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1. Explain how differential expansion is allowed for an effected seal.

Heat can destroy seal faces.
Heat affects the elastomer. This the part most sensitive to extremes of temperature.
Heat can change the state of the fluid being pumped.
Raising the temperature of corrosive liquids increases their potency. A 16 deg F rise
doubles the corrosion rate of most acids.
Differential expansion rates can destroy plated seal surfaces. Low grade silicon carbide
will crack with sudden changes in temperature.
Differential expansion of shaft and pump casing can change the face loading by altering
the fitting dimension.
Furthermore plated materials can experience differential expansion. Often materials such
as stellite are plated over stainless steel. The expansion rates are poorly matched so
operating outside of the design limits of the materials will cause strains to appear in the
plating interface, causing cracks to appear. The cracks will cause the carbon face to wear
dramatically fast.
2. Explain the effect that distillation has on the dissolved solids in the Seawater.
Distillation or Desalination (also known as desalinization or desalting) is the process of
removing salt from water.
A desalination device essentially separates seawater (saline water) into 2 streams:
One with low concentration of dissolved salts (the fresh water stream) and the other
Containing the remaining dissolved salts (the concentrated or brine stream).
3. Explain what is meant by the single- effect and by the double effect evaporation
In a single-effect evaporator, steam provides energy for vaporization and the vapor product is
condensed and removed from the system.
In a double-effect evaporator, the vapor product off the first effect is used to provide energy
for a second vaporization unit. This cascading of effects can continue for many stages.
Multiple-effect evaporators can remove much larger amounts of solvent than is possible in a
single effect.
4. Explain why fresh water may have to be produced from seawater.
Seawater, Because it is the most abundant source around us at sea, Furthermore By
Using Desalination where the seawater is heated and vaporize and condense and filtered
by the use of freshwater generator.
5. Explain the effect of entrained air in cooling water and how it is remove?

One of the challenging issues in designing water pipe systems is to remove the
entrained air getting into pipes either from the water itself or through external sources
such as pumps and valves. In practice, the popular alternatives for removing air from
water systems are the use of air valves and air vents.

Air separators are used to separate entrained air in water through forced flow patterns.
Air separators eliminate air quickly and efficiently from closed loop heating and cooling
systems. Water enters and exits through unique tangential nozzle connections, which
promote a low velocity swirling vortex effect in the center of the unit. Natural centrifugal

forces allow the heavier air-free water to move towards the outer edges, while entrained
air is captured by the stainless steel collection tube and released to the top of the
separator. This air can then be redirected to the compression tank, or released out of the
system through an automatic air vent.