty Surveyor
shall, under these conditions, give sufficient notification of attendance to the Company.
If a request is unreasonably refused, or access is considered by the Warranty Surveyor's
representative to be deliberately obstructed, the Work performed may not be covered by
the terms of the Warranty Contract.

3.2.

Vessel Audits

3.2.1

Prior to mobilization, and unless otherwise agreed, all vessel(s) involved in offshore
construction activities shall be subjected to an audit at which the Warranty Surveyor
shall generally be in attendance.

These vessels will typically include the following

specialist activities:

Survey

Pipehaul

Pipelay

Anchor handling

Pre-sweeping/Dredging

Trenching
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Tugs

MSV/DSV's

Lifting

3.2.2

LOCG-GEN-Guideline-007 Rev. 0

The audit shall verify as a minimum that the following are in compliance with the relevant
codes, standards and project specific documentation:

Procedures for survey, sampling and sample analysis.

Equipment checks and calibrations.

Documentation of survey and analyses (tapes, discs, charts, core samples, lab test
reports).

Vessel operational and safety procedures.

3.3.

Onshore Activities

3.3.1

The Warranty Surveyor shall, in general, not required to be present for onshore activities
other than the following:

Fabrication and launch of towed or pulled pipelines and pipeline bundles.

Fabrication and installation onto pipelay vessel of reeled pipelines.

3.3.2

The Warranty Surveyor shall, however, be granted unrestricted access to all pipe,
materials, equipment, certificates and documentation, on request, at any stage of the
project.

3.4.

Offshore Activities

3.4.1

The Warranty Surveyor shall typically be present for the following offshore activities,
unless otherwise agreed:

Start and finish of pipelay.

Pipelay involving activities considered unusual or difficult. For example close passes to
existing facilities, the launch of inline tees and pipe lying in pre-dredged landfall areas.

The crossing of Marine Traffic Separation Zones.

Modification work to existing facilities, including addition of risers, J-tubes and I-tubes.

J-tube or I-tube pulling and connecting.

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Installation of spool pieces, risers, valves etc.

Pressure testing of pipelines.

3.4.2

The Warranty Surveyor shall not, in general, require being present for the following
offshore activities:

Surveys.

Route preparation works, including pre-sweep and crossing construction.

3.4.3

The Warranty Surveyor will, however, review the revised on bottom profile resulting from
route preparations and the effects this has on pipeline design.

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4.

LOCG-GEN-Guideline-007 Rev. 0

ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS

4.1.

Environmental Data

4.1.1

The environmental data for the area containing the pipeline route (and tow route where
applicable) shall be supplied by a recognized meteorological and oceanographic agency
and shall be included in the Basis of Design documentation.

4.1.2

The data shall include extreme and percentage exceeded values of wind, wave and
current, for the relevant time of year.

4.2.

Limiting Environmental Conditions

4.2.1

The applicable values of limiting environmental conditions will depend upon the type of
operation and characteristics of the vessel(s) and equipment

4.2.2

Environmental limits shall be defined for the following operations:

Launch of pipeline strings at landfall or pipeline bundle from Fabrication Site.

Start of pipelay.

Anchor handling vessel limits.

Abandonment of pipelay.

Deployment of trenching/ploughing and backfilling Equipment.

Abandonment of trenching/ploughing and backfilling Operations.

Transport of retrofit risers, spool pieces and any other items requiring sea fastening.

Lifting of any items to or from a floating vessel, including lifting through the wave zone.

Abandonment of diving or ROV operations.

Any other weather sensitive operations.

4.3.

Environmental Studies

4.3.1

Environmental studies shall be performed to quantify the effects of those items listed
below when they are considered to have an implication on the design, installation or
operation of the pipeline system:

Scour and sediment transportation

Beach movement

Sand wave mobility

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Slope stability

Sea ice and icebergs

Pre-sweeping

Trenching

Soil liquefaction

Fishing activity intensity and interaction study

Seismic activity

Military activities (for example submarine, surface and air training areas)

Defense systems (for example mine fields)

Ordinance, chemical or other dumping areas.

4.4.

Environmental Impact

4.4.1

All aspects of fabrication, installation, testing and subsequent operation of the pipeline
system shall be designed and performed in such a way as to minimize the impact on the
local marine environment. In particular the following shall be avoided or, if unavoidable,
kept to a minimum and their environmental impact quantified in an environmental impact
study:

Disruption of fishing grounds and/or activity.

Disruption of beach sediment transportation.

Disruption of fish spawning.

Disruption of marine, bird and wildlife on mudflats and beaches.

Discharge of hydrocarbons.

Discharge of toxic or potentially toxic substances.

Toxic or potentially toxic coatings.

Subsea detonations or blasting.

Subsea acoustic signaling and control systems, in particular the generation of signal
frequencies at less than 40 Hertz.

4.4.2

Among particular environmental concerns is typically the discharge of toxic substances


during fish spawning, the disruption of mud flats and the generation of significant low
frequency acoustic noise.

Company and Contractor shall endeavor to keep these

activities to an absolute minimum.

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5.

LOCG-GEN-Guideline-007 Rev. 0

SURVEYS AND ROUTE PREPARATION

5.1.

Route Survey

5.1.1

The final pipeline route shall be selected based on the results of a detailed geophysical
and geotechnical survey centered on the proposed route. The survey corridor shall
generally be not less than 500 metres width. Sufficient longitudinal and lateral survey
lines shall be run to give a detailed definition of the seabed and sub-bottom conditions.
The survey will typically be performed using high resolution side-scan sonar and subbottom profiler in conjunction with an echo sounder.

Survey results should provide

detailed bathymetric and sub-bottom data including the identification of wrecks,


ordinance and other unusual seabed features.
5.1.2

Bathymetric data point acquisition along the route shall not exceed a mean spacing of 5
metres over any 250 metres length or an absolute spacing of 12 metres.

5.1.3

In areas where the seabed is mobile, or likely to change profile for any other reason, a
final route survey shall be performed immediately prior to pipelay. If any changes in
seabed profile are detected Contractor shall quantify the effects on the pipeline design
and take remedial action if required.

5.1.4

For pipelines that are to be installed by the bottom or off-bottom tow methods a
bathymetric survey shall additionally be performed on the tow route.

5.2.

Geotechnical Surveys

5.2.1

Geotechnical surveys shall, as a minimum, be carried out at the following locations:

Start and end of pipeline route.

Intervals of approximately 1 to 3 km along the route centreline, although shorter intervals


may be required under variable seabed soil conditions or where pipeline or
ploughing/trenching design is sensitive to soil variations.

Pipeline and cable crossings.

Close to existing offshore and subsea installations.

Sonar contacts identified during the route survey.

At locations of moving sand waves.

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5.2.2

LOCG-GEN-Guideline-007 Rev. 0

The geotechnical survey shall as a minimum comprise shallow (2-3m) vibrocore and Circ
Penetrometre Text (CPT) sampling.

Deeper samples may be required in areas of

special interest; for example at sand waves, where presweeping or dredging is required,
or where piles are to be driven.

Deeper samples will most probably require the

mobilization of specialized drilling and boring equipment, deployed either from a Jack-Up
Rig or customized handling frame mounted on a vessel deck.

5.3.

Preparatory Works

5.3.1

Route preparation may be required to provide a suitable on bottom profile for the
pipeline to prevent free spanning, overstressing, upheaval buckling or other
unacceptable conditions.

5.3.2

Where pre-lay route preparation is required it shall be performed at the shortest


reasonable duration prior to pipelay, so as to minimize environmental action on the
preparatory works. An important example of the degradation of pre-lay route preparation
is the way sand waves can rapidly regain their pre-swept height under strong currents.
In general, where the expected duration between route preparation and pipelay will
exceed one month, possible degradation of the preparatory works shall be quantified
and accounted for.

5.3.3

Route preparation may be required for the following conditions:

Pre-dredging a shore approach trench.

Pre-trenching in areas of stable seabed.

Pre-dredging a vessel access channel in areas of limited water depth, for example
inshore and offshore shoals.

Clearance of rocks and/or debris from selected route corridor.

Pre-sweeping of sand waves or permanent seabed features to minimize the possible


occurrences of pipeline freespans and/or overstressing and/or upheaval buckling.

Removal of wrecks.

Removal of marine defense systems, such as mine fields.

Disposal of ordnance.

Blasting of rocky outcrops and bedrock, although blasting of any form and in particular of
coral may be environmentally unacceptable.

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Gravel dumping to provide an acceptable seabed profile in rocky areas, pockmarks or


iceberg scours marks.

5.4.

Post-Preparation Survey

5.4.1

Contractor shall perform a bathymetric survey on the section(s) of pipeline route


subjected to preparatory works.

This survey should ideally be performed prior to

demobilization of the route preparation vessel(s)/equipment. Contractor shall quantify


the effects of the new bottom profile on the pipeline design and take further remedial
action if required.

5.5.

Post-Lay Survey

5.5.1

A survey of the as-laid pipeline shall be performed immediately following the completion
of pipelay. This survey shall include measurement of the following:

Pipeline route, start-up and laydown locations.

Pipeline out of straightness.

Span lengths and heights, with a profile of the span below the pipe for significant spans.

Depth of cover achieved over buried sections of the pipeline.

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6.

LOCG-GEN-Guideline-007 Rev. 0

PIPELINE CONSTRUCTION

6.1.

Pipelay Spread & Equipment

6.1.1

All equipment and vessels used for pipelay operations shall be in a good and operable
condition and shall be manned by competent persons, knowledgeable and experienced
in their operation.

Vessels and equipment shall conform to relevant international,

national and project specific safety and operability requirements. Personnel shall be
trained in offshore safety and survival to the relevant statutory requirements for the
operating location. Certificates of conformance for vessels, equipment and personnel
training shall be made available to the Warranty Surveyor on request. For dynamically
positioned vessels full Dynamic Positioning (DP) and operator records shall also be
made available.
6.1.2

All vessels shall have up to date copies of relevant project specific operating procedures,
drawings and contingency manuals as defined by the project Document Distribution
Matrix.

6.2.

Pipe, Materials and Equipment Control

6.2.1

Detailed pipe, materials and equipment control procedure(s) shall be produced for the
following:

Efficient transportation and control.

Identification and tractability.

Handling and storage.

Inspection.

6.2.2

Contractor shall appoint a QC coordinator who will ensure that full tractability of all pipe,
materials and equipment is provided.

6.2.3

For pipe control purposes Contractor shall provide a QC Inspector and/or Site
Representative at the pipe mill who will verify that identification marks are applied to all
pipe sections and that the correct transfer of heat, cast and pipe numbers is carried out.
He will record the relevant details of inspections performed on the applicable inspection
report.

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6.2.4

LOCG-GEN-Guideline-007 Rev. 0

Material, equipment and pipe shall at all times be handled and stored with due care and
attention and in a manner which will not allow degradation or damage. Pipe sections
shall not be stacked to a height greater than the maximum calculated allowable.

6.2.5

On request the Warranty Surveyor shall be granted unrestricted access to all pipe,
materials, equipment, certificates and documentation, at any stage of the project.

6.3.

Control and Monitoring of Position

6.3.1

The position of major vessels, such as pipelayers, DSV's and MSV's, shall be controlled
and monitored during offshore construction activities.

The control and monitoring

system shall incorporate 100% redundancy or standby to allow for breakdown and shall
be calibrated immediately prior to construction activities.

Vessel and construction

positions shall be recorded and retained.


6.3.2

Vessel position shall be continuously monitored based on the following references:

Relative to contract grid reference system.

Relative to offshore installations and other reference points in the immediate vicinity.

Global geographical position.

6.3.3

Account shall be taken of the vessel and pipeline offset relative to positioning antenna or
other positioning system.

6.3.4

Contractor shall ensure pipelay vessel positioning and pipeline installation are
maintained within the tolerances defined by the pipelay analysis and contractual
obligations with Company.

For pipelay and other construction operations requiring

greater accuracy than provided by the positioning system, for instance start-up, laydown
and crossings, Contractor shall install a local positioning system of suitable accuracy.
This will typically consist of an acoustic transponder array
6.3.5

Positioning of vessels may be either by dynamic positioning, anchors, or a combination


of anchors and thrusters.

6.4.

Anchor Handling

6.4.1

For positioning of vessels by anchors or a combination of anchors and thrusters, a


detailed anchor handling procedure shall be developed. The procedure shall provide

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anchor patterns for key operations such as start-up or laydown at offshore or subsea
installations; pipelay in the vicinity of existing pipelines and/or installations. In addition
the anchor handling procedure shall identify the following:

Definition of responsibilities.

Emergency and contingency procedures.

Vessel mooring and anchoring system data.

Environmental limitations for anchor handling.

Details of anchor handling operations.

Specific anchor handling procedures including:


Anchoring in vicinity of existing pipelines & cables.
Anchoring in the vicinity of existing offshore and subsea installations.
All statutory and project specific anchor placement limits.

6.4.2

The following limits for anchor placement shall apply unless prior written approval is
obtained from the Warranty Surveyor:

No anchor shall be placed within 200 metres of an existing pipeline or within 500 metres
of an offshore or subsea installation. Additionally, no anchor shall be placed within 400
metres of a pipeline when the direction of pull of the anchor is toward the pipeline.

Separation of a cable crossing a pipeline or subsea installation shall not be less than 20
metres. This will normally be achieved by buoying the cable above the pipeline or
installation.

No anchor shall be placed within 100 metres of the pipelay corridor centerline.

No anchor shall be carried over a pipeline or subsea installation without being secured to
the deck of an anchor handling vessel.

6.4.3

Permits shall be obtained from relevant third parties for anchor placement within existing
exclusion zones.

6.4.4

Pipelay from barges positioned by anchors is normally governed by the environmental


operating limits of the anchor handling vessels. In the event of sustained inclement
weather preventing anchor handling, Contractor shall perform a fatigue analysis on the
portion of the pipeline suspended from the barge. If this analysis shows unacceptable
fatigue damage then Contractor shall retrieve the fatigued section on commencement of
pipelay and replace it.

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Alternatively, if adverse weather conditions are forecasted to continue for a longer period
of time the pipeline may be abandoned onto the sea bed. See Section 6.8 Pipeline
Laydown.

6.4.6

Contingency procedures shall include consideration of the following:

Wet buckle of the pipeline

Inclement weather

Anchor dragging

Dropped anchor

Loss of anchor buoy

Anchor cable breakage

Equipment failures or breakdowns

6.4.7

The contingency procedures shall specify reporting requirements for such incidents.

6.5.

Dynamic Positioning

6.5.1

For dynamically positioned vessels a positioning procedure shall be produced identifying


the following:

Definition of responsibilities.

Emergency and contingency procedures.

Vessel dynamic positioning system data.

Details of positioning operations.

DP signal protection to avoid interference if or when other DP vessels operate in the


same area.

DP signal protection will typically be through the use of specified frequencies, agreed
with other vessel operators.

6.5.2

The following limits for dynamic positioning shall apply unless prior written approval is
obtained from the Warranty Surveyor:

No vessel to enter an offshore exclusion zone without possessing the relevant class of
dynamic positioning system applicable to governing Statutory and/or Company
requirements.

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No vessel to come within 500 metres of an offshore installation without an automatic


position keeping system incorporating redundancy in the technical design.

6.5.3

Typically the requirements for redundancy will allow only those vessels with NMD Class
2 or 3 (or equivalent) DP systems to approach within 500 metres of an offshore
installation.

6.5.4

Permits and approval shall be obtained from relevant third parties for dynamically
positioned vessels to enter existing exclusion zones.

6.5.5

Pipelay from dynamically positioned vessels is normally governed by the environmental


operating limits of the pipe haul vessels. In the event of sustained inclement weather
preventing pipe loading, Contractor shall perform a fatigue analysis on the portion of the
pipeline suspended from the barge. If this analysis shows unacceptable fatigue damage
then Contractor shall retrieve the fatigued section on commencement of pipelay and
replace it. Alternatively the pipeline may be abandoned as per Section 6.8.

6.5.6

Contingency procedures shall include wet buckle of the pipeline, inclement weather,
dynamic positioning failure and reporting requirements. This procedure can be non
project specific

6.6.

Pipelay Start-Up

6.6.1

The start-up procedure shall demonstrate the feasibility and operability of the proposed
start up method, which may be by deadman anchor, driven pile, via jacket leg, beach
pull or another method.

The procedure shall include analyses, calculations and

operations detailing as a minimum the following (where applicable):

Start-up cable size, properties and position in relation to existing pipelines and
installations.

Anchor capacity (deadman anchor start-up).

Minimum required length of pipeline on the seabed prior to removal of the start-up aids.

Required start-up pile and sheave size (sheave/pile start-up).

Strength verification of jacket leg or any other structure used for start-up.

Linear winch minimum size and anchoring (beach pull start-up).

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Sizing of any equipment, rigging and structures used in the installation of the start-up
equipment.

Installation procedures for all start-up equipment.

6.7.

Pipelay

6.7.1

Pipelay procedures shall be developed on the basis of pipelay stress analyses covering
the full range of pipeline configurations and environmental conditions expected in the
field. The analyses shall comprise as a minimum:

Static analysis for start-up, normal pipelay, laydown and abandonment/recovery.

Static analyses for particular lay configurations such as the deployment of in-line tees,
valve assemblies, and buckle arrestors, piggy-back lines, and any other items.

6.7.2

Dynamic analyses as required in this section, 6.7, of these guidelines.


Pipelay analyses shall be performed for the full range of water depths using the relevant
pipe and coating properties for each particular water depth case. The static analysis
shall consider the following external loads:

Pipe weight and buoyancy including the effect of water absorption by the external
coating material where relevant.

Pipe tension

Barge roller support reactions

Seabed foundation reaction

External hydrostatic pressure

6.7.3

The barge geometry shall allow for operating draft and trim angle. The analyses will be
used to optimize the lay configuration to establish the following parametres:

Radius of curvature of ramp

Roller height settings

Ramp angle

Stinger angle (where applicable)

Stinger buoyancy (where applicable)

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6.7.4

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The lay analysis shall as a minimum include the following Code checks:

Overbend stress (or strain) limit

Sagbend stress (or strain) limit

Local buckling checks

Propagation buckling checks

Collapse under combined loads due to tension, bending and hydrostatic pressure.

Maximum equivalent stresses

6.7.5

The effect of coatings on pipe stiffness shall be included in the lay analysis if they are
considered to have a notable effect on stresses or strains.

6.7.6

Under the following circumstances Contractor shall perform dynamic pipelay analyses in
addition to static analyses.

The requirement for dynamic analyses will normally be

defined at the start of the project:

Where the pipelay vessel will be subjected to significant motions due to environmental
effects.

Where the pipelay vessel will operate near its limiting lay capability.

Where the installation stresses on the pipeline are significant.

6.7.7

The dynamic analysis shall take account of the dynamic characteristics of the tensioner
system, roller support stiffness, phase angles of vessel motions, and relative motions of
barge/stinger combination.

Analyses shall be performed for sea states in varying

directions, normally head, beam, stern, head quartering and stern quartering.
6.7.8

The analysis shall use an industry-accepted methodology and will be performed for an
adequate number of wave cycles to ensure that a steady-state solution is achieved. The
analyses may be performed for regular or irregular seas using site-specific
environmental data and documented vessel RAO's.

6.7.9

The results of relevant static analyses cases shall be used as input to the corresponding
dynamic analyses cases.

6.7.10 Contractor shall develop weld repair criteria based on the analysis results using
accepted codes and standards. The use of BS 4515 and PD 6493 are recommended,

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however Company standards will normally also be acceptable.

In addition, fracture

mechanics assessments shall be performed as necessary to show cracks are stable


under the maximum likely equivalent stresses due to operation and hydrotest.

6.8.

Pipeline Laydown

6.8.1

The laydown procedure shall include analyses performed with the laydown head in a
number of positions from the barge to the seabed. The results will provide details of
pipe tension, stresses, roller loads, cable tension and cable profile to allow estimation of
proximity to existing pipelines and installations. The results of these analyses shall then
be used to establish the optimum barge position during laydown.

6.8.2

The laydown procedure shall provide details of all equipment to be used in support of the
laydown operations. Typically this will include laydown head, shackles, cables, ROV's
and other items of equipment.

6.8.3

The necessity for protection of the laydown head shall be established based on risk and
consequences of damage. Laydown head protection, if required, will typically be by
coverage of a mattress or guard vessel.

6.8.4

The necessity for protection of the laydown head shall be established based on risk and
consequences of damage. Laydown head protection, if required, will typically be by
coverage of a mattress or guard vessel.

6.9.

Pipeline Abandonment & Recovery

6.9.1

Pipeline abandonment and recovery shall generally be in accordance with section 6.8,
above. The abandonment and recovery procedure shall include analysis of a number of
positions of the A&R head on the barge and in the sagbend. The results shall be used
to establish the optimum position of the barge for recovery of the pipe. If the pipelay
barge moves away from the A&R head the requirement to protect the head shall be
established.

Analyses and procedures shall cover flooded as well as dry pipeline

conditions.

6.10. Contingencies
6.10.1 Procedures shall be developed to cover all foreseeable contingencies, in particular the
following:

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Anchor handling, as contained in section 6.4 of these guidelines

Dynamic positioning, as contained in section 6.5 of these guidelines

Dry pipeline buckle

Wet pipeline buckle

Simultaneous operations

6.10.2 The pipeline dry and wet buckle procedure(s) shall include details of all equipment used
to monitor buckling of the pipeline and to affect a repair.

The buckle detection

equipment shall be able to detect a reduction in pipe diameter of 5% or more.


6.10.3 Simultaneous operations, in which one or more vessels are operating in close vicinity to
each other or to an offshore installation, shall be subject to hazard identification and
review. Simultaneous operations (SIMOPS) matrices shall be produced to show which
simultaneous operations are permitted, not permitted, or permitted with additional
identified controls. Contingency procedures shall be developed for all relevant hazards
and incorporated with the SIMOPS matrices in a SIMOPS handbook.

6.11. Welding and NDT


6.11.1 Project specific procedures shall be developed for welding, NDT and weld repair. These
procedures shall take account of the following:

Cleaning of pipe section ends

Welding methods

Welding equipment

Chemical compositions of weld material and pipe

Location of welding (surface, hyperbaric)

Defect detection methods

Defect detection equipment

Allowable defect criteria

Weld repair methods

Weld repair equipment

6.11.2 Weld material shall be selected to be cathodic to the parent pipe, of low porosity and low
carbon equivalent. As a guide for carbon-manganese pipeline steel, maximum carbon

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equivalent according to CER should not exceed 0.41 and according to PCM should not
exceed 0.24.
6.11.3 Welding of duplex steel requires great care, which shall be reflected in the procedures.
The welding process shall not unnecessarily alter the phase balance in the parent plate
and shall not result in a weld, which is anodic. To avoid the formation of oxide films,
which may result in in-service pitting attack, the bore of the pipe shall be purged with
argon during welding. To ensure some nitrogen uptake by the weld, it is recommended
nitrogen gas be included with the argon. Duplex welding procedures shall additionally
address the stricter requirements for slag or oxide inclusions, weld porosity and removal
of any iron and iron salts from the surface of the pipe joints.
6.11.4 All pipeline welds shall be 100% nondestructive tested (NDT) by mechanized ultrasonic
equipment or radiography, with all records being catalogued and retained.
6.11.5 For radiographic NDT the radiation hardness and exposure time shall be selected to give
maximum contrast between pipe and weld on the recording equipment. The radiation
source shall generally be placed on the inside of the pipe, with the photographic film
wrapped around the outside of the weld. Real time radiography may be used if results
prove satisfactory. Double wall radiography, where the radiation source is on one side
of the pipe and the film on the other, will only be allowed on small diameter pipe with
prior written approval.
6.11.6 For the NDT of welds using mechanized ultrasonic equipment, a calibration block shall
be available for frequent checks of the equipment. This calibration block shall include a
weld made by an approved weld procedure that has agreed, predefined defects within it.
6.11.7 Where double jointing is to be employed on the pipelay vessel a procedure shall be
developed to cover the methodology and equipment used.

6.12. Field Joint Coating


6.12.1 Specific procedures shall be developed for field joint coating and field joint repairs.
These procedures shall take account of the following:

Method and equipment for field joint coating.

Method and equipment for defect detection.

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Method and equipment for repair.

Protection of personnel from inhalation of carcinogenic fumes given off by some


common used field joint materials, notably coal tar enamel (CTE).

6.12.2 Where the field joint coating is of a flammable or toxic nature, Contractor shall develop
operating procedures that minimize the likelihood of spillage, pollution or combustion.
Typically these procedures shall include the restriction of certain activities in the areas
where field joint coating is prepared and applied.

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7.

LOCG-GEN-Guideline-007 Rev. 0

TOWED PIPELINE INSTALLATION

7.1

General

7.1.1

Towed pipelines are those that are constructed onshore and towed into place. The
installation method has the advantage that it does not impose any limitations on the
complexity of bundles that can be assembled.

7.1.2

The Warranty Surveyor's requirements relating to towed pipeline installation shall


generally be similar to those relating to pipelay from an offshore pipelay barge. As such
similar specifications and procedures shall be developed and submitted for review.

7.1.3

Pipelines and pipeline bundles shall be inspected prior to tow out. This inspection will
cover the following:

100% NDT of all pipe welds in accordance with section 6.11 of these guidelines.

Inspection of field joint coating.

Inspection of all pipeline or bundle attachments, appurtenances, and buoyancy and tie
straps. Inspection is to be at a level agreed with the Warranty Surveyor at project
initiation.

Inspection of the tow out route from the beach to a depth at which no part of the pipeline
or pipeline bundle will be in contact with the seabed.

7.1.4

Towed pipeline installation shall consider the effects of environmental loading during the
tow.

Consideration shall be given to the fatigue and ultimate induced stresses.

Environmental loading with a return period not less than 10 years, for the time of year of
towing, shall be considered. Relaxation to a 1 year return period may be allowed if
suitable sheltered areas exist close to the tow route or if the tow is of a particularly short
duration. Relaxation shall be allowed only with the prior written approval of the Warranty
Surveyor.
7.1.5

For all types of towed pipeline or pipeline bundle of greater than 250 metres length
Contractor shall supply a guard vessel(s) to prevent possible damage from third party
vessels.

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7.2.

Surface and Near-Surface Tow

7.2.1

Surface and near-surface tows are not recommended in environments where rough seas
are likely, such as the North Sea. Surface tow in a rough sea subjects the pipeline to
stresses, which can readily cause the fatigue limit of the pipeline to be exceeded.

7.2.2

Near-surface tow, in which the pipeline is suspended from surface buoys, also induces
high stresses in rough seas. An additional complication arises from stresses and fatigue
induced in the buoys and buoy supports.

7.2.3

For surface and near-surface tows in open seas, Contractor shall perform dynamic
analyses of sufficient complexity to show that the pipeline and buoyancy system will not
be fatigued or overstressed.

During tow Contractor shall monitor the vertical and

horizontal profile along the length of the pipeline or bundle.

7.3.

Mid-Depth Tow

7.3.1

In a mid-depth tow, the pipeline is negatively buoyant and is suspended in a long, flat
catenary between two tugs, positioned at each end.

The tugs apply tension to the

pipeline to prevent it buckling.


7.3.2

Contractor shall conform to the following provisions for mid-depth tow:


The pipeline shall be made negatively buoyant, either by its own weight or by the
addition of chains or weights along its length.

Towing analysis shall consider the effects of surge movements in the tugs when
subjected to wave action and the effects of hydrodynamic lift on the pipeline and chains
at different towing speeds.

Particular attention shall be made to accurately determining and adjusting the


submerged weight of the pipeline prior to tow as this is of importance to configuration of
the catenary.

The effects of pipeline flexural stiffness shall be quantified and accounted for. if
significant.

Mid-depth tows of pipelines or bundles in excess of 6500 metres, in length shall not
generally be allowed, as the effect of accurately controlling the submerged weight
becomes critical above this length.

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Contractor shall monitor the horizontal and vertical profile along the length of the pipeline
or bundle during towing.

7.4.

Off-Bottom Tow

7.4.1

In off-bottom tow the pipe is buoyant and is held down, to float between 1 and 2 metres
clear of the seabed. The normal holding down method is by chains that drag on the
seabed.

7.4.2

Contractor shall conform to the following provisions for off-bottom tow:


A bathymetric survey of the proposed tow route shall be made and a pipeline stress
analysis considering the bottom profile shall then be performed.

The pipeline, tow head and cable shall not be subjected to abrasion or damage from the
seabed or any structures, pipelines or debris on the seabed.

Pipelines and cables to be crossed during the tow shall be protected from damage
resulting from the dragging chains.

Consideration shall be given to stresses induced in the pipeline if the tug(s) lift some or
all of the chains clear of the seabed.

Contractor shall monitor the horizontal and vertical profile along the length of the pipeline
or bundle during towing.

7.5.

On-Bottom Tow/Full

7.5.1

With bottom tow/pull the pipeline or bundle rests directly on the seabed and is pulled by
a tug or a winch attached to a fixed facility. On-bottom tow/pull is the second most
popular form of pipeline construction. It is particularly used for river, estuary and lake
crossings.

7.5.2

Contractor shall confirm with the following provisions for on-bottom tow/pull:
A bathymetric survey of the proposed route shall be made and a pipeline stress analysis
considering the bottom profile shall then be performed.

The pipeline, tow head and cable shall not be subjected to excessive abrasion or
damage from the seabed or any structures, pipelines or debris on the seabed. An
abrasive resistant outer coating shall be applied.

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Any mechanical protection, which is provided over anodes during tow shall be removed
after pipeline installation or, if left in place, shall be shown to have a negligible effect on
the performance of the anode.

Pipelines and cables to be crossed shall be protected from damage.

Consideration shall be given to stresses induced in the pipeline if the tug or winch lifts
part of it clear of the seabed.

Ingress of seabed soils and debris into the pipeline shall be prevented.

For on-bottom pulls the winch base site and sheave sites shall be designed to resist the
maximum expected pulling force, with suitable factors of safety.

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8.

LOCG-GEN-Guideline-007 Rev. 0

PIPELINE CROSSINGS

8.1.

General
Prior to placement of a new pipeline across the route of an existing pipeline or cable
agreement must be sought from the owners of the existing facilities.

8.2.

Design of Crossings

8.2.1

The design of a crossing shall ensure that the operation of the pipeline or cable to be
crossed is not affected or compromised. Several methods are typically employed for
pipeline/cable crossings including:

Cutting and removing a disused cable or pipeline at the location of the crossing.
Particular attention shall be paid to possible pollution from cutting disused pipelines.
The ends of the pipeline or cable that have been cut shall be covered by means of rock
dump or mattresses.

Lowering the existing cable/pipeline into the seabed by trenching or water jetting.

Constructing a crossing from rockdump, concrete or bitumen mattresses.

Constructing a crossing from prefabricated supports or bridge structures.

Particular

attention shall be paid to the effects of scour, fishing and anchor activity on such
crossings.

Constructing a crossing from the use of frond mattresses (also known as artificial
seaweed mattresses), which build up the seabed height prior to pipeline installation.

8.2.2

The following shall be considered in the design of a crossing:

Survey tolerances.

Construction tolerances of the crossing construction method.

Installation tolerances of the pipeline.

The condition of the existing cable/pipeline.

Loads applied by the new pipeline and its associated works onto the cable or pipeline to
be crossed, including allowances for short and long term settlement.

Possible upheaval buckling of the new pipeline due to its out of straightness caused by
the crossing.

The cathodic protection systems employed by each pipeline. Contractor shall show that
each cathodic protection system is not unduly affected.

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A minimum safe separation between the new and existing facilities shall be defined and
the crossing constructed such that the separation is guaranteed.

Typically this

separation will not be less than 300 mm and will be guaranteed by the placement of
flexible mattresses over the existing facilities.

8.2.3

Scour around the crossing construction is to be prevented.


If the survey of the crossing location fails to locate the existing facilities, Contractor can
assume they are buried below the seabed. Crossing design shall then make allowance
for the likely area over which the existing facilities might lie. Trenching operations on the
new pipeline shall not be performed within the likely vicinity of the existing facility. Rock
dump or mattresses shall be deployed over the expected area of the exiting facility to
ensure a minimum safe separation of the new pipeline or bundle from the existing
facilities. Typically a minimum depth of 300 mm will be required as a safe separation.

8.3.

Pipeline Installation

8.3.1

Installation tolerance of the pipeline shall be controlled such that it is within the limits
defined for the design and fabrication of the crossing.

8.3.2

To ensure the pipeline is installed on the pre-constructed crossing Contractor shall


employ one or more of the following:

Visual inspection of the pipeline as it is placed on the crossing, by means of diver or


ROV with direct communication to the pipelay spread. To assist determination of the
required pipeline position the crossing may typically be painted at the location the
pipeline should cross.

Prior installation of a transponder array at the crossing location. Pipeline shall have one
or more transponders attached such that accurate determination of its position relative to
the crossing can be determined at all times during installation.

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9.

LOCG-GEN-Guideline-007 Rev. 0

FREESPAN RECTIFICATION

9.1.

Span Survey

9.1.1

Contractor shall perform a survey of the pipeline in its as-laid and as-trenched condition
for the purpose of identifying all pipeline spans. The requirements of this survey are
detailed in section 5.5 of these guidelines.

Spans shall be measured and grouped

according to the following criteria:

Length of span.

Height of span. For significantly long and variable height spans the profile shall be
taken.

End support conditions of span (e.g. resting on rock, buried in sand or clay).

Design current velocities across span.

9.2.

Span Criteria and Analysis

9.2.1

As part of the pipeline design allowable freespan limits shall be established. These shall
take account of the following:

Environmental loading, from currents and wave action.

In-line and cross-flow vortex shedding around the freespan.

Interaction with fishing gear, anchors, icebergs and any other objects likely to impart
loading into the freespan.

Equivalent pipeline stresses during operation and hydrotest resulting from the additional
stresses induced into the pipeline due to the span.

Fatigue of the pipeline and appurtenances resulting from vortex shedding induced
oscillation. No in-line or cross-flow motion, resulting from vortex induced vibration due to
the steady state component of environmental loading, shall be permitted.

9.2.2

Analysis of freespans shall be performed to determine allowable strength, fatigue,


coating and appurtenance integrity levels. Particular attention shall be paid to ensuring
fatigue induced cracks do not increase in size to a critical level.

9.2.3

All measured freespans exceeding the allowable criteria shall be corrected in


accordance with section 9.3.

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9.3.

Correction

9.3.1

Freespans exceeding the allowable criteria shall be corrected until they are within the
allowable. Typical correction methods include:

Gravel or rock dumping.

Lowering the pipeline by trenching.

Placement of supports under the free spans, such as sand/grout bags.

A combination of one or more of the above methods.

9.3.2

Correction methods shall not cause damage to the pipeline or its coatings, anodes or
appurtenances.

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10. TRENCHING AND BACKFILLING


10.1. General
10.1.1 Trenching and backfilling are commonly used to protect pipelines against environmental
loading, dropped objects, dragging anchors and fishing activity. Unless Contractor can
show the pipeline will not be adversely affected by these, or any other activities, the
pipeline shall be trenched. Mechanical backfilling shall additionally be used when it
cannot be shown that natural backfilling will occur over a reasonable period of time.
10.1.2 Contractor shall supply a guard vessel(s) to prevent third party activity damaging the
pipeline during the period between pipelay and trenching. If the probability of damage is
shown to be insignificant, by means of a shipping interaction study, then the pipeline
may be left unguarded.
10.1.3 Unless otherwise determined by Statutory or Company criteria, the trench depth shall
sufficient to prevent damage of the pipeline from external causes. If the required trench
depth is unattainable, as an example for protection against scouring ice, then Contractor
or Company shall establish contingency procedures to limit the environmental impact of
damage to the pipeline. Likely releases of hydrocarbons and chemicals resulting from
damage shall be calculated and their effects quantified in an environmental impact
study, as defined in section 4.4.
10.1.4 Post-lay trenching is most commonly applied, although pre-lay trenching may be used
where firm soil conditions exist.
10.1.5 Contractor shall confirm with the following provisions for trenching and backfilling:

The selected trenching method is suitable for the seabed soils. This shall be proved by
means of a geotechnical trenching analysis.

The environmental impact shall be addressed in an environmental impact study.

Limiting seastates shall be defined for all aspects of the trenching and backfilling
operation.

10.2. Trenching Tools


10.2.1 The following types of trenching tools are commonly used:

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Towed Plough

Jet Sledge

Mechanical Cutter

Tractor Plough

Rock Trencher

LOCG-GEN-Guideline-007 Rev. 0

10.3. Procedures
10.3.1 Trenching and backfilling procedures shall, at a minimum, consider the following
activities:

Deployment of trencher above pipeline, including positioning aids (transponder array),


monitoring of deployment (TV, sonar etc.).

Trencher engagement on pipeline (pipe lift claws etc.) and trench depth setting.

Monitoring and control during trenching (pipe contact load cells, pipe tracking etc.).

Trencher recovery.

Emergency disconnection.

Contingency procedures (plough shares locked, power failure etc.).

10.3.2 The procedures shall define the limiting environmental conditions for all the above
activities. Additionally the procedures shall define the DP class of the support vessel
and the capacity of the deployment equipment (crane, A-frame, etc.) in relation to weight
of trenching and backfilling machinery.
10.3.3 After completion of trenching and backfilling Contractor shall survey the pipeline route
with a pipetracker to determine achieved cover depth. Any sections of pipeline with less
than the required cover depth shall be corrected, primarily by means of rock dump or
concrete mattress cover

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London Offshore Consultants


Offshore Pipelines

LOCG-GEN-Guideline-007 Rev. 0

11. TIE-INS
11.1. General
11.1.1 The procedures required for tie-in(s) will be significantly affected by the chosen method.
Tie-ins can be classified into two broad groups above water and subsea.
11.1.2 Tie-in connections shall be suitably protected from corrosion, environmental loading,
dropped objects and dragging anchors. For tie-ins located outside permanent exclusion
zones, additional protection from fishing activity shall be provided.

11.2. Above Water Tie-In


11.2.1 Above water tie-in of new pipelines generally uses one of the following methods:

Pull-Tube (J-tube or I-tube) method using pre-installed conduit on Jacket.

Riser Stalk-On.

Mid-line tie-in using a barge.

Raising a pipeline end to the surface, welding a PLEM in place and lowering back to the
seabed, the pipeline being maintained at all times in a tensioned catenary.

11.2.2 Connection of the pipeline to the tie-in pipe shall normally be achieved either by welding
or by a flanged connection using RTJ flanges with metallic gaskets. Bolt tensioning for
flanged connections shall be by a hydraulic tensioning or torquing system, with a
procedure that specifies maximum and minimum allowable values.
11.2.3 For pulling a pipeline through a J or I-tube Contractor shall comply with the following
requirements:

Survey of the J or I-tube by diver or ROV, including confirmation of condition of bell


mouth, height above seabed and alignment.

Continuous monitoring of cable, pull head and pipeline at bell mouth during pulling
operation.

Calculations and analyses showing winch foundation and supporting structure of the
offshore installation is within allowable stress limits as defined by the governing topsides
design code.

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LOCG-GEN-Guideline-007 Rev. 0

Calculations and analyses showing the hang-off arrangement and securing of the
pipeline are within allowable stresses as defined by the governing design code.

Immediately following pipeline pull Contractor shall seal the bellmouth and treat the
contained water with corrosion inhibitor and oxygen scavenger.

The seal shall be

suitable to prevent seawater ingress or discharge due to the variation in hydrostatic


pressure from tide and wave heights.

11.3. Subsea Tie-In

Subsea tie-in of new pipelines is generally achieved through the use of closure spools
with one of the following connection methods:

Flanged connection using RTJ flanges with metallic gaskets.

Hyperbaric welding.

Mechanical connectors based on collets or cold forging.

Hot tapping for tie-in to an existing pipeline or riser using either welded or mechanical
hot tap fittings

Pipe freezing.

Diverless tie-in using ROV intervention and pre-installed remotely activated pull-in and
mating connector systems.

11.3.1 Each of the above methods has certain unique requirements in terms of surface support
equipment, diver intervention, meteorology, pipe preparation, handling and alignment
equipment, power supply, monitoring and testing equipment.

11.4. Tie-In Procedures


11.4.1 Tie-in procedures shall, as a minimum, consider the following activities, where these are
applicable:

Tie-in survey including transponder arrays and/or measurements made by diver.

Co-ordination with platform and vessels for use of position reference and location of any
transponders.

Worksite clearance including debris removal, jetting, leveling and dredging.

Clearance

requirements

between

habitat

and

jacket

members,

appurtenances and the projection of riser required entering habitat.

Pipeline excavation and support methods.


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mud

mats,

London Offshore Consultants


Offshore Pipelines

LOCG-GEN-Guideline-007 Rev. 0

Pipeline handling, alignment frames and methods.

Worksite stabilization by cofferdam or other means.

Habitat deployment, stabilization and recovery.

Pipeline cutting, coating removal and pipeline cleaning.

Special equipment to be used including bolt tensioners, handling frame, hydraulic power
packs, umbilical, forging tools and hot tapping machines.

Spool piece installation, including lift through the wave zone and rigging requirements.

Hyperbaric Welding. Hyperbaric welding is permitted in water depths up to the limits set
by the governing Codes or Standards, as defined by Company or Statutory
requirements. Welding in deeper water shall only be permitted if Contractor can show
the additional pressure effects on weld metallurgy, linepipe and physiological effects on
diver welders have been fully researched and accounted for. Contractor must also show
agreement has been received from Company and the relevant Statutory authorities.

Simultaneous operations involving tie-in and other construction or operational activities


occurring in the same location.

11.4.2 The procedures shall clearly indicate the governing environmental conditions for all tie-in
activities.
11.4.3 Contingency procedures shall include consideration of inclement weather, equipment
failure, positioning failure of any supporting vessels and any other foreseeable
situations. The procedures shall specify reporting requirements for such incidents.

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London Offshore Consultants


Offshore Pipelines

LOCG-GEN-Guideline-007 Rev. 0

12. SHORE APPROACH AND LANDFALL


12.1. General
12.1.1 The shore approach and landfall sections of a pipeline are classified as those sections
requiring one or more of the following:

A different method of pipeline installation.

Temporary or permanent works required installing the pipeline.

Different pipeline design considerations (for example environmental loading due to


breaking waves and splash zone corrosion protection).

12.1.2 The procedures required for shore approaches and landfalls will be significantly affected
by the construction method to be used. The most commonly used techniques are:

Bottom-pull of prefabricated pipe strings from the beach using winches located on a
pipelay vessel or barge positioned offshore in minimum acceptable water depth. Normal
pipelay proceeds on completion of shore pull by lying away from initial vessel position.

Bottom-pull of pipeline from lay vessel to shore using a winch, pulley and holdback
arrangement located on the beach above HAT.

Following the bottom-pull pipelay

proceeds as above.

12.2

Pick-up of exposed end of pipeline installed either by directional drilling or tunneling.

Procedures

12.1.3 The following detailed procedures shall be produced, depending on the method to be
employed:

Survey and positioning.

Dredging for vessel access.

Pull wire lying.

Winch, pulley and sheave installation and fixing to suitable foundations.

Pipe pulling.

Vessel anchoring.

Maintenance dredging.

Sheet piling (for winch holdback and/or coffer-dam).

Buoyancy tank attachment and release.

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London Offshore Consultants


Offshore Pipelines

Pulling head installation.

Pulling sled.

Backfilling.

As-laid survey.

Seabed debris clearance.

Diving/ROV intervention.

LOCG-GEN-Guideline-007 Rev. 0

12.2. Design Requirements


12.2.1 The following shall be considered in the design of the landfall/shore approach,
depending on method to be used:

Pulling analysis to establish the maximum required pulling capacity.

Pipeline required submerged weight and buoyancy tank design.

Pipeline stability including loads on buoyancy tanks.

Pull head design.

Holdback anchor, winch and sheave design, including foundations.

Pull sled design.

Environmental study to establish limiting operational conditions.

Environmental impact study.

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London Offshore Consultants


Offshore Pipelines

LOCG-GEN-Guideline-007 Rev. 0

13. TESTING AND COMMISSIONING


13.1. Flooding and Cleaning
13.1.1 Pipelines are in general laid dry and must be flooded prior to cleaning and hydrotesting.
Contractor shall ensure that flooding of the pipeline considers the following:

Normal flooding agent is seawater, either in a normal or treated state. Other flooding
agents shall be used if seawater would have a detrimental effect on the pipeline internal
coating, valves or fixtures.

Avoidance of danger to diver if a diver operated flooding valve is used.

Avoidance of debris and seabed soils entering the pipeline during flooding.

All valves on the pipeline are to be open during flooding to allow air in the pipeline to
escape.

13.1.2 Unless Contractor has shown the pipeline to be clean of debris, seabed soil or other
contaminants he shall clean the pipeline after flooding.

Cleaning will normally be

achieved by running one or more pigs through the full length of the pipeline.

13.2. Gauging
13.2.1 Gauging will normally be required to verify the bore of the pipeline along its length.
Gauging shall be achieved by running a pig fitted with a gauging plate, the diameter of
which shall not be less than 95% of the minimum internal diameter of the pipeline. The
pig train containing the gauging plate shall contain a transponder at each end to facilitate
tracking and location in case the train is stopped.

13.3. Pressure Testing


13.3.1 Pressure testing is required to ensure the integrity of the pipeline and fittings.
13.3.2 A test pressure and duration in accordance with the selected design code criteria shall
be used. Test pressure shall be shown not to induce a maximum equivalent stress
100% of SMYS on the minimum wall thickness, when mill tolerances have been allowed
for.
13.3.3 The test pressure shall be corrected to account for the tidal conditions at the time of test,
such that the design pressure is applicable when the pipeline operates at LAT.

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Offshore Pipelines

LOCG-GEN-Guideline-007 Rev. 0

13.3.4 All pressure testing shall be performed in accordance with a procedure which addresses
the following:

Safety of personnel involved in pressure testing.

Calibration and use of recording equipment.

Notification of relevant third parties prior to test.

Test acceptance criteria, with allowances made for temperature and tidal variation during
the course of the test.

Pressure stabilization prior to the test is likely to be longer when all or part of the pipeline
is of flexible construction.

13.4. Leak Testing


13.4.1 Where component parts of the pipeline have been pressure tested prior to final
assembly, a leak test shall be performed on the final assembly. This leak test shall
conform to the requirements of the pressure test contained in section 13.3, above,
except that the leak test pressure shall be not less that 1.1 times the design pressure.

13.5. Pipeline Commissioning


13.5.1 Dewatering, product filling and commissioning procedures shall include the following
considerations:

The release of hydrocarbons or chemicals into the marine environment shall be avoided
or if unavoidable the impact quantified within an environmental impact study.

Special attention shall be made to avoiding ice and hydrate formation during the
pressuring up of gas pipelines and to wax formation in oil pipelines.

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