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Time-domain analysis:

Zero-input Response

(Lathi 2.1-2.2)

Peter Cheung

Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering

Imperial College London

URL: www.ee.imperial.ac.uk/pcheung/teaching/ee2_signals

E-mail: p.cheung@imperial.ac.uk

y0(t), which is the solution of the system equation when input x(t) = 0.

⇒

⇒

⇒

L2.2 p152

General Solution to the zero-input response equation(1)

……… (3.1)

by letting , where c and λ are constants

X Then:

L2.2 p153

X We get:

……… (3.1)

………. (3.2)

X Therefore λ has N solutions: λ1, λ2, …. , λN, assuming that all λi are

distinct.

L2.2 p152

General Solution to the zero-input response equation(3)

X It can be shown that the general solution is the sum of all these terms:

constraints (i.e. initial or boundary or auxiliary conditions).

L2.2 p154

X Q(λ) = 0 is the characteristic equation of the system

X The roots to the characteristic equation Q(λ) = 0, i.e. λ1, λ2, …. , λN, are

extremely important.

X They are called by different names:

• Characteristic values

• Eigenvalues

• Natural frequencies

X The exponentials are the characteristic modes

(also known as natural modes) of the system

L2.2 p154

Example 1 (1)

response, for a LTI system described by

the following differential equation:

( D 2 + 3D + 2) y (t ) = Dx(t )

when the initial conditions are

y0 (0) = 0, y 0 (0) = −5.

X The zero-input response is

L2.2 p155

Example 1 (2)

X To find the two unknowns c1 and c2, we use the initial conditions

y0 (0) = 0, y 0 (0) = −5.

L2.2 p156

Repeated Characteristic Roots

X The discussions so far assume that all characteristic roots are distinct. If

there are repeated roots, the form of the solution is modified.

X The solution of the equation:

is given by:

are:

L2.2 p154

Example 2

Find y0(t), the zero-input component of the response for a LTI system

described by the following differential equation: ( D + 6 D + 9) = (3D + 5) x(t )

2

X The zero-input response is

X Now, determine the constants using the initial conditions gives c1 = 3 and

c2 = 2.

X Therefore:

L2.2 p156

Complex Characteristic Roots

X For real (i.e. physically realizable) systems, all complex roots must occur

in conjugate pairs. In other words, the coefficients of the characteristic

polynomial Q(λ) are real.

X In other words, if α + jβ is a root, then there must exists the root α - jβ.

X The zero-input response corresponding to this pair of conjugate roots is:

X For a real system, the response y0(t) must also be real. This is possible

only if c1 and c2 are conjugates too.

X Let

X This gives

L2.2 p155

Example 3 (1)

Find y0(t), the zero-input component of the response for a LTI system

described by the following differential equation: ( D 2 + 4 D + 40) = ( D + 2) x(t )

…. (12.1)

L2.2 p157

Example 3 (1)

X To find the constants c and θ, we use the initial conditions y0 (0) = 2, y 0 (0) = 16.78.

X Differentiating equation (12.1) gives:

X Hence

L2.2 p157

the zero-input response?

X Differential operation is not invertible because information is lost.

X To get y(t) from dy/dt, one extra piece of information such as y(0) is

needed.

X Similarly, if we need to determine y(t) from d2y/dt2, we need 2 pieces of

information.

X In general, to determine y(t) uniquely from its Nth derivative, we need N

additional constraints.

X These constraints are called auxiliary conditions.

X When these conditions are given at t = 0, they are initial conditions.

L2.2 p162

The meaning of 0- and 0+

X There are subtle differences between time t = 0 exactly, time just before

t=0, i.e. t = 0- and time just AFTER t=0, i.e. t = 0+.

X At t = 0- the total response y(t) consists SOLELY of the zero-input

component y0(t).

X However, applying an input x(t) at t=0, while not affecting y0(t), in general

WILL affect y(t) (because input is now no longer zero).

t=0

- t=0

+

time

t=0

PYKC 9-Mar-08 E2.5 Signals & Linear Systems Lecture 3 Slide 15

X Now disturb it momentarily, then remove the disturbance (now it is zero-

input), the system will not come back to rest instantaneously.

X In generally, it will go back to rest over a period of time, and only through

some special type of motion that is characteristic of the system.

X Such response must be sustained without any external source (because

the disturbance has been removed).

X In fact the system uses a linear combination of the characteristic modes

to come back to the rest position while satisfying some boundary (or

initial) conditions.

L2.2-1 p163

An example

can be sustained by the system with no external input.

X Consider this RL circuit:

X The loop equation is:

X It has a single characteristic root λ = -2,

and the characteristic mode is

X Therefore, the loop current equation is

X Now, let us compute the input x(t) required to sustain this loop current:

by the RL circuit on its own

without any external input.

system’s characteristic mode is

sustained by the system on

its own.

X In other words, the system

offers NO obstacle to such

signals.

X It is like asking an alcoholic to

be a whisky taster.

X Driving a system with an input

of the form of the characteristic

mode will cause resonance

behaviour.

X Demonstration:

Relating this lecture to other courses

However, the 2nd year Control course will approach the subject from a

different point of view.

X You should also have come across some of these concepts last year in

Circuit Analysis course, but not from a “black box” system point of view.

X Ideas in this lecture is essential for deep understanding of the next two

lectures on impulse response and on convolution, both you have touched

on in your first year in the Communications course.

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