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Original Title: E102-Kinematics

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E102-Kinematics

A mediocre analysis and conclusion of E102 : Kinematics of PHY10L

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Physics has covers many topics from the study of mechanical waves in

solids, liquids, and gasses to the study of celestial bodies. It also covers mechanics

which a branch of physics that is concerned with the behavior of physical bodies to

forces or displacements. The topic of physics which we have tackled is Kinematics.

Kinematics is a branch of mechanics which describes the motion of points, bodies,

and systems of bodies without considering the motion. In the experiment 102 we

will study the simplest kind of motion, which is the motion of a particle in a

straight line. We will be able to discuss it in terms of space and time.

In kinematics, the motion of the objects are represented by particles. It is

said that in an one dimensional plane, the particle is considered to be moving along

the x-axis with a position that can be described at all times.

If we consider the origin as the initial position X0, and time as t0, after a new

time and a new position. The instantaneous velocity of the particle is equal to the

instantaneous rate of change of position with time.

v x = lim

t0

x dx x 2x 1

= =

t dt t 2t 1

acceleration as the time interval reaches zero.

a x = lim

t 0

v x d v x v 2v1

=

=

t

dt

t 2t 1

By integrating the second equations and if we consider v0 and t0=0 are the initial

velocity and time, we can represent velocity as a function of time with this

equation.

v =v 0 +at

By integrating the 1st equation and consider that x0 and t0 are zero, will give

as position as a function of time with this equation.

1

x=x 0+ v 0 t + a t 2

2

acceleration with respect to position and will give us the equation:

v 2=v 02 +2 a( xx 0 )

component of the set up like the cart being used as a roller skate. We are also

reminded to use the 220V-AC source for the power timer.

In this experiment entitled Kinematics, there are three parts. The first part is

the determination of the average velocity of a dynamics cart, the second part is the

determination of the acceleration due to gravity using the carts acceleration, and

the third part is determining the acceleration due to gravity using picket fence and

the smart timer.

For the first part, the determination of the average velocity of a dynamics

cart we first set up the dynamics track with the end stop, the dynamics cart, and the

two photogates. The next thing we did is to level the track then placed the

dynamics cart in the track. Then the first photogate will be placed in the 25cm

mark and the second photogate will be placed on the 65 cm mark. The next thing

we did is we plugged the photogates in the smart timer then set it to TIME, TWO

GATES. We then start the experiment. For the each trial we will adjust the second

the photogate by 10 cm each. We will do five trials. These are the results that we

came up with.

Table 1. Determination of the Average Velocity of a Dynamic Cart

X o =25 cm

Trial

1

2

3

4

5

Xf

65 cm

75 cm

85 cm

95 cm

105 cm

X =X f X o

40 cm

50 cm

60 cm

70 cm

80 cm

0.5305 s

0.6728 s

0.8157 s

0.9326 s

1.1138 s

v =

X

t

75.4006 cm/s

74.3163 cm/s

73.5365 cm/s

75.0580 cm/s

71.8262 cm/s

The graph of the table with regards to displacement and time is:

gravity using carts acceleration. What we did was first to set up the track again

and elevated the 0 cm mark by 5cm at first. We then positioned a photogate at the

80 cm mark. We then set-up the smart timer with ACCEL, ONE GATE. We then

started the experiment by increasing the height of the track by 2 cm each trial. We

solved the carts displacement with this formulas:

X =X f X o

Where,

sin =

H

120

Table 2. Determination of Acceleration

Due to Gravity Using Carts Acceleration

X o =18 cm

L=120 cm

X f =80 cm

Trial

1

2

3

4

5

5 cm

7 cm

9 cm

11 cm

13 cm

38 cm/s2

52.8 cm/s2

71.1 cm/s2

87.8 cm/s2

111.1 cm/s2

average g=949.71

cm

2

s

X =X =62 cm

sin =

H

L

1/24

7/120

3/40

4/120

13/120

error =3.09

a

sin

Time=

912 cm/s2

905.14 cm/s2

948 cm/s2

957.81 cm/s2

1025.54 cm/s2

1.8064 s

1.5325 s

1.3206 s

1.1884 s

1.0565 s

g=

2X

a

using picket fence and smart timer. What we did was first to set the photogate

horizontally. We held the photogate with our hands. We set the smart timer to

ACCEL, ONE GATE. We then dropped the picket fence vertically within the

photogate. We then repeated this 5 times. The result of this experiment is:

Fence and Smart Timer

Trial

1

976.9 cm/s2

2

3

4

5

AVE

1008.15 cm/s2

950.8 cm/s2

996.0 cm/s2

963.4 cm/s2

979.12 cm/s2

CONCLUSION

The study of motion without considering the causes of those forces. We

found out that instantaneous velocity is equal to increment in displacement all over

the increment in time. We also found out that the instantaneous acceleration is the

increment in velocity all over the increment in time. We also found out that by

using these two equation we can get formulas for expressing velocity as a function

of time, position as a function of time, and velocity as a function of position. We

also found out that the time is directly proportional to the position or displacement

of the particle by using the experiment of determination of the average velocity of

a dynamics cart. We also found out that the sin theta is directly proportional to the

a or acceleration by using the determination of acceleration due to gravity carts

acceleration. We also found out the acceleration due to gravity is about 980 cm/s2

by using the determination of acceleration due to gravity using picket fence and

smart timer, In the experiment, we also found out that height of the track and its

acceleration is directly proportional. We also found out that if the particles slope of

inclination is higher, so is the acceleration.

To determine experimentally due to gravity, we used two parts of the

experiment. The determination of acceleration due to gravity using carts

acceleration and determination of acceleration due using picket fence and smart

timer. We can see the influence of gravity in the acceleration of the cart. We found

that by increasing the height of the track, the acceleration and the g also

increased. The time it took the car to pass through the photogate also lessened as

the height of the track increased. We also got the approximate value of the

acceleration of the gravity by using the picket fence and the smart timer. We found

that after 5 trials we found that the value of g or acceleration due to gravity is

980 cm/s2.

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