You are on page 1of 106

Emerging Technology of Hybrid

Electric Vehicles
Prof. Chris Mi
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
University of Michigan - Dearborn
4901 Evergreen Road, Dearborn, MI 48128 USA
email: chrismi@umich.edu
Tel: (313) 583-6434, Fax: (313)583-6336

Key Emerging Technologies Pertaining to


HEV

Energy Storage
Power Electronics
Motors
Power Management and Vehicle Control

Energy Storage

Energy density
Power density
Cell/module management
Thermal management
Control and power management
Life cycle time
Self discharge
Efficiency, charging, safety
Recycling

Power Electronics

Losses
Thermal management
Switching frequency
Conduction loss and switching loss
Reliability
EMC
New material and device technology

Electric Motors

Size, weight
Control
Thermal management
Demagnetization (in case of PM motors)

Power Management and Vehicle Control


Fuel economy and emission
Balance power from motor and engine

Combine
Slit
Motor alone
Engine alone

Battery SOC
Engine life
Vehicle performance
Gradeability

Outline
Part I: Introduction to Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Part II: HEV Fundamentals
Part III: HEV Modeling and Simulation
Part IV: Energy Storage for HEV Applications
Part V: Power Electronics
Part VI: A Look into the Current Hybrids
Prius
Mariner
Saturn Vue
Civic
Camry

Part I:
Introduction to
Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Toyota Prius 05

Toyota Highlander

Ford Escape

Mercury Mariner

Honda Civic HEV

Honda Insight

Honda Accord HEV

HEV

What is HEV
Types of HEV
Why HEV
Key Advantage of HEV
Up to Date Sales and Predictions of HEV
Environmental Impacts of HEV
Interdisciplinary Nature of HEV

What is HEV
HEV Stands for Hybrid Electric Vehicle
An HEV is a vehicle which involves multiple
sources of propulsions
An EV is an electric vehicle, battery (or ultra
capacitor, fly wheels) operated only. Sole propulsion
by electric motor
A fuel cell vehicle is a series hybrid vehicle
A traditional vehicle has sole propulsion by ICE or
diesel engine
Energy source can be gas, natural gas, battery, ultra
capacitor, fly wheel, solar panel, etc.

Types of HEV
According to the method the energy
sources are arranged
Parallel HEV: multiple propulsion sources can
be combined, or drive the vehicle alone with
one of the energy sources
Series HEV: sole propulsion by electric motor,
but the electric energy comes from another on
board energy source, such as ICE

Types of HEV
Continued
Simple HEV, such as diesel electric locomotive,
energy consumption is not optimized; are only
designed to improve performance (acceleration etc.)
Complex HEV: can possess more than two electric
motors, energy consumption and performance are
optimized, multimode operation capability
Heavy hybrids trucks, locomotives, diesel hybrids,
etc.

Types of HEV
According to the onboard energy sources
ICE hybrids
Diesel hybrids
Fuel cell hybrids
Solar hybrids (race cars, for example)
Natural gas hybrids
Hybrid locomotive
Heavy hybrids

10

Why HEV ?

To Overcome the Disadvantage


of Pure EV and Conventional
Vehicles

11

Key Drawbacks of Battery EVs


High Initial Cost
Many times that of conventional vehicles

Short Driving Range


Less miles during each recharge
People need a vehicle not only for commuting (city
driving), but also for pleasure (long distance highway
driving)

Key Drawbacks of Battery EVs


Recharging takes much longer time than
refueling gasoline
unless infrastructure for instantly replaceable battery
cartridges are available (something like home BBQ
propane tank replacing)

Battery pack takes space and weight of the


vehicle which otherwise is available to the
customer

12

Key Drawbacks of ICE Vehicles


High energy consumption: resources,
independent of foreign oil
High emission, air pollution, global warming
High maintenance cost
Environmental hazards
Noisy

Key Advantages of HEVs


Optimize the fuel economy
Optimize the operating point of ICE
Stop the ICE if not needed (ultra low speed and
stops)
Recover the kinetic energy at braking
Reduce the size (hp and volume) of ICE

Reduce emissions
Minimize the emissions when ICE is optimized in
operation
Stop the ICE when its not needed
Reduced size of ICE means less emissions

13

Key Advantages of HEVs - continued


Quiet Operation
Ultra low noise at low speed because ICE is stopped
Quiet motor, motor is stopped when vehicle comes to
a stop, with engine already stopped

Key Advantages of HEVs - continued


Reduced maintenance because ICE operation is
optimized, less hazardous material
fewer tune ups, longer life cycle of ICE
fewer spark-plug changes
fewer oil changes
fewer fuel filters, antifreeze, radiator flushes or water
pumps
fewer exhaust repairs or muffler changes

14

Key Concerns of HEVs


High initial cost
Increased components such as battery, electric
machines, motor controller, etc.

Reliability concern
Increased components, especially power system,
electronics, sensors

Warranty issues
Issues on major electric components
Dealership and repair shop not familiar with new
components

Safety: high voltage system employed in HEV


EMC Vulnerability

Current Status of HEV

15

Toyota HEV Program

Market Leader

Toyota Hybrid Sales


Best-ever sales month in 48 years of business in the
United States with total July sales of 216,417 vehicles, an
increase of 12.3 percent (August 05)
Prius

Highlander

RX400h

2005 total**

107,897*

17,989

20,674

2004 total

53,991

2003 total

24,627

* Prius sales capacity limited by battery, backlog of 4 month.


**Toyota worldwide hybrid sales 513,000 in 2005
Source: http://www.toyota.com/about/news/corporate/2006/01/04-1-sales.html

16

Current Hybrid Sales and


Predictions in U. S.
Number of Models

Units Sold

2004

88,000

2005

10

205,749*

2006

18

260,000**

2010

30

500,000**

*Actual sales of 2005,


*JDP prediction was 250,000
**Some predictions are higher
Source: J. D. Power and Associates

Hybrids as Percentage of Total LightDuty Vehicle Sales, July 2005


Automaker

Hybrid

Total LDV

% Hybrid*

Toyota

14,157

216,417

6.7

Honda

3,773

143,217

2.6

Ford

1,138

365,410

0.3

*Total hybrid vehicle sales in 2005 (205,749) represent 1.2% of all


1,477,697 light duty vehicles sold in 2005.

17

Hybrids as Percentage of Model Sales


for July 2005
Model

Hybrids

Full model

% hybrids

Toyota
Highlander
Toyota
Rx400h
Honda Civic

2,564

14,223

18

2,262

9,065

25

2,329

28,008

8.3

Honda
Accord
Ford Escape

1,370

36,129

3.8

1,138

18,245

6.2

Interdisciplinary Nature of HEV


Vehicle
Dynamics

Energy
Storage

Vehicle
Design

Power Electronics
& Electric Machines

Automotive
Electronics

Vehicle
Modeling
Simulation

Emerging
Technology

Control &
Power Management

Regenerative
Braking

18

State-of-the-Art-HEV

Toyota Prius

Generator
28 kW PM

Inverter
Inverter

Engine:

1.5 L 4-cylinders DOHC


76 HP / 82 lb-ft

Motor:

DC Brushless 500 V
50 kW / 400 Nm

EPA
MPG
Battery
202 V NiMH
6.5 Ah 21 kW
(Panasonic)

Engine
4-cyl. Gas

Planetary
Gear set

EM
50 kW PM

Reduction
Gearing

Front
Wheels

1.8L AT HEV
Corolla

Gain
(%)

City

30

60

100

Highway

38

51

34

Note Corolla
Echo

1.8L 130 HP 4-speed AT


1.5L 108 HP 4-speed AT
33/39 City/Highway MPG

19

Toyota Sienna
Engine:
APG:
Brake:

2.4 L 4-cylinders DOHC


131 HP / lb-ft
1.5 kW 100V
Electronic controlled
AWD
BL

Engine
4-cyl. Gas

Planetary
Gear set

Generator
13 kW PM
EM
3.5 kW PM

Metal-Belt
CVT

Reduction
Gearing

Inverter

Battery
216 V NiMH

Inverter

(Panasonic)

Inverter
E Machine
18 kW PM

Front
Wheels

Reduction
Gearing

Rear
Wheels

HEV

1015 MPG

45

1015 Km/l

18.6

UK BL MPG

24

EPA City

18

EPA HWY

24

Gain

Note Sienna Engine: 2.4L 133 ~ 160 HP


242 lb-ft
Trans: 5-Speed AT

Honda Civic

12V
Starter

Inverter

Engine:

1.34L 85 HP (63 kW) /119 Nm

Motor:

PM DC Brushless
10 kW / 62 Nm Assist
12.6 kW / 108 Nm Regen

Battery
144 V
NiMH
(Panasonic)

Engine
4-cyl. Gas

EM
10 kW PM

CVT or 5Speed MT

Front
Wheels

EPA
MPG

AT
BL

CVT
HEV

Gain
(%)

City

29

48

66

Highway

38

47

24

Note BL Engine:
Trans:

1.7L 115 HP/110lb-ft


4-Speed AT

IMA ---- Integrated Motor Assist


http://automobiles.honda.com/models/specifications_full_specs.asp?ModelName=Civic+Hybrid&Category=3

20

Honda Accord
Engine:

3.0 L VTEC V6
240 hp / 217 lb-ft
w/ Variable Cylinder
Management (VCM) system

Trans:

New 5_Speed AT

Motor:

DC Brushless
12 kW / 74 Nm Assist
14 kW / 123 Nm Regen

Integrated Motor Assist (IMA)

12V
Starter

Battery
144 V 6.0
Ah NiMH

Inverter

(Panasonic)

Engine
V6 Gas

E Machine
12 kW PM

New 5Speed AT

Front
Wheels

EPA
MPG

AT
BL

AT
HEV

Gain
(%)

City

21

30

43

Highway

30

37

23

Note BL Engine:
Trans:

3.0L 240 HP/212 lb-ft


5-speed AT

IMA ---- Integrated Motor Assist


http://automobiles.honda.com/info/news/article.asp?ArticleID=200409174695
9&Category=Accord+Hybrid

Nissan Tino 2004 Production Model

Generator
13 kW PM

Inverter
Inverter

Engine
E Machine
4-cyl. Gas Clutch 17 kW PM CVT

Engine:

1.8 L 4-cylinders DOHC


98 HP / lb-ft

Motor:

DC Brushless
17 kW / Nm

BL

Battery
345 V Li-Ion
3.6 Ah
(Shin-Kobe)

Reduction
Gearing

1015
MPG

350 V

HEV

Gain

23km/l

Front
Wheels

21

Ford Escape 2004 Production Model

Generator
28 kW PM

Inverter
Inverter

Engine
4-cyl. Gas

Planetary E Machine
Gearset 70 kW PM

Reduction
Gearing

Engine:

2.3 L Inline 4-Cylinder


133 hp / 129 lb-ft

Motor:

PM 330 V
70 kW / xx Nm

Battery
330 V NiMH
(Sanyo)

Front
Wheels

EPA
MPG

3.0 L
BL 1

AT
HEV

Gain
(%)

City

20

36

80

Highway

25

31

24

Note BL1

3.0L 200 HP 4-speed AT

BL 2 2.3L 153 HP 4-speed AT


22/25 City/Highway MPG

http://www.fordvehicles.com/suvs/escapehybrid/features/specs/

GM Hybrid Vehicles

22

The Allison Hybrid Powertrain System


EP40

Model
Application
DPIM
Weight

EP 50

EP 60

Transit Bus
Sub. Coach Articulated Bus
430-900 VDC 160 kW 3-phase AC
908 lbs

Input Pwr

280 hp

330 hp

330 hp

Max In Trq

910 lb-ft

1050 lb-ft

1050 lb-ft

Rated In Spd
Accel Power

2300 rpm
350 hp

Battery
Controller

400 hp

NiMH 330V (Panasonic)


Two AT1000/2000/2400 controller

Generator

Inverter
Inverter

Engine
Diesel

Planetary
Gear set

EM

Performance

Change

MPG*

~ 60%

400 hp

PM

~ 90%

NOx

~ 50%

Battery
330 V NiMH

HC

~ 90%

(Panasonic)

CO

~ 90%

Reduction
Gearing

Front
Wheels

* Advertised Numbers ---- Over CBD14 Cycle

Application of Allisons EV DriveTM


20 New Flyers 40
buses w/ EP 40 are
being tested in 26
locales: Philadelphia
12, Salt Lake City 3,
OC 2, Hartford 2,
Seattle 1.
Transit Bus

Suburban Coach

EV DriveTM

23

Eaton Hybrid System for Commercial


Trucks
BL

Inverter

Engine:

4.3 L 4-cylinders Diesel


170 HP / 420 lb-ft

Motor:

PM DC 340 V
44 kW / 420 Nm

Rear
Wheels

Change

MPG*

9.3

13.42

45%

PM

0.158

0.0112

93%

NOx

12.9

5.8984

54%

HC

0.02

100%

CO2

1103

758

31%

CO

1.89

0.7352

60%

0~60

32.2

30

7%

Grade

4%

5.1%

28%

Battery
340 V Li-Ion
7.2 Ah
(Shin-Kobe)

Engine
Auto
EM
6-Speed Reduction
4-cyl. Diesel Clutch 44 kW PM AMT
Gearing

HEV

* Over the FedEx cycle, a modified FTP cycle

Hino 4T Ranger HEV Announced in


2004

Inverter

Engine:

J05D-TI<J5-IA> 4.73 L 4-cyl. Diesel


177 HP(132 kW) / 340 lb-ft (461 Nm)

Motor:

Induction AC

Battery:

274V NiMH 6.5 Ah

BL

Battery
274 V NiMH
6.5 Ah
(Panasonic)

Engine
E Machine
Reduction
4-cyl. Diesel Clutch 23 kW ID Trans. Gearing

Rear
Wheels

HIMR ---- Hybrid Inverter Controlled Motor & Retarder System


The HIMR system has already been installed in more than 100
vehicles (trucks and buses) operated mainly in major cities and state
parks.

23 kW / Nm

HEV

Change

MPG

20%

PM

85%

NOx

50%

CO2

17%

Note BL Engines
199 kW / 797 Nm, 177 kW / 716 Nm
165 kW / 657 Nm, 162 kW / 574 Nm
154 kW / 588 Nm, 132 kW / 490 Nm

http://www.hino.co.jp/e/info/news/ne_20040421.html

24

Nissan Condorr 2003 Prototype

AC Motor
55 kW PM

Inverter

Vehicle:

Wheelbase 172 in; Curb 10100 lbs;


w/Engine stop/start; Cost $123,000

Engine:

6.93 L 6-Cylinders Diesel


204 HP @ 3000 / 369 lb-ft 2 1400 rpm

Motor:

PM AC
55 kW @ 4060 ~ 9000 rpm / 130 N @ 1400 rpm

Ultracap:

346 V 60kW
583 Wh
384-cell
6.3 Wh/kg
1105 x 505 x 470 mm from Okamura Laboratory

Battery 346
V Ultracap 60
kW, 583 Wh

Performance

Change

MPG*

50%

CO2

33%

Reduction
Gearing

Engine
6-cyl. diesel Clutch AMT

Reduction
Gearing

Payload 7000 lbs

Rear

* Cycle unknown

Wheels

http://www.sae.org/automag/globalvehicles/12-2002

GM Hybrid Configuration_DCT AMT


Based
Electric Machines
Planetary Trains

Dual Clutches

Solid Shaft

Hollow Shaft

Engine

25

Hybrid Architecture

Architectures of HEV
Series hybrid
Fuel
tank

Parallel hybrid
IC
engine

Fuel
tank

Generator

Battery

Power
converter

IC
engine

Transmission

Electric
motor

Transmission

Battery

Power
converter

(a)

(b)

Series-parallel hybrid
Fuel
tank

Complex hybrid

IC
engine
Generator

Battery

Power
converter

Electric
motor

Transmission

Electric
motor

Fuel
tank

IC
engine

Electric
motor

Electric
motor

Battery

Power
converter

Transmission

Electric
motor

(d)

(c)
Eletrical link
Hydraulic link
Mechanical link

26

Series Architecture
Torqu
e

Fuel tank

Engine

Generator

Rectifier

Traction
motor

Mech.
Trans.

Vehicle speed

DC
DC

Power

Engine operating region

Speed

Motor
controller

Tractive Effort

Speed

Battery

Battery
charger

Traction
Battery charge

Operation Mode of Series Architecture


Battery alone mode: engine is off, vehicle is
powered by the battery only
Engine alone mode: power from ICE/G
Combined mode: both ICE/G set and battery
provides power to the traction motor
Power split mode: ICE/G power split to drive the
vehicle and charge the battery
Stationary charging mode
Regenerative braking mode

27

Advantages of Series Architecture


ICE operation can be optimized, and ICE itself
can be redesigned to satisfy the needs
Smaller engine possible
High speed engine possible
Single gear box. No transmission needed.
Multiple motors or wheel motors are possible
Simple control strategy

Disadvantages of Series Architecture


Energy converter twice (ICE/G then Motor), plus
battery
Additional weight/cost due to increased
components
Traction motor, generator, ICE are full sized to
meet the vehicle performance needs

28

Parallel Architecture
Fuel tank

Engine

Motor
Controller

Final drive
and differential
Mechanical.
coupling

Two energy
converters
Engine and
motor
mechanically
coupled
Different
configurations
possible

Mechanicl
Transmission

Battery

Battery
charger

Traction
Battery charge

Operation Mode of Parallel Architecture


Motor alone mode: engine is off, vehicle is
powered by the battery/motor only
Engine alone mode: ICE drive the vehicle alone
Combined mode: both ICE and motor provide
power to drive the vehicle
Power split mode: ICE power split to drive the
vehicle and charge the battery
Stationary charging mode
Regenerative braking mode (include hybrid
braking mode)

29

Advantages
of Parallel Architecture
ICE operation can be optimized, with motor
assist or share the power from the ICE
Flexible in configurations and gives room for
optimization of fuel economy and emissions
Reduced engine size
Possible plug-in hybrid for further improved fuel
economy and emission reduction

Disadvantage of Parallel Architecture

Complicated control strategy

Complex transmission

30

Where the Future Holds

Great minds for a great future!

Pros and Cons


Generally increases MPG
People like hybrids
Engine will be on all the time when heat or air
conditioning is needed MPG will be much
lower
The hybrids fell as much as 40 percent below the EPA mileage
figures for combined city and highway driving during a recent
test, which covered a mix of Detroit-area roads. Detroit Free
Press, TOP STORIES, Thursday, February 03, 2005
http://www.freep.com/avantgo_detroit/stories/phelan3e_20050203_2.htm

Benefits may not pay back the cost increase

31

The Future of HEV and Opportunities


More efficient diesel hybrids
Plug in hybrids
Fuel cell and plug in vehicles
Powering your house/business with your fuel
cell/hybrid cars
And more

Part II
HEV Fundamentals

32

Outline

Vehicle Resistance
Traction and Slip Model
Vehicle Dynamics
Transmission
Vehicle Performance
Fuel Economy and Improvements
Braking Performance

Forces Acting on a Vehicle


V

FW

hw

O MV g s in

Trf

hg

Ft
W

Tractive force
Aerodynamic
Gravitational

MV g

cos

M Vg

La

Trr

Lb
L

Rolling

33

Grading Resistance - Gravitational


The gravitational force, Fg depends on the slope of the
roadway; it is positive when climbing a grade and is
negative when descending a downgrade roadway.
Where is the grade angle with respect to the horizon,
m is the total mass of the vehicle, g is the gravitational
acceleration constant.

Fg = mg sin
H

O MV g sin

MV g

cos

hg

MVg

Rolling Resistance
On hard road surfaces
Caused by hysteresis of
tire material
Deflection of the carcass
while the tire is rolling
The hysteresis causes
asymmetric distribution of
ground reaction
The pressure in the leading
half is larger than the
trailing half of the contact
surface
Results in ground force
shifting forward

P
Moving direction

r
rd

z
a

34

Rolling Resistance
On soft road surfaces
Caused by the deformation
of the ground surface

The ground reaction force


almost completely shifts to
the leading half

Moving direction

z
Px

Pz

Rolling Resistance
The rolling resistance force is given by
sgn[V ]mg (C 0 + C1V 2 ) if

Fr =
FTR Fg
if
sgn( F F )(C mg ) if
TR
g
0

V 0
V = 0 and

FTR Fg C 0 mg

V = 0 and

FTR Fg > C 0 mg

1 V >0
sgn[ V ] =
1 V < 0
where V is vehicle speed, FTR is the total
tractive force, C0 and C1 are rolling coefficients

35

Typical Rolling Coefficient


C0 is the maximum rolling
resistance at standstill
0.004 < C0 < 0.02
(unitless)
C1 << C0 (S2/m2)
Approximation

C 0 = 0 .01
V
C1 = C 0
100

Rolling
coefficient C0

Condition
Car tire on
concrete or
asphalt
Rolled gravel
Unpaved road
Field
Truck tires on
concrete of
asphalt
Wheels on rails

0.013
0.02
0.05
0.1-0.35
0.006-0.01
0.001-0.002

Aerodynamic Drag Force

High pressure

Low pressure

Moving direction

36

Aerodynamic Drag Force FAD


The aerodynamic drag force, FAD is the
viscous resistance of the air against the motion.

:
CD :
AF :
V :

Air density
Aerodynamic drag coefficient
Equivalent frontal area of the vehicle
Head-wind velocity

F AD = sgn[ V ]{0 .5 C D AF (V + V ) 2 }

Typical Drag Coefficients


Vehicle T y p e

Trucks, road trains


Buses
Streamlined buses
M otorcy cles

Coefficient of Aerody manic Resistance

Op en convertible

0.5...0.7

Van body

0.5...0.7

Ponton body

0.4...0.55

Wed ge-shap ed body ; headlamp s and


bump ers are integrated into the body ,
covered underbody , op timized cooling
air flow.

0.3...0.4

Headlamp and all wheels in


body , covered underbody

0.2...0.25

K-shaped (small brea kway


section)

0.23

Optimum streamlined design

0.15...0.20
0.8...1.5
0.6...0.7
0.3...0.4
0.6...0.7

37

Dynamics of Vehicle Motion: Quarter


Vehicle Model
The dynamic equation of motion in the tangential
direction, neglecting weight shift, is

Kmm

dV
= FTR Fr
dt

where Km is the rotational inertia coefficient to


compensate for the apparent increase in the vehicles
mass due to the onboard rotating mass.

Typically, 1.08< Km < 1.1

Propulsion Power
Torque at the vehicle wheels is obtained from
the power relation
P=T=FtV
where
T is the tractive torque in N-m,

is the angular velocity in rads/sec,


Ft is in N

The angular velocity and the vehicle speed is


related by
V=rd

38

In Steady State

FT = mg [sin + C 0 sgn( V )]
+ sgn( V )[ mgC 1
+

C D AF ]V 2

Maximum Gradeability

The maximum grade that a vehicle will be able to


overcome with the maximum force available from
the propulsion unit is an important design
criterion as well as performance measure.

39

Maximum Gradeability
Continued
The vehicle is expected to move forward very
slowly when climbing a steep slope, and
hence, the following assumptions for
maximum gradeability are made:

The vehicle moves very slowly v 0


FAD, Fr are negligible
The vehicle is not accelerating, i.e. dv/dt = 0
FTR is the maximum tractive force delivered by
motor at or near zero speed

Maximum Gradeability
With the assumptions, at near stall conditions

F =0

FT Fg = 0 FT = mg sin

The maximum percent grade is

max % grade = 100 tan

cg

FT

max % grade =

mgsin

100 FT
( mg ) 2 FT2

mg

FT

_______________

(mg)2-FT2

FDB to determine maximum


gradeability

Forces & grade

40

Velocity and Acceleration


The vehicles are typically designed with a
certain objective, such as maximum acceleration
on a given roadway slope on a typical weather
condition.
Energy required from propulsion unit depends
on acceleration and road load force

Velocity and Acceleration


continued
Maximum acceleration is limited by maximum
tractive power and roadway condition
Road load condition is unknown in a real-world
scenario
However, significant insight about vehicle
velocity profile and energy requirement can be
obtained by considering simplified scenarios

41

Scenario I: Constant FT, Level Road


The level road condition implies that grade (s)=0
EV is assumed to be at rest initially; also the initial FTR is
assumed to be capable of overcoming the initial rolling
resistance
F
road

Froll

dV

F = m dt

FTR

FAD

mg

At t>0

Froll

FTR

FT Fa Fr Fg = m

dV
dt

FT mg[sin + C 0 sgn(V )] sgn(V )[mgC1 +

C D AF ]V 2 = m

dV
dt

The Velocity Profile for Constant FT


Assume zero grade and solving for acceleration, dv/dt

dV
= K 1 K 2V 2
dt
where
K1 =

FT
gC 0 ,
m

K2 =

2m

C D AF + gC 1

The velocity profile:

V (t ) =

K1
tanh( K 1 K 2 t )
K2

V(t)

42

Distance and Terminal Velocity


Terminal Velocity:

VT = lim
v (t ) =
t

K1
K2

Distance Traversed:

s (t ) = v(t ) dt =

1
ln[cosh K 2VT t )
K2

Desired Velocity and Power


Consumption
The time to reach a desired velocity Vf

tf =

K2
1
tanh 1 (
Vf )
K1 K 2
K1

Tractive power: The instantaneous tractive power delivered by


the propulsion unit is PT(t) = FT v(t).

PT (t ) = FT VT tanh( K 1 K 2 t )

43

Mean Tractive Power


The mean tractive power over the acceleration interval t is

PT =

1
tf

P (t ) dt =
T

FT VT
tf

1
K1K 2

ln[cosh(

K 1 K 2 t )]

Energy required during an interval of the vehicle can be obtained from


the integration of the instantaneous power equation as

eT =

tf

PT (t ) dt = t f PT = FT VT

1
K1K 2

ln[cosh(

K 1 K 2 t )]

Example 1
An electric vehicle has the following parameter values:
m=692kg, CD = 0.2, AF = 2m2, C0 = 0.009, C1 = 1.75*10-6
s2/m2, = 1.18 kg/m3, g = 9.81 m/s2
The vehicle is going to accelerate with constant tractive
force. Maximum force that can be provided by the vehicle
drive line is 1500N.
(a) find terminal velocity as a function of FT and plot it
(b) if FT 500N, find VT, plot v(t), and calculate the time required to
accelerate to 60mph
(c) Calculate the instantaneous and average power corresponding
to 0,98 VT.

44

Scenario II: Non-constant FT, General


Acceleration
V(t)

FAD
FTR
Froll
Fgxt

tf

ti

cg

If an arbitrary velocity profile or acceleration profile is


known, then the tractive force can be determined:
dV

F = m dt
FT = m

dV
+ mg[sin + C0 sgn(V )] + sgn(V )[mgC1 + C D AF ]V 2
dt
2

Scenario II: continued


The instantaneous tractive power PT(t) is
PT (t ) = FT (t ) v (t )
= mV

dV

+ mg [sin + C 0 sgn( V )]V + sgn( V )[ mgC 1 + C D AF ]V 3


dt
2

The change in tractive energy during an interval

eT =

t2

t1

PT (t ) dt

The total energy consists of kinetic and potential energy; as well


as the energy needed to overcome the non-constructive forces
including the rolling resistance and the aerodynamic drag force.
These two are known as loss term.

45

Example 2
An electric vehicle has the following parameter values:
m=800kg, CD = 0.2, AF = 2.2m2, C0 = 0.008, C1 = 1.6*10-6
s2/m2, density of air = 1.18 kg/m3, and acceleration due
to gravity g = 9.81 m/s2
The vehicle is on level road. It accelerates from 0 to
65mph in 10 s such that its velocity profile is given by

(a) Calculate FTR(t) for 0 < t < 10 s


(b) Calculate PTR(t) for 0 < t < 10 s
(c) Calculate the energy loss due to non conservative forces Eloss.
(d) Calculate eTR.

v (t ) = 0 .29055 t 2

0 t 10 s

Powertrain Rating
The powertrain of an EV provides force to:
Accelerate from zero speed to a certain speed within
a required time limit
Overcome wind force
Overcome rolling resistance
Overcome aerodynamic force
Provide hill climbing force

46

Weight and Mass


Everyday we ask
Whats the weight?
How much do you weigh? I am 70kg, I am 154 lb

We really mean
Whats the mass?
Whats your mass My mass is 70kg or 154 lbm

Your real weight


I weigh 637N or 4959 lbm ft / second^2 on earth

Whats the easiest way to lose


weight?

47

Go to the moon !

Size of Drive Train


Motor size is determined by

6 .1 10 8 P 1
D l=

C
AB n
2

Where P is motor input power, in kW, P=Pmax / efficiency


A is airgap current density
B is airgap magnetic flux density
C is a constant, between 0.5 and 0.9
n is motor speed in rpm
D is inner diameter of stator or inner diameter of rotor
L is effective length of stator/rotor

48

Size of Motor
Note that the power required to cruise a vehicle on
highway at 60mph is only 6% of the power needed to
accelerate the vehicle from 0 to 60mph in 10
seconds.
Since most motors can be designed to overload for a
short time, a motor can be designed at much lower
ratings. Example:

30kW rated power (13.8kW dragging at 60mph, 1/3 rated)


2 times overload for 60 seconds (60 kW)
3 times overload for 30 seconds (90 kW)
4 times overload for 20 seconds (120 kW)
5 times overload for 10 seconds (150 kW)

Efficiency
Note also that a motor can have efficiency
(including controller) of over 90%, while an
engine only has efficiency less than 30%
An ICE does not have the overload capability as
that of a motor. Thats why the rated power of
ICE is usually much higher than required for
highway cruising

49

Motor Performance at Full Load


Constant torque below
base speed
80

weakening region
Only single gear or

Motor power, kW

base speed field

400
350

70

fixed gear is needed in

Power

60
50

300
250

Torque

40

200

30

150

20

100
Base
speed

10
0

motor transmission

1000

2000

3000
Motor rpm

Motor torque, N.m

Constant power above

50
4000

5000

Tractive Effort of Internal


Combustion Engine
5
Tractive effort on wheel, kN

In order to increase
tractive effort, a multi
gear transmission is
needed in ICE vehicles
Manual gear transmission
consists of clutch, gear
box, final drive, and drive
shaft
Highest gear (smallest
ratio): max vehicle speed
Lowest gear (maximum
ratio): maximum tractive
effort

1st gear

4
2nd gear

3rd gear
2

4th
gear

1
0

20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200


Vehicle speed, km/h

50

Tractive Effort of EV with Single


Gear
Tractive effort on wheel, kN

7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

50

100
Speed, km/h

150

200

Fuel Economy of ICE


ICE has optimum
operating point for
best fuel economy
Ways to increase
fuel economy
include:
Optimum vehicle
design
Improving engine
efficiency
Properly matching
transmission
Advanced hybrid
technology

51

Braking Performance
Energy wasted during braking in conventional
vehicles
Can be partially recovered in EV and HEV
ABS performance can be improved in HEV/EV
Traction control is easier to achieve in HEV/EV

Braking Example
Determine the energy expected when bringing a 3000lb
vehicle to a halt from a speed of 60mph in 10 seconds
Energy = * mass * V^2 = * 3000/2.2 * (26.8 m/s)^2
= 489709 joules = 0.136 kW h
Using average speed of 30mph, the vehicle will travel 44
ft/second or 440 ft in 10 seconds,
Assume an average drag force of 100 lbf, drag loss is
=100*4.455*440/3.28=59762 joules=0.0166 kW.h
Energy can be recovered is 0.136 - 0.0166 = 0.1194
Power (in 10 seconds) = 43kW

52

Propulsion System Design


The design requirements related to vehicle
power typically specified by a customer are:

the initial acceleration


rated velocity on a given slope
maximum % grade
maximum steady state velocity

The complete design is a complex issue


involving numerous variables, constraints,
considerations and judgment, which is beyond
the scope of this course.

HEV Design Steps


Power and energy requirement from the propulsion unit
is determined from a given set of vehicle cruising and
acceleration specifications
Component level design:
Electrical and Mechanical engineers design the electric motor for EV or the
combination of electric motor and internal combustion engine for HEVs.
Power electronics engineers design the power conversion unit which links the
energy source with the electric motor.
Controls engineer working in conjunction with the power electronics engineer
develops the propulsion control system.
Electrochemists and Chemical engineers design the energy source based on the
energy requirement and guidelines of the vehicle manufacturer.

Vehicle design is an iterative process; several designers


have to interact with each other to meet the design goals.

53

Solutions to Example 1
VT ( FTR ) =
K1 =

K1
= 53.2 1.45 10 3 FTR 0.0883
K2

FTR
gC0
m

K2 =

2m

C0 AF + gC1

VT = 42.45.4m/s, Vf = 60mph = 27 m / s, t f =

K1 K 2

tanh 1 (v f K 1 / K 2 )

v(t ) = 42.45 tanh(1.22 10 t )


2

PT (t ) = FT VT tanh( K 1 K 2 t )
PT =

FV
1
PT (t )dt = T T
tf
tf

1
K1 K 2

ln[cosh( K1 K 2 t )]

Solutions to Example 2
(a) From the force
balance equation, the
tractive force is:
(b) The instantaneous
power is

(c) The energy lost due


to non-conservative
forces
(d) The kinetic energy of
the vehicle is
Therefore, the change
in tractive energy is

FTR FAD Froll = m

dv
dt

dv
+ C D AF v 2 + mg (C0 + C1v 2 )
dt 2
= 464.88t + .02192t 4 + 62.78 N .

FTR (t ) = m

PTR (t ) = FTR (t ) v(t )


= 135.07t 3 + .00637t 6 + 18.24t 2W .
10

10

Eloss = v( FAD + Froll )dt = 0.29055t 2 (0.0219t 4 + 62.78)dt


= 15,180 J .

KE =

1
m v(10) 2 v (0) 2 = 337,677 J
2

eTR = 15,180 + 337,677


= 352,857 J .

54

Part III
HEV Modeling and Simulation

Start the Modeling Process (Using


Simulink or Simplorer)
The integration of dv/dt is speed
The integration of v is distance

55

To Get dv/dt
Use the vehicle dynamic
equations to derive dv/dt

Kmm

dV
= FTR Fr
dt

dV
= ( FTR Fr ) /( K m m )
dt

To Get Total Resistive Force Fr


Fr = Fg+Froll+Fa
While all forces are functions of speed

56

For Constant Tractive Force

Vehicle Dynamics Simulation Model


Inputs to the simulation model:
Roadway slope
Propulsion Force Ft
Road Load Force Fr

Outputs:
Vehicle velocity V
Distance traversed s

FTR
Grade

Vehicle
Kinetics
Model

V(t)

S(t)

57

The Speed Profile with constant


tractive force

Velocity (m/s)

33.80

20.00

0
0

100.00

189.00

Time (s)

With 1800Nm Tractive Force

Velocity (m/s)

84.50

50.00

0
0

100.00

189.00

Time (s)

58

Driving Cycles

Speed, km/h

100

Urban
driving

50

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

Speed, km/h

100

50

Highway
driving
0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

Driving time, sec.

Giving Speed Profile


Solve for forces needed for given velocity
profiles, such as UDDS and SAE driving cycles

59

Solutions to Example 1
POW1

GAIN

pCDAF

C11

GAIN

FTR

2DGraphSel1
52.00

FAD=0.5*p*CD*AF*V^2

SUM3
grade
CONST

SIGN1

MUL1

CONST

40.00

m_1

mg
SINE

GAIN

GAIN

FCT_SINE1

Fgxt=mg*sin(beta)
C1

Velocity

INTG1
SUM2
Shee...

GAIN
I

C0

MUL2

mg1

CONST

INTG2
Power

20.00

Energy

GAIN

Froll=mg*(Co+C1*V^2)
MUL3

SUM1

0
0

CONST

N0018

Speed

100.00

189.00

GAIN

GAIN1

FTR

Solutions to Example 2
Speed

Tractive
Force

Energy

60

Part IV
Energy Sources and Energy Storage

Contents
Comparison of energy sources
Onboard energy storage
Energy converters
Battery
Fuel cell
Ultra-capacitors
Flywheels
Hybridization of energy storage

61

Energy Source, Energy Converter,


and Energy Storage
Energy source refers to a source of energy, such as
gasoline, hydrogen, natural gas, coal, etc. (some times
called energy carrier)
Renewable energy source refers to solar, wind, and
geothermal, etc.
Energy converter refers to converting energy from one
form of energy source to another form, such as electric
generator, gasoline/diesel engine, fuel cell, wind turbine,
solar panel, etc.
Energy storage refers to intermediate devices for
temporary energy storing, such as battery, water tower,
ultra-capacitor, and flywheel.

Comparison of Energy
Sources/storage
Energy
source/storage
Gasoline
Natural gas
Methanol
Hydrogen
Coal (bituminous)
Lead-acid battery
Sodium-sulfur battery
Flywheel (steel)

Nominal Energy Density


(Wh/kg)
12,300
9,350
6,200
28,000
8,200
35
150-300
12-30

62

Why Battery
Batteries
Popular choice of energy source for EV/HEVs
Desirable characteristics of batteries are:

High-peak power
High specific energy at pulse power
High charge acceptance
Long calendar and cycle life

Extensive research on batteries


There is no current battery that can deliver an acceptable
combination of power, energy and life cycle for high-volume
production vehicles

Battery Basics
e-

Constructed of unit cells


containing chemical energy that
can be converted to electrical
energy

Discharge

Charge

+
P

Cells can be grouped together


and are called a battery module
Battery modules can be grouped
together in a parallel or serial
combination to yield desired
voltage/current output and are
referred to as a battery pack.

Ion
migration

electrolyte

63

Battery Cell Components


Positive Electrode
oxide or sulfide or some other compound that is capable of being
reduced during cell discharge

Negative Electrode
a metal or an alloy that is capable of being oxidized during cell
discharge
Generates Electrons in the external circuit during discharge

Electrolyte
medium that permits ionic conduction between positive and
negative electrodes of a cell
must have high and selective conductivity for the ions that take
part in electrode reactions
must be a non-conductor for electrons in order to avoid selfdischarge of batteries.

Battery Cell Components


Separator
Is an layer of electrically insulating material, which
physically separates electrodes of opposite polarity
Separators must be permeable to the ions of the
electrolyte and may also have the function of storing
or immobilizing the electrolyte

64

Battery Types
Primary Battery
Cannot be recharged. Designed for a single discharge

Secondary Battery
Batteries that can be recharged by flowing current in the
direction opposite of discharge
Lead-acid (Pb-acid)
Nickel-cadmium (NiCd)
Nickel-metal-hydride (NiMH)
Lithium-ion (Li-ion)
Lithium-polymer (Li-poly)
Sodium-sulfur
Zinc-air (Zn-Air)

Secondary batteries are primary topic for HEV/EVs

Batteries: In Depth
Battery

Lead-acid
Nickel-cadmium
Nickel-zinc
Nickel-iron
Zinc-chlorine
Silver-zinc
Lithium metal sulphide
Sodium-sulfur
Aluminum-air

Energy Density
Energy Density
(Wh/kg) Theoretical
(Wh/kg)
Practical
108

500
770

50
20-30
90
60
90
100
170
150-300
300

65

Battery Parameters
Battery Capacity
The amount of free charge generated by the active material at
the negative electrode and consumed by the positive electrode
Capacity is measured in Ah (1Ah=3,600 C or Coulomb, where 1
C is the charge transferred in 1 sec by 1A current in the MKS
unit of charge).
Theoretical capacity of a battery
QT = xnF
x = number of moles of limiting reactant associated with complete
discharge of battery
n = number of electrons produced by the negative electrode
discharge reaction
L is the number of molecules or atoms in a mole (known as
Avogadro constant) and e0 is the electron charge, F is the Faraday
constant and F=Le0

Battery Parameters
Discharge Rate
is the current at which a battery is discharged. The
rate is expressed as Q/h rate, where Q is rated
battery capacity and h is discharge time in hours

State Of Charge
is the present capacity of the battery. It is the amount
of capacity that remains after discharge from a top-ofcharge condition

SoCT (t ) = QT i ( )d
to

66

Battery Parameters
State of Discharge
A measure of the charge that has been drawn
from a battery

SoD T ( t ) = q =

tO

i ( ) d

Depth of Discharge
the percentage of battery capacity (rated capacity)
to which a battery is discharged
DoD (t ) =

QT SoCT (t )
100%
QT

Technical Characteristics
Battery can be represented with
Internal voltage Ev
Series Resistance Ri
Ri
+
Ev

RL

_
Vt

EV

I=constant
SoD(to)=0
SoD(td)=QT

VFC
Vcut

QT

SoD

QP

SoD

67

Technical Characteristics
Practical Capacity
Practical capacity QP of battery is always much lower
compared to the theoretical capacity QT due to
practical limitations. The practical capacity of a
battery is given as
t cut

QP = i (t )dt
tO

Capacity Redefined
The practical capacity of a battery is defined in the
industry by a convenient and approximate approach
of Ah instead of Coulomb under constant discharge
current characteristics

Technical Characteristics

Practical Capacity

Capacity depends on magnitude of discharge


current
Vt
I2
I1
tcut,1

tcut,2

Discharge
Time (h)

Battery Energy
The energy of a battery is measured in terms of the
capacity and the discharge voltage

68

Battery Energy
Battery Energy
To calculate the energy, the capacity of the battery
must be expressed in coulombs
In general, the theoretical stored energy is
ET=VbatQT

The practical available energy is


V

A1

Ep =

t cut

tO

vi dt

Extended
plateau
Vt=mt+b MPV = Mid-point
A2
voltage

MP
VVcu
t

tcut

tcut

time

Battery Power
Specific Energy
SE =

Discharge Energy
E
=
Total Battery Mass M B

The theoretical specific energy of a battery is


SET = 9.65 10 7

nVbat m R
MM MB

Battery Power
The instantaneous battery terminal power is
p(t ) = Vt i

69

Battery Power
Battery Power
The maximum power is
Power

Pmax =

2
v

E
4 Ri

Pmax

Specific Power

ipmax

Current

The specific power of a


battery is
SP = P

MB

(units: W/kg)

A Comparison of Batteries
System

Specific Peak
energy power
(Wh/kg) (W/kg)

Energy
efficiency Cycle
life
(%)

Selfdischarge
(% per 48h)

Cost
(US$/kWh)

Acidic aqueous solution


Lead/acid

35-50

150-400

>80

500-1000

0.6

120-150

50-60
50-60
55-75
70-95

80-150
80-150
170-260
200-300

75
75
65
70

800
1500-2000
300
750-1200+

1
3
1.6
6

250-350
200-400
100-300
200-350

200-300
80-120
100-220

160
90
30-80

<50
60
60

?
500+
600+

?
?
?

?
50
90-120

70-85
20-30

90-110
110

65-70 500-2000
75-85 -

?
-

200-250
400-450

150-240
90-120

230
130-160

80
80

800+
1200+

0*
0*

250-450
230-345

100-130

150-250

80

1000+

110

80-130

200-300

>95

1000+

0.7

200

Alkaline aqueous solution


Nickel/cadmium
Nickel/iron
Nickel/zinc
Nickel/Metal
Hydride
Aluminum/air
Iron/air
Zinc/air
Flow
Zinc/bromine
Vanadium redox
Molten salt
Sodium/sulfur
Sodium/Nickel
chloride
Lithium/iron
Sulfide (FeS)
Organic/Lithium
Lithium-ion

* No self-discharge, nut some energy loss by cooling

70

Battery Model
Can be represented by a
capacitor in series with an
internal resistor
Battery model in Simplorer:
a capacitor is series with an
internal resistor

Fuel Cells
Generates electricity through electrochemical
reaction that combines hydrogen with ambient
air
Function is similar to a battery, but consumes
hydrogen and air instead of producing electricity
from stored chemical energy
Difference from battery: Fuel Cell produces
electricity as long as fuel is supplied, while
battery requires frequent recharging

71

Fuel Cells
Being used in space application, but has
characteristics desirable to EV applications
Tremendous interest in vehicle and stationary
applications
Research focus:
Higher power cells
Develop FC that can internally reform hydrocarbons

Fuel Cells

Fuel: hydrogen and oxygen


Concept: Opposite of electrolysis
A catalyst speeds the reactions
An electrolyte allows the hydrogen to move to
cathode
Flow of electrons from anode to cathode in the
external circuit produces electricity
Oxygen or air is passed over cathode

72

Fuel Cell Reaction


ee-

Hydrogen

ee-

Oxygen
(air)

Electrolyte

H+
H+
Unreacted
Hydrogen

Water

- Anode:

H 2 2 H + + 2e

- Cathode:

1
2e + 2 H + + (O2 ) H 2O
2

- Cell:

1
H 2 + O2 H 2O
2

Fuel Cell Demo


http://www.plugpower.com/technology/works.cfm
?vid=535864&liak=68721538
http://www.plugpower.com/technology/works.cfm

73

Fuel Cell Applications


Vehicle Applications: Require low temperature
operation
Stationary Applications: Rapid operation and
cogeneration is desired
Research: new materials for electrodes and
electrolytes

Fuel Cell Characteristics


Fuel cell theoretically operates isothermally
=> all free energy in a chemical reaction should
convert to electrical energy

H fuel does not burn, bypassing thermal to


mechanical conversion

=> direct electrochemical converter

Isothermal operation: Not subject to limitations of


Car, not subject to cycle efficiency imposed on
heat engines.

74

Fuel Cell Characteristics


Voltage/Current Output of a hydrogen/oxygen
fuel cell.
1.0
Cell potential, V

Theoretical
Practical

0.5
1
Current density, A/cm2

1V is the theoretical Prediction, but not


achievable in a practical cell

Fuel Cell Characteristics


Working voltage falls with increasing current
Several cells are stacked in series to get desired
voltage
Major advantage: Lower sensitivity to scaling
(system efficiency similar from kW to MW range).

75

Fuel Cell Types


Six Major Fuel Cell Types:
Alkaline Fuel Cell (AFC)
Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM)
Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC)
Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC)
Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC)
Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC, ITSOFC)

Fuel Cell Comparison


Fuel Cell
Variety

Fuel

Electrolyte

Operating
Temperature

Efficiency

Applications

Phosphoric
Acid

H2, reformate
(LNG,
methanol)

Phosporic acid

~2000C

40-50%

Stationary
(>250kW)

Alkaline

H2

~800C

40-50%

Mobile

Proton
Exchange
Membrane

H2, reformate
(LNG,
methanol)

Potassium
hydroxide
solution
Polymer ion
exchange film

~800C

40-50%

EV/HEV,
Industrial up to
~80kW

Direct
Methanol

Methanol,
ethanol

Solid polymer

90-1000C

~30%

EV/HEVs, small
portable devices
(1W-70kW)

Molten
Carbonate

H2, CO (coal
gas, LNG,
methanol)

Carbonate

600-7000C

50-60%

Stationary
(>250kW)

Solid Oxide

H2, CO (coal
gas, LNG,
methanol)

Yttriastabilized
zirconia

~10000C

50-65%

Stationary

76

Hydrogen Storage
Hydrogen is not very dense at atmospheric
pressure
Can be stored as compressed or liquefied gas
Lot of energy required to compress the gas
Generation of liquid hydrogen requires further
compression

Fuel Cell Controller


Fuel cell characteristics as a function of flow rate
Stack
potential, V

Stack
power, kW
Power for
Base Flow
Power for
.25 Base
.75 Base
.5 Base
.75 Base
Base Flow
Current, A

77

Ultra-Capacitors
Electrochemical energy storage systems
Devices that store energy as an electrostatic
charge
Higher specific energy and power versions of
electrolytic capacitors
Stores energy in polarized liquid layer at the
interface between ionically conducting
electrolyte and electrode

Ultra-Capacitors
More suitable for HEVs
Can provide power assist during acceleration
and hill climbing, and for recovery of
regenerative energy
Can provide load leveling power to chemical
batteries
Current aim is to develop ultra capacitors with
capabilities of 4000 W/kg and 15Whr/kg.

78

How an Ultra-Capacitor Works


Charger
Polarizing
electrodes

Collector
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

- Electrolyte
+
-

Collector

Separator

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

Electric double layers

Energy =

1
CV 2
2

Equivalent Circuit
Three major components:
Capacitance
Series resistance
Dielectric leakage
resistance
V t = V C Ri
dV C
= iC = i L + i
dt
V
iL = C
RL
C

79

Typical Discharging of Ultra-capacitor


2600F capacitance
2.5V cell voltage

Useful Energy and SOC


1
2
Useful Energy : Eu = C (VCR
VCb2 )
2
SOC =

0.5CVCb2 VCb2
= 2
2
0.5CVCR
VCR

Efficiency, when
neglecting iL
Charging:

C =

I CVC VC
=
I tV t
Vt

d =

I tV t
V
= t
I C VC VC

Discharging

80

Technical Specifications

Flywheels
Electromechanical energy storage device
Stores kinetic energy in a rapidly spinning
wheel-like rotor or disk
Has potential to store energies comparable to
batteries
All IC Engine vehicles use flywheels to deliver
smooth power from power pulses of the engine
Modern flywheels use high-strength composite
rotor that rotates in vacuum

81

Flywheels
A motor/generator connected to rotor shaft spins
the rotor up to speed for charging and to
convert kinetic energy to electrical energy during
discharging
Drawbacks are: very complex, heavy and large
for personal vehicles
There are safety concerns for a device that spins
mass at high speeds

Basic Structure

Energy =

1
J 2
2

82

High Speed Flywheel Example


z

High Speed Flywheel,


36,000 RPM
High strength hub material,
4340 steel

1.25 kW-hr of

Energy Storage

13.3 Wh/kg of energy to


weight ratio
105 kW-hr/m of energy to
volume ratio
Bi-directional Power
Electronics
High efficiency, 92%
includes electronics

Hybridization of Energy Storage


High power demand

Use multiple sources


of storage
Tackle high demand
and rapid charging
capability
One typical example
is to combine battery
and ultracap in
parallel

High specific
Energy storage

Power
converter

Load

Power
converter

Load

Power
converter

Load

High specific
power storage
(a)
Low power demand
High specific
energy storage

High specific
power storage
Negative power

(b)

High specific
Energy storage

Primary power flow


High specific
power storage

Secondary power flow


(c)
Fig. 10.18

83

Two Topologies of Hybridization

Ultracapacitor

......

Batteries

Direct parallel connection


Or through two quadrant chopper for better
power management

Other Energy Storage Systems

Compressed air energy storage


Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage
Pumped-Hydroelectric Energy Storage
Hydraulic energy storage

84

Energy Storage Efficiency

Part V
Power Electronics

85

RX400 Hybrid Power Electronic Unit

The Principle of Power Electronics

Switching period/Freq
Duty ratio vs. Switch on
Average vs. instantaneous
Transient vs. Steady state
Vo=DVd

86

Switch-Mode Converters
DC-DC

Step down (Buck)


Step up (boost)
Buck-boost
Two quadrant choppers
Full bridge converters

DC-AC
Single phase, three phase, PWM-sine, trapezoidal

AC-DC
Rectifier: single phase, three phase, controlled, uncontrolled

AC-AC

Explaining the Two-Quadrant DC-DC


fs=50kHz, L1=5mH, R=0.5.

87

Charging
Determine the duty ratio when charging the
battery with average 10A (Io=10A). Which switch
and diode are in operation? What kind converter
is it? (6 points)
Vo=VB+IR=10+10*0.5=15V
D=Vo/Vd=0.75
T1 and D2 are in operation

Waveform
V o i, 2 0 V

V L, I L

88

Discharging
Determine the duty ratio when discharging the
battery with average 1A. Which switch and
diode are in operation? What kind of converter
is it? Draw the voltage and current waveforms of
the inductor
Its operated as a backwards boost converter, T2 and
D1 are in operation.
Vo=VB-IR=10-1*0.5=9.5V
D2=1-Vo/Vd=0.525

Waveform
V L, I L

1 0 .5 V
T2 on

0 .5 2 5 T s

T 2 o ff, 0 .4 7 5 T s

-9 .5 V

89

Issues
High voltage safety issues
Battery 200V or above
Motor 600V
Power ranging from 10kW to 120kW

Energy storage
Nickel metal hydride battery
Lithium ion battery
Ultra capacitor
Flywheel

issues
Non-uniform battery/bus voltage
Difficulties for dealer/customer

Voltage regulation
Voltage conversion
EMC due to power electronics switching and
transmission
Increased use of microcontrollers
Increased of sensors
Reliability
etc

90

Emerging Issues

Power losses and efficiency


Reliability
Novel thermal management technology
Cost reduction with better power bus regulation
EMC concerns
Emerging and new semiconductor devices

Power loss and conversion efficiency


Power loss of semiconductor devices, especially
switching power circuits, is a serious issue in the
conversion efficiency, and thermal management is key
design issue for many automotive electronics
applications
New circuit topologies, such as cascade circuits,
multilevel converters, soft switching, can significantly
reduce the loss
Selecting the right switching devices is a complex tradeoff
Peak vs. normal power operation dilemma: load leveling
may help the design

91

Losses ideal case

Switching
and
conduction
loss

Numerical Calculation of Losses

92

Non-ideal switching
Creates switching loss
Creates EMC issue
Blanking time needed

Reliability
A key element toward making electric propulsion more
practical is the development of cost-effective, high
efficiency, integrated power electronics modules.
The reliability of these modules will be of paramount
importance for the success of various EV/HEV concepts
due to the critical safety concerns for
drivers/passengers, stringent quality assurance
requirements of vehicles and the extreme harsh under
hood automotive environments.
In addition, automotive electric drive train, due to their
wide dynamic range of operation and diverse usage
profiles, will likely impose a more stringent reliability
requirement on the electronics than any other industrial
electronics applications.

93

Failure Mechanism
Elevated junction temperature (125C normal
operation, 150C absolute max)
Thermal mechanical stress and fatigue; wire
bond lift off, solder joints crack, Si chip cracks,
etc.
Vibration
Contamination
Defects

Research in Power Module Reliability


Improving understanding on module reliability
requirements
Developing realistic reliability testing standards
and life time projection models
Enhancing system diagnostics, prognostics
capability with early warning fault detection, best
if embedded within power module
Drive cycle
and usage
analysis

Module
power loss
analysis

Module
thermal
analysis

Module
stress
analysis

94

Typical cycle and power loss profile

Novel thermal management


Dissipate heat from electronics is the most limiting factor
for reliability (failure), cost, and compactness of the
system
The disparity between the peak load and average load
operation of automotive power electronics severely
lowers the hardware utilization and sets a limit on cost
reduction and reliability enhancement
Peak power load is typically several times higher than
average load power, but only lasts for a short period of
time ranging from a few tens f milliseconds to a few
seconds ut must be handled quickly

95

Phase changing material


Transitions between solid,
liquid, and gas phases
typically involves large
amount of energy
compared to specific heat.
For example, one gram of
water absorbs 4 joules of
heat to increase its
temperature by 1 degree C,
but amazingly, one gram of
water absorbs 2260 joules
of energy when vaporized
even without any change in
temperature
Phase change material cab
vbe used as a passive heat
moderator in power
electronics packages to
level the peak load

EMC Concerns
EMC compliance is a major challenge for automotive
power electronics systems
Large common mode inverter currents due to coupling
paths to grounds through the motor and housing
Large dV/dt and di/dt while minimizing switching losses
generated broadband radiated and conducted emissions
RF characteristics of power electronics semiconductors
devices, especially bipolar types, are neither fully
investigated nor considered in the EMC issues
Conducted immunity concerns, load dump, negative
transients, etc.

96

Emerging Devices

SiC
JFET
MOS-thristors
Integrated Circuits
New Materials

Silicon Carbide (SiC)


Silicon carbide (SiC) is a ceramic compound of silicon
and carbon.
Wide band semiconductors material (SiC 3-3.3eV vs
1.12 eV Si)
High electric Breakdown field (SiC 1.5-4e6V/cm vs Si 28e5 V/cm)
An electronvolt (symbol eV, or, rarely and incorrectly, ev) is the amount of kinetic
energy gained by a single unbound electron when it passes through an
electrostatic potential difference of one volt, in vacuum. The one-word spelling is
the modern recommendation although the use of the earlier electron volt still
exists.
One electronvolt is a very small amount of energy:
1 eV = 1.602 176 53 (14)1019 J. (Source: CODATA 2002 recommended
values)
It is a unit of energy, accepted (but not encouraged) for use with SI.

97

Property of SiC
High temperature operation
High switching frequency
Available devices include

Diodes
Power mosfets
Thyristors
BJT
IGBTs
CMOST devices

Challenges of SiC
Material: 75-100mm bulk and epi wafers with
low defect density at a reasonable price
Oxide interface quality and reliability
Ion implantation processes: high temperature
implantation and annealing
Sheet resistance and contact resistance for ptype SiC doping
Companion Packing technology

98

Power JFET Geometry


N-channel JFET

gate

source

D
N

+
l gs

Recessed gate
JFET
cross-section.

P
w

lc

channel

l gd

S
P-channel JFET

drain

Gate-source geometry highly interdigitated as in MOSFETs.


G

Width w = ms to a few tens of ms ; lc < w ; lgs minimized.


lgd set by block ing voltage considerations.

Field-Controlled Thyristor (FCT)


Vertical Cross-section

Circuit symbol

anode

cathode
gate
P

+
P

gate
N-

cathode

Injecting contact unique feature of FCT

anode

Sometimes termed a bipolar static induction thyristor (BSIThy).

99

P-MCT (P-type MOS-controlled Thyristor


Unit cell vertical cross-section
SiO2

conductor

Complete MCT composed of


tens of thousands of identical
cells connected in parallel.

G
N+

N+

+
P

P
ON-FET
channel

ON-FET
channel
N

P-designation refers to doping


of the lightly-doped P- layer
which contains the depletion
layer of the blocking junction.

OFF-FET
channels

Note that ON and OFF FETs


are positioned at the anode end
of the device.

PN

P-MCT Equivalent Circuit & Circuit Symbol


P-MCT equivalent circuit

P-MCT circuit symbol

anode

anode
A
+

gat e
OFF-FET

ON-FET

gate

AK
-

cathode
cathode

P-MCT used with anode grounded.


Gate-anode voltage is input drive voltage.
Use P-MCT in circuits with negative voltages.

100

N-MCT (N-type MOS-controlled Thyristor


Vertical cross-section of N-MCT unit cell
SiO2

N-MCT composed of
thousands of cells
connected electrically in
parallel.

conductor

G
P+

P+
N-

ON-FET
channel

N-

N-designation refers to the


N- layer which contains the
depletion layer of the
blocking junction.

ON-FET
channel
P

OFF-FET
channels
NP+

Note that the ON and OFF


FETs are positioned at
the cathode end of the
device.

Gate-controlled Turn-on of MCTs


Turn on MCT by turning on the ON-FET
Positive gate-cathode voltage for N-MCT
Negative gate-anode voltage for P-MCT
These polarities of gate voltage automatically keep the OFF-FET in cutoff.
ON-FET delivers base current to the low-gain BJT in the thyristor equivalent circuit
and activates that BJT.
PNP transistor in the N-MCT
NPN transistor in the P-MCT
Low-gain transistor activates the higher gain transistor and thyristor latches on.
Once higher gain transistor, which is in parallel with ON-FET is activated, current
is shunted from ON-FET to the BJT and the ON-FET carries very little current in
the MCT on-state.
Only 5-10% of the cells have an ON-FET.
Cells are close-packed. Within one excess carreier diffusion length of each other.
Adjacent cells without an ON-FET turned on via diffusion of excess carriers from
turned-on cell.

101

High Voltage (Power) Integrated Circuits


Th ree classes of pow er ICs
1. Sma rt po wer or sma rt/intelligen t s witche s
Vertical po wer devic es with on-chip sense and protective featu res and
possibly d rive and cont rol circuit s
2. H igh vol tage int egrated circui ts (HVICs)
Conven tiona l ICs using low vo ltag e dev ices for con trol and drive
circui ts and lateral h igh voltag e power devic es
3. D iscrete modu les
Mult iple chip s mount ed on a common subs trate . Separate ch ips for
drive, cont rol, and power switch and pos sibly o ther func tion s.
PIC rationa le
Lo wer costs
Increased function ality
Highe r reliabi lity
Less c ircuit/system complex ity

IGCT - Integrated Gate Commutated Thyristor


Turn-on
Q1
C1

Cn
Qn

10V - 5A

GCT Gate
Control
Q1

Qn
20V - 6 A

C1

Specially designed GTO with low


inductance gate drive circuit
Ratings
Blocking voltage - 4500V
Controllable on-state current - 4000A
Average fwd current - 1200A

Switching times - 10sec

Cn

C2

50,000 F

GCT Cathode

Turn-off

Approximate gate drive circuit

Ion 500 A 10sec

Ioff - full forward current 10 usec

Very low series inductance - 3 nH

102

Summary of Silicon Power Device Capabilities


V off

Thyristors

5 kV

GTOs, IGCTs, ETOs

4 kV

3 kV

IGBT
s

2 kV

MCT
s

Io
n
BJTs
1 kHz

1 kV

10 kHz

MOSFET
s

100 kHz
1 MHz
500 A

1000 A

1500 A

2000 A

3000 A

Frequency

New Semiconductor Materials for Power Devices


Silicon not optimum material for power devices
Gallium arsenide promising material
Higher electron mobilities (factor of about 5-6) - faster switching speeds
and lower on-state losses
Larger band-gap Eg - higher operating temperatures
Silicon carbide anothe r promising materials
Larger bandgap than silicon or GaAs
Mobilities comparable to Si
Significantly larger breakdown field strength
Larger thermal conductivity than Si or GaAs
Diamond potentially the best materials for power devices

Largest bandgap
Largest breakdown field strength
Largest thermal conductivity
Larger mobilities than silicon but less than GaAs

103

Properties of Important Semiconductor Materials


Property

Si

GaAs

3C-SiC

6H-SiC

Bandgap @ 300 K [ev ]

1.12

1.43

2.2

2.9

5.5

Relative dielectric
con stant

11.8

12.8

9.7

10

5.5

Saturated d rift
velocity [cm/s ec]

1x10 7

2x10 7

2.5x10 7

2.5x10 7

2.7x10 7

Ther mal conduc tivity


[Wa tts/cm-C]

1.5

0.5

5.0

5.0

20

Maximum ope rating


temperature [K]

300

460

873

1240

1100

Intrinsic carrier

10 10

10 7

Melting temperature [C]

1415

1238

Sublime
>1800

Sublime
>1800

Phas e
chang e

Electron mobility

1400

8500

1000

600

2200

2-3x10 5

4x10 5

2x10 6

2x10 6

1x10 7

den sity [cm -3] @ 25 C

Diamond

@ 300 K [cm 2 /V-sec ]


Breakdown electric
field [V/cm]

On-State Resistance Comparison with Different Materials

Specific drift region resistance of majority carrier device


4 q (BVBD)2
e mn (EBD)3

RonA -

Normalize to silicon - assume identical areas and breakdown


voltages
eSi mSi
Ron(x) A
Ron(Si) A = resistance ratio = ex mx

E
3
BD,Si
E

BD,x

Numerical comparison
Material
Si

Resistance Ratio
1

SiC

6.4x10-2
9.6x10-3

Diamond

3.7x10-5

GaAs

104

Recent Advances/Benchmarks
Gallium arsenide
600V GaAs Schottky diodes announced by Motorola. 250V available from IXYS
3 GaAs wafers available
Silicon carbide
3 wafers available from Cree Research - expensive
600V -6A Schottky diodes available commercially - Infineon Technologies AG (Siemens spinoff)
Controlled switches also demonstrated
1800V - 3A BJT with beta of 20
3100V - 12A GTO
Diamond
Polycrystalline diamond films of several micron thickness grown over large (square
centimeters) areas
Simple device structures demonstrated in diamond films.
PN junctions
Schottky diodes

Projections
GaAs
Devices such as Schottky diodes which are preesently at or near
commercial introduction will become available and used.
GaAs devices offer only incremental improvements in performance over
Si devices compared to SiC or diamond.
Broad introduction of several types of GaAs-based power devices
unlikely.
SiC
Rapid advances in SiC device technology
Spurred by the great potential improvement in SiC devices compared to
Si devices.
Commercially available SiC power devices within 5-10 years.
Diamond
Research concentrated in improving materials technology.
Growth of single crystal material
Ancilliary materials issues - ohmic contacts, dopants, etc.
No commercially available diamond-based power devices in the
forseeable future (next 10-20 years).

105

Questions

Part VI
Look at Some of the Current HEVs

106