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Palo Alto Networks

Panorama Administrators Guide


Version 7.0

Contact Information
Corporate Headquarters:

Palo Alto Networks


4401 Great America Parkway
Santa Clara, CA 95054
www.paloaltonetworks.com/company/contact-us

About this Guide


This guide describes how to set up and use Panorama for centralized management; it is intended for administrators who
want the basic framework to quickly set up the Panorama virtual appliance or the M-Series appliance for centralized
administration of Palo Alto Networks firewalls.
If you have an M-Series appliance, this guide takes over after you finish rack mounting your M-Series appliance.
For more information, refer to the following sources:

For instructions on configuring the features on the firewall, go to the PAN-OS Administrators Guide. The Palo Alto
Networks Administrator's Guide will also help you with Panorama configuration items that are similar to the firewall
and are not covered in this guide.

For access to the complete technical documentation set, go to https://paloaltonetworks.com/documentation.

For access to the knowledge base, discussion forums, and videos, refer to https://live.paloaltonetworks.com.

For contacting support, for information on the support programs, or to manage your account or devices, refer to
https://support.paloaltonetworks.com.

For the latest release notes, go to the software downloads page at


https://support.paloaltonetworks.com/Updates/SoftwareUpdates.

To provide feedback on the documentation, please write to us at: documentation@paloaltonetworks.com.

Palo Alto Networks, Inc.


www.paloaltonetworks.com
20132015 Palo Alto Networks, Inc. Palo Alto Networks is a registered trademark of Palo Alto Networks. A list of our trademarks can be
found at http://www.paloaltonetworks.com/company/trademarks.html. All other marks mentioned herein may be trademarks of their
respective companies.
Revision Date: August 7, 2015

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Table of Contents
Panorama Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
About Panorama. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Panorama Platforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Centralized Configuration and Deployment Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Context SwitchFirewall or Panorama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Templates and Template Stacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Device Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Centralized Logging and Reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Logging Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Managed Collectors and Collector Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Caveats for a Collector Group with Multiple Log Collectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Centralized Reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Panorama Commit Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Role-Based Access Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Administrative Roles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Authentication Profiles and Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Access Domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Administrative Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Panorama Recommended Deployments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Panorama for Centralized Management and Reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Panorama in a Distributed Log Collection Deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Plan Your Deployment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Deploy Panorama: Task Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

Set Up Panorama. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35


Set Up the Panorama Virtual Appliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Setup Prerequisites for the Panorama Virtual Appliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Install the Panorama Virtual Appliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Perform Initial Configuration of the Panorama Virtual Appliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Expand Log Storage Capacity on the Panorama Virtual Appliance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Complete the Panorama Virtual Appliance Setup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Set Up the M-Series Appliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Perform Initial Configuration of the M-Series Appliance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Switch from Panorama Mode to Log Collector Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Increase Storage on the M-Series Appliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Register Panorama and Install Licenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Register Panorama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Activate a Panorama Support License . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Activate/Retrieve a Device Management License on the Panorama Virtual Appliance . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Activate/Retrieve a Device Management License on the M-Series Appliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Install Content and Software Updates for Panorama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Panorama, Log Collector, and Firewall Version Compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

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Install Updates for Panorama with HA Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57


Install Updates for Panorama with Internet Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Install Updates for Panorama without Internet Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Migrate from a Panorama Virtual Appliance to an M-Series Appliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Prerequisites for Migrating to an M-Series Appliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Plan to Migrate to an M-Series Appliance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Migrate to an M-Series Appliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resume Firewall Management after Migrating to an M-Series Appliance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Access and Navigate Panorama Management Interfaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Log in to the Panorama Web Interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Navigate the Panorama Web Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Log in to the Panorama CLI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Set Up Administrative Access to Panorama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Configure an Administrator with Kerberos SSO, External, or Local Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configure an Administrator with Certificate-Based Authentication for the Web Interface. . . . . . . . .
Configure an Administrator with SSH Key-Based Authentication for the CLI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configure RADIUS Vendor-Specific Attributes for Administrator Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Manage Firewalls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Add a Firewall as a Managed Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Manage Device Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Add a Device Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Create a Device Group Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Create Objects for Use in Shared or Device Group Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Revert to Inherited Object Values. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manage Unused Shared Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manage Precedence of Inherited Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Move or Clone a Policy Rule or Object to a Different Device Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Select a URL Filtering Vendor on Panorama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Push a Policy Rule to a Subset of Firewalls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manage the Rule Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Manage Templates and Template Stacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Template Capabilities and Exceptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Add a Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configure a Template Stack. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process by Which a Firewall Receives a Virtual System from a Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Override a Template Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Disable/Remove Template Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Transition a Firewall to Panorama Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98


Plan the Transition to Panorama Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Migrate a Firewall to Panorama Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Use Case: Configure Firewalls Using Panorama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Device Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Set Up Your Centralized Configuration and Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Manage Log Collection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113


Configure a Managed Collector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Manage Collector Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Configure a Collector Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Move a Log Collector to a Different Collector Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Remove a Firewall from a Collector Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Configure Log Forwarding to Panorama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Verify Log Forwarding to Panorama. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Modify Log Forwarding and Buffering Defaults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Configure Log Forwarding from Panorama to External Destinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Log Collection Deployments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Plan a Log Collection Deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Deploy Panorama with Dedicated Log Collectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Deploy Panorama with Default Log Collectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Deploy Panorama Virtual Appliances with Local Log Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149

Manage Licenses and Updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .153


Manage Licenses on Firewalls Using Panorama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Deploy Updates to Devices Using Panorama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
Supported Updates by Device Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
Schedule a Content Update to Devices Using Panorama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Install a Software Update on Firewall HA Pairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Deploy an Update to Devices when Panorama Has an Internet Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Deploy an Update to Devices when Panorama Has No Internet Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160

Monitor Network Activity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .163


Use Panorama for Visibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Monitor the Network with the ACC and AppScope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Analyze Log Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
Generate, Schedule, and Email Reports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Use Case: Monitor Applications Using Panorama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
Use Case: Respond to an Incident Using Panorama. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
Incident Notification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
Review the Widgets in the ACC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Review Threat Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Review WildFire Logs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Review Data Filtering Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
Update Security Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179

Panorama High Availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181


Panorama HA Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
Priority and Failover on Panorama in HA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Failover Triggers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
HA Heartbeat Polling and Hello Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
HA Path Monitoring. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185

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Logging Considerations in Panorama HA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187


Logging Failover on a Panorama Virtual Appliance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
Logging Failover on an M-Series Appliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
Synchronization Between Panorama HA Peers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
Manage a Panorama HA Pair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Set Up HA on Panorama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Test Panorama HA Failover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Switch Priority after Panorama Failover to Resume NFS Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Restore the Primary Panorama to the Active State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

190
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192
192
193

Administer Panorama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195


Manage Configuration Backups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Schedule Export of Configuration Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manage Panorama and Firewall Configuration Backups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configure the Number of Configuration Backups Panorama Stores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Load a Configuration Backup on a Managed Firewall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

196
197
198
199
199

Compare Changes in Panorama Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200


Validate a Panorama Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Restrict Access to Configuration Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Types of Locks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Locations for Taking a Lock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Take a Lock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
View Lock Holders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Enable Automatic Acquisition of the Commit Lock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Remove a Lock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

202
202
202
203
203
203
204

Add Custom Logos to Panorama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205


View Panorama Task Completion History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
Manage Storage Quotas and Expiration Periods for Logs and Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Log and Report Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Log and Report Expiration Periods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configure Storage Quotas and Expiration Periods for Logs and Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

207
207
207
208

Monitor Panorama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210


Panorama System and Configuration Logs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
Monitor Panorama and Log Collector Statistics Using SNMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
Reboot or Shut Down Panorama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
Configure Panorama Password Profiles and Complexity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215

Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Troubleshoot Panorama System Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Generate Diagnostic Files for Panorama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Diagnose Panorama Suspended State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Monitor the File System Integrity Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manage Panorama Storage for Software and Content Updates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recover from Split Brain in Panorama HA Deployments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Troubleshoot Log Storage and Connection Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222


Verify Panorama Port Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
Resolve Zero Log Storage for a Collector Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Replace a Failed Disk on an M-Series Appliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Replace the Virtual Disk on a Panorama ESXi Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
Recover Logs after Failure/RMA of M-Series Appliance in Log Collector Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
Recover Logs after Failure/RMA of M-Series Appliance in Panorama Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
Recover Logs after Panorama Failure/RMA in Non-HA Deployments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
Regenerate Metadata for M-Series Appliance RAID Pairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
Replace an RMA Firewall. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
Partial Device State Generation for Firewalls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
Before Starting RMA Firewall Replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
Restore the Firewall Configuration after Replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
Diagnose Template or Device Group Commit Failures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
View Task Success or Failure Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241

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Palo Alto Networks

Panorama Overview
Panorama provides centralized monitoring and management of multiple Palo Alto Networks next-generation
firewalls. It provides a single location from which you can oversee all applications, users, and content traversing
your network, and then use this knowledge to create application enablement policies that protect and control
the network. Using Panorama for centralized policy and device management increases operational efficiency in
managing and maintaining a distributed network of firewalls.

About Panorama

Panorama Platforms

Centralized Configuration and Deployment Management

Centralized Logging and Reporting

Panorama Commit Operations

Role-Based Access Control

Panorama Recommended Deployments

Plan Your Deployment

Deploy Panorama: Task Overview

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About Panorama

Panorama Overview

About Panorama
Panorama provides centralized management of Palo Alto Networks next-generation firewalls, as the following
figure illustrates:

Panorama allows you to effectively configure, manage, and monitor your Palo Alto Networks firewalls using
central oversight with local control, as required. The three focal areas in which Panorama adds value are:

Centralized configuration and deploymentTo simplify central management and rapid deployment of
the firewalls on your network, use Panorama to pre-stage the firewalls for deployment. You can then
assemble the firewalls into groups, and create templates to apply a base network and device configuration
and use device groups to administer globally shared and local policy rules. See Centralized Configuration and
Deployment Management.

Aggregated logging with central oversight for analysis and reportingCollect information on activity
across all the managed firewalls on the network and centrally analyze, investigate and report on the data. This
comprehensive view of network traffic, user activity, and the associated risks empowers you to respond to
potential threats using the rich set of policies to securely enable applications on your network. See
Centralized Logging and Reporting.

Distributed administrationAllows you to delegate or restrict access to global and local firewall
configurations and policies. See Role-Based Access Control for delegating appropriate levels of access for
distributed administration.

Panorama is available in two platforms: as a virtual appliance and as a dedicated hardware appliance. For more
information, see Panorama Platforms.

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Panorama Overview

Panorama Platforms

Panorama Platforms
Panorama is available in the following platforms, each of which supports firewall management licenses for
managing up to 25, 100, or 1,000 firewalls:

Panorama virtual applianceYou can install the Panorama virtual appliance on a VMware ESXi server
or in VMware vCloud Air. The virtual appliance allows for a simple installation and facilitates server
consolidation for sites that need a virtual management appliance. It also supports integration with a Network
File Share (NFS) system for increased storage and log retention beyond 2TB. The Panorama virtual
appliance works best in environments with up to 10 firewalls and logging rates of up to 10,000 logs per
second. You can forward firewall logs directly to the Panorama virtual appliance (see Deploy Panorama
Virtual Appliances with Local Log Collection) or use the Panorama virtual appliance to manage Dedicated
Log Collectors that are M-Series appliances (see Deploy Panorama with Dedicated Log Collectors).

M-Series applianceThe M-100 appliance and M-500 appliance are dedicated hardware platforms
intended for large-scale deployments. In environments with high logging rates and log retention
requirements, these appliances enables scaling of your log collection infrastructure. Both appliances use
RAID drives to store firewall logs and support RAID 1 mirroring to protect against disk failures. Both
appliances use an SSD to store the logs that Panorama and Log Collectors generate. Only the M-500
appliance has redundant, hot-swappable power supplies and front-to-back airflow. The M-500 appliance also
has faster processors and greater memory for better performance (for example, faster commit times). These
attributes make the M-500 appliance more suitable for datacenters than the M-100 appliance. The log storage
capacity and maximum log collection rate varies by appliance:

Appliance

SSD Storage Default RAID Storage Maximum RAID Storage Maximum Logging Rate

M-100 appliance 120GB

2 drives (1TB total)

8 drives (4TB total)

30,000 logs/second

M-500 appliance 240GB

8 drives (4TB total)

16 drives (8TB total)

60,000 logs/second

You can deploy the M-Series appliance in the following modes to separate the central management function
from the log collection function:

Panorama mode: The appliance performs both central management and log collection. This is the
default mode. For configuration details, see Deploy Panorama with Default Log Collectors.

Log Collector mode: The appliance functions as a Dedicated Log Collector. In this mode, the
appliance has no web interface for administrative access, only a command line interface (CLI).
However, you can manage the appliance using the web interface of the Panorama management server
(M-Series appliance in Panorama mode or a Panorama virtual appliance). CLI access to an M-Series
appliance in Log Collector mode is only necessary for initial setup and debugging. For configuration
details, see Deploy Panorama with Dedicated Log Collectors.
For more details and specifications, see the M-100 and M-500 Hardware Reference Guides.
The platform choice depends on your need for a virtual appliance, the number of Palo Alto Networks firewalls
you will manage, and your log collection requirements:

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Panorama Platforms

Panorama Overview

Considerations

Panorama Virtual M-Series Appliance in


Appliance
Panorama Mode

M-Series Appliance in Log


Collector Mode

Number of managed
firewalls

Up to 10 firewalls

Up to 1,000 firewalls

Up to 1,000 firewalls

Log collection rate

Up to 10,000
logs/second

Up to 30,000 logs/second:
M-100 appliance

Up to 30,000 logs/second: M-100


appliance

Up to 60,000 logs/second:
M-500 appliance

Up to 60,000 logs/second: M-500


appliance

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Panorama Overview

Centralized Configuration and Deployment Management

Centralized Configuration and Deployment Management


Panorama uses device groups and templates to group firewalls into logical sets that require similar configuration. You
use the device groups and templates to centrally manage all configuration elements, policies, and objects on the
managed firewalls. Panorama also enables you to centrally manage licenses, software (PAN-OS software,
SSL-VPN client software, GlobalProtect agent/app software), and content updates (Applications, Threats,
WildFire, and Antivirus).

Context SwitchFirewall or Panorama

Templates and Template Stacks

Device Groups

Context SwitchFirewall or Panorama


The Panorama web interface enables you to toggle between a Panorama-centric view and a firewall-centric view
by using the Context drop-down at the top-left of every tab. You can set the Context to Panorama to manage
firewalls centrally or switch context to the web interface of a specific firewall to configure it locally. The similarity
of the Panorama and firewall web interfaces enables you to seamlessly move between them to administer and
monitor firewalls.
The Context drop-down lists only the firewalls that are connected to Panorama. For a Device Group and
Template administrator, the drop-down lists only the connected firewalls that are within the Access Domains
assigned to that administrator. To search a long list, use the Filters within the drop-down.
For firewalls that have a high availability (HA) configuration, the icons have colored backgrounds to indicate
HA state (as follows). Knowing the HA state is useful when selecting a firewall context. For example, you
generally make firewall-specific configuration changes on the active firewall.

GreenActive.

YellowPassive or the firewall is initiating (the initiating state lasts for up to 60 seconds after boot up).

RedThe firewall is non-functional (error state), suspended (an administrator disabled the firewall), or
tentative (for a link or path monitoring event in an active/active HA configuration).

Templates and Template Stacks


You use templates to configure the settings that enable firewalls to operate on the network. Templates enable
you to define a common base configuration using the Network and Device tabs on Panorama. For example, you
can use templates to manage interface and zone configurations, server profiles for logging and syslog access,
and network profiles for controlling access to zones and IKE gateways. When defining a template, consider
assigning firewalls that are the same hardware model and require access to similar network resources, such as
gateways and syslog servers.
If your network has groups of firewalls with some group-specific settings and some settings that are common
across groups, you can simplify management by assigning the firewalls to a template stack for each group. A
template stack is a combination of templates: the assigned firewalls inherit the settings from every template in

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Centralized Configuration and Deployment Management

Panorama Overview

the stack. This enables you to avoid the redundancy of adding every setting to every template. The following
figure illustrates an example deployment in which you assign data center firewalls in the Asia-Pacific (APAC)
region to a stack that has one template with global settings, one template with APAC-specific settings, and one
template with data center-specific settings. To manage firewalls in an APAC branch office, you can then re-use
the global and APAC-specific templates by adding them to another stack that includes a template with
branch-specific settings. Templates in a stack have a configurable priority order that ensures Panorama pushes
only one value for any duplicate setting. Panorama evaluates the templates listed in a stack configuration from
top to bottom, with higher templates having priority. The following figure illustrates a data center stack in which
the data center template has a higher priority than the global template: Panorama pushes the idle timeout value
from the data center template and ignores the value from the global template.
Figure: Template Stacks

To accommodate firewalls that have unique settings, you can use templates (single or stacked) to push a limited
common base configuration to all firewalls, and in individual firewalls configure device-specific settings.
Alternatively, you can push a broader common base configuration and in the individual firewalls override certain
pushed settings with device-specific values. When you override a setting, the firewall saves that setting to its local
configuration; Panorama no longer manages the setting. To restore template values after overriding them, you
can use Panorama to force the template configuration onto a firewall. For example, after defining a common
NTP server in a template and overriding the NTP server configuration on a firewall to accommodate its local
time zone, you can later revert to the NTP server defined in the template.
You cannot use templates to set firewall modes: virtual private network (VPN) mode, multiple virtual systems
mode (multi-vsys mode), and operational mode (normal, Federal Information Processing Standards [FIPS], or
Common Criteria [CC]). For details, see Template Capabilities and Exceptions. However, you can assign
firewalls that have non-matching modes to the same template or stack. In such cases, Panorama pushes
mode-specific settings only to firewalls that support those modes. As an exception, you can configure Panorama
to push the settings of the default vsys in a template to firewalls that dont support virtual systems or have none
configured.

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Panorama Overview

Centralized Configuration and Deployment Management

For the relevant procedures, see Manage Templates and Template Stacks.

Device Groups
To use Panorama effectively, you have to group the firewalls in your network into logical units called device groups.
A device group enables grouping based on network segmentation, geographic location, organizational function,
or any other common aspect of firewalls that require similar policy configurations. Using device groups, you can
configure policy rules and the objects they reference. You can organize device group hierarchically, with shared
rules and objects at the top, and device group-specific rules and objects at subsequent levels. This enables you
to create a hierarchy of rules that enforce how firewalls handle traffic. For example, you can define a set of
shared rules as a corporate acceptable use policy. Then, to allow only regional offices to access peer-to-peer
traffic such as BitTorrent, you can define a device group rule that Panorama pushes only to the regional offices
(or define a shared security rule and target it to the regional offices). For the relevant procedures, see Manage
Device Groups. The following topics describe device group concepts and components in more detail:

Device Group Hierarchy

Device Group Policies

Device Group Objects

Device Group Hierarchy


You can Create a Device Group Hierarchy to nest device groups in a tree hierarchy of up to four levels, with
lower-level groups inheriting the settings (policy rules and objects) of higher-level groups. At the bottom level,
a device group can have parent, grandparent, and great-grandparent device groups (ancestors). At the top level, a
device group can have child, grandchild, and great-grandchild device groups (descendants). All device groups
inheriting settings from the Shared locationa container at the top of the hierarchy for configurations that are
common to all device groups.
Creating a device group hierarchy enables you to organize devices based on common policy requirements
without redundant configuration. For example, you could configure shared settings that are global to all
firewalls, configure device groups with function-specific settings at the first level, and configure device groups
with location-specific settings at lower levels. Without a hierarchy, you would have to configure both functionand location-specific settings for every device group in a single level under Shared.
Figure: Device Group Hierarchy

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Panorama Overview

For details on the order in which firewalls evaluate policy rules in a device group hierarchy, see Device Group
Policies. For details on overriding the values of objects that device groups inherit from ancestor device groups,
see Device Group Objects.

Device Group Policies


Device groups provide a way to implement a layered approach for managing policies across a network of
managed firewalls. A firewall evaluates policy rules by layer (shared, device group, and local) and by type
(pre-rules, post-rules, and default rules) in the following order from top to bottom. When the firewall receives
traffic, it performs the action defined in the first evaluated rule that matches the traffic and disregards all
subsequent rules. To change the evaluation order for rules within a particular layer, type, and rulebase (for
example, shared Security pre-rules), see Manage the Rule Hierarchy.
Evaluation Order

Rule Scope and Description

Shared pre-rules

These rules are visible on firewalls but you can


Panorama pushes shared pre-rules to all the
firewalls in all device groups. Panorama pushes only manage them in Panorama.
device group-specific pre-rules to all the
firewalls in a particular device group and its
descendant device groups.

Device group pre-rules

Administration Platform

If a firewall inherits rules from device groups


at multiple levels in the device group hierarchy,
it evaluates pre-rules in the order of highest to
lowest level. This means the firewall first
evaluates shared rules and last evaluates the
rules of device groups with no descendants.
You can use pre-rules to enforce the
acceptable use policy of an organization. For
example, a pre-rule might block access to
specific URL categories or allow Domain
Name System (DNS) traffic for all users.
Local firewall rules

Local rules are specific to a single firewall or


virtual system (vsys).

16 Panorama 7.0 Administrators Guide

A local firewall administrator, or a Panorama


administrator who switches to a local firewall
context, can edit local firewall rules.

Palo Alto Networks

Panorama Overview

Evaluation Order

Centralized Configuration and Deployment Management

Rule Scope and Description

Administration Platform

Device group post-rules Panorama pushes shared post-rules to all the These rules are visible on firewalls but you can
firewalls in all device groups. Panorama pushes only manage them in Panorama.
Shared post-rules
device group-specific post-rules to all the
firewalls in a particular device group and its
descendant device groups.
If a firewall inherits rules from device groups
at multiple levels in the device group hierarchy,
it evaluates post-rules in the order of lowest to
highest level. This means the firewall first
evaluates the rules of device groups with no
descendants and last evaluates shared rules.
Post-rules typically include rules to deny
access to traffic based on the App-ID,
User-ID, or service.
intrazone-default
interzone-default

The default rules apply only to the Security


rulebase, and are predefined on Panorama (at
the Shared level) and the firewall (in each vsys).
These rules specify how PAN-OS handles
traffic that doesnt match any other rule.

Default rules are initially read-only, either


because they are part of the predefined
configuration or because Panorama pushed
them to firewalls. However, you can override
the rule settings for tags, action, logging, and
security profiles. The device context
The intrazone-default rule allows all traffic
determines the level at which you can override
within a zone. The interzone-default rule
the rules:
denies all traffic between zones.
PanoramaAt the Shared or device group
If you override default rules, their order of
level, you can override default rules that are
precedence runs from the lowest context to
part of the predefined configuration.
the highest: overridden settings at the firewall
level take precedence over settings at the
FirewallYou can override default rules
device group level, which take precedence over
that are part of the predefined
settings at the Shared level.
configuration on the firewall or vsys, or that
Panorama pushed from the Shared location
or a device group.

Whether you view rules on a firewall or in Panorama, the web interface displays them in evaluation order. All
the shared, device group, and default rules that the firewall inherits from Panorama appear in green, while local
firewall rules appear in blue between the pre-rules and post-rules.

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Panorama Overview

Figure: Rule Hierarchy

Device Group Objects


Objects are configuration elements that policy rules reference, for example: IP addresses, URL categories,
security profiles, users, services, and applications. Rules of any type (pre-rules, post-rules, default rules, and rules
locally defined on a firewall) and any rulebase (Security, NAT, QoS, Policy Based Forwarding, Decryption,
Application Override, Captive Portal, and DoS Protection) can reference objects. You can reuse an object in any
number of rules that have the same scope as that object in the Device Group Hierarchy. For example, if you
add an object to the Shared location, all rules in the hierarchy can reference that shared object because all device
groups inherit objects from Shared. If you add an object to a particular device group, only the rules in that device
group and its descendant device groups can reference that device group object. If object values in a device group
must differ from those inherited from an ancestor device group, you can Override inherited object values. You
can also Revert to Inherited Object Values at any time. When you Create Objects for Use in Shared or Device
Group Policy once and use them many times, you reduce administrative overhead and ensure consistency across
firewall policies.
You can configure how Panorama handles objects system-wide:

Pushing unused objectsBy default, Panorama pushes all objects to firewalls regardless of whether any
shared or device group policy rules reference the objects. Optionally, you can configure Panorama to push
only referenced objects. For details, see Manage Unused Shared Objects.

Precedence of ancestor and descendant objectsBy default, when device groups at multiple levels in
the hierarchy have an object with the same name but different values (because of overrides, as an example),
policy rules in a descendant device group use the object values in that descendant instead of object values
inherited from ancestor device groups or Shared. Optionally, you can reverse this order of precedence to
push values from Shared or the highest ancestor containing the object to all descendant device groups. For
details, see Manage Precedence of Inherited Objects.

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Centralized Logging and Reporting

Centralized Logging and Reporting


Panorama aggregates data from all managed firewalls and provides visibility across all the traffic on the network.
It also provides an audit trail for all policy modifications and configuration changes made to the managed
firewalls. In addition to aggregating logs, Panorama can aggregate and forward Simple Network Management
Protocol (SNMP) traps, email notifications, and syslog messages to an external destination.
The Application Command Center (ACC) on Panorama provides a single pane for unified reporting across all
the firewalls. It enables you to centrally Monitor Network Activity, to analyze, investigate, and report on traffic
and security incidents. On Panorama, you can view logs and generate reports from logs forwarded to Panorama
or to the managed Log Collectors, if configured, or you can query the managed firewalls directly. For example,
you can generate reports about traffic, threat, and/or user activity in the managed network based on logs stored
on Panorama (and the managed collectors) or by accessing the logs stored locally on the managed firewalls.
If you choose not to Configure Log Forwarding to Panorama, you can schedule reports to run on each managed
firewall and forward the results to Panorama for a combined view of user activity and network traffic. Although
this view does not provide a granular drill-down on specific data and activities, it still provides a unified reporting
approach.

Logging Options

Managed Collectors and Collector Groups

Caveats for a Collector Group with Multiple Log Collectors

Centralized Reporting

Logging Options
Both the Panorama virtual appliance and M-Series appliance can collect logs that the managed firewalls forward.
You can then Configure Log Forwarding from Panorama to External Destinations (syslog server, email server,
or Simple Network Management Protocol [SNMP] trap server). The logging options vary on each Panorama
platform.
The PA-7050 firewall cant forward logs to Panorama, only to external services directly. However,
when you monitor logs or generate reports for a device group that includes a PA-7050 firewall,
Panorama queries the PA-7050 firewall in real-time to display its log data.

Panorama Platform

Logging Options

Virtual appliance

Offers three logging options:


Use the 10.89GB of internal storage space allocated for logging as soon as you install the
virtual appliance.
Add a virtual disk that can support up to 2TB of storage.
Mount a Network File System (NFS) datastore in which you can configure the storage
capacity that is allocated for logging.

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Panorama Overview

Panorama Platform

Logging Options

M-Series appliance

The default shipping configuration for the M-100 appliance includes two disks with a total
of 1TB storage capacity. For the M-500 appliance, the default configuration includes eight
disks for 4TB of storage. Both appliances use RAID 1 to protect against disk failures. You
can Increase Storage on the M-Series Appliance to 4TB on the M-100 appliance and 8TB
on the M-500 appliance. When an M-Series appliance is in Panorama mode, you can enable
the RAID disks to serve as the default Log Collector. If you have an M-Series appliance is
in Log Collector mode (Dedicated Log Collector), you use Panorama to assign firewalls to
the Dedicated Log Collectors. In a deployment with multiple Dedicated Log Collectors,
Panorama queries all managed Log Collectors to generate an aggregated view of traffic and
cohesive reports. For easy scaling, begin with a single Panorama and incrementally add
Dedicated Log Collectors as your needs expand.

Managed Collectors and Collector Groups


A Log Collector can be local to an M-Series appliance in Panorama mode (default Log Collector) or can be an
M-Series appliance in Log Collector mode (Dedicated Log Collector). Because you use Panorama to configure and
manage Log Collectors, they are also known as managed collectors. An M-Series appliance in Panorama mode or a
Panorama virtual appliance can manage Dedicated Log Collectors. To administer Dedicated Log Collectors
using the Panorama web interface, you must add them as managed collectors. Otherwise, administrative access
to a Dedicated Log Collector is only available through its CLI using the default administrative user (admin)
account. Dedicated Log Collectors do not support additional administrative user accounts.
A Collector Group is one or more managed collectors that operate as a single logical log collection unit. If the
group contains Dedicated Log Collectors, the logs are uniformly distributed across all the disks in each Log
Collector and across all members in the Collector Group. This distribution maximizes the use of the available
storage space. To manage a Log Collector, you must add it to a Collector Group. Each Panorama can manage
up to 64 Log Collectors in a Collector Group. If you assign more than one Log Collector to a Collector Group,
see Caveats for a Collector Group with Multiple Log Collectors.
The Collector Group configuration specifies which managed firewalls can send logs to the Log Collectors in the
group. After you configure the Log Collectors and enable the firewalls to forward logs, each firewall forwards
its logs to the assigned Log Collector.
Managed collectors and Collector Groups are integral to a distributed log collection deployment on Panorama.
A distributed log collection deployment allows for easy scalability and incremental addition of Dedicated Log
Collectors as your logging needs grow. The M-Series appliance in Panorama mode can log to its default
Collector Group and then be expanded to a distributed log collection deployment with one or more Collector
Groups that include Dedicated Log Collectors.
To configure Log Collectors and Collector Groups, see Manage Collector Groups.

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Panorama Overview

Centralized Logging and Reporting

Caveats for a Collector Group with Multiple Log Collectors


You can Configure a Collector Group with multiple Log Collectors (up to eight) to ensure log redundancy or
to accommodate logging rates that exceed the capacity of a single Log Collector (see Panorama Platforms). For
example, if a single managed firewall generates 16 TB of logs, the Collector Group that receives those logs will
require at least four Log Collectors that are M-100 appliances or two Log Collectors that are M-500 appliances.
A Collector Group with multiple Log Collectors uses the available storage space as one logical unit and
uniformly distributes the logs across all its Log Collectors. The log distribution is based on the disk capacity of
the Log Collectors (1TB to 8TB, depending on the number of disk pairs and the M-Series platform) and a hash
algorithm that dynamically decides which Log Collector owns the logs and writes to disk. Although Panorama
uses a preference list to prioritize the list of Log Collectors to which a managed firewall can forward logs,
Panorama does not necessarily write the logs to the first Log Collector specified in the preference list. For
example, consider the following preference list:
Managed Firewall

Log Forwarding Preference List Defined on a Collector Group

FW1

L1,L2,L3

FW2

L4,L5,L6

Using this list, FW1 will forward logs to L1, its primary Log Collector, but the hash algorithm could determine
that the logs will be written on L2. If L2 becomes inaccessible or has a chassis failure, FW1 will not know about
its failure because it is still able to connect to L1, its primary Log Collector.

In the case where a Collector Group has only one Log Collector and the Log Collector fails, the firewall stores
the logs to its HDD/SSD (the available storage space varies by hardware model), and resumes forwarding logs
to the Log Collector where it left off before the failure occurred as soon as connectivity is restored.
With multiple Log Collectors in a Collector Group, the firewall does not buffer logs to its local storage when
it can connect to its primary Log Collector. Therefore, FW1 will continue sending logs to L1. Because L2 is
unavailable, the primary Log Collector L1 buffers the logs to its HDD, which has 10GB of log space. If L2
remains unavailable and the logs pending for L2 exceed 10GB, L1 will overwrite the older log entries to continue
logging. In such an event, loss of logs is a risk.

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Panorama Overview

Palo Alto Networks recommends the following mitigations if using multiple Log Collectors in a Collector
Group:

Enable log redundancy when you Configure a Collector Group. This ensures that no logs are lost if any one
Log Collector in the Collector Group becomes unavailable. Each log will have two copies and each copy will
reside on a different Log Collector.
Because enabling redundancy creates more logs, this configuration requires more storage capacity.
When a Collector Group runs out of space, it deletes older logs.
Enabling redundancy doubles the log processing traffic in a Collector Group, which reduces its
maximum logging rate by half, as each Log Collector must distribute a copy of each log it receives.

Obtain an On-Site-Spare (OSS) to enable prompt replacement if a Log Collector failure occurs.

In addition to forwarding logs to Panorama, enable forwarding to an external service as backup storage. The
external service can be a syslog server, email server, or Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) trap
server.

Centralized Reporting
Panorama aggregates logs from all managed firewalls and enables reporting on the aggregated data for a global
view of application use, user activity, and traffic patterns across the entire network infrastructure. As soon as the
firewalls are added to Panorama, the ACC can display all traffic traversing your network. With logging enabled,
clicking into a log entry in the ACC provides direct access to granular details about the application.
For generating reports, Panorama uses two sources: the local Panorama database and the remote firewalls that
it manages. The Panorama database refers to the local storage on Panorama that is allocated for storing both
summarized logs and some detailed logs. If you have a distributed Log Collection deployment, the Panorama
database includes the local storage on Panorama and all the managed Log Collectors. Panorama summarizes the
informationtraffic, application, threat collected from all managed firewalls at 15-minute intervals. Using
the local Panorama database allows for faster response times, however, if you prefer to not forward logs to
Panorama, Panorama can directly access the remote firewall and run reports on data that is stored locally on the
managed firewalls.
Panorama offers more than 40 predefined reports that can be used as is, or they can be customized by
combining elements of other reports to generate custom reports and report groups that can be saved. Reports
can be generated on demand, on a recurring schedule, and can be scheduled for email delivery. These reports

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Centralized Logging and Reporting

provide information on the user and the context so that you correlate events and identify patterns, trends, and
potential areas of interest. With the integrated approach to logging and reporting, the ACC enables correlation
of entries from multiple logs relating to the same event.
For more information, see Monitor Network Activity.

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Panorama Commit Operations

Panorama Overview

Panorama Commit Operations


When editing the configuration on Panorama, you are changing the candidate configuration file. The candidate
configuration is a copy of the running configuration along with the modifications that you saved using the Save
option. The Panorama web interface displays all the configuration changes immediately. However, Panorama
does not implement the changes until you commit them. The commit process validates the changes in the
candidate configuration file and saves it as the running configuration on Panorama.
Commit Options

Description

Panorama

Commits the changes on the current candidate configuration to the running configuration
on Panorama. You must first commit your changes on Panorama, before committing any
configuration updates (templates or device groups) to the managed firewalls or Collector
Groups.

Template

Commits network and device configurations from a Panorama template or template stack
to the selected firewalls.

Device Group

Commits policies and objects configured from Panorama to the selected firewalls/virtual
systems.

Collector Group

Commits changes to the specified Collector Groups that Panorama manages.

When you perform a commit, Panorama pushes the entire configuration to the managed firewalls or Log
Collectors. When the commit completes, a result displays: Commit succeeded or Commit succeeded with
warnings.
Panorama cant perform a device group or template commit to firewalls while a local commit is in
progress on those firewalls. The local commit can be manual (you click Commit) or automatic.
PAN-OS performs an automatic commit when you downgrade content versions (for example, the
WildFire version), or refresh address objects, FQDNs, or dynamic block lists.

Some other commit choices are:

Preview ChangesThis

option is available when the Commit Type is Panorama. It enables you to compare
the candidate configuration with the running configuration in the same way as the Panorama > Config Audit
feature (see Compare Changes in Panorama Configurations). After clicking Preview Changes, select the
number of lines to include for context, and click OK.

Validate ChangesThis option is available when the Commit Type is Panorama, Template, or Device Group. It

enables you to Validate a Panorama Configuration before committing it.

Include Device and Network TemplatesThis option is available when committing a device group from
Panorama. It allows you to commit both device group and template or template stack changes to the selected
firewalls in a single commit operation. The check box is selected by default. If you prefer to commit these
changes as separate operations, clear this check box.

Force Template ValuesWhen

performing a template or device group commit, the Force Template Values


option overrides all local configuration and removes objects on the selected firewalls or virtual systems that
dont exist in the template or template stack, or are overridden in the local configuration. This is an override
that reverts all existing configuration on the managed firewall, and ensures that the firewall inherits only the
settings defined in the template or template stack.

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Panorama Commit Operations

Merge with Candidate ConfigWhen

enabled, this option allows you to merge and commit the Panorama
configuration changes with any pending configuration changes that were implemented locally on the target
firewall. If this option is not enabled, the candidate configuration on the firewall is not included in the
commit operation. As a best practice, leave this option disabled if you allow firewall administrators to modify
the configuration directly on a firewall and you dont want to include their changes when committing changes
from Panorama. Another best practice is to use the configuration audit capability on Panorama to review
any locally defined configuration changes prior to issuing a commit from Panorama (see Compare Changes
in Panorama Configurations).

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Panorama 7.0 Administrators Guide 25

Role-Based Access Control

Panorama Overview

Role-Based Access Control


Role-based access control (RBAC) enables you to define the privileges and responsibilities of administrative
users (administrators). Every administrator must have a user account that specifies a role. Administrative Roles
define access to specific configuration settings, logs, and reports within Panorama and firewall contexts. For
Device Group and Template administrators, you can map roles to Access Domains, which define access to
specific device groups, templates, and firewalls (through context switching). By combining each access domain
with a role, you can enforce the separation of information among the functional or regional areas of your
organization. For example, you can limit an administrator to monitoring activities for data center firewalls but
allow that administrator to set policies for test lab firewalls. By default, every Panorama appliance (virtual
appliance or M-Series appliance) has a predefined administrative account (admin) that provides full read-write
access (superuser access) to all functional areas and to all device groups, templates, and firewalls.
Instead of using the default account for all administrators, it is a best practice to create a separate
administrative account for each person who needs access to the administrative or reporting
functions on Panorama. This provides better protection against unauthorized configuration
changes and enables Panorama to log and identify the actions of each administrator.

For each administrator, you can define the minimum password complexity, a password profile, and an
authentication profile that determines how Panorama verifies user access credentials.

Administrative Roles

Authentication Profiles and Sequences

Access Domains

Administrative Authentication

Administrative Roles
You configure administrator accounts based on the security requirements of your organization, any existing
authentication services with which to integrate, and the required administrative roles. A role defines the type of
system access that is available to an administrator. You can define and restrict access as broadly or granularly as
required, depending on the security requirements of your organization. For example, you might decide that a
data center administrator can have access to all device and networking configurations, but a security
administrator can control only security policy definitions, while other key individuals can have limited CLI or
XML API access. The role types are:

Dynamic RolesThese are built-in roles that provide access to Panorama and managed devices. When
new features are added, Panorama automatically updates the definitions of dynamic roles; you never need to
manually update them. The following table lists the access privileges associated with dynamic roles.

Dynamic Role

Privileges

Superuser

Full read-write access to Panorama

Superuser (read-only)

Read-only access to Panorama

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Role-Based Access Control

Dynamic Role

Privileges

Panorama administrator

Full access to Panorama except for the following actions:


Create, modify, or delete Panorama or device administrators and roles.
Export, validate, revert, save, load, or import a configuration in the Device > Setup >
Operations page.
Configure Scheduled Config Export functionality in the Panorama tab.

Admin Role ProfilesTo provide more granular access control over the functional areas of the web
interface, CLI, and XML API, you can create custom roles. When new features are added to the product,
you must update the roles with corresponding access privileges: Panorama does not automatically add new
features to custom role definitions. You select one of the following profile types when you Configure an
Admin Role profile.

Admin Role Profile

Description

Panorama

For these roles, you can assign read-write access, read-only access, or no access to all the
Panorama features that are available to the superuser dynamic role except the management
of Panorama administrators and Panorama roles. For the latter two features, you can assign
read-only access or no access, but you cannot assign read-write access.
An example use of a Panorama role would be for security administrators who require access
to security policy definitions, logs, and reports on Panorama.

Device Group and Template

For these roles, you can assign read-write access, read-only access, or no access to specific
functional areas within device groups, templates, and firewall contexts. By combining these
roles with Access Domains, you can enforce the separation of information among the
functional or regional areas of your organization. Device Group and Template roles have
the following limitations:
No access to the CLI or XML API
No access to configuration or system logs
No access to VM information sources
In the Panorama tab, access is limited to:
Device deployment features (read-write, read-only, or no access)
The device groups specified in the administrator account (read-write, read-only, or
no access)
The templates and managed devices specified in the administrator account
(read-only or no access)
An example use of this role would be for administrators in your operations staff who require
access to the device and network configuration areas of the web interface for specific device
groups and/or templates.

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Role-Based Access Control

Panorama Overview

Authentication Profiles and Sequences


An authentication profile specifies the authentication service that validates the credentials of an administrator
during login and defines how Panorama accesses the service. If you create a local administrator account on
Panorama, you can authenticate the administrator to the local database, use an external service (RADIUS,
TACACS+, LDAP, or Kerberos server), or use Kerberos single sign-on (SSO). If you use an external service,
you must configure a server profile before you Configure an authentication profile. If you want to use an
external service for both account administration (instead of creating local accounts) and for authentication, you
must Configure RADIUS Vendor-Specific Attributes for Administrator Authentication.
Some environments have multiple databases for different users and user groups. To authenticate to multiple
authentication sources (for example, local database and LDAP), Configure an authentication sequence. An
authentication sequence is a ranked order of authentication profiles that an administrator is matched against
when logging in. Panorama checks against the local database first, and then checks each profile in sequence until
the administrator is successfully authenticated. The administrator is denied access to Panorama only if
authentication fails for all the profiles defined in the authentication sequence.

Access Domains
Access domains control administrative access to specific device groups (to manage policies and objects) and
templates (to manage network and device settings), and also control the ability to switch context to the web
interface of managed firewalls. Access domains apply only to administrators with Device Group and Template
roles. By combining access domains with Administrative Roles, you can enforce the separation of information
among the functional or regional areas of your organization.
You can manage access domains locally or by using RADIUS Vendor-Specific Attributes (VSAs). To use
RADIUS VSAs, your network requires an existing RADIUS server and you must configure a RADIUS server
profile to define how Panorama accesses the server. On the RADIUS server, you define a VSA attribute number
and value for each administrator. The value defined must match the access domain configured on Panorama.
When an administrator tries to log in to Panorama, Panorama queries the RADIUS server for the administrator
access domain and attribute number. Based on the response from the RADIUS server, the administrator is
authorized for access and is restricted to the firewalls, virtual systems, device groups, and templates that are
assigned to the access domain.
For the relevant procedures, see:

Configure Access Domains.

Configure RADIUS Vendor-Specific Attributes for Administrator Authentication.

Administrative Authentication
The following methods are available to authenticate Panorama administrators:

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Role-Based Access Control

Local administrator account with local authenticationBoth the administrator account credentials and
the authentication mechanisms are local to Panorama. To further secure the local administrator account,
create a password profile that defines a validity period for passwords and set Panorama-wide password
complexity settings. For details on how to configure this type of administrative access, see Configure an
Administrator with Kerberos SSO, External, or Local Authentication.

Local administrator account with certificate- or key-based authenticationWith this option, the
administrator accounts are local to Panorama, but authentication is based on Secure Shell (SSH) keys (for
CLI access) or client certificates/common access cards (for the web interface). For details on how to
configure this type of administrative access, see Configure an Administrator with Certificate-Based
Authentication for the Web Interface and Configure an Administrator with SSH Key-Based Authentication
for the CLI.

Local administrator account with external authenticationThe administrator accounts are managed
on Panorama, but existing external authentication services (LDAP, Kerberos, TACACS+, or RADIUS)
handle the authentication functions. If your network supports Kerberos single sign-on (SSO), you can
configure external authentication as an alternative in case SSO fails. For details on how to configure this type
of administrative access, see Configure an Administrator with Kerberos SSO, External, or Local
Authentication.

External administrator account and authenticationAn external RADIUS server handles account
administration and authentication. To use this option, you must define Vendor-Specific Attributes (VSAs)
on your RADIUS server that map to the administrator roles and access domains. For a high-level overview
of the process, see Configure RADIUS Vendor-Specific Attributes for Administrator Authentication. For
details on how to configure this type of administrative access, refer to Radius Vendor-Specific Attributes
(VSAs).

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Panorama Recommended Deployments

Panorama Overview

Panorama Recommended Deployments


A Panorama deployment comprises the Panorama management server (which has a browser-based interface),
optional Log Collectors, and the Palo Alto Networks firewalls that Panorama manages. The recommended
deployments are:

Panorama for Centralized Management and Reporting

Panorama in a Distributed Log Collection Deployment


For the procedures to configure the most typical log collection deployments, see Log Collection
Deployments.

Panorama for Centralized Management and Reporting


The following diagram illustrates how you can deploy the Panorama virtual appliance or M-Series appliance in
a redundant configuration for the following benefits:

Centralized managementCentralized policy and device management that allows for rapid deployment
and management of up to one thousand firewalls.

VisibilityCentralized logging and reporting to analyze and report on user-generated traffic and potential
threats.

Role-based access controlAppropriate levels of administrative control at the firewall level or global level
for administration and management.

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Panorama Recommended Deployments

Panorama in a Distributed Log Collection Deployment


You can deploy the hardware-based Panoramathe M-Series applianceeither as a Panorama management
server that performs management and log collection functions or as a Dedicated Log Collector that provides a
comprehensive log collection solution for the firewalls on your network. Using the M-Series appliance as a Log
Collector allows for a more robust environment where the log collection process is offloaded to a dedicated
appliance. Using a dedicated appliance in a distributed log collection (DLC) deployment provides redundancy,
improved scalability, and capacity for longer term log storage.
In a DLC deployment, the Panorama management server (Panorama virtual appliance or an M-Series appliance
in Panorama mode) manages the firewalls and the Log Collectors. Using Panorama, you configure the firewalls
to send logs to one or more Log Collectors. You can then use Panorama to query the Log Collectors and provide
an aggregated view of network traffic. In a DLC configuration, you can access the logs stored on the Log
Collectors from both the primary and secondary Panorama peers in a high availability (HA) pair.
In the following topology, the Panorama peers in an HA configuration manage the deployment and
configuration of firewalls. This solution provides the following benefits:

Allows for improved performance in the management functions on Panorama

Provides high-volume log storage on a dedicated hardware appliance

Provides horizontal scalability and redundancy with RAID 1 storage

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Panorama 7.0 Administrators Guide 31

Plan Your Deployment

Panorama Overview

Plan Your Deployment

Determine the management approach. Do you plan to use Panorama to centrally configure and manage
the policies, to centrally administer software, content and license updates, and/or centralize logging and
reporting across the managed devices in the network?
If you already deployed and configured the Palo Alto Networks firewalls on your network, determine
whether to transition the devices to centralized management. This process requires a migration of all
configuration and policies from your firewalls to Panorama. For details, see Transition a Firewall to
Panorama Management.

Verify that Panorama is on the same release version or a later version than the firewalls that it will manage.
For example, Panorama with version 6.0 cannot manage firewalls running PAN-OS 7.0. For versions
within the same feature release, although Panorama can manage firewalls running a later version of
PAN-OS, Palo Alto Networks recommends that Panorama run the same version or a later version. For
example, if Panorama runs 6.0.3, it is recommended that all managed firewalls run PAN-OS 6.0.3 or earlier
versions.

Plan to use the same URL filtering database (BrightCloud or PAN-DB) across all managed firewalls. If
some firewalls are using the BrightCloud database and others are using PAN-DB, Panorama can only
manage security rules for one or the other URL filtering database. URL filtering rules for the other
database must be managed locally on the firewalls that use that database.

Plan to use Panorama in a high availability configuration; set it up as an active/passive high availability pair.
See Panorama High Availability.

Estimate the log storage capacity your network needs to meet security and compliance requirements.
Consider such factors as the network topology, number of firewalls sending logs, type of log traffic (for
example, URL Filtering and Threat logs versus Traffic logs), the rate at which firewalls generate logs, and
the number of days for which you want to store logs on Panorama. For details, see Set Up the Panorama
Virtual Appliance.

For meaningful reports on network activity, plan a logging solution:

Do you need to forward logs to a syslog server, in addition to Panorama?

If you need a long-term storage solution, do you have a Security Information and Event Management
(SIEM) solution, such as Splunk or ArcSight, to which you need to forward logs?

Do you need redundancy in logging? With Panorama virtual appliances in HA, each peer can log to its
virtual disk. The managed devices can send logs to both peers in the HA pair. This option provides
redundancy in logging and is best suited to support up to 2TB of log storage capacity. If you use
Dedicated Log Collectors (M-Series appliances in Log Collector mode), you can enable redundancy to
ensure that no logs are lost if any one Log Collector in the Collector Group becomes unavailable. Each
log will have two copies and each copy will reside on a different Log Collector.

Will you log to a Network File System (NFS)? Only the Panorama virtual appliance supports NFS.
Consider using NFS if Panorama requires more than 2TB of log storage capacity and but doesnt
manage Dedicated Log Collectors. If using NFS, note that the managed devices can send logs only to
the primary peer in the HA pair, and only the active-primary Panorama is mounted to the NFS and can
write to it.

If your logging solution includes M-Series appliances, by default they use the management (MGT)
interface for configuration, log collection, and Collector Group communication. However, it is a best
practice to use the Eth1 or Eth2 interfaces for log collection and Collector Group communication to

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Plan Your Deployment

improve security, control traffic prioritization, performance, and scalability. Determine whether your
solution would benefit from using separate interfaces for these functions. For details, see Set Up the
M-Series Appliance.

Determine what access privileges, roles, and permissions administrators require to access to the managed
firewalls and Panorama. See Set Up Administrative Access to Panorama.

Plan the required Device Groups. Consider whether to group firewalls based on function, security policy,
geographic location, or network segmentation. An example of a function-based device group is one that
contains all the firewalls that a Research and Development team uses. Consider whether to create smaller
device groups based on commonality, larger device groups to scale more easily, or a Device Group
Hierarchy to simplify complex layers of administration.

Plan a layering strategy for administering policies. Consider how firewalls inherit and evaluate policy rules
within the Device Group Hierarchy, and how to best implement shared rules, device-group rules, and
firewall-specific rules to meet your network needs. For visibility and centralized policy management,
consider using Panorama for administering rules even if you need firewall-specific exceptions for shared or
device group rules. If necessary, you can Push a Policy Rule to a Subset of Firewalls within a device group.

Plan the organization of your firewalls based on how they inherit network configuration settings from
Templates and Template Stacks. For example, consider assigning firewalls to templates based on hardware
platforms, geographic proximity, and similar network needs for time zones, a DNS server, and interface
settings.

Palo Alto Networks

Panorama 7.0 Administrators Guide 33

Deploy Panorama: Task Overview

Panorama Overview

Deploy Panorama: Task Overview


The following task list summarizes the steps to get started with Panorama. For an example of how to use
Panorama for central management, see Use Case: Configure Firewalls Using Panorama.
Deploy Panorama: Task Overview

Step 1

(M-Series appliance only) Rack mount the appliance.

Step 2

Perform initial configuration to enable network access to Panorama. See Set Up the Panorama Virtual Appliance
or Set Up the M-Series Appliance.

Step 3

Register Panorama and Install Licenses.

Step 4

Install Content and Software Updates for Panorama.

Step 5

(Optional/recommended) Set up Panorama in a high availability configuration. See Panorama High Availability.

Step 6

Add a Firewall as a Managed Device.

Step 7

Add a Device Group or Create a Device Group Hierarchy, Add a Template, and (if applicable) Configure a
Template Stack.

Step 8

(Optional) Configure log forwarding to Panorama and/or to external services. See Manage Log Collection.

Step 9

Monitor Network Activity using the visibility and reporting tools on Panorama.

34 Panorama 7.0 Administrators Guide

Palo Alto Networks

Set Up Panorama
For centralized reporting and cohesive policy management across all the firewalls on your network, Panorama
can be deployed as a virtual appliance or as a hardware appliance (the M-Series appliance).
The following topics describe how to set up Panorama on your network:

Set Up the Panorama Virtual Appliance

Set Up the M-Series Appliance

Register Panorama and Install Licenses

Install Content and Software Updates for Panorama

Migrate from a Panorama Virtual Appliance to an M-Series Appliance

Access and Navigate Panorama Management Interfaces

Set Up Administrative Access to Panorama

Palo Alto Networks

Panorama 7.0 Administrators Guide 35

Set Up the Panorama Virtual Appliance

Set Up Panorama

Set Up the Panorama Virtual Appliance


The Panorama virtual appliance consolidates the Panorama management and logging functions into a single
virtual machine. To enable the use of an existing VMware virtual infrastructure to centrally administer and
monitor Palo Alto Networks firewalls, install Panorama on an ESXi server or in vCloud Air.

Setup Prerequisites for the Panorama Virtual Appliance

Install the Panorama Virtual Appliance

Perform Initial Configuration of the Panorama Virtual Appliance

Expand Log Storage Capacity on the Panorama Virtual Appliance

Complete the Panorama Virtual Appliance Setup


You cant use the Panorama virtual appliance as a Dedicated Log Collector. You must Set Up the
M-Series Appliance in Log Collector mode to have dedicated log collection capabilities. However,
you can use the Panorama virtual appliance to manage Dedicated Log Collectors.
These topics assume you are familiar with the VMware products required to create the virtual
appliance, and dont cover VMware concepts or terminology.

Setup Prerequisites for the Panorama Virtual Appliance


Complete the following tasks before setting up a Panorama virtual appliance:

Use your browser to access the Palo Alto Networks support site and Register Panorama You will need the
Panorama serial number that you received in the order fulfillment email. After registering Panorama, you
can access the Panorama software downloads page.

If you will install Panorama on a VMware ESXi server, verify that the server meets the following minimum
system requirements. These requirements apply to Panorama 5.1 and later releases.

Minimum System Requirements for Panorama on a VMware ESXi Server

64-bit kernel-based VMware ESXi versions 4.1 to 5.5


A client computer with one of the following: VMware vSphere Client or VMware Infrastructure Client that is
compatible with your ESXi server
Use the following guidelines for allocating CPU and memory:
Less than 10 managed firewalls: 4 cores and 4GB
Between 10 and 50 managed firewalls: 8 cores and 8GB
More than 50 managed firewalls: 8 cores and 16 GB
40GB disk space
Panorama uses 10.89GB of this space for log storage. Increasing space on the virtual disk doesnt increase the
available log storage capacity on Panorama. To Expand Log Storage Capacity on the Panorama Virtual Appliance,
you must add another virtual disk or set up access to a Network File Share (NFS) datastore.

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Palo Alto Networks

Set Up Panorama

Set Up the Panorama Virtual Appliance

Install the Panorama Virtual Appliance

Install Panorama on an ESXi Server

Install Panorama in vCloud Air

Install Panorama on an ESXi Server


Use these instructions to install a new Panorama virtual appliance on a VMware ESXi server. If you are
upgrading your existing Panorama virtual appliance, skip to Install Content and Software Updates for
Panorama.
Install Panorama on an ESXi Server

Step 1

Download the Panorama base image


Open Virtual Appliance (OVA) file.

1.
2.

Palo Alto Networks

Use your browser to access the Palo Alto Networks software


downloads site.
In the Panorama Base Images section, Download column, click
the link for the desired release to download the OVA file.

Panorama 7.0 Administrators Guide 37

Set Up the Panorama Virtual Appliance

Set Up Panorama

Install Panorama on an ESXi Server (Continued)

Step 2

Install Panorama.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Launch the VMware vSphere Client and connect to the


VMware server.
Select File > Deploy OVF Template.
Browse to select the Panorama OVA file and click Next.
Confirm that the product name and description match the
downloaded version, and click Next.
Enter a descriptive name for the Panorama virtual appliance,
and click Next.
Select a Datastore Location on which to install the Panorama
image, and click Next.
Panorama uses 10.89GB of the virtual disk storage for logging.
Increasing space on the virtual disk doesnt increase the available
log storage capacity on Panorama. To Expand Log Storage
Capacity on the Panorama Virtual Appliance, you must add
another virtual disk or set up access to an NFS datastore.

Select Thick Provision Lazy Zeroed as the disk format, and


click Next.
8. Specify which networks in the inventory to use for the
Panorama virtual appliance.
9. Confirm the selected options and click Finish to start the
installation process.
10. When the installation completes, select the Panorama virtual
appliance, click Edit Settings, and define the following settings:
a. Verify that you have allocated the appropriate amount of
memory: at least 4GB.
7.

b. For the Guest Operating System select Linux and for the
Version select Other Linux (64-bit).
c. For the SCSI controller, select LSI Logic Parallel.
Step 3

Power on the Panorama virtual appliance. Click the Power On button.


When the Panorama virtual appliance boots, the installation process
is complete. You are then ready to Perform Initial Configuration of
the Panorama Virtual Appliance.

Install Panorama in vCloud Air


Use these instructions to install a new Panorama virtual appliance in VMware vCloud Air. If you are upgrading
a Panorama virtual appliance deployed in vCloud Air, skip to Install Content and Software Updates for
Panorama.

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Palo Alto Networks

Set Up Panorama

Set Up the Panorama Virtual Appliance

Install Panorama in vCloud Air

Step 1

Download the Panorama base image


Open Virtual Appliance (OVA) file.

1.
2.

Go to the Palo Alto Networks software downloads site.


In the Panorama Base Images section, Download column, click
the link for the desired release to download the OVA file.

Step 2

Import the Panorama image to the


vCloud Air catalog.

For details on these steps, refer to the OVF Tool Users Guide.
1. Install the OVF Tool on your client system.
2. Access the client system CLI.
3. Use the OVF Tool to convert the OVA file to an OVF package:
ovftool <OVA file pathname> <OVF file pathname>

4.

Use the OVF Tool to import the OVF package:


ovftool <source_locator> <target_locator>

The <source_locator> is the path to the OVF package. The


<target_locator> is the path to a vCloud Director locator.
Step 3

Install Panorama.

1.
2.

Access the vCloud Air web console and select your Virtual
Private Cloud OnDemand region.
Create a Panorama virtual machine. For the steps, refer to Add
a Virtual Machine from a Template in the vCloud Air
Documentation Center. Configure the CPU, Memory and
Storage as follows:
Set the CPU and Memory according to how many firewalls
Panorama will manage:
Less than 10 firewalls4 CPUs and 4GB memory
10 to 50 firewalls8 CPUs and 8GB memory
More than 50 firewalls8 CPUs and 16 GB memory
Set the Storage to 40GB. For better logging and reporting
performance, select the SSD-Accelerated option.
Panorama uses 10.89GB of the storage space for logging.
Increasing space on this virtual disk doesnt increase the
available log storage capacity on Panorama. If you need more
storage, Add a Virtual Disk to Panorama in vCloud Air.

Step 4

Create vCloud Air NAT rules on the


Refer to Add a NAT Rule in the vCloud Air Documentation Center
gateway to allow inbound and outbound for the detailed instructions:
traffic for the Panorama virtual appliance. 1. Add a NAT rule that allows Panorama to receive traffic from
the firewalls and allows administrators to access Panorama.
2. Add a NAT rule that allows Panorama to retrieve updates from
the Palo Alto Networks update server and to access the
firewalls.

Step 5

Create a vCloud Air firewall rule to allow Refer to Add a Firewall Rule in the vCloud Air Documentation
inbound traffic on the Panorama virtual Center for the detailed instructions.
appliance.
Outbound traffic is allowed by default.

Palo Alto Networks

Panorama 7.0 Administrators Guide 39

Set Up the Panorama Virtual Appliance

Set Up Panorama

Install Panorama in vCloud Air

Step 6

Power on the Panorama virtual appliance In the vCloud Air web console, select the Virtual Machines tab,
if it isnt already on.
select the Panorama virtual machine, and click Power On.
You are now ready to Perform Initial Configuration of the
Panorama Virtual Appliance.

Perform Initial Configuration of the Panorama Virtual Appliance


Depending on your platform, use the VMware vSphere Client or vCloud Air web console to set up network
access to the Panorama virtual appliance. For unified reporting, consider using Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)
or Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) as the uniform time zone across Panorama and all the managed devices.
.

Perform Initial Configuration of the Panorama Virtual Appliance

Step 1

Step 2

Gather the required information from


your network administrator.

Access the console of the Panorama


virtual appliance.

IP address for the management (MGT) interface

Netmask

Default gateway

DNS server IP address

1.

Access the console.


On an ESXi server:
a. Launch the VMware vSphere Client.
b. Select the Console tab for the Panorama virtual appliance
and press enter to access the login screen.
On vCloud Air:
a. Access the vCloud Air web console and select your Virtual
Private Cloud OnDemand region.
b. Select the Virtual Machines tab, right-click the Panorama
virtual machine, and select Open In Console.

2.
3.

40 Panorama 7.0 Administrators Guide

Enter your username and password to log (default is admin for


both).
Enter configure to switch to Configuration mode.

Palo Alto Networks

Set Up Panorama

Set Up the Panorama Virtual Appliance

Perform Initial Configuration of the Panorama Virtual Appliance (Continued)

Step 3

Configure the network access settings for 1.


the MGT interface.
Panorama uses the MGT interface for
management traffic, high availability
synchronization, log collection, and
communication within Collector Groups.

Enter the following command, where <Panorama-IP> is the IP


address you want to assign to the Panorama management
interface, <netmask> is the subnet mask, <gateway-IP> is the
IP address of the network gateway, and <DNS-IP> is the IP
address of the DNS server:

set deviceconfig system ip-address <Panorama-IP>


netmask <netmask> default-gateway <gateway-IP>
dns-setting servers primary <DNS-IP>
2. Enter commit to commit your changes.

3.
4.

Enter exit to exit Configuration mode.


Use the ping utility to verify network access to external services
required for firewall management, such as the default gateway,
DNS server, and the Palo Alto Networks Update Server, as
shown in the following example:

admin@Panorama-Corp> ping host updates.paloaltonetworks.com


PING updates.paloaltonetworks.com (67.192.236.252) 56(84)
bytes of data.
64 bytes from 67.192.236.252: icmp_seq=1 ttl=243 time=40.5 ms
64 bytes from 67.192.236.252: icmp_seq=1 ttl=243 time=53.6 ms
64 bytes from 67.192.236.252: icmp_seq=1 ttl=243 time=79.5 ms

After verifying connectivity, press Ctrl+C to stop the


pings.
Step 4

Configure the general settings.

1.

2.
3.

4.

5.

6.
7.

Palo Alto Networks

Using a secure connection (HTTPS) from a web browser, log


in to the Panorama web interface using the IP address and
password you assigned to the management interface
(https://<IP address>).
Select Panorama > Setup > Management and edit the General
Settings.
Enter a Hostname for the server and enter the network
Domain name. The domain name is just a label; Panorama
doesnt use it to join the domain.
Align the clock on Panorama and the managed firewalls to use
the same Time Zone, for example GMT or UTC.
Timestamps are recorded when Panorama receives the logs and
the managed firewalls generate the logs. Aligning the time
zones on Panorama and the firewalls ensures that the
timestamps are synchronized and the process of querying logs
and generating reports on Panorama is harmonious.
Enter the Latitude and Longitude to enable accurate
placement of the Panorama management server on the world
map.
Enter the Serial Number you received in the order fulfillment
email.
Click OK to save your changes.

Panorama 7.0 Administrators Guide 41

Set Up the Panorama Virtual Appliance

Set Up Panorama

Perform Initial Configuration of the Panorama Virtual Appliance (Continued)

Step 5

Change the default administrator


password.
To ensure that the management
interface remains secure, Set the
password requirements.

Step 6

(Optional) Modify the management


interface settings.

1.
2.

3.
1.
2.

3.
Step 7

Save your configuration changes.

Click the admin link on the left side of the web interface footer.
Enter the Old Password and the New Password in the
appropriate fields and record the new password in a safe
location.
Click OK.
Select Panorama > Setup > Management and edit the
Management Interface Settings.
Select which management services to allow on the interface (for
example, Secure Shell (SSH) access)
As a best practice, dont select Telnet or HTTP. These
services use plaintext and are less secure than the other
services.
Click OK.

Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama, and click
Commit again.
If necessary, you can Expand Log Storage Capacity on the Panorama
Virtual Appliance. Otherwise, you are ready to Complete the
Panorama Virtual Appliance Setup.

Expand Log Storage Capacity on the Panorama Virtual Appliance


By default, the Panorama virtual appliance has a single disk partition for all data, and 10.89GB of this space is
allocated for log storage. If you need another 40GB to 2TB of disk space, you can add another virtual disk to
Panorama installed on a VMware ESXi server or in VMware vCloud Air. If you need more than 2TB, you can
mount Panorama to an NFS datastore but only on the ESXi server.
If you need more log storage than the Panorama virtual appliance supports, you can forward
firewall logs to Dedicated Log Collectors (see Configure a Collector Group) or Configure Log
Forwarding from Panorama to External Destinations.

Add a Virtual Disk to Panorama on an ESXi Server

Add a Virtual Disk to Panorama in vCloud Air

Mount the Panorama ESXi Server to an NFS Datastore

Add a Virtual Disk to Panorama on an ESXi Server


By default, the Panorama virtual appliance on an ESXi server uses 10.89GB of its virtual disk storage for
logging. To enable more log storage, add another virtual disk that can support 40GB to 2TB of storage capacity.

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Palo Alto Networks

Set Up Panorama

Set Up the Panorama Virtual Appliance

The Panorama virtual appliance on an ESXi server can use only one virtual disk for logging.
When configured to use the virtual disk you add here, the virtual appliance stops using the default
10.89GB internal storage on the original disk for logging. Therefore, if the virtual appliance loses
connectivity to the new virtual disk, logs could be lost during the failure interval.
To allow for redundancy, use the virtual disk in a RAID configuration. RAID10 provides the best
write performance for applications with high logging characteristics.
If necessary, you can Replace the Virtual Disk on a Panorama ESXi Server.

Add a Virtual Disk to Panorama on an ESXi Server

Step 1

Add the virtual disk.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Power off the Panorama virtual appliance.


Select the Panorama virtual appliance on the ESXi server.
Click Edit Settings.
Click Add to launch the Add Hardware wizard.
Select Hard Disk for the hardware type.
Select Create a new virtual disk.
Select SCSI as the virtual disk type.
Select the Thick provisioning disk format.
In the location field, select Store with the virtual machine
option. The datastore doesnt have to reside on the ESXi server.
10. Verify that the settings look correct and click Finish to exit the
wizard. The new disk appears in the list of devices for the
virtual appliance.
11. Power on the Panorama virtual appliance. The virtual disk
initializes for first-time use. The size of the virtual disk
determines how long the initialization takes. When the virtual
disk is initialized and ready, all existing logs on the internal
storage are moved over to the new virtual disk. All new entries
will now be written to the virtual disk.

Step 2

Verify the size of the virtual disk.

1.
2.

Select Panorama > Setup > Management.


In the Logging and Reporting Settings section, verify that the
Log Storage capacity accurately displays the new disk capacity.

Add a Virtual Disk to Panorama in vCloud Air


By default, the Panorama virtual appliance in vCloud Air uses 10.89GB of its virtual disk storage for logging.
To enable more log storage, add another virtual disk that can support up to 2TB of storage capacity.
The Panorama virtual appliance in vCloud Air can use only one virtual disk for logging. When
configured to use the virtual disk you add here, the virtual appliance stops using the default
10.89GB internal storage on the original disk for logging. Therefore, if the virtual appliance loses
connectivity to the new virtual disk, logs could be lost during the failure interval.

Add a Virtual Disk to Panorama in vCloud Air

Step 1

Add the virtual disk.

Palo Alto Networks

Refer to Add a Disk to a Virtual Machine in the vCloud Air


Documentation Center.

Panorama 7.0 Administrators Guide 43

Set Up the Panorama Virtual Appliance

Set Up Panorama

Add a Virtual Disk to Panorama in vCloud Air

Step 2

Verify the size of the virtual disk.

1.
2.

Select Panorama > Setup > Management.


In the Logging and Reporting Settings section, verify that the
Log Storage capacity accurately displays the new disk capacity.

Mount the Panorama ESXi Server to an NFS Datastore


When the Panorama virtual appliance runs on an ESXi server, mounting to a Network File Share (NFS)
datastore provides the ability to write logs to a centralized location and offers the flexibility to expand the log
storage capacity beyond 2TB. Before setting up an NFS datastore in a Panorama high availability configuration,
see Logging Considerations in Panorama HA.
Mount the Panorama ESXi Server to an NFS Datastore

Step 1

Set up access to the datastore.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.

7.

8.
9.
Step 2

Reboot the Panorama virtual appliance.


Until you reboot, the Panorama virtual
appliance writes logs to the local storage
disk.

44 Panorama 7.0 Administrators Guide

Select Panorama > Setup > Operations and, in the


Miscellaneous section, click Storage Partition Setup.
For the Storage Partition type, select NFS V3.
Enter the IP address of the NFS Server.
Enter the Log Directory path for storing the log files. For
example, export/panorama.
For the Protocol, select TCP or UDP, and enter the Port for
accessing the NFS server.
To use NFS over TCP, the NFS server must support it.
Common NFS ports are UDP/TCP 111 for RPC and
UDP/TCP 2049 for NFS.
For optimal NFS performance, in the Read Size and Write
Size fields, specify the maximum size of the chunks of data that
the client and server pass back and forth to each other. Defining
a read/write size optimizes the data volume and speed in
transferring data between Panorama and the NFS datastore.
(Optional) Select Copy On Setup to copy the existing logs
stored on Panorama to the NFS volume. If Panorama has a lot
of logs, this option might initiate the transfer of a large volume
of data.
Click Test Logging Partition to verify that Panorama can access
the NFS Server and Log Directory.
Click OK and Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama,
and click Commit again.

To begin writing logs to the NFS datastore, reboot the Panorama


virtual appliance.
1. Select Panorama > Setup > Operations.
2. In the Device Operations section, select Reboot Panorama.

Palo Alto Networks

Set Up Panorama

Set Up the Panorama Virtual Appliance

Complete the Panorama Virtual Appliance Setup


Now that initial configuration is complete, continue with the following sections for additional configuration
instructions:

Activate a Panorama Support License

Activate/Retrieve a Device Management License on the Panorama Virtual Appliance

Install Content and Software Updates for Panorama

Access and Navigate Panorama Management Interfaces

Set Up Administrative Access to Panorama

Manage Firewalls

Palo Alto Networks

Panorama 7.0 Administrators Guide 45

Set Up the M-Series Appliance

Set Up Panorama

Set Up the M-Series Appliance


The M-Series management appliance is a high performance hardware platform that you can deploy in two
modes:

Panorama modeThe appliance performs both the central management and log collection functions. This
is the default mode.

Log Collector modeThe appliance functions as a Dedicated Log Collector. If multiple firewalls forward
large volumes of log data, the M-Series appliance in Log Collector mode provides increased scale and
performance. In this mode, the appliance does not have a web interface, only a command-line interface
(CLI). However, you manage the appliance using the Panorama management server (M-Series appliance in
Panorama mode or a Panorama virtual appliance). CLI access to an M-Series appliance in Log Collector
mode is only necessary for initial setup and debugging.

The Panorama M-Series appliance supports separate interfaces for configuration (of firewalls, Log Collectors,
and Panorama itself), log collection, and communication within Collector Groups. By default, the M-Series
appliance uses the MGT (Eth0) interface for all three functions. Only the MGT interface can support the
configuration function. For the log collection and Collector Group communication functions, you can assign
the Eth1 or Eth2 interface to perform either or both when you Perform Initial Configuration of the M-Series
Appliance. You cannot assign multiple interfaces to a single function. The M-100 and M-500 Hardware
Reference Guides explain where to attach cables for the MGT, Eth1, and Eth2 interfaces on the M-Series
appliance. To support separate interfaces, the M-Series appliances (in Panorama or Log Collector mode) must
have Panorama 6.1 or later installed and the firewalls must have PAN-OS 6.0 or later installed.
Use the following workflows for setting up an M-Series appliance:
M-Series Appliance in Panorama Mode

M-Series Appliance in Log Collector Mode

Step 1

Rack mount the M-Series appliance. Refer to the


M-100 or M-500 Hardware Reference Guide for
instructions.

Step 1

Rack mount the M-Series appliance. Refer to the


M-100 or M-500 Hardware Reference Guide for
instructions.

Step 2

Perform Initial Configuration of the M-Series


Appliance

Step 2

Perform Initial Configuration of the M-Series


Appliance

Step 3

Register Panorama and Install Licenses

Step 3

Register Panorama and Install Licenses

Step 4

Install Content and Software Updates for


Panorama

Step 4

Install Content and Software Updates for


Panorama

Step 5

(Optional) Increase Storage on the M-Series


Appliance

Step 5

(Optional) Increase Storage on the M-Series


Appliance

Step 6

Set Up Administrative Access to Panorama

Step 6

Step 7

Manage Firewalls

Switch from Panorama Mode to Log Collector


Mode

Step 8

Manage Log Collection

Step 7

Manage Log Collection

46 Panorama 7.0 Administrators Guide

Palo Alto Networks

Set Up Panorama

Set Up the M-Series Appliance

Perform Initial Configuration of the M-Series Appliance


By default, Panorama has an IP address of 192.168.1.1 and a username/password of admin/admin. For security
reasons, you must change these settings before continuing with other configuration tasks. You must perform
these initial configuration tasks either from the MGT interface or using a direct serial port connection to the
console port on the M-Series appliance.
Perform Initial Configuration of the M-Series Appliance

Step 1

Gather the required interface and server


information from your network
administrator.

Gather the IP address, netmask (for IPv4) or prefix length (for


IPv6), and default gateway for each interface (MGT, Eth1,
and/or Eth2) that Panorama will use for configuration, log
collection, and Collector Group communication. Only the
MGT interface is mandatory.

Panorama uses the Management (MGT)


interface for configuration (of firewalls,
Log Collectors, and Panorama itself) and Gather the IP addresses of the DNS servers.
for high availability (HA) synchronization
between peers.
It is a best practice to use the Eth1
and/or Eth2 interfaces for log
collection and/or Collector
Group communication. By
default, the M-Series appliance
uses the MGT interface for these
functions.
Step 2

Access the M-Series appliance from your 1.


computer.

Connect to the M-Series appliance in one of the following ways:


Attach a serial cable from a computer to the Console port on
the M-Series appliance and connect using a terminal
emulation software (9600-8-N-1).
Attach an RJ-45 Ethernet cable from a computer to the
MGT port on the M-Series appliance. From a browser, go to
https://192.168.1.1. Enabling access to this URL might
require changing the IP address on the computer to an
address in the 192.168.1.0 network (for example,
192.168.1.2).

2.

Palo Alto Networks

When prompted, log in to the appliance using the default


username and password (admin/admin). The appliance will
start initializing.

Panorama 7.0 Administrators Guide 47

Set Up the M-Series Appliance

Set Up Panorama

Perform Initial Configuration of the M-Series Appliance (Continued)

Step 3

Configure the network access settings for 1.


each interface that Panorama will use for 2.
configuration, log collection, and
Collector Group communication.

Select Panorama > Setup > Management.


Edit the Interface Settings of each interface that Panorama will
use: Management, Eth1, and/or Eth2. Only the Management
interface is mandatory.
a. Complete one or both of the following field sets, depending
on the IP protocols of your network:
IPv4IP Address, Netmask, and Default Gateway
IPv6IPv6 Address/Prefix Length and Default IPv6
Gateway

b. (Optional) Select the check boxes for the management


services to allow on the interface. Ping is the only option for
Eth1 and Eth2. As a best practice, clear the Telnet and HTTP
check boxes for the Management interface: these services
use plaintext and so are less secure than others.
c. Click OK to save your changes.
Step 4

Configure the hostname, time zone, and


general settings.

1.
2.

3.

4.
5.

6.

48 Panorama 7.0 Administrators Guide

Select Panorama > Setup > Management and edit the General
Settings.
Align the clock on Panorama and the managed firewalls to use
the same Time Zone, for example GMT or UTC.
PAN-OS records timestamps when the firewalls generate logs
and when Panorama receives the logs. Aligning the time zones
ensures that the timestamps are synchronized and that the
process of querying logs and generating reports on Panorama
is harmonious.
Enter a Hostname for the server. Panorama uses this as the
display name/label for the appliance. For example, this is the
name that appears at the CLI prompt. It also appears in the
Collector Name field if you add the appliance as a managed
collector on the Panorama > Managed Collectors page.
Enter your network Domain name. The domain name is just a
label; Panorama does not use it to join the domain.
(Optional) Enter the Latitude and Longitude to enable
accurate placement of the server on the world map. The App
Scope > Traffic Maps and App Scope > Threat Maps use these
values.
Click OK.

Palo Alto Networks

Set Up Panorama

Set Up the M-Series Appliance

Perform Initial Configuration of the M-Series Appliance (Continued)

Step 5

Configure the DNS and update servers.

1.
2.
3.

4.
Step 6

Change the default admin password.


To ensure that the management
interface remains secure, enforce

1.
2.

Minimum Password Complexity

and specify the interval at which


administrators must change their
passwords.
Step 7

3.

Select Panorama > Setup > Services and edit the settings.
Enter the IP address of the Primary DNS Server and
(optionally) of the Secondary DNS Server.
The default Update Server is updates.paloaltonetworks.com. If
you need to specify a particular update resource, refer to
Content Delivery Network Infrastructure for Dynamic
Updates for a list of URLs and static addresses.
Select the Verify Update Server Identity check box if
you want Panorama to verify that the server from which
it downloads software or content packages has an SSL
certificate that a trusted authority signed. This option
adds an additional level of security for communication
between the Panorama management server and update
server.
Click OK to save your entries.
Click the admin link in the lower left part of the management
console.
Enter the old administrator password and new password in the
appropriate fields, then store the new password in a safe
location.
Click OK and Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama,
and click Commit again.

Verify network access to external services To verify that Panorama has external network access, use the ping
required for firewall management, such as utility. Verify connectivity to the default gateway, DNS server, and
the Palo Alto Networks Update Server. the Palo Alto Networks Update Server as shown in the following
example:
admin@Panorama-Corp> ping host updates.paloaltonetworks.com
PING updates.paloaltonetworks.com (67.192.236.252) 56(84)
bytes of data.
64 bytes from 67.192.236.252: icmp_seq=1 ttl=243 time=40.5 ms
64 bytes from 67.192.236.252: icmp_seq=1 ttl=243 time=53.6 ms
64 bytes from 67.192.236.252: icmp_seq=1 ttl=243 time=79.5 ms

After verifying connectivity, press Ctrl+C to stop the pings.

Continue with Register Panorama and Install Licenses and Install Content and Software Updates for Panorama,
regardless of whether you plan on using the M-Series appliance in Panorama mode or in Log Collector mode.

Switch from Panorama Mode to Log Collector Mode


Using an M-Series appliance as a Log Collector offloads the task of processing logs from the Panorama
management server to a dedicated appliance. Perform the steps below to convert an M-Series appliance from
Panorama mode to Log Collector mode. Before starting, ensure that the Panorama management server (virtual
appliance or M-Series appliance in Panorama mode) that will manage the firewalls and the Log Collector is
already set up.

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Panorama 7.0 Administrators Guide 49

Set Up the M-Series Appliance

Set Up Panorama

Switching the mode reboots the appliance, deletes any existing log data, and deletes all
configurations except the management access settings.
In Log Collector mode, the M-Series appliance does not support the web interface for
configuration tasks; it supports only Secure Shell (SSH) access. Therefore, before changing the
mode on the M-Series appliance, Perform Initial Configuration of the M-Series Appliance and use
the web interface in Panorama mode to Activate/Retrieve a Device Management License on the
M-Series Appliance.

Switch From Panorama Mode to Log Collector Mode

Step 1

Access the command line interface (CLI) Connect to the M-Series appliance in one of the following ways:
on the M-Series appliance.
Attach a serial cable from a computer to the Console port on the
M-Series appliance. Then, connect using a terminal emulation
software (9600-8-N-1).
Use a terminal emulation software such as PuTTY to open a
Secure Shell (SSH) session to the IP address assigned to the
M-Series appliance during initial configuration.

Step 2

When prompted, log in to the appliance. Use the default admin account and the password assigned during
initial configuration.

Step 3

Switch from Panorama mode to Log


Collector mode.

1.

To switch to Log Collector mode, enter the following


command:

2.

Enter Yes to confirm the change to Log Collector mode. The


appliance will reboot. If you see a CMS Login prompt, press
Enter without typing a username or password. When the
Panorama login prompt appears, enter the default admin
account and the password assigned during initial configuration.

1.
2.

Log back in to the CLI on the M-Series appliance.


Enter the following command:

request system system-mode logger

Step 4

Verify that the appliance is in Log


Collector mode.

show system info | match system-mode

The response printed on screen reads as


system-mode: logger
If the value displays as False, the M-Series appliance is still in
Panorama mode.
Step 5

Specify the IP address of the Panorama


appliance that is managing the Log
Collector.

Enter the following commands in the CLI:


configure
set deviceconfig system panorama-server <ip_address>
commit

Now that you have successfully set up your M-Series appliance, for further instructions on assigning a Log
Collector to a firewall, defining Collector Groups, and managing the Log Collector using Panorama, see Manage
Log Collection.

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Set Up Panorama

Set Up the M-Series Appliance

Increase Storage on the M-Series Appliance


The M-100 appliance ships with two disks for 1TB of storage, and you can add up to three disk pairs (3TB) to
reach the maximum of 4TB of storage. The M-500 appliance ships with eight disks for 4TB of storage, and you
can add up to four disk pairs (4TB) to reach the maximum of 8TB of storage. In both appliances, the disks have
a RAID 1 configuration.
If you need more log storage than a single M-Series appliance supports, you can add more
M-Series appliances in Log Collector mode (see Configure a Collector Group) or Configure Log
Forwarding from Panorama to External Destinations.
If adding disk pairs to an already deployed M-Series appliance, you dont need to take the
appliance offline to expand the storage. When the additional disk pairs become available, the
M-Series appliance redistributes the logs among the disk pairs. This log redistribution process
happens in the background and doesnt impact uptime or the availability of the M-Series
appliance. However, the process does diminish the maximum logging rate. In the Panorama >
Collector Groups page, the Redistribution State column indicates the redistribution process
status.

Increase Storage on the M-Series Appliance

Step 1

Install the new disks in the appropriate


drive bays.

Make sure to add the drives sequentially in the next open disk bay
slot for the disk pair. For example, add B1/B2 before C1/C2.
For information on adding the physical drives, refer to the M-100 or
M-500 Hardware Reference Guide.

Step 2

Access the command line interface (CLI) You can connect to the M-Series appliance in one of the following
on the M-Series appliance.
ways:
Connect a serial cable from your computer to the Console port
and connect to the M-Series appliance using terminal emulation
software (9600-8-N-1).
Use a terminal emulation software such as PuTTY to open a
Secure Shell (SSH) session to the IP address of the M-Series
appliance.

Step 3

When prompted, log in to the appliance. Use the default admin account and the password assigned.

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Panorama 7.0 Administrators Guide 51

Set Up the M-Series Appliance

Set Up Panorama

Increase Storage on the M-Series Appliance (Continued)

Step 4

Set up each additional disk pair in a RAID This example uses the drives in the disk bays B1 and B2.
configuration.
1. Enter the following commands and confirm the request when
prompted:
The time required to mirror the
data on the drive may vary from
several minutes to a couple hours, 2.
depending on the amount of data
on the drive.

request system raid add B1


request system raid add B2

To monitor the progress of the RAID configuration, enter the


following command:
show system raid detail

When the RAID set up is complete, the following response


displays:
Disk Pair A
Status
Disk id A1
model
size
status
Disk id A2
model
size
status
Disk Pair B
Status
Disk id B1
model
size
status
Disk id B2
model
size
status

Step 5

Make the disk pair available for logging.


To enable the disk pairs for logging, this
appliance must have been added as a
managed collector on Panorama. If you
have not already added it, see Manage
Collector Groups.

1.
2.

3.

Available
clean
Present
: ST91000640NS
: 953869 MB
: active sync
Present
: ST91000640NS
: 953869 MB
: active sync
Available
clean
Present
: ST91000640NS
: 953869 MB
: active sync
Present
: ST91000640NS
: 953869 MB
: active sync

Access the Panorama management server that is managing this


Log Collector (if it is a different appliance).
On the Panorama > Managed Collectors tab, select the Log
Collector and follow the instructions in Step 10 in Manage
Collector Groups.
Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama, and
click Commit again.

For further instructions on adding a Log Collector as a managed collector on Panorama, defining Collector
Groups, or assigning a Log Collector to a firewall, see Manage Log Collection.

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Set Up Panorama

Register Panorama and Install Licenses

Register Panorama and Install Licenses


Before you can begin using Panorama for centralized management, logging, and reporting, you must register,
activate, and retrieve the Panorama licenses. Every instance of Panorama requires valid licenses that entitle you
to manage firewalls and obtain support. The device management license enforces the maximum number of
firewalls that Panorama can manage. This license is based on firewall serial numbers, not on the number of
virtual systems on each firewall. The support license enables Panorama software updates and dynamic content
updates (for the latest Applications and Threats signatures, as an example). To purchase licenses, contact your
Palo Alto Networks Systems Engineer or reseller.

Register Panorama

Activate a Panorama Support License

Activate/Retrieve a Device Management License on the Panorama Virtual Appliance

Activate/Retrieve a Device Management License on the M-Series Appliance


If you are running an evaluation license for device management on your Panorama virtual
appliance and want to apply a Panorama license that you purchased, perform the tasks Register
Panorama and Activate/Retrieve a Device Management License on the Panorama Virtual
Appliance.

Register Panorama
Register Panorama

Step 1

Record the Panorama serial number or


auth-code and record your Sales Order
Number or Customer ID.

For the auth-code, Sales Order Number, or Customer ID, see the
order fulfillment email that Palo Alto Networks Customer Service
sent when you placed your order for Panorama.
For the serial number, the location depends on the platform:
M-Series applianceLog in to the Panorama web interface and
record the Serial # value in the Dashboard tab, General
Information section.
Panorama virtual applianceSee the order fulfillment email.

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Panorama 7.0 Administrators Guide 53

Register Panorama and Install Licenses

Set Up Panorama

Register Panorama (Continued)

Step 2

Register Panorama. The steps depend on If this is the first Palo Alto Networks appliance you are registering
whether you already have a login for the
and you dont yet have a login:
Support site.
a. Go to the Palo Alto Networks Support site.
b. Click Register on the right side of the page, enter your Email
Address, enter the code displayed on the page, and click
Submit.
c. Complete the fields in the Create Contact Details section.
d. Enter a Display Name, Confirm Email Address, and
Password/Confirm Password.
e. Enter the Panorama Device Serial Number or Auth Code.
f. Enter your Sales Order Number or Customer ID.
g. Click Submit.
If you already have a support account:
a. Log in to the Palo Alto Networks Support site.
b. Click the Assets tab, and click Register New Device.
c. Enter the Panorama Device Serial Number.
d. Enter your City, Postal Code, and Country.
e. Click Submit.

Activate a Panorama Support License


Before activating a Panorama support license on a Panorama M-Series appliance or Panorama virtual appliance,
you must Register Panorama.
Activate a Panorama Support License

Step 1

Select Panorama > Support and click Activate feature using authorization code.

Step 2

Enter the Authorization Code and click OK.

Step 3

Verify that the subscription is activated.

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Set Up Panorama

Register Panorama and Install Licenses

Activate/Retrieve a Device Management License on the Panorama Virtual


Appliance
Before activating and retrieving a device management license on the Panorama virtual appliance, you must
Register Panorama. If you are running an evaluation license and want to apply a license that you purchased, you
must still register and activate/retrieve the purchased license.
Activate/Retrieve a Device Management License on the Panorama Virtual Appliance

Step 1

Select Panorama > Setup > Management and edit the General Settings.

Step 2

Enter the Panorama Serial Number (included in the order fulfillment email) and click OK.

Step 3

Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama, and click Commit again.
To determine how many firewalls a license enables the Panorama virtual appliance to manage, log in to
the Palo Alto Support website (https://support.paloaltonetworks.com), select the Assets tab, find the
Panorama device, and view the Model Name. For example, a license for the PAN-PRA-25 model can
manage 25 devices. This page also displays the Expiration Date and other license information.

Activate/Retrieve a Device Management License on the M-Series Appliance


Before activating and retrieving a Panorama device management license on the M-Series appliance:

Register Panorama.

Locate the auth-codes for the product/subscription you purchased. When you placed your order, Palo
Alto Networks Customer Service sent you an email that listed the auth-code associated with the purchase.
If you cannot locate this email, contact Customer Support to obtain your codes before proceeding.

After you activate and retrieve the license, the Panorama > Licenses page displays the associated issuance date,
expiration date, and the number of devices that the license enables Panorama to manage.

To activate and retrieve the license, the options are:

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Panorama 7.0 Administrators Guide 55

Register Panorama and Install Licenses

Set Up Panorama

Activate/Retrieve a Device Management License on the M-Series Appliance

Use the web interface to activate and retrieve the 1.


license.
Select this option if Panorama is ready to connect 2.
to the Palo Alto Networks update server (you
completed the task Perform Initial Configuration
of the M-Series Appliance) but you have not
activated the license on the Palo Alto Networks
Support website.

Select Panorama > Licenses and click Activate feature using


authorization code.
Enter the Authorization Code and click OK. Panorama retrieves
and activates the license.

Retrieve the license key from the license server. 1.

Activate the license on the Palo Alto Networks Support


website.
a. On a host with Internet access, access the Palo Alto Support
website (https://support.paloaltonetworks.com) in a
browser and log in.

If Panorama is not ready to connect to the update


server (for example, you have not completed the
initial M-Series appliance setup), you can activate
the license on the Support website so that, when
Panorama is ready to connect, you can then use
the web interface to retrieve the activated license.
The process of retrieving an activated license is
faster than the process of both retrieving and
activating.

b. In the Assets tab, find your M-Series appliance and, in the


Action column, click the edit icon.
c. Enter the Authorization Code and click Add to activate the
license.
2.
3.

Manually upload the license from a host to


Panorama. Panorama must have access to that
host.

1.

If Panorama is set up (you completed the task


Perform Initial Configuration of the M-Series
Appliance) but does not have a connection to the
update server, activate the license on the Support
website, download it to a host that has a
connection to the update server, then upload it to
Panorama.

Configure Panorama to connect to the update server: see


Perform Initial Configuration of the M-Series Appliance.
Select Panorama > Licenses and click Retrieve license keys
from the license server. Panorama retrieves the activated
license.
Activate and download the license from the Palo Alto
Networks Support website.
a. On a host with Internet access, access the Palo Alto Support
website (https://support.paloaltonetworks.com) in a
browser and log in.
b. In the Assets tab, find your M-Series appliance and, in the
Action column, click the edit icon.
c. Enter the Authorization Code and click Add to activate the
license.
d. In the Action column, click the download icon and save the
license key file to the host.

2.
3.
4.

56 Panorama 7.0 Administrators Guide

In the Panorama web interface, select Panorama > Licenses,


click Manually upload license key and click Browse.
Select the key file you downloaded to the host and click Open.
Click OK to upload the activated license key.

Palo Alto Networks

Set Up Panorama

Install Content and Software Updates for Panorama

Install Content and Software Updates for Panorama


A valid support subscription enables access to the Panorama software image and release notes. To take
advantage of the latest fixes and security enhancements, it is a good idea to upgrade to the latest software update
or to the update version that your reseller or a Palo Alto Networks Systems Engineer recommends. The
procedure to install software and content updates depends on whether Panorama has a direct connection to the
Internet and whether it has a high availability (HA) configuration.

Panorama, Log Collector, and Firewall Version Compatibility

Install Updates for Panorama with HA Configuration

Install Updates for Panorama with Internet Connection

Install Updates for Panorama without Internet Connection

Panorama, Log Collector, and Firewall Version Compatibility


Palo Alto Networks highly recommends running the same Panorama software version on both the Panorama
management server and the Dedicated Log Collectors.
The Panorama software version on the Panorama management server must be the same as or later than the
PAN-OS version on the managed firewalls.
Panorama 6.1 and later releases cannot push configurations to firewalls running PAN-OS 6.0.0
through 6.0.3.

The content release versions on the Panorama management server must be the same as or higher than the
content release versions on the Dedicated Log Collectors and managed firewalls. Palo Alto Networks
recommends that you install the same Applications and Threats database version on Panorama as on the
Dedicated Log Collectors and firewalls. Panorama uses the Applications and Threats database to retrieve
metadata for processing reports that you initiate from Panorama or managed devices. If a Dedicated Log
Collector does not have the database installed, the complete dataset required for the report might not be
available and the information displayed might be incomplete or inaccurate. Firewalls use the database to match
the identifiers recorded in the logs with the corresponding threat, URL, or application names.

Install Updates for Panorama with HA Configuration


To ensure a seamless failover, the primary and secondary Panorama peers in an HA pair must have the same
Panorama version and the same versions of the Applications and Threat databases.
The following example describes how to upgrade an HA pair with an active-primary peer named Primary_A
and the passive-secondary peer named Secondary_B.

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Panorama 7.0 Administrators Guide 57

Install Content and Software Updates for Panorama

Set Up Panorama

Install Updates for Panorama with HA Configuration

Step 1

Upgrade the Panorama software version


on Secondary_B, the passive-secondary
peer.

Perform one of the following tasks:


Install Updates for Panorama with Internet Connection
Install Updates for Panorama without Internet Connection
After the upgrade, this Panorama will transition to a non-functional
state because the OS version does not match that of its peer.

Step 2

Suspend Primary_A to trigger a failover.

On Primary_A:
1. Select Panorama > High Availability.
2.
3.

Step 3

Upgrade the Panorama software version


on Primary_A.

In the Operational Commands section, click Suspend local


Panorama to suspend this peer.
Verify that the state displays as suspended; the state displays in
the bottom-right corner of the web interface.
Placing Primary_A in a suspended mode triggers a failover and
Secondary_B transitions to active-secondary state.

Perform one of the following tasks:


Install Updates for Panorama with Internet Connection
Install Updates for Panorama without Internet Connection
After rebooting, Primary_A first transitions to the passive-primary
state. Then, because preemption is enabled by default, Primary_A
will automatically transition to the active-primary state and
Secondary_B will revert to the passive-secondary state.
If you disabled preemption, see Restore the Primary Panorama to
the Active State.

Step 4

Verify that the Panorama software version On the Dashboard of each Panorama peer, verify that the Panorama
and other content database versions are Software Version and Application Version match and that the
the same on both peers.
running configuration is synchronized with the peer.

Install Updates for Panorama with Internet Connection


If Panorama has a direct connection to the Internet, perform the following steps to install content and software
updates.
Before deploying updates, see Panorama, Log Collector, and Firewall Version Compatibility for
critical details about update version compatibility among Palo Alto Networks devices.
Before upgrading a Panorama virtual appliance, ensure the ESXi host meets the minimum
resource requirements listed under Setup Prerequisites for the Panorama Virtual Appliance.
When upgrading software or content versions, you must upgrade the Panorama management
server first, the Dedicated Log Collectors (M-Series appliances in Log Collector mode) second,
and the firewalls last.

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Set Up Panorama

Install Content and Software Updates for Panorama

Install Updates for Panorama with Internet Connection

Step 1

Check for, download, and install the


latest content updates.

1.
2.

You must install the content


updates before the software
3.
updates. Also, you must install the
Applications and Threats updates
before the Antivirus and WildFire
updates.

Step 2

Check for, download, and install the latest 1.


software update.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.

Select Panorama > Dynamic Updates.


Click Check Now to check for the latest updates. If the value in
the Action column is Download, an update is available.
Perform the following steps for each content type:
a. Click Download in the Action column to obtain the desired
version.
b. Click Install in the Action column. When the installation
completes, the Currently Installed column displays a check
mark.
Select Panorama > Software.
Click Check Now to check for the latest update. If an update is
available, the Action column displays a Download link.
Review the Version column to determine the version to which
you want to upgrade.
In the Action column of the desired version, click Download.
When the download completes, the value in the Action column
changes to Install.
Click Install.
Reboot Panorama:
If prompted to reboot, click Yes. If you see a CMS Login
prompt, press Enter without typing a username or password.
When the Panorama login prompt appears, enter the
username/password you set during initial configuration.
Otherwise, select Panorama > Setup > Operations and, in
the Device Operations section, click Reboot Panorama.

Step 3

After Panorama reboots, complete the following tasks on the


vSphere web client:
1. Power off the virtual appliance.
2. Right-click the Panorama virtual appliance and select Edit
Settings.
Before powering on a Panorama
virtual appliance that runs
3. Select the Options tab and change the Guest Operating System
Panorama 5.1 or a later version,
from Other Linux (32-bit) to Other Linux (64-bit).
ensure that the ESXi host meets 4. Select the Hardware tab and change:
the minimum requirements for a
SCSI Controller from BusLogic Parallel to LSI Logic
64-bit operating system (OS). For
Parallel.
details, see Setup Prerequisites for
the Panorama Virtual Appliance.
Memory allocation to at least 4GB (for less than 10 firewalls)
or 16GB (for 10 or more firewalls).

(Only required if upgrading a Panorama


virtual appliance to Panorama 5.1 or later
versions) Modify the settings on the
Panorama virtual appliance.

5.

Palo Alto Networks

Power on the virtual appliance.

Panorama 7.0 Administrators Guide 59

Install Content and Software Updates for Panorama

Set Up Panorama

Install Updates for Panorama without Internet Connection


If Panorama does not have a direct connection to the Internet, perform the following steps to install Install
Content and Software Updates for Panorama.
Before deploying updates, see Panorama, Log Collector, and Firewall Version Compatibility for
critical details about update version compatibility among Palo Alto Networks devices.
Even if you have an Applications and Threats subscription, Panorama cant install Threats
updates without an Internet connection, only Applications updates.
When upgrading software or content versions, you must upgrade the Panorama management
server first, the Dedicated Log Collectors (M-Series appliances in Log Collector mode) second,
and the firewalls last.
Before upgrading a Panorama virtual appliance, ensure the ESXi host meets the minimum
resource requirements listed under Setup Prerequisites for the Panorama Virtual Appliance.

Install Updates for Panorama without Internet Connection

Step 1

Download the content and software


1.
updates to a host that has Internet access. 2.
Panorama must have access to the host.
3.

4.
5.

6.
Step 2

Upload and install the content updates to 1.


Panorama.
2.
You must install the content
updates before the software
updates. Also, you must install the
Applications updates before the
Antivirus and WildFire updates.

Log in to the Palo Alto Support website.


In the Resources section, click Dynamic Updates.
In the section containing the desired content update, click
Download and save the file to the host. Perform this step for
each content type for which you have a subscription:
Applications, Antivirus, and/or Wildfire.
Return to the main page of the Palo Alto Support website and,
in the Resources section, click Software Updates.
Review the Download column to determine the version to
install. The filename of the update package indicates the
platform: Panorama-ESX-<release> for the Panorama virtual
appliance (ESXi server or vCloud Air) or
Panorama-m-<release> for the Panorama M-Series appliance.
Click the filename and save the file to the host.
Log in to Panorama and select Panorama > Dynamic Updates.
Perform the following steps for each content type:
a. Click Upload, select the content Type, enter the path to the
content update File or Browse to it, click OK, and click
Close when the Status is Completed.
b. Click Install From File, select the Package Type, click OK,
and click Close when the Result is Succeeded.
If you set the Package Type to Applications and
Threats, Panorama installs the Applications but not
the Threats. Panorama cant update Threats without
an Internet connection.

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Set Up Panorama

Install Content and Software Updates for Panorama

Install Updates for Panorama without Internet Connection (Continued)

Step 3

Upload and install the software update.

1.
2.

3.
4.

In the Panorama > Software page, click Upload.


Enter the path to the software update File or Browse to it,
select the Sync To Peer check box if Panorama is in a high
availability (HA) configuration (to push the software image to
the secondary peer), and click OK.
Click Install in the Action column.
Reboot Panorama:
If prompted to reboot, click Yes. If you see a CMS Login
prompt, press Enter without typing a username or password.
When the Panorama login prompt appears, enter the
username and password you set during initial configuration.
Otherwise, select Panorama > Setup > Operations and, in
the Device Operations section, click Reboot Panorama.

Step 4

After Panorama reboots, complete the following tasks on the


vSphere web client:
1. Power off the virtual appliance.
2. Right-click the Panorama virtual appliance and select Edit
Settings.
Before powering on a Panorama
virtual appliance that runs
3. Select the Options tab and change the Guest Operating System
Panorama 5.1 or a later version,
from Other Linux (32-bit) to Other Linux (64-bit).
ensure that the ESXi host meets 4. Select the Hardware tab and change:
the minimum requirements for a
SCSI Controller from BusLogic Parallel to LSI Logic
64-bit operating system (OS). For
Parallel.
details, see Setup Prerequisites for
the Panorama Virtual Appliance.
Memory allocation to at least 4GB (for less than 10 firewalls)
or 16GB (for 10 or more firewalls).

(Only required if upgrading a Panorama


virtual appliance to Panorama 5.1 or later
versions) Modify the settings on the
Panorama virtual appliance.

5.

Palo Alto Networks

Power on the virtual appliance.

Panorama 7.0 Administrators Guide 61

Migrate from a Panorama Virtual Appliance to an M-Series Appliance

Set Up Panorama

Migrate from a Panorama Virtual Appliance to an M-Series


Appliance
On a Panorama virtual appliance that manages 10 or more firewalls and has a logging rate of over 10,000 logs
per second, migrating to the M-Series appliance will provide improved response time on the web interface and
speedier execution of reports. The M-Series appliance also provides more RAID storage: up to 4TB on the
M-100 and up to 8TB on the M-500. Use the instructions in the following topics to migrate the configuration
from the Panorama virtual appliance over to an M-Series appliance.

Prerequisites for Migrating to an M-Series Appliance

Plan to Migrate to an M-Series Appliance

Migrate to an M-Series Appliance

Resume Firewall Management after Migrating to an M-Series Appliance

Prerequisites for Migrating to an M-Series Appliance


The following are prerequisites for migrating your current subscription:

Purchase an M-Series appliance.

Obtain a migration upgrade license and purchase a new subscription that includes software and hardware
support.

Provide your sales representative the serial number of the Panorama virtual appliance you will phase out,
the desired support terms for the M-Series appliance, the auth-code you received when you purchased the
appliance, and the effective date for the migration. On the effective date, Palo Alto Networks will
automatically apply the associated auth-codes to the serial number of your management appliance, phase
out support for the Panorama virtual appliance, and trigger support for the M-Series appliance. Starting at
the effective date, you will have a limited time to complete the migration. At the end of the period, Palo
Alto Networks terminates the support entitlement on the Panorama virtual appliance and you can no
longer receive software or threat updates. For details on the license migration process, refer to the
Knowledge Base article Panorama VM License Migration to the M-100 Platform.

Plan to Migrate to an M-Series Appliance

Plan on completing this migration during a maintenance window. Although the firewalls can buffer the
logs and forward them to Panorama when the connection is reestablished, completing the migration
during a maintenance window minimizes loss of log data during the transition time when the Panorama
virtual appliance goes offline and the M-Series appliance comes online.

Consider whether to maintain access to the Panorama virtual appliance after completing the migration.
Because the log format on the Panorama virtual appliance is incompatible with that on the M-Series
appliance, existing log data cannot migrate over to the M-Series appliance. Therefore, to access the old
logs the Panorama virtual appliance must remain accessible.

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Migrate from a Panorama Virtual Appliance to an M-Series Appliance

Decide whether to use the same IP address on the M-Series appliance or to assign a new one. Palo Alto
Networks recommends reusing the same management IP address to prevent the need to reconfigure each
managed firewall to point to a new IP address.
If you have log compliance requirements, plan to reconfigure a new IP address on the Panorama
virtual appliance to maintain access to the old logs for generating reports.

Keep a new IP address at hand for use in setting up connectivity to the M-Series appliance during initial
configuration. If you have decided to transfer the IP address that was assigned to the Panorama virtual
appliance, this new IP address will be used temporarily. When you restore the configuration file from the
Panorama virtual appliance on the M-Series appliance, this new IP address will be overwritten.

Migrate to an M-Series Appliance


To migrate the configuration from the Panorama virtual appliance to the M-Series appliance, you must perform
tasks on the Panorama virtual appliance and on the M-Series appliance.
Complete the following tasks on the Panorama virtual appliance:
Migrate to an M-Series Appliance: Tasks Performed on the Panorama Virtual Appliance

Step 1

Upgrade to the latest Panorama version.

See Install Content and Software Updates for Panorama.

Step 2

Export the running configuration on the 1.


virtual Panorama.
2.
3.

Step 3

Power off the VM or change the IP


address.

In the Panorama > Setup > Operations tab, Configuration


Management section, select Export named Panorama
configuration snapshot.
Select the active configuration (running-config.xml) and click
OK. The file is downloaded and saved to the local machine.
Rename the file.

If you plan on reusing the MGT interface IP address that was


configured on the Panorama virtual appliance on the M-Series
appliance, you can either power off the virtual appliance or assign a
new IP address to the MGT port on the virtual appliance.
To change the IP address, on the Panorama > Setup tab, edit the
Management Interface Settings section and enter the new IP
address.

Complete the following tasks on the Panorama M-Series appliance:

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Set Up Panorama

Migrate to an M-Series Appliance: Tasks Performed on the M-Series Appliance

Step 1

Set up network access.

See Perform Initial Configuration of the M-Series Appliance for


instructions.
Consider assigning a new temporary IP address during initial
configuration on the M-Series appliance and reusing the IP address
that was assigned to the Panorama virtual appliance. The temporary
IP address will be overwritten when you import the configuration
later in this process.

Step 2

Install the same Panorama version as that Install the same Panorama version that you selected in Step 1 above.
running on the Panorama virtual
For instructions on performing the upgrade, see Install Content and
appliance.
Software Updates for Panorama.

Step 3

Register Panorama and retrieve the


license.

See Register Panorama and Install Licenses.

Step 4

Upgrade to the latest Panorama version.

See Install Content and Software Updates for Panorama.

Step 5

Import and load the configuration file.

1.

2.
3.

4.

Step 6

Review and modify the configuration on 1.


Panorama.

In the Panorama > Setup > Operations tab, Configuration


Management section, select Import named Panorama
configuration snapshot.
Browse to select the running-config.xml (or the renamed file)
and click OK.
Select the Load named Panorama configuration snapshot
link to load the configuration file you just imported.
Any errors that occur when loading the configuration file are
displayed onscreen.
If errors occurred, save them to a local file. Review and resolve
each error to ensure the migration included all configuration
components.
If you do not plan to reuse the same network access settings for
the MGT interface, modify the values:
a. Select Panorama > Setup and edit the Management
Interface Settings.
b. Enter the IP Address, Netmask, and Default Gateway.
c. Confirm that the list of IP addresses defined in the
Permitted IP Addresses list is accurate.

2.
3.

Step 7

To change the hostname, edit the General Settings section of


the Panorama > Setup tab.
Confirm that the administrative access settings (administrators,
roles, and access domains) configured on the appliance are
accurate on the Panorama > Administrators tab, Panorama >
Admin Roles tab, and Panorama > Access Domains tab.

Add the default Log Collector back to the When importing the configuration from the Panorama virtual
M-Series appliance.
appliance, the default Log Collector is removed from the M-Series
appliance. To add the Log Collector back on the M-Series appliance,
use the instructions in Configure a Managed Collector.

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Migrate from a Panorama Virtual Appliance to an M-Series Appliance

Migrate to an M-Series Appliance: Tasks Performed on the M-Series Appliance (Continued)

Step 8

Save all your changes to Panorama.

After reviewing the configuration changes, click Commit, for the


Commit Type select Panorama, and click Commit again.

Resume Firewall Management after Migrating to an M-Series Appliance


To resume central management, you must restore connectivity to the managed firewalls. Complete this task
during a maintenance window to minimize network disruption.

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Access and Navigate Panorama Management Interfaces

Set Up Panorama

Access and Navigate Panorama Management Interfaces


Resume Firewall Management after Migrating to an M-Series Appliance

Step 1

Synchronize the configuration on


Panorama with those of the managed
firewalls.

1.
2.

3.

4.

Log in to Panorama.
Select Panorama > Managed Devices, and verify that the
Connected status of each devices displays a check mark.
The status for the templates and device groups will display an
Out of sync icon.
To synchronize the device groups, click Commit, for the
Commit Type select Device Group, select every device group,
and click Commit again.
To synchronize the templates:
a. Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama, and
click Commit again.
b. Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Template, select
the firewalls, and click Commit again.

Step 2

Verify the connection and


synchronization status of the managed
firewalls.

1.
2.

Select Panorama > Managed Devices.


Verify the Status of the following for each firewall:
In the Connected column, a check mark indicates the firewall
is connected to Panorama.
In the Shared Policy column, the value In sync indicates the
firewall configuration is synchronized with the device group
in Panorama.
In the Template column, the value In sync indicates the
firewall configuration is synchronized with the template in
Panorama.

Panorama provides three management interfaces:

Web interfaceThe Panorama web interface is purposefully designed with a similar look and feel to the
firewall web interface. If you are already familiar with the latter, you can navigate, complete administrative
tasks, and generate reports from the Panorama web interface with relative ease. This graphical interface
allows you to access Panorama using HTTPS and it is the best way to perform administrative tasks. See Log
in to the Panorama Web Interface and Navigate the Panorama Web Interface. If you need to enable HTTP
access to Panorama, edit the Management Interface Settings on the Panorama > Setup > Management tab.

Command line interface (CLI)The CLI is a no-frills interface that allows you to type through the
commands in rapid succession to complete a series of tasks. The CLI supports two command modes
operational and configurationand each mode has its own hierarchy of commands and statements. When
you get familiar with the nesting structure and the syntax for the commands, the CLI allows quick response
times and offers administrative efficiency. See Log in to the Panorama CLI.

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Access and Navigate Panorama Management Interfaces

XML APIThe XML-based API is provided as a web service that is implemented using HTTP/HTTPS
requests and responses. It allows you to streamline your operations and integrate with existing, internally
developed applications and repositories. For information on how to use the Panorama API interface, refer
to the document PAN-OS and Panorama XML-Based API. To access the online community for developing
scripts, visit https://live.paloaltonetworks.com/community/devcenter.

Log in to the Panorama Web Interface


Log in to the Panorama Web Interface

Step 1

Log in to the Panorama web interface.

Using a secure connection (https) from a web browser, log in using


the IP address and password you assigned during initial
configuration (https://<IP address>).

Step 2

(Optional) Enable HTTP and Secure


Shell (SSH) access.

1.
2.
3.

Select Panorama > Setup > Management and edit the


Management Interface Settings.
Select which management services to allow on the interface.
For example, select HTTP and SSH.
Click OK.

Navigate the Panorama Web Interface


Use the Panorama web interface to configure Panorama, manage and monitor the managed firewalls and Log
Collectors, and to access the web interface of each managed firewall using the Device Context. Refer to the
online help on Panorama for details on the options in each tab in the web interface.
The Panorama web interface includes the following tabs:
Tab

Description

Dashboard

View general information about the Panorama model and network access settings.
This tab includes widgets that display information about applications, logs, system
resources, and system settings.

ACC

View the overall risk and threat level on the network, based on information that
Panorama gathered from the managed firewalls.

Monitor

View and manage logs and reports.

Panorama

Configure Panorama, manage licenses, set up high availability, access software updates
and security alerts, manage administrative access, and manage the deployed firewalls
and Log Collectors.

Device Groups > Policies

Create centralized policies and apply the configuration to multiple firewalls/device


groups.
You must Add a Device Group for this tab to display.

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Set Up Panorama

Tab

Description (Continued)

Device Groups > Objects

Define policy objects that policy rules can reference and that managed
firewalls/device groups can share.
You must Add a Device Group for this tab to display.

Templates > Network

Configure network setting, such as network profiles, that can be applied to the
managed firewalls.
You must Add a Template for this tab to display.

Templates > Device

Configure device configuration, such as server profiles and admin roles, that can be
applied to the managed firewalls.
You must Add a Template for this tab to display.

Log in to the Panorama CLI


You can log in to the Panorama CLI using a serial port connection or access remotely using a Secure Shell (SSH)
client.
Log in to the Panorama CLI

Use SSH to log in to the Panorama CLI.

1.

The same instructions apply for an


M-Series appliance in Log Collector
mode.

Make sure that you have the following:


A computer with network access to Panorama
Panorama IP address
SSH is enabled on the Management interface. See (Optional)
Enable HTTP and Secure Shell (SSH) access.

2.

To access the CLI using SSH:


a. Enter the Panorama IP address in the SSH client and use
port 22.
b. Enter your administrative access credentials when
prompted. After successfully logging in, the CLI prompt
displays in Operational mode. For example:
admin@ABC_Sydney>

See Configure an Administrator with SSH Key-Based


Authentication for the CLI.
Change to Configuration mode.

To go into Configuration mode, enter the following command at the


prompt:
admin@ABC_Sydney> configure

The prompt changes to admin@ABC_Sydney#

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Log in to the Panorama CLI

Use a serial port connection to log in to the


Panorama CLI.

1.

Make sure that you have the following:


A null-modem serial cable that connects Panorama to a
computer with a DB-9 serial port
A terminal emulation program running on the computer

2.

3.

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Use the following settings in the terminal emulation software to


connect: 9600 baud; 8 data bits; 1 stop bit; No parity; No
hardware flow control.
Enter your administrative access credentials when prompted.

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Set Up Administrative Access to Panorama

Set Up Panorama

Set Up Administrative Access to Panorama


Panorama implements Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) to enable you to specify the privileges and
responsibilities of administrators.
You cant add an administrator account to a Dedicated Log Collector (M-Series appliance in Log
Collector mode). Only the predefined administrator account with the default username (admin) is
available on Dedicated Log Collectors.

The following topics describe how to create administrator accounts and configure Administrative
Authentication to the Panorama web interface and command line interface (CLI):

Configure an Administrator with Kerberos SSO, External, or Local Authentication

Configure an Administrator with Certificate-Based Authentication for the Web Interface

Configure an Administrator with SSH Key-Based Authentication for the CLI

Configure RADIUS Vendor-Specific Attributes for Administrator Authentication

Configure an Administrator with Kerberos SSO, External, or Local


Authentication
When you configure Administrative Authentication for an administrator account, you can combine Kerberos
single sign-on (SSO) authentication with an external authentication service or with local authentication. You can
also configure the administrator to use only one of those authentication methods.
Configure an Administrator with Kerberos SSO, External, or Local Authentication

Step 1

Create a Kerberos keytab.


Applicable only if you will use Kerberos
single sign-on (SSO) authentication.
A keytab is a file that contains Kerberos
account information (principal name and
hashed password) for the Panorama
management server. To support Kerberos
SSO, your network must have a Kerberos
infrastructure, including a key distribution
center (KDC) with an authentication
server (AS) and ticket granting service
(TGS).

1.
2.

Log in to the KDC and open a command prompt.


Enter the following command, where <principal_name>,
<password>, and <algorithm> are variables. The Kerberos
principal name and password are for Panorama, not the
administrator.

ktpass /princ <principal_name> /pass <password>


/crypto <algorithm> /ptype KRB5_NT_PRINCIPAL /out
<file_name>.keytab

The algorithm in the keytab must match the algorithm


in the service ticket that the TGS issues to clients. Your
Kerberos administrator determines which algorithms
the service tickets use. The options are:
des3-cbc-sha1
arcfour-hmac
aes128-cts-hmac-sha1-96
aes256-cts-hmac-sha1-96

To use an Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)


algorithm, the functional level of the KDC must be
Windows Server 2008 or later and you must enable AES
encryption for the Panorama account.

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Configure an Administrator with Kerberos SSO, External, or Local Authentication (Continued)

Step 2

Configure Access Domains.


Applicable only to Device Group and
Template roles.

1.
2.
3.

Panorama supports up to 4,000 access


domains.

Select Panorama > Access Domain and click Add.


Enter a Name to identify the access domain.
Select an access privilege for Shared Objects:
writeAdministrators can perform all operations on shared
objects. This is the default value.
readAdministrators can display and clone shared objects
but cannot perform other operations on them. When adding
non-shared objects or cloning shared objects, the destination
must be a device group within the access domain, not the
Shared location.
shared-onlyAdministrators can add objects only to the
Shared location. Administrators can display, edit, and delete
shared objects, but cannot move or clone them. A
consequence of this option is that administrators cant
perform any operations on non-shared objects other than to
display them. An example of why you might select this
option is if your organization requires all objects to be in a
single, global repository.

4.

5.
6.

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In the Device Groups tab, toggle the icons to enable read-write


or read-only access for device groups in the access domain.
If you set the Shared Objects access to shared-only,
Panorama applies read-only access to the objects in any
device groups for which you specify read-write access.
In the Templates tab, Add each template you want to assign to
the access domain.
In the Device Context tab, select check boxes to assign firewalls
to the access domain and click OK. Administrators can switch
context to these firewalls.

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Set Up Administrative Access to Panorama

Set Up Panorama

Configure an Administrator with Kerberos SSO, External, or Local Authentication (Continued)

Step 3

Configure an Admin Role profile.

1.
2.

Applicable only if you will assign a


custom role to the administrator; dynamic
roles are predefined.
3.
For details on the role types and the
privileges available to each, see
Administrative Roles.

4.
5.

6.
Step 4

Set the password requirements.


Password requirements apply only to
local authentication and are optional.

Select Panorama > Admin Roles and click Add.


Enter a Name for the profile and select the Role type:
Panorama or Device Group and Template.
Configure access to Panorama (Web UI) and firewalls (Context
Switch UI) for each functional area by toggling its icon to the
desired setting: Enable (read-write), Read Only, or Disable. For
details on the options, refer to Reference: Web Interface
Administrator Access.
If administrators with custom roles will commit device
group or template changes to managed firewalls, you
must give those roles read-write or read-only access to
Panorama > Device Groups and/or Panorama >
Templates. If you upgrade from an earlier Panorama
version, the upgrade process provides read-only access
to those nodes.
No predefined roles restrict access to a firewall CLI or
XML API. Therefore, to prevent privilege-level
escalation, Panorama doesnt let you manage access to
those interfaces through context-switching privileges.
If the Role type is Panorama, configure access to the XML API
functionals areas by toggling the icons to Enable or Disable.
If the Role type is Panorama, select an access level for the
Command Line interface: None (default), superuser,
superreader, or panorama-admin.
Click OK to save the profile.

Create Password ProfilesDefine how often administrators


must change their passwords. You can create multiple password
profiles and apply them to administrator accounts as needed to
enforce the desired security. To create a password profile, select
Panorama > Password Profiles and click Add.
Configure minimum password complexity settingsDefine
the rules that govern password complexity. You can define rules
that force administrators to create passwords that are harder to
guess, crack, or compromise. Unlike password profiles, which
apply to individual accounts, these rules are device-wide and apply
to all passwords. To configure the settings, select Panorama >
Setup and edit the Minimum Password Complexity section.

Step 5

Configure access to an external


Select Panorama > Server Profiles, select the authentication service
authentication service if you will use one. type (RADIUS, TACACS+, LDAP, or Kerberos), and configure the
server profile:
Configure a RADIUS Server Profile.
Configure a TACACS+ Server Profile.
Configure an LDAP Server Profile.
Configure a Kerberos Server Profile.

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Set Up Administrative Access to Panorama

Configure an Administrator with Kerberos SSO, External, or Local Authentication (Continued)

Step 6

Configure an authentication profile.


Applicable only if you will use Kerberos
SSO or external authentication.

1.
2.
3.

An authentication profile defines how


Panorama authenticates an administrator.
You can define one or both of the
following authentication phases:
4.
Kerberos SSOPanorama first tries
SSO authentication and, if that fails,
falls back to username/password
authentication of the Type specified in
the profile.
External authenticationThe device
prompts the administrator to enter
login credentials and uses an external
service for authentication.
If your administrators are in
multiple Kerberos realms, you can
create an authentication profile
for each realm and assign all the
profiles to an authentication
sequence (Step 7). Then assign
the same authentication sequence 5.
to all administrators (Step 8).
For details, see Authentication
Profiles and Sequences.

6.

7.

8.

9.

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Select Panorama > Authentication Profile and click Add.


Enter a Name to identify the authentication profile.
If the authentication Type is an external service, select the
authentication Server Profile you created.
If the Type is LDAP, define the Login Attribute. For
Active Directory, enter sAMAccountName as the value.
(Optional) Specify User Domain and Username Modifier
values to modify the domain/username string that the
administrator will enter during login. This is useful when the
authentication service requires strings in a particular format and
you dont want to rely on administrators to correctly enter the
domain. Select from the following options:
To send only the unmodified administrator input, leave the
User Domain blank (the default) and set the Username
Modifier to the variable %USERINPUT% (the default).
To prepend a domain to the administrator input, enter a
User Domain and set the Username Modifier to
%USERDOMAIN%\%USERINPUT%.
To append a domain to the administrator input, enter a User
Domain and set the Username Modifier to
%USERINPUT%@%USERDOMAIN%.
If you want to enable Kerberos SSO, enter the Kerberos Realm
(usually the DNS domain of the administrators, except that the
realm is uppercase) and Import the Kerberos Keytab that you
created for Panorama.
Select the Advanced tab and Add the administrators and groups
that can authenticate with this profile. By default, the list is
empty, meaning no administrators can authenticate.
Enter the number of Failed Attempts (0-10) to log in that
Panorama allows before locking out the administrator. The
default value 0 means there is no limit.
Enter the Lockout Time (0-60), which is the number of minutes
for which Panorama locks out the administrator after reaching
the Failed Attempts limit. The default value 0 means the
lockout applies until you manually unlock the administrator
account.
Click OK to save the authentication profile.

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Set Up Panorama

Configure an Administrator with Kerberos SSO, External, or Local Authentication (Continued)

Step 7

Configure an authentication sequence.

1.
Applicable only if you want Panorama to 2.
try multiple authentication profiles to
authenticate administrators.
Panorama tries the profiles sequentially
applying the Kerberos SSO,
authentication service, allow list, and
account lockout values for eachuntil
one profile successfully authenticates the
administrator. Panorama denies access
only if all the profiles in the sequence fail
to authenticate.

3.

4.
Step 8

Configure an administrator.

1.
2.
3.

4.

Select Panorama > Authentication Sequence and click Add.


Enter a Name to identify the authentication sequence.
To expedite the authentication process, the best practice
is to select the Use domain to determine
authentication profile check box: Panorama will match
the domain name that an administrator enters during
login with the User Domain or Kerberos Realm of an
authentication profile in the sequence, and then use that
profile to authenticate the administrator. If Panorama
doesnt find a match, or if you clear the check box,
Panorama tries the profiles in the regular top-to-bottom
sequence. The check box is selected by default.
Add the authentication profiles. To change the order in which
Panorama tries the profiles, select a profile and click Move Up
or Move Down.
Click OK to save the authentication sequence.
Select Panorama > Administrators and click Add.
Enter a user Name for the administrator.
If Panorama will use Kerberos SSO or an external service for
authentication, select the Authentication Profile you created. If
Panorama will use local authentication, set the Authentication
Profile to None and enter the Password/Confirm Password.
For the Administrator Type, select the role type:
DynamicSelect a predefined administrator role.
Custom Panorama AdminSelect the Admin Role Profile
you created for this administrator.
Device Group and Template AdminIn the Access
Domain to Administrator Role section, add access domains
and map each one to an Admin Role profile: click Add, select
an Access Domain from the drop-down, click the adjacent
Admin Role cell, and select an Admin Role profile.

5.

(Optionallocal authentication only) Select a Password


Profile.

6.

Click OK and Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama,


and click Commit again.

Configure an Administrator with Certificate-Based Authentication for the Web


Interface
As a more secure alternative to using a password to authenticate a user, enable certificate-based authentication
for securing access to Panorama. With certificate-based authentication, a digital signature is exchanged and
verified, in lieu of a password.

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To enable certificate-based authentication, you must configure Panorama to use a client


certificate profile (as described in the following procedure). When you enable a client certificate
profile, each administrator must use a client certificate for access to Panorama.

This example uses a CA certificate generated on Panorama.


Configure an Administrator with Certificate-Based Authentication for the Web Interface

Step 1

Generate a CA certificate on Panorama.

To generate a CA certificate on Panorama:


To use a certificate from a trusted 1. Log in to the Panorama web interface.
third-party or enterprise CA, you 2. Select Panorama > Certificate Management > Certificates
and click Generate.
must import that CA certificate in
to Panorama.
3. Enter a Certificate Name. Add the IP address or FQDN of
Panorama for listing in the Common Name field of the
certificate. Optionally, you can change the cryptographic
settings, and define certificate options such as country,
organization, or state.
4. Make sure to leave the Signed By option blank and select the
Certificate Authority option.
5. Click Generate to create the certificate using the details you
specified above.

Step 2

Create and export the client certificate


that will be used to authenticate an
administrator.

1.

Use the CA certificate to generate a client certificate for the


specified administrative user.
a. Select Panorama > Certificate Management > Certificates
and click Generate.
b. In the Common Name field, enter the name of the
administrator for whom you are generating the certificate.
The name syntax must match the format used by the local or
external authentication mechanism.
c. In the Signed by field, select the CA certificate you just
created.
d. Click Generate to create the certificate.

2.

Export the client certificate you just generated.


a. Select the certificate that you just generated and click
Export.

b. To encrypt the private key, select PKCS12 as the File


Format.
c. Enter a passphrase to encrypt the private key and confirm
the entry.
d. Click OK to export the certificate.
Step 3

Add an administrator account or modify Configure an administrator. Select the Use only client certificate
authentication (Web) check box.
an existing one.

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Set Up Panorama

Configure an Administrator with Certificate-Based Authentication for the Web Interface (Continued)

Step 4

Create the client certificate profile that


1.
will be used for securing access to the web
interface.
2.

Select Panorama > Certificate Management > Certificate


Profile and click Add.
Enter a name for the certificate profile and in the Username
Field select Subject.

3.

Select Add in the CA Certificates section and from the CA


Certificate drop-down, select the CA certificate you just
created.

Step 5

Configure Panorama to use the client


certificate profile for authentication.

1.
2.
3.

Step 6

Save the configuration changes.

On the Panorama > Setup tab, edit the Authentication Settings.


In the Certificate Profile field, select the client certificate
profile you just created.
Click OK to save your changes.

Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama, and click
Commit again.
You will be logged out of the device.

Step 7

Import the client certificate of the


For example, in Firefox:
administrator into the web browser on the 1. Select Tools > Options > Advanced.
client system that the administrator will 2. Click View Certificates.
use to access the Panorama web interface.
3. Select the Your Certificates tab and click Import. Browse to the
location where you saved the client certificate.
4. When prompted, enter the passphrase to decrypt the private
key.

Step 8

Verify that certificate-based


authentication is configured.

1.
2.
3.

From a client system that has the client certificate loaded,


access the Panorama IP address or hostname.
When prompted, select the client certificate you just imported.
A certificate warning will display.
Add the certificate to the exception list and log in to the
Panorama web interface.

Configure an Administrator with SSH Key-Based Authentication for the CLI


Configure an Administrator with SSH Key-Based Authentication for the CLI

Step 1

Use a Secure Shell (SSH) key generation


tool to create an asymmetric keypair on
the client machine.

For the commands required to generate the keypair, refer to the


product documentation for your SSH client.

The public key and private key are two separate files; save both to a
location that can be accessed by Panorama. For added security, enter
The supported key formats are: IETF
a passphrase to encrypt the private key. The administrator will be
SECSH and Open SSH; the supported
algorithms are: DSA (1024 bits) and RSA prompted for this passphrase when logging in to Panorama.
(768-4096 bits).

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Set Up Panorama

Set Up Administrative Access to Panorama

Configure an Administrator with SSH Key-Based Authentication for the CLI (Continued)

Step 2

Add an administrator account or modify Configure an administrator.


an existing one.
1. Select Panorama > Administrators.
2. Select an existing administrator or click Add and enter a user
Name for a new administrator.
3. Select the Use Public Key Authentication (SSH) check box.
4. Click Import Key, click Browse to find the public key you just
created, and click OK.
5. Click OK and Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama,
and click Commit again.

Step 3

Verify that the SSH client uses the private 1.


key to authenticate the public key
presented by Panorama.
2.

3.

Configure the SSH client to use the private key to authenticate


to Panorama.
Log in to the CLI on Panorama.

If prompted, enter the passphrase you defined when creating


the keys.

Configure RADIUS Vendor-Specific Attributes for Administrator


Authentication
The following procedure provides an overview of the tasks required to configure RADIUS Vendor-Specific
Attributes (VSAs) for administrator authentication. For detailed instructions, refer to the following documents:

For Windows 2003 Server, Windows 2008 (and later), and Cisco ACS 4.0RADIUS Vendor-Specific
Attributes (VSAs)

For Cisco ACS 5.2Configuring Cisco ACS 5.2 for use with Palo Alto VSA

Before starting this procedure, you must create the administrative accounts in the directory service that your
network uses (for example, Active Directory) and set up a RADIUS server that can communicate with that
directory service.

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Set Up Administrative Access to Panorama

Set Up Panorama

Use RADIUS Vendor-Specific Attributes for Account Authentication

Step 1

Configure Panorama.

1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

Step 2

Configure the RADIUS server.

1.
2.

Configure an Admin Role profile. Select Panorama > Admin


Roles. For the Role type, select Device Group and Template.
Configure Access Domains. Select Panorama > Access
Domain.
Configure a RADIUS Server Profile. Select Panorama >
Server Profiles > RADIUS.
Configure an authentication profile. Select Panorama >
Authentication Profile. For the authentication Type, select
RADIUS. Assign the RADIUS Server Profile.
Configure Panorama to use the authentication profile for
authentication: select Panorama > Setup > Management, edit
the Authentication Settings, and select the Authentication
Profile.
Add the Panorama IP address or hostname as the RADIUS
client.
Define the VSAs that Panorama supports. To define an
attribute, use the vendor code (25461), attribute name (ensure
it matches the name of the Admin Role profile/access domain
defined on Panorama; it is case sensitive), number, and format
(string):
PaloAlto-Panorama-Admin-Role, attribute #3
PaloAlto-Panorama-Admin-Access-Domain, attribute #4

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Manage Firewalls
To use Panorama for managing Palo Alto Networks firewalls, you must add the firewalls as managed devices
and then assign them to device groups and to templates or template stacks. The following tasks best suit a
first-time firewall deployment. Before proceeding, review Plan Your Deployment to understand the deployment
options.

Add a Firewall as a Managed Device

Manage Device Groups

Manage Templates and Template Stacks

Transition a Firewall to Panorama Management

Use Case: Configure Firewalls Using Panorama


To view the Objects and Policies tabs on the Panorama web interface, you must first create at
least one device group. To view the Network and Device tabs, you must create at least one
template. These tabs contain the options by which you configure and manage the firewalls on
your network.

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Add a Firewall as a Managed Device

Manage Firewalls

Add a Firewall as a Managed Device


To use Panorama for central management of firewalls, the first step is to add them as managed devices. Before
starting, collect the firewall serial numbers and prepare each firewall as follows:

Perform initial configuration on the firewall so that it is accessible and can communicate with Panorama
over the network.

Add the Panorama IP address(es) (one server or two, if Panorama is configured in a high availability pair)
in the Panorama Settings section of the Device > Setup> Management tab and commit the changes.

Set up the data interfaces. For each interface you plan to use, select the interface type and attach it to a
security zone so that you can push configuration and policy from Panorama.

You can then add the firewalls as managed devices on Panorama:


Add a Firewall as a Managed Device

Step 1

Add the firewall to Panorama.

1.
2.

3.

Select Panorama > Managed Devices and click Add.


Enter the serial number for each firewall (one entry per line)
that you want to manage centrally using Panorama, and then
click OK. The Managed Devices page displays the new device.
(Optional) Add a Tag. Tags make it easier for you to find a
device from a large list; they help you to dynamically filter and
refine the list of firewalls that display. For example, if you add a
tag called branch office, you can filter for all branch office
devices across your network.
a. Select the check box beside the managed device and click
Tag.
b. Click Add, enter a string of up to 31 characters (no empty
spaces), and click OK.

4.
Step 2

Verify that the firewall is connected to


Panorama.

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Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama, and


click Commit again.

In the Panorama > Managed Devices page, the Device State


column displays whether the firewall is connected or disconnected
to Panorama.

Palo Alto Networks

Manage Firewalls

Manage Device Groups

Manage Device Groups

Add a Device Group

Create a Device Group Hierarchy

Create Objects for Use in Shared or Device Group Policy

Revert to Inherited Object Values

Manage Unused Shared Objects

Manage Precedence of Inherited Objects

Move or Clone a Policy Rule or Object to a Different Device Group

Select a URL Filtering Vendor on Panorama

Push a Policy Rule to a Subset of Firewalls

Manage the Rule Hierarchy

Add a Device Group


After adding firewalls (see Add a Firewall as a Managed Device), you can group them into Device Groups (up
to 256), as follows. Be sure to assign both firewalls in an active-passive high availability (HA) configuration to
the same device group so that Panorama will push the same policy rules and objects to those firewalls. PAN-OS
doesnt synchronize pushed rules across HA peers. To manage rules and objects at different administrative levels
in your organization, Create a Device Group Hierarchy.
Add a Device Group

Step 1

Select Panorama > Device Groups, and click Add.

Step 2

Enter a unique Name and a Description to identify the device group.

Step 3

In the Devices section, select check boxes to assign firewalls to the group. To search a long list of firewalls, use
the Filters.
You can assign any firewall to only one device group. You can assign each virtual system on a firewall to
a different device group.

Step 4

(Optional) Select the Group HA Peers check box for firewalls that are HA peers.
The firewall name of the passive or active-secondary peer is in parentheses.

Step 5

Select the Parent Device Group (default is Shared) that will be just above the device group you are creating in
the device group hierarchy.

Step 6

If your policy rules will reference users and groups, assign a Master firewall. This will be the only firewall in the
device group from which Panorama gathers username and user group information.

Step 7

Click OK and Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama, and click Commit again.

Step 8

Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Device Group, select the device group you just created, and click
Commit again.

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Manage Firewalls

Create a Device Group Hierarchy


Create a Device Group Hierarchy

Step 1

Plan the Device Group Hierarchy.

1.

2.

Decide the device group levels, and which firewalls and virtual
systems you will assign to each device group and the Shared
location. You can assign any one firewall or virtual system (vsys)
to only one device group. If a device group will be just an
organizational container for lower level device groups, you
dont need to assign devices to it.
Remove firewall or vsys assignments from existing device
groups if those assignments dont fit your planned hierarchy.
a. Select Panorama > Device Groups and select the device
group.
b. In the Devices section, clear the check boxes of firewalls and
virtual systems you want to remove, and click OK.

Step 2

For each top-level device group, Add a


Device Group.

3.

If necessary, add more firewalls that you will assign to device


groups: see Add a Firewall as a Managed Device.

1.

In the Panorama > Device Groups page, click Add and enter a
Name to identify the device group.
In the Devices section, select check boxes to assign devices and
virtual systems to the device group.
Leave the Parent Device Group option at Shared (the default)
and click OK.

2.
3.
Step 3

For each lower-level device group, Add a For new device groups at each lower level, repeat Step 2 but set the
Device Group.
Parent Device Group to a device group at the next level above.
For each existing device group, in the Device Groups page, select
the device group to edit it, select a Parent Device Group, and click
OK.
If you move a device group to a different parent, all its
descendant device groups move with it, along with all
devices, policy rules, and objects associated with the device
group and its descendants. If the new parent is in another
access domain, the moved device group will no longer
have membership in the original access domain. If the new
access domain has read-write access for the parent device
group, it will also have read-write access for the moved
device group. If the new access domain has read-only
access for the parent, it will have no access for the moved
device group. To reconfigure access for device groups, see
Configure Access Domains.

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Create a Device Group Hierarchy (Continued)

Step 4

Configure, move, and clone objects and Create Objects for Use in Shared or Device Group Policy, or edit
policy rules as needed to account for
existing objects.
inheritance in the device group hierarchy.
You can edit objects only at their location: the device group to
which they are assigned. Descendant device groups inherit
read-only instances of the objects from that location. However,
you can optionally Override inherited object values.
Create or edit policies.
Move or Clone a Policy Rule or Object to a Different Device
Group.

Step 5

Override inherited object values.

1.

Applicable only if object values in a


particular device group must differ from 2.
the values inherited from an ancestor
3.
device group.
4.
5.
After overriding an object, you can
override it again in descendant device
groups. However, you can never override
shared or predefined (default) objects.
In the Objects tab, inherited objects have
a green icon in the Name column, and the
Location column displays the ancestor
device group.
Step 6

Save and commit your changes.

1.

Perform a Panorama and device


group commit after any change to 2.
the hierarchy.
You must also perform a template
commit if a template references
objects in a device group (for
example, interfaces referencing
addresses), and a firewall assigned
to the template is no longer
assigned to that device group
because of a hierarchy change.

In the Objects tab, select the object type (for example, Objects
> Addresses).
Select the Device Group that will have the override instance.
Select the object and click Override.
Edit the values. You cant edit the Name or Shared settings.
Click OK. The Name column displays a
yellow-overlapping-green icon for the object to indicate it is
overridden.
If necessary, you can later Revert to Inherited Object
Values.

Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama, and click
Commit again.
Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Device Group, select
all the device groups you added or changed, and click Commit
again.

Create Objects for Use in Shared or Device Group Policy


You can use an object in any policy rule that is in the Shared location, or in the same device group as the object,
or in descendants of that device group (for details, see Device Group Objects).

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Create Objects for Use in Shared or Device Group Policy

Create a shared object.

1.

In this example, we add a shared object for URL


Filtering categories for which we want to trigger
alerts.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
Create a device group object.
In this example, we add an address object for
specific web servers on your network.

1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

6.
7.

Select the Objects > Security Profiles > URL Filtering tab and
click Add.
The Objects tab appears only after you Add a Device Group (at
least one).
Enter a Name and a Description.
Select the Shared check box.
The Disable Override check box is cleared by default, which
means you can override inherited instances of the object in all
device groups. To disable overrides for the object, select the
check box.
In the Categories tab, select the check box of every Category
for which you want notification.
In the Action column, select Alert.
Click OK and Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama,
and click Commit again.
Select Objects > Addresses and select the Device Group in
which you will use the object.
Click Add and enter a Name to identify the object.
Be sure to leave the Shared check box cleared.
The Disable Override check box is cleared by default, which
means you can override inherited instances of the object in
device groups that are descendants of the selected Device
Group. To disable overrides for the object, select the check box.
Select the Type of address object and the associated value. For
example, select IP Range and enter the IP address range for the
web servers.
Click OK and Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama,
and click Commit again.
Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Device Group, select
the device group to which you added the object, and click
Commit again.

View shared objects and device group objects in In the pages of the Objects tab, the Location column indicates
whether an object is shared or is specific to a device group.
Panorama.
To demonstrate the difference between a shared 1. In the Objects tab, select the object type (Objects > Addresses,
in this example).
object and a device group object, the following
screenshot includes a shared address object that 2. Select the Device Group to which you added the object.
was created on Panorama.
The Objects tab only displays objects that are in the
selected Device Group or are inherited from an ancestor
device group or the Shared location.
3. Verify that the device group object appears. Note that the
device group name in the Location column matches the
selection in the Device Group drop-down.

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Manage Firewalls

Manage Device Groups

Revert to Inherited Object Values


After overriding the values that a device group object inherits from an ancestor device group, you can revert the
object to its ancestor values at any time. In the Objects tab, overridden objects have a yellow-overlapping-green
icon
in the Name column.
If you want to push ancestor values to all overridden objects instead of reverting a specific object,
see Manage Precedence of Inherited Objects.
For the steps to override values, see Override inherited object values.
For details on object inheritance and overrides, see Device Group Objects.

Revert an Overridden Object

Step 1

In the Objects tab, select the object type (for example, Objects > Addresses) and select the Device Group that
has an override instance of the object.

Step 2

Select the object, click Revert, and click Yes. The Name column displays a green icon for the object, indicating
that it now inherits all values from an ancestor device group.

Step 3

Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama, and click Commit again.

Step 4

Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Device Group, select the device group in which you reverted the
object, and click Commit again.

Manage Unused Shared Objects


When you commit Device Groups, by default Panorama pushes all shared objects to firewalls whether or not
any shared or device group policy rules reference the objects. However, you can configure Panorama to push
only the shared objects that rules reference in the device groups you commit. The Share Unused Address and
Service Objects with Devices check box enables you to limit the objects that Panorama pushes to the managed
firewalls.
On lower-end platforms, such as the PA-200, consider pushing only the relevant shared objects to the managed
devices. This is because the number of objects that can be stored on the lower-end platforms is considerably
lower than that of the mid- to high-end platforms. Also, if you have many address and service objects that are
unused, clearing the Share Unused Address and Service Objects with Devices check box reduces the commit times
significantly on the devices because the configuration pushed to each device is smaller. Disabling this option
may, however, increase the commit time on Panorama. This is because Panorama has to dynamically check
whether policy rules reference a particular object.
Manage Unused Shared Objects

Step 1

Select Panorama > Setup > Management, and edit the Panorama Settings.

Step 2

Clear the Share Unused Address and Service Objects with Devices check box to push only the shared objects
that rules reference, or select the check box to re-enable pushing all shared objects.

Step 3

Click OK and Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama, and click Commit again.

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Manage Precedence of Inherited Objects


By default, when device groups at different levels in the Device Group Hierarchy have an object with the same
name but different values (because of overrides, as an example), policy rules in a descendant device group use
the object values in that descendant instead of using object values inherited from ancestor device groups.
Optionally, you can reverse this order of precedence to push values from the highest ancestor containing the
object to all descendant device groups. After you enable this option, the next device group commit replaces any
overridden objects in the descendant device groups with the inherited objects.
If a firewall has locally defined objects with the same name as shared or device group objects that
Panorama pushes, a commit failure occurs.

If you want to revert a specific overridden object to its ancestor values instead of pushing ancestor
values to all overridden objects, see Revert to Inherited Object Values.

Manage Precedence of Inherited Objects

Step 1

Select Panorama > Setup > Management and edit the Panorama Settings.

Step 2

If you want to reverse the default order of precedence, select the Objects defined in ancestors will take higher
precedence check box. The dialog then displays the Find Overridden Objects link, which provides the option
to see how many overridden (shadowed) objects will have ancestor values after you commit this change. You
can hover over the quantity message to display the object names.
If you want to revert to the default order of precedence, clear the check box.

Step 3

Click OK and Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama, and click Commit again.

Step 4

(Optional) If you selected the Objects defined in ancestors will take higher precedence check box, Panorama
wont push the ancestor objects until you perform a device group commit: click Commit, for the Commit Type
select Device Group, select the desired device groups, and click Commit again.

Move or Clone a Policy Rule or Object to a Different Device Group


On Panorama, if a policy rule or object that you will move or clone from a device group has references to objects
that are not available in the target device group (Destination), you must move or clone the referenced objects
and the referencing rule or object in the same operation. In a Device Group Hierarchy, remember that
referenced objects might be available through inheritance. For example, shared objects are available in all device
groups. You can perform a global find to check for references. If you move or clone an overridden object, be
sure that overrides are enabled for that object in the parent device group of the Destination (see Create Objects
for Use in Shared or Device Group Policy).
Move or Clone a Policy Rule or Object to a Device Group

Step 1

Log in to Panorama and select the rulebase (for example, Policy > Security > Pre Rules) or object type (for
example, Objects > Addresses).

Step 2

Select the Device Group and select one or more rules or objects.

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Move or Clone a Policy Rule or Object to a Device Group (Continued)

Step 3

Perform one of the following steps:


(Rules only) Move > Move to other device group
(Objects only) Move
(Rules or objects) Clone

Step 4

In the Destination drop-down, select the new device group or Shared. The default is the Device Group selected
in Step 2.

Step 5

(Rules only) Select the Rule order:


Move top (default)The rule will come before all other rules.
Move bottomThe rule will come after all other rules.
Before ruleIn the adjacent drop-down, select the rule that comes after the Selected Rules.
After ruleIn the adjacent drop-down, select the rule that comes before the Selected Rules.

Step 6

The Error out on first detected error in validation check box is selected by default, which means Panorama
will display the first error it finds and stop checking for more errors. For example, an error occurs if the
Destination device group doesn't have an object that is referenced in the rule you are moving. When you move
or clone many items at once, selecting this check box can simplify troubleshooting. If you clear the check box,
Panorama will find all the errors before displaying them. Regardless of this setting, Panorama wont move or
clone anything until you fix all the errors for all the selected items.

Step 7

Click OK to start the error validation. If Panorama finds errors, fix them and retry the move or clone operation.
If Panorama doesn't find errors, it performs the operation.

Step 8

Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama, and click Commit again.

Step 9

Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Device Group, select the original and destination device groups, and
click Commit again.

Select a URL Filtering Vendor on Panorama


URL Filtering enables you to configure firewalls to monitor and control web access for your users. The policies
(Security, QoS, Captive Portal, and Decryption) that enforce web access rules reference URL categories. The
URL filtering vendor you select on Panorama determines which URL categories are referenced in the rules that
you add to device groups and push to firewalls.
On any single device, Panorama or a firewall, only one URL Filtering vendor can be active: PAN-DB or
BrightCloud. To determine which vendor best suits your needs, consult Palo Alto Networks Customer Service.
When selecting a vendor for Panorama, you must consider the vendor and PAN-OS version of the managed
firewalls:

PAN-OS 5.0.x and earlier versionsPanorama and the firewalls require matching URL Filtering vendors.

PAN-OS 6.0 or later versionsPanorama and the firewalls do not require matching URL Filtering vendors.
If a vendor mismatch is detected, the firewall maps the URL categories in the URL Filtering profiles and
rules that it received from Panorama to categories that align with those of the vendor enabled on the firewall.
For details, refer to the article BrightCloud to PAN-DB Category Mapping.

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Therefore, for a deployment in which some firewalls run PAN-OS 6.0 or later and some firewalls run earlier
PAN-OS versions, Panorama must use the same URL Filtering vendor as the firewalls that run earlier PAN-OS
versions. For example, if firewalls that run PAN-OS 5.0 use BrightCloud, and firewalls that run PAN-OS 7.0 use
PAN-DB (or BrightCloud), Panorama must use BrightCloud.
A firewall can have valid licenses for both BrightCloud and PAN-DB, but only one license can be
active. To view the valid URL Filtering licenses on a managed firewall, select Panorama >
Device Deployment > Licenses and check the vendors listed in the URL column for the
corresponding firewall. To determine which license is active (and therefore which URL Filtering
vendor is selected), log in to the firewall and select Device > Licenses. You can change the
active URL Filtering vendor of a firewall.

Select a URL Filtering Vendor on Panorama

Step 1

Select a URL filtering vendor for


Panorama.

1.
2.

Step 2

(Optional) Verify that the categories are


available for referencing in policies.
Unlike firewalls, Panorama does
not download the URL database,
so you cannot view the database
download status.

1.
2.

Select Panorama > Setup > Management and edit the General
Settings.
Select the vendor in the URL Filtering Database drop-down:
brightcloud or paloaltonetworks (PAN-DB).
Select Objects > Security Profiles > URL Filtering.
Click Add and verify that the Categories tab of the URL
Filtering profile dialog displays the categories.

Push a Policy Rule to a Subset of Firewalls


A policy target allows you to specify the firewalls in a device group to which to push policy rules. It allows you
to exclude one or more firewalls or virtual systems, or to apply a rule only to specific firewalls or virtual systems
in a device group.
The ability to target a rule enables you to keep policies centralized on Panorama; it offers visibility and efficiency
in managing the rules. Instead of creating local rules on a only or virtual system, targeted rules allow you to
define the rules (as shared or device-group pre- or post-rules) on Panorama (for details, see Device Group
Policies).

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Manage Device Groups

Push a Policy Rule to a Subset of Firewalls

Step 1

Create a rule.
In this example, we define a pre-rule in
the Security rulebase that permits users
on the internal network to access the
servers in the DMZ.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Step 2

Target the rule to include or exclude a


subset of firewalls.

Select the Policies tab and select the Device Group for which
you want to define a rule.
Select the rulebase. For this example, select Policies > Security
> Pre-Rules.
Click Add and, in the General tab, enter a descriptive rule
Name.
In the Source tab, set the Source Zone to Trust.
In the Destination tab, set the Destination Zone to DMZ.
In the Service/ URL Category tab, set the Service to
application-default.
In the Actions tab, set the Action to Allow.
Leave all the other options at the default values.

To apply the rule to a selected set of firewalls:


1. Select the Target tab in the Policy Rule window.
2. Select the firewalls on which you want the rule to apply.
If you do not select firewalls to target, the rule is added to all of
the (unchecked) firewalls in the device group.
By default, although the check box for the virtual
systems in the device group is unchecked, all the virtual
systems will inherit the rule on commit. Select the check
box for one or more virtual systems to which you want
the rule to apply.
3. (Optional) To exclude a subset of firewalls from inheriting the
rule, select the check box Install on all but specified devices.
If you select Install on all but specified devices and do
not select any device, the rule is added to none of the
firewalls in the device group.
4. Click OK to add the rule.
5. Save the configuration changes.
a. Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama, and
click Commit again.
b. Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Device Group,
select the device group to which you just added the rule, and
click Commit again.

Manage the Rule Hierarchy


The order of policy rules is critical for the security of your network. Within any policy layer (shared, device
group, or locally defined rules) and rulebase (for example, shared Security pre-rules), the firewall evaluates rules
from top to bottom in the order they appear in the pages of the Policies tab. The firewall matches a packet
against the first rule that meets the defined criteria and ignores subsequent rules. Therefore, to enforce the most
specific match, move the more specific rules above more generic rules.

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To understand the order in which the firewall evaluates rules by layer and by type (pre-rules,
post-rules, and default rules) across the Device Group Hierarchy, see Device Group Policies.

Manage the Rule Hierarchy

Step 1

View the rule hierarchy for each rulebase. 1.


2.
3.

4.
5.
6.
Step 2

Delete or disable rules, if necessary.

1.

To determine which rules a


2.
firewall doesnt currently use,
select that firewall in the Context 3.
drop-down on Panorama, select
the rulebase (for example,
Policies > Security), and select
the Highlight Unused Rules
check box. A dotted orange
background indicates the rules
that the firewall doesnt use.
Step 3

Reposition rules within a rulebase, if


necessary.
To reposition local rules on a
firewall, access its web interface
by selecting that firewall in the
Context drop-down before
performing this step.

1.
2.
3.

Select the Policies tab and click Preview Rules.


Filter the preview by Rulebase (for example, Security or QoS).
Filter the preview to display the rules of a specific Device Group
and the rules it inherits from the Shared location and ancestor
device groups. You must select a device group that has firewalls
assigned to it.
Filter the preview by Device to display its locally defined rules.
Click the green arrow icon to apply your filter selections to the
preview (see Figure: Rule Hierarchy).
Close the Combined Rules Preview dialog when you finish
previewing rules.
Select the rulebase (for example, Policies > Security > Pre
Rules) that contains the rule you will delete or disable.
Select the Device Group that contains the rule.
Select the rule, and click Delete or Disable as desired. Disabled
rules appear in italicized font.

Select the rulebase (for example, Policies > Security > Pre
Rules) that contains the rule you will move.
Select the Device Group that contains the rule.
Select the rule, select Move, and select:
Move TopMoves the rule above all other rules in the device
group (but not above rules inherited from Shared or ancestor
device groups).
Move UpMoves the rule above the one that precedes it
(but not above rules inherited from Shared or ancestor
device groups).
Move DownMoves the rule below the one that follows it.
Move BottomMoves the rule below all other rules.
Move to other device groupSee Move or Clone a Policy
Rule or Object to a Different Device Group.

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Manage Device Groups

Manage the Rule Hierarchy (Continued)

Step 4

If you modified the rules, save the


changes.

1.
2.

Palo Alto Networks

Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama, and click
Commit again.
Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Device Group, select
the device group that contains the rules you changed or deleted,
and click Commit again.

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Manage Templates and Template Stacks

Manage Firewalls

Manage Templates and Template Stacks


Use templates and template stacks to define the common base configurations that enable firewalls to operate in
your network. See Templates and Template Stacks for an overview of the issues you should consider when
deciding which firewalls to add to which templates, ordering templates in a stack to manage layers of common
and firewall group-specific settings, and overriding template settings with firewall-specific values.
To delete a template, you must first locally Disable/Remove Template Settings on the firewall.
Only administrators with the superuser role can disable a template.

Template Capabilities and Exceptions

Add a Template

Configure a Template Stack

Process by Which a Firewall Receives a Virtual System from a Template

Override a Template Setting

Disable/Remove Template Settings

Template Capabilities and Exceptions


You can use Templates and Template Stacks to define a wide array of settings, but you can perform the following
tasks only locally on each managed firewall:

Configure a virtual system (vsys).

Configure a shared gateway.

Clear logs.

Enable operational modes such as multi-vsys mode, Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) mode,
or Common Criteria (CC) mode.

Configure the IP addresses of a firewall HA pair.

Configure a master key and diagnostics.

Compare configuration files (Config Audit).


To Manage Licenses and Updates (software or content) for firewalls, use Panorama tab options,
not templates.

Add a Template
You must add at least one template before Panorama will display the Device and Network tabs required to define
the network set up and device configuration elements for firewalls.

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You can avoid duplicating many configurations among templates by combining them into a
template stack: see Templates and Template Stacks and Configure a Template Stack.

Add a Template

Step 1

Add a template.

1.
2.
3.

4.

5.

6.
7.

Step 2

Verify that the template is available.

Select Panorama > Templates.


Click Add and enter a unique Name to identify the template.
If the template has a virtual system (vsys) with configurations
(for example, interfaces) that you want Panorama to push to
firewalls that dont have virtual systems, select it in the Default
VSYS drop-down.
For related information, see Process by Which a Firewall
Receives a Virtual System from a Template.
In the Devices section, select check boxes to assign firewalls to
the template.
Whenever you add a new managed firewall to Panorama,
you must assign it to the appropriate template;
Panorama does not automatically assign new firewalls.
When you perform a template commit, Panorama
pushes the configuration to every firewall assigned to
the template.
(Optional) Select Group HA Peers to display a single check box
for firewalls that are in a high availability (HA) configuration.
Icons indicate the HA state: green for active and yellow for
passive. The firewall name of the secondary peer is in
parentheses.
For active/passive HA, add both peers to the same
template so that both will receive the configurations. For
active/active HA, whether you add both peers to the
same template depends on whether each peer requires
the same configurations. For a list of the configurations
that PAN-OS synchronizes between HA peers, see High
Availability Synchronization.
Click OK and Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama,
and click Commit again.
Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Template, select the
firewalls assigned to the template you just added, and click
Commit again.

After you add the first template, Panorama displays the Device and
Network tabs. These tabs display a Template drop-down. Check
that the drop-down displays the template you just added.

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Manage Templates and Template Stacks

Manage Firewalls

Add a Template (Continued)

Step 3

Use the template to push a configuration Lets define a primary Domain Name System (DNS) server for the
change to firewalls.
firewalls in the template.
1. In the Device tab, select the Template from the drop-down.
2. Select Device > Setup > Services > Global, and edit the Services
section.
3. Enter an IP address for the Primary DNS Server.
4. Click OK and Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama,
and click Commit again.
5. Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Template, select the
firewalls assigned to the template, and click Commit again.

Step 4

Verify that the firewall is configured with 1.


the template settings that you pushed
from Panorama.
2.

In the Context drop-down, select one of the firewalls to which


you pushed the template setting.
Select Device > Setup > Services > Global. The IP address that
you pushed from the template appears. The Services section
header displays a template icon (green cog) to indicate that
settings in the section have values pushed from a template.

Configure a Template Stack


A template stack is a combination of templates: Panorama pushes the settings from every template in the stack
to the firewalls you assign to that stack. For details and planning, see Templates and Template Stacks.
Configure a Template Stack

Step 1

Plan the templates and their order in the For each template you will assign to the stack, Add a Template.
stack.
When planning the priority order of templates within the
stack (for overlapping settings), remember that Panorama
doesnt check the order for invalid relationships. For
example, consider a stack in which the ethernet1/1 interface
is of type Layer 3 in Template_A but of type Layer 2 with a
VLAN in Template_B. If Template_A has a higher priority,
Panorama will push ethernet1/1 as type Layer 3 but assigned
to a VLAN.
Also note that a template configuration cant reference a
configuration in another template, even if both templates are
in the same stack. For example, a zone configuration in
Template_A cant reference a zone protection profile in
Template_B.

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Configure a Template Stack (Continued)

Step 2

Create a template stack.

1.
2.
3.

4.

Step 3

Edit the Network and Device settings, if 1.


necessary.
While Panorama pushes
mode-specific settings only to
2.
firewalls that support those
modes, this selective push doesnt
adjust mode-specific values. For
example, if a template has
firewalls in Federal Information
Processing Standards (FIPS)
mode and an IKE Crypto profile
3.
that uses non-FIPS algorithms,
the template commit will fail. To
avoid such errors, use the Mode
drop-down in the Network and
Device tabs to filter mode-specific
features and value options.
In an individual firewall context,
you can override settings that
Panorama pushes from a stack in
the same way you override
settings pushed from a template:
see Override a Template Setting.

Depending on the settings you will configure, select the


Network or Device tab and select the stack in the Template
drop-down. The tab settings are read-only when you select a
stack.
Filter the tabs to display only the mode-specific settings you
want to edit:
In the Mode drop-down, select or clear the Multi VSYS,
Operational Mode, and VPN Mode filter options.
Set all the Mode options to reflect the mode configuration of
a particular firewall by selecting it in the Device drop-down.
You can edit settings only at the template level, not at the stack
level. To identify and access the template that contains the
setting you want to edit:
If the page displays a table, select Columns > Template in
the drop-down of any column header. The Template column
displays the source template for each setting. If multiple
templates have the same setting, the Template column
displays the higher priority template. Click the template
name in this column: the Template drop-down changes to
that template, at which point you can edit the setting.
If the page doesnt display a table, hover over the template
icon (green cog) for a setting: a tooltip displays the source
template. If multiple templates have the same setting, the
tooltip displays the higher priority template. In the Template
drop-down, select the template that the tooltip displays to
edit the setting.

4.
5.
6.

Palo Alto Networks

Select Panorama > Templates and click Add Stack.


Enter a unique Name to identify the stack.
For each of the Templates the stack will combine (up to 16),
click Add and select the template. The dialog lists the added
templates in order of priority with respect to duplicate settings,
where values in the higher templates override those that are
lower in the list. To change the order, select a template and click
Move Up or Move Down.
In the Devices section, select check boxes to assign firewalls.
You cant assign individual virtual systems, only an entire
firewall. You can assign any firewall to only one template or
stack. After you finish selecting, click OK.

Edit the settings as needed.


Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama, and click
Commit again.
Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Template, select the
firewalls assigned to the template stack, and click Commit again.

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Manage Firewalls

Configure a Template Stack (Continued)

Step 4

Verify that the template stack works as


expected.

Perform the same verification steps as when you Add a Template


but select the template stack from the Template drop-down:
1. Use the template to push a configuration change to firewalls.
2. Verify that the firewall is configured with the template settings
that you pushed from Panorama.

Process by Which a Firewall Receives a Virtual System from a Template


Panorama supports the ability to configure a virtual system (vsys) using a template, and then push the
configuration from the template to a multi-vsys firewall. The process by which the firewall receives a template
vsys configuration is as follows:
If a firewall doesnt support multiple virtual systems, you can still push the vsys-specific
configurations of one vsys in the template to the firewall. You configure this option when you Add
a Template.

Process by Which a Firewall Receives a Virtual System from a Template

Step 1

The firewall looks at the vsys name in the configuration from Panorama. If the vsys name in the Panorama
configuration matches a vsys name on the firewall, the firewall vsys receives the configuration pushed from
Panorama.

Step 2

If the vsys name match fails, the firewall looks at the vsys ID on Panorama and searches for a matching vsys ID
of an unnamed firewall vsys. If an unnamed vsys has a matching ID, that vsys receives the name and
configuration pushed from Panorama.

Step 3

If the vsys ID match fails, the firewall creates a new vsys with the name and configuration pushed from
Panorama. The firewall assigns the next available vsys ID to the new vsys.

For example, the firewall receives a template-defined vsys named Finance (ID of 3) as follows:
1. If the firewall cannot find a vsys named Finance, the firewall searches for an unnamed vsys with an ID of 3.
2. If an unnamed vsys with ID 3 does not exist, the firewall creates a new vsys named Finance and assigns the
next available ID.

Override a Template Setting


While Templates and Template Stacks enable you to apply a base configuration to multiple firewalls, you might
want to configure firewall-specific settings that dont apply to all the firewalls in a template or template stack.
Overrides allow for exceptions or modifications to meet your deployment needs. For example, if you use a
template to create a base configuration but a few firewalls in a test lab environment need different settings for
the Domain Name System (DNS) server IP address or the Network Time Protocol (NTP) server, you can
override the template settings.

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Manage Templates and Template Stacks

If you want to disable or remove all the template or stack settings on a firewall instead of
overriding a single setting, see Disable/Remove Template Settings.

Override a Template Setting

Step 1

Access the web interface of the firewall.

Directly access the firewall by entering its IP address in the URL


field of your browser, or use the Context drop-down in Panorama
to switch to the firewall context.

Step 2

Navigate to the setting you will override. 1.


In this example, you will override the
DNS server IP address that you assigned 2.
using a template in Add a Template.
3.

4.

Select Device > Setup > Services > Global and edit the Services
section.
Click the template icon (green cog) for the Primary DNS
Server to enable overrides for that field.
Enter a new IP address for the Primary DNS Server. Note that
the dialog now displays a template override icon
(orange-overlapping-green cogs) to indicate that the value is
overridden.
Click OK and Commit.

Disable/Remove Template Settings


If you want to stop using a template or template stack for managing the configuration on a managed firewall,
you can disable the template or stack. When disabling, you can copy the template/stack values to the local
configuration of the firewall or delete the values.
If you want to override a single setting instead of disabling or removing every template or stack
setting, see Override a Template Setting.
See Templates and Template Stacks for details on how to use these for managing firewalls.

Disable/Remove Template Settings

Step 1

Access the web interface of the managed firewall as an administrator with the Superuser role. You can directly
access the firewall by entering its IP address in the browser URL field or, in Panorama, select the firewall in the
Context drop-down.

Step 2

Select Device > Setup > Management and edit the Panorama Settings.

Step 3

Click Disable Device and Network Template.

Step 4

(Optional) Select Import Device and Network Template before disabling, to save the configuration settings
locally on the firewall. If you do not select this option, PAN-OS will delete all Panorama-pushed settings from
the device.

Step 5

Click OK twice and then click Commit to save the changes.

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Transition a Firewall to Panorama Management

Manage Firewalls

Transition a Firewall to Panorama Management


If you have already deployed Palo Alto Networks firewalls and configured them locally, but now want to start
using Panorama for centrally managing them, you must perform pre-migration planning. The migration involves
importing entire firewall configurations into Panorama and verifying that the firewalls function as expected after
the transition.

Plan the Transition to Panorama Management

Migrate a Firewall to Panorama Management

Plan the Transition to Panorama Management


The following tasks are a high-level overview of the planning required to migrate firewalls to Panorama
management:

Decide which firewalls to migrate.

Determine the Panorama and firewall software and content versions, and how you will Manage Licenses
and Updates. For important details, see Panorama, Log Collector, and Firewall Version Compatibility.

Plan Your Deployment for Panorama with respect to the URL filtering database (BrightCloud or
PAN-DB), log collection, and administrator roles.

Plan how to manage shared settings.


Plan the Device Group Hierarchy, Templates and Template Stacks in a way that will reduce redundancy and
streamline the management of settings that are shared among all firewalls within firewall sets. During the
migration, you can select whether to import objects from the Shared location on the firewall into Shared on
Panorama, with the following exceptions:

If a shared firewall object has the same name and value as an existing shared Panorama object, the
import excludes that firewall object.

If the name or value of the shared firewall object differs from an existing shared Panorama object,
Panorama imports the firewall object into each new device group that is created for the import.

If a configuration imported into a template references a shared firewall object, or if a shared firewall
object references a configuration imported into a template, Panorama imports the object as a shared
object regardless of whether you select the Import devices' shared objects into Panorama's shared context
check box.

Determine if the firewall has configuration elements (policies, objects, and other settings) that you dont
want to import, either because Panorama already contains similar elements or because those elements are
firewall-specific (for example, timezone settings) and you wont use Panorama to manage them. You can
perform a global find to determine if duplicate elements exist.

Decide the common zones for each device group. This includes a zone-naming strategy for the firewalls
and virtual systems in each device group. For example, if you have zones called Branch LAN and WAN,
Panorama can push policy rules that reference those zones without being aware of the variations in port or
media type, platform, or logical addressing schema.

Create a post-migration test plan.

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You will use the test plan to verify that the firewalls work as efficiently after the migration as they did before.
The plan might include tasks such as:

Monitor the firewalls for at least 24 hours after the migration.

Monitor Panorama and firewall logs for anomalies.

Check administrator logins on Panorama.

Test various types of traffic from multiple sources. For example, check bandwidth graphs, session
counts, and deny-rule traffic log entries (see Use Panorama for Visibility). The testing should cover a
representative sample of policy configurations.

Check with your network operations center (NOC) and security operations center (SOC) for any
user-reported issues.

Include any other test criteria that will help verify firewall functionality.

Migrate a Firewall to Panorama Management


When you import a firewall configuration, Panorama automatically creates a template to contain the imported
network and device settings. To contain the imported policies and objects, Panorama automatically creates one
device group for each firewall or one device group for each virtual system (vsys) in a multi-vsys firewall.
Panorama imports the entire firewall configuration; you cant select specific configuration elements to import.
You can import configurations from firewalls that run PAN-OS 5.0 or later releases. However,
Panorama releases that support configuration imports (Panorama 7.0 or later) cant push or
export configurations to firewalls running PAN-OS 6.0.3 or earlier releases.
See Panorama, Log Collector, and Firewall Version Compatibility for important details about
software and content version compatibility between Panorama and firewalls.
A firewall doesnt lose logs when you import its configuration into Panorama.

Migrate Firewalls to Panorama Management

Step 1

Plan the migration.

See the checklist in Plan the Transition to Panorama Management.

Step 2

Add the firewalls as managed devices.

Add a Firewall as a Managed Device:


1. Log in to Panorama, select Panorama > Managed Devices and
click Add.
2. Enter the serial number of the firewall and click OK.
If you will import multiple firewall configurations, enter
the serial number of each one on a separate line.
3. Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama, and click
Commit again.
4. Perform steps 3-7 for each firewall configuration you will
import.

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Migrate Firewalls to Panorama Management (Continued)

Step 3

Set up a connection from the firewall to


Panorama.

1.
2.
3.

Step 4

Import the firewall configuration into


Panorama.

1.

If you later decide to re-import a


firewall configuration, first remove
the firewall or its virtual systems
from the device groups and
2.
template where you originally
imported them. (Firewalls dont
lose logs when you remove them 3.
from device groups or templates.)
Because the imported policies and
4.
objects remain in the device
groups, you must manually move,
edit, or delete them when
necessary. When re-importing, use
the Device Group Name Prefix
fields to define device group
names that differ from the ones
Panorama created in the original
import.

5.

6.

100 Panorama 7.0 Administrators Guide

Log in to the firewall, select Device > Setup, and edit the
Panorama Settings.
In the Panorama Servers fields, enter the IP addresses of the
Panorama management server.
Click OK and Commit.
From Panorama, select Panorama > Setup > Operations, click
Import device configuration to Panorama, and select the
Device.
Panorama cant import a configuration from a firewall
that is assigned to an existing device group or template.
Enter a Template Name. If this is a multi-vsys firewall, the field
is blank. Otherwise, the default value is the firewall name. You
cant use the name of an existing template.
For a multi-vsys firewall, optionally add a character string as a
Device Group Name Prefix for all the device groups.
(Optional) Edit the Device Group names. If this is a multi-vsys
firewall, each device group has a vsys name by default.
Otherwise, the default value is the firewall name. You cant use
the names of existing device groups.
The Import devices' shared objects into Panorama's
shared context check box is selected by default, which
means Panorama imports objects that belong to the
Shared location in the firewall to Shared in Panorama. If
you clear the check box, Panorama copies shared firewall
objects into device groups instead of Shared. This could
create duplicate objects, so selecting the check box is a
best practice in most cases. To understand the
consequences of importing shared or duplicate objects
into Panorama, see Plan how to manage shared settings.
Select a Rule Import Location for the imported policy rules:
Pre Rulebase or Post Rulebase. Regardless of your selection,
Panorama imports default security rules (intrazone-default and
interzone-default) into the post-rulebase.
If Panorama has a rule with the same name as a firewall
rule that you import, Panorama displays both rules.
Delete one of the rules before performing a Panorama
commit to prevent a commit error.
Click OK. Panorama displays the import status, result, details
about your selections, details about what was imported, and any
warnings. Click Close.

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Manage Firewalls

Transition a Firewall to Panorama Management

Migrate Firewalls to Panorama Management (Continued)

Step 5

Fine-tune the imported configuration.

1.

2.

In Panorama, select Panorama > Config Audit, select the


Running config and Candidate config for the comparison, click
Go, and review the output.
Update the device group and template configurations as needed
based on the configuration audit and any warnings that
Panorama displayed after the import. For example:
Delete redundant objects and policy rules.
Move or Clone a Policy Rule or Object to a Different Device
Group.
Move firewalls to different device groups or templates.
Move a device group that Panorama created during the
import to a different parent device group: Select Panorama
> Device Groups, select the device group you want to move,
select a new Parent Device Group, and click OK.

Step 6

Step 7

Push the device configuration bundle to


the firewall to remove all policies and
objects from its local configuration.

1.

Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama, and click
Commit again. Panorama creates a device configuration bundle

This step is necessary to prevent commit


errors when you push the device group 2.
policies and objects from Panorama to
the firewall in the next step.
3.

named <firewall_name>_import.tgz, in which all policies and


objects are removed.
In Panorama, select Panorama > Setup > Operations and click
Export or push device config bundle.
Select the Device from which you imported the configuration,
click OK, and click Push & Commit. Panorama pushes the
bundle and initiates a commit on the firewall.

Push the device group and template


1.
configurations to the firewall to complete
the transition to centralized management. 2.

Device Group.

3.

Palo Alto Networks

In Panorama, click Commit and for the Commit Type select


Select the Merge with Device Candidate Config, Include
Device and Network Templates and Force Template Values
check boxes.
Select the device groups that contain the imported firewall
configurations and click Commit.

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Migrate Firewalls to Panorama Management (Continued)

Step 8

Consolidate all the imported firewall


configurations.

1.

Required only if you are migrating


multiple firewalls. Configuration elements
might be duplicated among the firewalls.
For example, if you imported an object 2.
with the same name from two firewalls,
you must delete one object in Panorama
before performing a commit on
Panorama.

3.

Step 9

Perform your post-migration test plan.

102 Panorama 7.0 Administrators Guide

After importing all the firewall configurations, update the


device groups and templates as needed to eliminate redundancy
and streamline configuration management: see Fine-tune the
imported configuration. (You dont need to push device
configuration bundles again.)
Configure any firewall-specific settings.
If the firewalls will have local zones, you must create them
before performing a device group or template commit;
Panorama cant poll the devices for zone name or zone
configuration. If you will use local firewall rules, ensure their
names are unique (not duplicated in Panorama). If necessary,
you can Override a Template Setting with a firewall-specific
value.
In Panorama, click Commit, for the Commit Type select Device
Group, select the device groups, select the Include Device and
Network Templates check box, and click Commit.

Perform the verification tasks that you devised during the migration
planning to confirm that the firewalls work as efficiently with the
Panorama-pushed configuration as they did with their original local
configuration: see Create a post-migration test plan.

Palo Alto Networks

Manage Firewalls

Use Case: Configure Firewalls Using Panorama

Use Case: Configure Firewalls Using Panorama


Lets say that you want to use Panorama in a high availability configuration to manage a dozen firewalls on your
network: you have six firewalls deployed across six branch offices, a pair of firewalls in a high availability
configuration at each of two data centers, and a firewall in each of the two regional head offices.

The first step in creating your central management strategy is to determine how to group the firewalls into
device groups and templates to efficiently push configurations from Panorama. You can base the grouping on
the business functions, geographic locations, or administrative domains of the firewalls. In this example, you
create two device groups and three templates to administer the devices using Panorama:

Device Groups

Templates

Set Up Your Centralized Configuration and Policies

Device Groups
In this example, we decide to define two device groups based on the functions the firewalls will perform:

DG_BranchAndRegional for grouping devices that serve as the security gateways at the branch offices and
at the regional head offices. We placed the branch office firewalls and the regional office firewalls in the same
device group because devices with similar functions will require similar policy rulebases.

DG_DataCenter for grouping the devices that secure the servers at the data centers.

We can then administer shared policy rules across both device groups as well as administer distinct device group
rules for the regional office and branch office groups. Then for added flexibility, the local administrator at a
regional or branch office can create local rules that match specific source, destination, and service flows for
accessing applications and services that are required for that office. In this example, we create the following
hierarchy for security rules. you can use a similar approach for any of the other rulebases.

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Manage Firewalls

Templates
When grouping firewalls for templates, we must take into account the differences in the networking
configuration. For example, if the interface configuration is not the samethe interfaces are unlike in type, or
the interfaces used are not alike in the numbering scheme and link capacity, or the zone to interface mappings
are different the firewalls must be in separate templates. Further, the way the firewalls are configured to access
network resources might be different because the firewalls are spread geographically; for example, the DNS
server, syslog servers and gateways that they access might be different. So, to allow for an optimal base
configuration, you must place the firewalls in separate templates as follows:

T_Branch for the branch office firewalls

T_Regional for the regional office firewalls

T_DataCenter for the data center firewalls

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Use Case: Configure Firewalls Using Panorama

If you plan to deploy your firewalls in an active/active HA configuration, assign each firewall in the HA pair to a
separate template. Doing so gives you the flexibility to set up separate networking configurations for each peer.
For example, you can manage the networking configurations in a separate template for each peer so that each
can connect to different northbound and southbound routers, and can have different OSPF or BGP peering
configurations.

Set Up Your Centralized Configuration and Policies


Using the example described in the preceding topics (starting with Use Case: Configure Firewalls Using
Panorama), perform the following tasks to centrally deploy and administer firewalls:

TASK 1Add the firewalls as managed devices, and deploy content updates and PAN-OS software updates
to those firewalls.

TASK 2Use templates to administer a base configuration.

TASK 3Use device groups to manage the firewall policies.

TASK 4Preview your rules and commit your changes to Panorama, device groups, and templates.

Add the Managed Firewalls and Deploy Updates

TASK 1
Add the firewalls as managed devices, and deploy content updates and PAN-OS software updates to those firewalls.
Step 1

For each firewall that Panorama will


manage, Add a Firewall as a Managed
Device.

Palo Alto Networks

In this example, add 12 firewalls.

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Use Case: Configure Firewalls Using Panorama

Manage Firewalls

Add the Managed Firewalls and Deploy Updates (Continued)

Step 2

Deploy the content updates to the


1.
firewalls. If you purchased a Threat
2.
Prevention subscription, the content and
antivirus databases are available to you.
First install the Applications or
3.
Applications and Threats database, then
the Antivirus.
4.
To review the status or progress
for all tasks performed on
Panorama, see View Panorama
5.
Task Completion History.

Select Panorama > Device Deployment > Dynamic Updates.


Click Check Now to check for the latest updates. If the value in
the Action column is Download, this indicates an update is
available.
Click Download. When the download completes, the value in
the Action column changes to Install.
In the Action column, click Install. Use the filters or
user-defined tags to select the managed firewalls on which you
would like to install this update.
Click OK, then monitor the status, progress, and result of the
content update for each firewall. The Result column displays
the success or failure of the installation.

Step 3

Deploy the software updates to the


firewalls.

Select Panorama > Device Deployment > Software.


Click Check Now to check for the latest updates. If the value in
the Action column is Download, this indicates an update is
available.
Locate the version that you need for each hardware model and
click Download. When the download completes, the value in
the Action column changes to Install.
In the Action column, click the Install link. Use the filters or
user-defined tags to select the managed firewalls on which to
install this version.
Enable the check box for Reboot device after install or
Upload only to device (do not install) and click OK. The
Results column displays the success or failure of the
installation.

1.
2.

3.

4.

5.

Use Templates to Administer a Base configuration

TASK 2
Use templates to administer a base configuration.
Step 1

For each template you will use, Add a


Template and assign the appropriate
firewalls to each.

106 Panorama 7.0 Administrators Guide

In this example, create templates named T_Branch, T_Regional, and


T_DataCenter.

Palo Alto Networks

Manage Firewalls

Use Case: Configure Firewalls Using Panorama

Use Templates to Administer a Base configuration (Continued)

Step 2

Define a DNS server, NTP server, syslog 1.


server, and login banner. Repeat this step 2.
for each template.

In the Device tab, select the Template from the drop-down.


Define the DNS and NTP servers:
a. Select Device > Setup > Services > Global and edit the
Services.
b. In the Services tab, enter an IP address for the Primary
DNS Server.
For any firewall that has more than one virtual
system (vsys), for each vsys, add a DNS server profile
to the template (Device > Server Profiles > DNS).
c. In the NTP tab, enter an IP address for the Primary NTP
Server.
d. Click OK to save your changes.

3.

4.
Step 3

Step 4

Enable HTTPS, SSH, and SNMP access


to the management interface of the
managed firewalls. Repeat this step for
each template.

1.
2.

Create a Zone Protection profile for the


firewalls in the data center template
(T_DataCenter).

1.

3.

2.
3.

4.

5.

Palo Alto Networks

Add a login banner: select Device > Setup > Management, edit
the General Settings, enter text for the Login Banner and click
OK.
Configure a Syslog server profile (Device > Server Profiles >
Syslog).
In the Device tab, select the Template from the drop-down.
Select Setup > Management, and edit the Management
Interface Settings.
Under Services, select the HTTPS, SSH, and SNMP check boxes,
and click OK.
Select the Network tab and, in the Template drop-down, select
T_DataCenter.
Select Network Profiles > Zone Protection and click Add.
For this example, enable protection against a SYN floodIn
the Flood Protection tab, select the SYN check box, set the
Action to SYN Cookies as, set the Alert packets/second to 100,
set the Activate packets/second to 1000, and set the Maximum
packets/second to 10000.
For this example, enable alertsIn the Reconnaissance
Protection tab, select the Enable check boxes for TCP Port
Scan, Host Sweep, and UDP Port Scan. Ensure the Action
values are set to alert (the default value).
Click OK to save the Zone Protection profile.

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Manage Firewalls

Use Templates to Administer a Base configuration (Continued)

Step 5

Configure the interface and zone settings 1.


in the data center template
(T_DataCenter), and then attach the
2.
Zone Protection profile you just created.
Before performing this step, you 3.
must have configured the
4.
interfaces locally on the firewalls.
As a minimum, for each interface,
you must have defined the
5.
interface type, assigned it to a
virtual router (if needed), and
attached a security zone.
6.
7.
8.

Step 6

Commit your template changes.

1.
2.

Select the Network tab and, in the Template drop-down, select


T_DataCenter.
Select Network > Interface and, in the Interface column, click
the interface name.
Select the Interface Type from the drop-down.
In the Virtual Router drop-down, click New Virtual Router.
When defining the router, ensure the Name matches what is
defined on the firewall.
In the Security Zone drop-down, click New Zone. When
defining the zone, ensure that the Name matches what is
defined on the firewall.
Click OK to save your changes to the interface.
Select Network > Zones, and select the zone you just created.
Verify that the correct interface is attached to the zone.
In the Zone Protection Profile drop-down, select the profile
you created, and click OK.
Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama, and
click Commit again.
Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Template, select the
firewalls assigned to the templates in which you made changes,
and click Commit again.

Use Device Groups to Push Policy Rules

TASK 3
Use device groups to manage the policy rules on your firewalls.
Step 1

Create device groups and assign the


appropriate firewalls to each device
group: see Add a Device Group.

108 Panorama 7.0 Administrators Guide

In this example, create device groups named


DG_BranchAndRegional and DG_DataCenter.
When configuring the DG_BranchAndRegional device group, you
must assign a Master firewall. This is the only firewall in the device
group that gathers user and group mapping information for policy
evaluation.

Palo Alto Networks

Manage Firewalls

Use Case: Configure Firewalls Using Panorama

Use Device Groups to Push Policy Rules (Continued)

Step 2

Create a shared pre-rule to allow DNS


and SNMP services.

1.

Create a shared application group for the DNS and SNMP


services.
a. Select Objects > Application Group and click Add.
b. Enter a Name and select the Shared check box to create a
shared application group object.
c. Click Add, type DNS, and select dns from the list. Repeat for
SNMP and select snmp, snmp-trap.
d. Click OK to create the application group.

2.

Create the shared rule.


a. Select the Policies tab and, in the Device Group drop-down,
select Shared.
b. Select the Security > Pre-Rules rulebase.
c. Click Add and enter a Name for the security rule.
d. In the Source and Destination tabs for the rule, click Add
and enter a Source Zone and a Destination Zone for the
traffic.
e. In the Applications tab, click Add, type the name of the
applications group object you just created, and select it from
the drop-down.
f. In the Actions tab, set the Action to Allow, and click OK.

Step 3

Define the corporate acceptable use


policy for all offices. In this example,
create a shared rule that restricts access to
some URL categories and denies access to
peer-to-peer traffic that is of risk level 3,
4, or 5.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Select the Policies tab and, in the Device Group drop-down,


select Shared.
Select Security > Pre-Rules and click Add.
In the General tab, enter a Name for the security rule.
In the Source and Destination tabs, click Add and select any
for the traffic Source Zone and Destination Zone.
In the Application tab, define the application filter:
a. Click Add and click New Application Filter in the footer of
the drop-down.
b. Enter a Name, and select the Shared check box.
c. In the Risk column, select levels 3, 4, and 5.
d. In the Technology column, select peer-to-peer.
e. Click OK to save the new filter.

6.

7.

8.

Palo Alto Networks

In the Service/URL Category tab, URL Category section, click


Add and select the categories you want to block (for example,
streaming-media, dating, and online-personal-storage).
You can also attach the default URL Filtering profileIn the
Actions tab, Profile Setting section, select the Profile Type
option Profiles, and select the URL Filtering option default.
Click OK to save the security pre-rule.

Panorama 7.0 Administrators Guide 109

Use Case: Configure Firewalls Using Panorama

Manage Firewalls

Use Device Groups to Push Policy Rules (Continued)

Step 4

Allow Facebook for all users in the


Marketing group in the regional offices
only.
Enabling a security rule based on user and
group has the following prerequisite
tasks:
Set up User-ID on the firewalls.
Enable User-ID for each zone that
contains the users you want to identify.
Define a master firewall for the
DG_BranchAndRegional device
group (Step 1).

Step 5

Allow access to the Amazon cloud


application for the specified
hosts/servers in the data center.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
1.

Select the Policies tab and, in the Device Group drop-down,


select DG_BranchAndRegional.
Select the Security > Pre-Rules rulebase.
Click Add and enter a Name for the security rule.
In the Source tab, Add the Source Zone that contains the
Marketing group users.
In the Destination tab, Add the Destination Zone.
In the User tab, Add the Marketing user group to the Source
User list.
In the Application tab, click Add, type Facebook, and then
select it from the drop-down.
In the Action tab, set the Action to Allow.
In the Target tab, select the regional office firewalls and click
OK.
Create an address object for the servers/hosts in the data center
that need access to the Amazon cloud application.
a. Select Objects > Addresses and, in the Device Group
drop-down, select DG_DataCenter.
b. Click Add and enter a Name for the address object.
c. Select the Type, and specify an IP address and netmask (IP
Netmask), range of IP addresses (IP Range), or FQDN.
d. Click OK to save the object.

2.

Create a security rule that allows access to the Amazon cloud


application.
a. Select Policies > Security > Pre-Rules and, in the Device
Group drop-down, select DG_DataCenter.
b. Click Add and enter a Name for the security rule.
c. Select the Source tab, Add the Source Zone for the data
center, and Add the address object (Source Address) you just
defined.
d. Select the Destination tab and Add the Destination Zone.
e. Select the Application tab, click Add, type amazon, and select
the Amazon applications from the list.
f. Select the Action tab and set the Action to Allow.
g. Click OK to save the rule.

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Palo Alto Networks

Manage Firewalls

Use Case: Configure Firewalls Using Panorama

Use Device Groups to Push Policy Rules (Continued)

Step 6

To enable logging for all Internet-bound 1.


traffic on your network, create a rule that
matches trust zone to untrust zone.
2.
3.
4.

5.

Select the Policies tab and, in the Device Group drop-down,


select Shared.
Select the Security > Pre-Rules rulebase.
Click Add and enter a Name for the security rule.
In the Source and Destination tabs for the rule, Add
trust_zone as the Source Zone and untrust_zone as the
Destination Zone.
In the Action tab, set the Action to Deny, set the Log Setting to
Log at Session end, and click OK.

Preview the Rules and Commit Changes

TASK 4
Preview your rules and commit your changes to Panorama, device groups, and templates.
Step 1

In the Policies tab, click Preview Rules, and select a Rulebase, Device Group, and Device. This preview
enables you to visually evaluate how rules are layered for a particular rulebase. Close the preview dialog when
you are done.

Step 2

Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama, and click Commit again.

Step 3

Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Device Group, select the device groups you added, select the Include
Device and Network Templates check box, and click Commit again.

Step 4

In the Context drop-down, select the firewall to access its web interface and confirm that Panorama applied the
template and policy configurations.

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112 Panorama 7.0 Administrators Guide

Manage Firewalls

Palo Alto Networks

Manage Log Collection


All Palo Alto Networks next-generation firewalls can generate logs that provide an audit trail of firewall
activities. For Centralized Logging and Reporting, you must forward the logs generated on the firewalls to
Panorama. You can then configure Panorama to aggregate the logs and forward them to remote logging
destinations. If you forward logs to a Panorama virtual appliance, you dont need to perform any additional tasks
to enable logging. If you will forward logs to an M-Series appliance in Panorama mode or Log Collector mode,
you must add the Log Collectors as managed collectors and assign them to Collector Groups to access, manage,
and update the Log Collectors using Panorama. To determine which deployment best suits your needs, see Plan
a Log Collection Deployment.
To manage the System and Config logs that Panorama generates locally, see Monitor Panorama.

Configure a Managed Collector

Manage Collector Groups

Configure Log Forwarding to Panorama

Verify Log Forwarding to Panorama

Modify Log Forwarding and Buffering Defaults

Configure Log Forwarding from Panorama to External Destinations

Log Collection Deployments

Palo Alto Networks

Panorama 7.0 Administrators Guide 113

Configure a Managed Collector

Manage Log Collection

Configure a Managed Collector


To enable Panorama (virtual appliance or an M-Series appliance in Panorama mode) to manage Log Collectors,
you must add each Log Collector as a managed collector.
If you forward logs to an M-Series appliance in Panorama mode, the default Log Collector that is local to the
appliance is added during the manufacturing process. However, if you Register Panorama and Install Licenses,
the default Log Collector does not appear; you must re-configure the Log Collector.
To configure a Dedicated Log Collector (M-Series appliance in Log Collector mode), start at Step 1. To
configure a local Log Collector (local to the M-Series appliance in Panorama mode), start at Step 4. Skip any
steps you have already performed (for example, the initial setup).
Configure a Managed Collector

Step 1

Step 2

(Dedicated Log Collector only) Perform


initial setup of the M-Series appliance in
Log Collector mode.

1.

(Dedicated Log Collector only) Switch


from Panorama Mode to Log Collector
Mode.

1.
2.

Switching the mode of an


M-Series appliance deletes any
existing log data and deletes all
configurations except the
management access settings. After
the switch, the M-Series appliance
retains CLI access but loses web
interface access.
Step 3

2.
3.
4.

Rack mount the M-Series appliance. Refer to the M-100 or


M-500 Hardware Reference Guide for instructions.
Perform Initial Configuration of the M-Series Appliance.
Register Panorama and Install Licenses.
Install Content and Software Updates for Panorama.
Log in to the Panorama CLI of the M-Series appliance.
Enter the request system system-mode logger command,
and then enter Yes to confirm the switch to Log Collector
mode. The appliance will reboot.

(Dedicated Log Collector only) For any In the Dedicated Log Collector CLI, enter the following commands
Dedicated Log Collector that requires
and confirm the request when prompted:
request system raid add B1
more than the default 1TB of storage, add
request system raid add B2
RAID drives. This example uses the
drives in disk bays B1 and B2.

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Palo Alto Networks

Manage Log Collection

Configure a Managed Collector

Configure a Managed Collector (Continued)

Step 4

Enable connectivity among the M-Series The commands you enter depend on the Log Collector type:
appliances.
Dedicated Log Collectors
a. In the CLI of each Log Collector, enter the following
commands, where <IP address1> represents the
management interface of the primary (HA) or solitary
(non-HA) Panorama.
set deviceconfig system panorama-server <IPaddress1>
commit

b. In a high availability (HA) deployment, also enter the


following commands, where <IP address2> represents the
management interface of the secondary Panorama.
set deviceconfig system panorama-server-2 <IPaddress2>
commit

Local Log CollectorsPerform the following steps only if


Panorama has an HA configuration.
a. In the CLI of the primary Panorama, enter the following
commands, where <IP address2> represents the
management interface of the secondary Panorama.
set deviceconfig system panorama-server <IPaddress2>
commit

b. In the CLI of the secondary Panorama, enter the following


commands, where <IP address1> represents the
management interface of the primary Panorama.
set deviceconfig system panorama-server <IPaddress1>
commit

Step 5

Record the serial number of the Log


Collector. You will need this when you
add the Log Collector as a managed
collector.

The step to display the serial number depends on the Log Collector
type:
LocalUse the serial number of the M-Series appliance that is in
Panorama mode: access the Panorama web interface and record
the value on the Dashboard tab, General Information section,
Serial # field.
In a high availability (HA) deployment, you can configure
a local Log Collector on each peer M-Series appliance in
Panorama mode. Each peer will have a unique serial
number.
DedicatedUse the serial number of the M-Series appliance that
is in Log Collector mode: access the Log Collector CLI and enter
the show system info command.

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Panorama 7.0 Administrators Guide 115

Configure a Managed Collector

Manage Log Collection

Configure a Managed Collector (Continued)

Step 6

Configure the general settings of the Log Use the web interface of the Panorama management server to
Collector.
perform the following steps:
1. Select Panorama > Managed Collectors.
2. Add a new Log Collector or select an existing one to edit it.
The M-Series appliance in Panorama mode has a
predefined Log Collector named default.
3.

In the General tab, Collector S/N field, enter the serial number
you recorded in Step 5.

The remaining steps depend on your deployment:


Proceed to Step 7 if you are adding a Dedicated Log Collector
(M-Series appliance in Log Collector mode) or you are adding a
Log Collector that is local on the secondary M-Series appliance in
Panorama mode (in an HA deployment).
Skip to Step 10 if the Log Collector you are adding is local on the
solitary (non-HA) or primary (HA) M-Series appliance in
Panorama mode.
Step 7

Configure network access for the Log


Collector.

Although you specified the following details during initial


configuration of the M-Series appliance, you must re-enter the
information on the General tab; Panorama does not auto-populate
the fields.
1. In the Panorama Server IP field, enter the IP address of the
Panorama management server that will manage the Log
Collector. If Panorama has an HA configuration, enter the IP
address of the secondary peer in the Panorama Server IP 2
field.
The preceding fields are required.
2. Configure the IP addresses of the Primary DNS Server and
Secondary DNS Server.
3. (Optional) Set the Timezone that Panorama will use to record
log entries.
The remaining steps depend on your deployment:
Go to Step 8 if you are adding a Dedicated Log Collector.
Skip to Step 10 if the Log Collector you are adding is local on the
secondary M-Series appliance in Panorama mode.

Step 8

(Dedicated Log Collector only) Configure 1.


administrative access to the Log
Collector.
2.
The default user is admin. You
cannot modify this username nor
add administrative users on the
Log Collector.

116 Panorama 7.0 Administrators Guide

In the Authentication tab, select the password Mode, then


enter the Password (the default is admin).
Enter the number of Failed Attempts to log in that a user can
commit before Panorama locks out that user from accessing the
Log Collector, and enter the Lockout Time interval in minutes.

Palo Alto Networks

Manage Log Collection

Configure a Managed Collector

Configure a Managed Collector (Continued)

Step 9

(Dedicated Log Collector only) Configure Configure the following settings on each tab associated with an
the Log Collector interfaces.
interface the Log Collector will use: Management (MGT), Eth1,
and/or Eth2. The Eth1 or Eth2 interfaces are only available if you
defined them during the task Perform Initial Configuration of the
M-Series Appliance. The MGT interface is required.
1. You must complete one or both of the following field sets,
depending on the IP protocols of your network.
IPv4IP Address, Netmask, and Default Gateway
IPv6IPv6 Address/Prefix Length and Default IPv6
Gateway

2.

3.

4.
Step 10 (Optional) Enable any additional RAID
disk pairs for logging.

(Optional) Select the services that the interface supports. By


default, Ping is selected for the MGT, Eth1, and Eth2 interfaces.
The MGT interface also supports SSH (selected by default) and
SNMP (cleared by default).
(Optional) To restrict access to an interface, Add one or more
IP addresses in the Permitted IP Addresses list. If you leave
the list blank, Panorama does not restrict access.
If you add any entries, only the specified IP addresses
can access the interface so be sure to add the addresses
of the Panorama management server.
Click OK.

To enable additional disk pairs, you must have performed Step 3.


1. In the Disks tab, Add each additional disk pair.
2. Click OK to make the disk pair available for logging.

Step 11 (Optional) Select the interfaces that the Return to the General tab and select the interfaces that the Log
Log Collector will use for Device Log
Collector will use for Device Log Collection and Collector Group
Collection and Collector Group
Communication.
Communication. The M-Series appliance
uses the MGT (Management) interface by
default.
The Eth1 or Eth2 interfaces are only
available if you configured them in the
corresponding tabs.

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Manage Log Collection

Configure a Managed Collector (Continued)

Step 12 Commit and (optionally) verify your


changes.

1.
2.

3.

Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama, and


click Commit again.
In the Panorama > Managed Collectors page, verify that the
grid lists the Log Collector you added. The Connected column
displays a check mark icon to indicate that the Log Collector is
connected to Panorama.
If you enabled additional disk pairs, click the Statistics link in
the last column to open a window that displays the status of the
disks.
Palo Alto Networks recommends that you install the same
Applications and Threats database version on Panorama as
on the managed firewalls and Log Collectors. Panorama uses
the Applications and Threats database to retrieve metadata
for processing reports that you initiate from Panorama or
managed devices. If a Log Collector does not have the
database installed, the complete dataset required for the
report might not be available and the information displayed
might be incomplete or inaccurate. For details, see Deploy
Updates to Devices Using Panorama.

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Palo Alto Networks

Manage Log Collection

Manage Collector Groups

Manage Collector Groups


After adding Log Collectors as managed collectors, you must assign them to Collector Groups and assign
managed firewalls to the Log Collectors. This enables Panorama to access, manage, and update the Log
Collectors.
If you forward logs to an M-Series appliance in Panorama mode, Palo Alto Networks predefines a default
Collector Group that contains the default local Log Collector. However, if you Register Panorama and Install
Licenses, the default Log Collector and Collector Group do not appear; you must manually add the Log
Collector and then the Collector Group.
You can configure a Collector Group with multiple Log Collectors (up to eight) to ensure log redundancy or to
accommodate logging rates that exceed the capacity of a single Log Collector (see Panorama Platforms). To
understand the risks and recommended mitigations, see Caveats for a Collector Group with Multiple Log
Collectors.
For more information, see Managed Collectors and Collector Groups.
If you delete a Collector Group, you will lose logs.

Configure a Collector Group

Move a Log Collector to a Different Collector Group

Remove a Firewall from a Collector Group

Configure a Collector Group


Configure a Collector Group

Step 1

(Optional) If you will forward firewall


logs from the Collector Group to
external services, configure a server
profile for each external service.

1.

2.

Select Panorama > Server Profiles and select the type of


server that will receive the log data: SNMP Trap, Syslog, or
Email.
Configure the server profile. Optionally, you can configure
separate profiles for different log types and severity levels or
WildFire verdicts.
SNMP Trap server profile
Syslog server profile
Email server profile

Step 2

Add a Firewall as a Managed Device.


Perform this step for each firewall you
will assign to the Collector Group.

Palo Alto Networks

1.

In the Panorama web interface, select Panorama > Managed


Devices and click Add.

2.

Enter the serial number of each firewall (one line per serial
number) and click OK.

Panorama 7.0 Administrators Guide 119

Manage Collector Groups

Manage Log Collection

Configure a Collector Group (Continued)

Step 3

Configure a Managed Collector.

If you forward logs to a Dedicated Log Collector (M-Series


appliance in Log Collector mode), you must manually add a
Perform this step for each Log Collector
managed collector before you add a Collector Group.
you will assign to a Collector Group.
If you forward logs to a local Log Collector (local to an M-Series
appliance in Panorama mode), Palo Alto Networks predefines a
default local Log Collector.
If you will use SNMP for monitoring, select the SNMP
service when you configure the MGT (Management)
interface of each Log Collector.

Step 4

Add the Collector Group or edit an


existing one.

1.

In the Panorama web interface, select Panorama > Collector


Groups.

2.

Add a new Collector Group or select an existing one to edit it.

The M-Series appliance in Panorama mode has a


predefined Collector Group named default.
3.

4.

5.

120 Panorama 7.0 Administrators Guide

In the General tab, if you are adding a new Collector Group,


enter a Name for it. You cannot edit the name of an existing
Collector Group.
In the Minimum Retention Period field, enter the number of
days (1-2000) for which Panorama will retain the logs of the
firewalls you assign to this Collector Group. When the current
date minus the oldest log date is less than the defined minimum
retention period, Panorama generates a System log. Panorama
generates an alert within a day of the logs reaching the retention
period.
(Optional) Select the Enable log redundancy across
collectors check box to ensure that no logs are lost if any one
Log Collector in the Collector Group becomes unavailable.
Each log will have two copies and each copy will reside on a
different Log Collector.
Because enabling redundancy creates more logs, this
configuration requires more storage capacity. When a
Collector Group runs out of space, it deletes older logs.
Enabling redundancy doubles the log processing traffic
in a Collector Group, which reduces its maximum
logging rate by half, as each Log Collector must
distribute a copy of each log it receives.

Palo Alto Networks

Manage Log Collection

Manage Collector Groups

Configure a Collector Group (Continued)

Step 5

(Optional) Configure SNMP monitoring 1.


for the Log Collectors.

In the Monitoring tab, select the SNMP Version and enter the
corresponding details:
V2cEnter the SNMP Community String, which identifies
a community of SNMP managers and monitored devices
(Log Collectors, in this case), and serves as a password to
authenticate the community members to each other.
Dont use the default community string public; it is
well known and therefore not secure.
V3Create at least one SNMP view group and one user.
User accounts and views provide authentication, privacy, and
access control when Log Collectors forward traps and
SNMP managers get Log Collector statistics.
ViewsEach view is a paired OID and bitwise mask: the
OID specifies a MIB and the mask (in hexadecimal
format) specifies which objects are accessible within
(include matching) or outside (exclude matching) that
MIB. Click Add in the first list and enter a Name for the
group of views. For each view in the group, click Add and
configure the view Name, OID, matching Option (include
or exclude), and Mask.
Users: Click Add in the second list, enter a username in the
Users column, select the View group from the drop-down,
enter the authentication password (Auth Password) used
to authenticate to the SNMP manager, and enter the
privacy password (Priv Password) used to encrypt SNMP
messages to the SNMP manager.

Step 6

Step 7

Assign Log Collectors to the Collector


Group.

1.

Each Collector Group can have up to


eight Log Collectors.

2.

Assign the Log Collectors to the firewalls 1.


that will forward logs.
2.
3.

4.

Palo Alto Networks

In the Device Log Forwarding tab, Collector Group Members


section, click Add.
In the drop-down, select the Log Collectors you want to assign
to the group.
In the Device Log Forwarding tab, Log Forwarding
Preferences section, click Add.
In the Devices section, click Modify, select the firewalls you
want to assign to the Collector Group, and click OK.
In the Collectors section, Add the Log Collectors to which the
firewalls will forward logs. If you assign multiple Log
Collectors, the first one will be the primary; only if the primary
becomes unavailable will the firewalls send logs to the next Log
Collector in the list. To change the priority of a Log Collector,
select it and click Move Up (higher priority) or Move Down
(lower priority).
When you finish assigning Log Collectors to the firewalls, click
OK.

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Configure a Collector Group (Continued)

Step 8

Allocate the desired storage capacity (log 1.


quotas) and expiration period for each log
type.

2.

3.

Return to the General tab and click the Log Storage value.
This field does not display a value unless you assigned
Log Collectors to the Collector Group. If after
assigning Log Collectors the field reads 0MB, verify you
enabled the disk pairs for logging and committed the
changes (see Step 10 under Configure a Managed
Collector).
Enter the log storage Quota(%) for each log type. When you
change a percentage value, the page refreshes to display the
corresponding absolute value (Quota GB/MB column) based
on the total storage allotted to the Collector Group.
Enter the Max Days (expiration period) for each log type (range
is 1-2,000). By default, the fields are blank for all log types,
which means the logs never expire.
If you must undo your changes and reset the quotas and
expiration periods to the factory defaults, click Restore
Quota Defaults at the bottom right of the dialog.

Step 9

1.

Select the Collector Log Forwarding tab.

2.

For each log Severity level in the System, Threat, and


Correlation tabs, click a cell in the SNMP Trap, Email Profile,

For a high availability (HA)


configuration, you can configure
each Panorama HA peer to
3.
forward logs to different
destinations, if necessary. For
4.
details, see Deploy Panorama with
Default Log Collectors.

or Syslog Profile column, and select the server profile you just
created.
In the Config, HIP Match, and Traffic tabs, select the SNMP
Trap, Email, or Syslog server profile you just created.
For each Verdict in the WildFire tab, click a cell in the SNMP
Trap, Email Profile, or Syslog Profile column, and select the
server profile you just created.
Click OK to save the Collector Group.

(Optional) Configure log forwarding


from the Collector Group to external
services.

5.
Step 10 Commit the changes and, optionally,
verify that the Log Collectors you
assigned to the Collector Group are
connected to, and synchronized with,
Panorama.

1.
2.
3.

Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama, and


click Commit again.
Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Collector Group,
select the Collector Group you added, and click OK.
Select Panorama > Managed Collectors. The Connected
column displays a check mark icon to indicate that a Log
Collector is connected to Panorama. The Configuration Status
column indicates whether the configurations you committed to
Panorama and the Log Collectors are synchronized (green icon)
or are not synchronized (red icon) with each other.
Palo Alto Networks recommends that you install the same
Applications and Threats database version on Panorama as
on the managed firewalls and Log Collectors. For details, see
Panorama, Log Collector, and Firewall Version
Compatibility.

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Manage Collector Groups

Configure a Collector Group (Continued)

Step 11 (Optional) If you will use SNMP to


monitor Log Collectors, configure the
Simple Network Management Protocol
(SNMP) management software.

Configure the SNMP Manager to get statistics from Panorama and


the Log Collectors. Refer to your SNMP manager documentation
for the specific steps.

You can use SNMP to collect the


following information about the Log
Collector: connection status, disk drive
statistics, software version, average CPU,
average logs/second, and log storage
duration for each log type.

Move a Log Collector to a Different Collector Group


When you Plan a Log Collection Deployment, you assign Log Collectors to a Collector Group based on the
logging rate and log storage requirements of that Collector Group. If the rates and required storage increase in
a Collector Group, the best practice is to Increase Storage on the M-Series Appliance or Configure a Collector
Group with additional Log Collectors. However, in some deployments, it might be more economical to move
Log Collectors between Collector Groups.
The log data on a Log Collector becomes inaccessible after you remove it from a Collector Group.
Also, you must perform a factory reset on the Log Collector before adding it to another Collector
Group; a factory reset removes all configuration settings and logs.
When a Log Collector is local to an M-Series appliance in Panorama mode, move it only if the
M-Series appliance is the passive peer in a high availability (HA) configuration. HA
synchronization will restore the configurations that the factory reset removes. Never move a Log
Collector when its local to an M-Series appliance that is the active HA peer.

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Move a Log Collector to Different Collector Group

Step 1

Remove the Log Collector from


Panorama management.

1.
2.

Select Panorama > Collector Groups and select the Collector


Group that contains the Log Collector you will move.
Select the Device Log Forwarding tab and, in the Log
Forwarding Preferences list, perform the following steps for
each set of firewalls assigned to the Log Collector you will
move:
a. In the Devices column, click the link for the firewalls
assigned to the Log Collector.
b. In the Collectors column, select the Log Collector and click
Delete.
To reassign the firewalls, Add the new Log Collector
to which they will forward logs.
c. Click OK twice to save your changes.

3.
4.
5.

Step 2

Reset the Log Collector to its factory


default settings.

1.
2.

Select Panorama > Managed Collectors, select the Log


Collector you will move, and click Delete.
Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama, and
click Commit again.
Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Collector Group,
select the Collector Group from which you deleted the Log
Collector, and click Commit again.
Log in to the CLI of the Log Collector.
Enter the following CLI command:
debug system maintenance-mode

4.
5.

The Log Collector will reboot in maintenance mode.


After the Log Collector reboots, press Enter to access the
maintenance mode menu.
Select Factory Reset and press Enter.
Select Factory Reset and press Enter again.
The Log Collector will reboot, after which it wont have any
configuration settings or log data. The default username and
password to log in to the Log Collector is admin/admin.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Perform Initial Configuration of the M-Series Appliance.


Register Panorama and Install Licenses.
Install Content and Software Updates for Panorama.
Switch from Panorama Mode to Log Collector Mode.
Configure a Managed Collector.

3.

Step 3

Reconfigure the Log Collector.

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Manage Collector Groups

Move a Log Collector to Different Collector Group (Continued)

Step 4

Configure a Collector Group.

Add the Log Collector to its new Collector Group and assign
firewalls to the Log Collector.
When you commit the Collector Group configuration,
Panorama starts redistributing logs across the Log
Collectors. This process can take hours for each terabyte of
logs. During the redistribution process, the maximum
logging rate is reduced. In the Panorama > Collector
Groups page, the Redistribution State column indicates the
process status.

Remove a Firewall from a Collector Group


In a distributed log collection deployment, where you have Dedicated Log Collectors, if you need a device to
send logs to Panorama instead of sending logs to the Collector Group, you must remove the device from the
Collector group.
When you remove the device from the Collector Group and commit the change, the device will automatically
send logs to Panorama instead of sending them to a Log Collector.
Remove a Firewall from a Collector Group

Step 1

Select the Panorama > Collector Groups tab.

Step 2

Click the link for the desired Collector Group, and select the Log Forwarding tab.

Step 3

In the Log Forwarding Preferences section, select the device that you would like to remove from the list, click
Delete, and click OK.

Step 4

Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama, and click Commit again.

Step 5

Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Collector Group, select the Collector Group from which you
removed the firewall, and click Commit again.
To temporarily remove the log forwarding preference list on the device, you can delete it using the
CLI on the device. You must however, remove the assigned firewalls in the Collector Group
configuration on Panorama. Otherwise, the next time you commit changes to the Collector Group,
the device will be reconfigured to send logs to the assigned Log Collector.

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Configure Log Forwarding to Panorama

Manage Log Collection

Configure Log Forwarding to Panorama


By default, firewalls store all log files locally. To aggregate logs on Panorama, you must configure the firewalls
to forward logs to Panorama. Before starting this procedure, you must Add a Device Group and Add a Template
for the firewalls that will forward logs.
To forward firewall logs directly to external services (for example, a syslog server) and also to
Panorama, see Configure Log Forwarding.
For details about all the log collection deployments that Panorama supports, see Log Forwarding
Options.
The PA-7050 firewall cant forward logs to Panorama, only to external services. However, when
you monitor logs or generate reports for a device group that includes a PA-7050 firewall,
Panorama queries the PA-7050 firewall in real-time to display its log data.
If Panorama will manage firewalls running software versions earlier than PAN-OS 7.0, specify a
WildFire server from which Panorama can gather analysis information for WildFire samples that
those firewalls submit. Panorama uses the information to complete WildFire Submissions logs
that are missing field values introduced in PAN-OS 7.0. Firewalls running earlier releases wont
populate those fields. To specify the server, select Panorama > Setup > WildFire, edit the
General Settings, and enter the WildFire Server name. The default is wildfire-public-cloud,
which is the WildFire cloud hosted in the United States.

Configure Log Forwarding to Panorama

Step 1

Create a log forwarding profile.

1.

The profile defines the destination of


Traffic, Threat, and WildFire logs. (Threat 2.
logs include URL Filtering and Data
3.
Filtering logs.)
4.
Step 2

Select Objects > Log Forwarding and select the Device Group
of the firewalls that will forward logs.
Click Add and enter a Name to identify the profile.
For each log type and each severity level or WildFire verdict,
select the Panorama check box.
Click OK to save the profile.

Perform the following steps for each rule that will trigger log
forwarding:
1. Select the rulebase of the rule that will trigger log forwarding
To trigger log generation and forwarding,
(for example, Policies > Security > Pre Rules), select the
the rules require certain security profiles
Device Group of the firewalls that will forward logs, and select
according to log type:
the rule.
Traffic logsNo security profile is
2. Select the Actions tab and select the Log Forwarding profile
necessary; the traffic only needs to
you just created.
match a specific security rule.
3.
In the Profile Type drop-down, select Profiles or Group, and
Threat logsThe traffic must match
then select the security profiles or Group Profile required to
any security profile assigned to a
trigger log generation and forwarding.
security rule.
WildFire logsThe traffic must match 4. For Traffic logs, select one or both of the Log At Session Start
and Log At Session End check boxes, and click OK.
a WildFire Analysis profile assigned to
a security rule.
Assign the log forwarding profile to
security rules.

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Configure Log Forwarding to Panorama (Continued)

Step 3

Configure the destination of System,


Config, and HIP Match logs.

1.

You cannot forward Correlation 2.


logs (correlated events) from the
firewalls to Panorama. On the logs 3.
that are forwarded from your
managed firewalls, Panorama
matches for the conditions
specified in the correlation objects
and automatically generates
correlated event(s) when a match
is observed. If you want, you can
then forward these correlated
events (Correlation logs) from
Panorama to an external syslog
server.
Step 4

(M-Series appliances only) Configure


Panorama to receive the logs.

1.
2.

Step 5

Commit your configuration changes.

1.
2.

3.

Select Device > Log Settings and select the Template of the
firewalls that will forward logs.
For System logs, click each Severity level, select the Panorama
check box, and click OK.
For Config and HIP Match logs, click the edit icon, select the
Panorama check box, and click OK.

For each Log Collector that will receive logs, Configure a


Managed Collector.
Configure a Collector Group. You assign firewalls to specific
Log Collectors for log forwarding.
Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama, and
click Commit again.
Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Device Group, select
the device group of the firewalls that will forward logs, select
the Include Device and Network Templates check box, and
click Commit again.
Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Collector Group,
select the Collector Group you just configured to receive the
logs, and click Commit again.

You can now Verify Log Forwarding to Panorama.

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Verify Log Forwarding to Panorama

Manage Log Collection

Verify Log Forwarding to Panorama


Now that you have added the Log Collectors as managed collectors, created and configured the Collector Group
and assigned the managed firewalls to forward logs to the specified Collector Group, you can test that your
configuration was successful.
Verify Log Forwarding to Panorama

Step 1

Verify that each firewall has a log


forwarding preference list and is
forwarding logs to the configured Log
Collector.

1.
2.

The firewall web interface doesnt display


this information.

Access the firewall CLI.


Enter the following command to verify that the firewall has the
log forwarding preference list:
show log-collector preference-list
If you assigned only one Log Collector to the Collector
Group, the onscreen output will look something like this:
Log collector Preference List
Serial Number: 003001000024
IP Address:10.2.133.48

3.

Enter the following command to verify that the firewall is


forwarding logs:
show logging-status
The onscreen output will look something like this:

Step 2

View the log collection rate for a Log


Collector.

128 Panorama 7.0 Administrators Guide

Select Panorama > Managed Collectors and click the Statistics link
to view the average logs/second that a Log Collector receives.

Palo Alto Networks

Manage Log Collection

Modify Log Forwarding and Buffering Defaults

Modify Log Forwarding and Buffering Defaults


You can define the log forwarding mode that the firewalls use to send logs to Panorama and, when configured
in a high availability (HA) configuration, specify which Panorama peer can receive logs. To access these options,
select Panorama > Setup > Management, edit the Logging and Reporting Settings, and select the Log Export and
Reporting tab.

Define the log forwarding mode on the firewall: The firewalls can forward logs to Panorama (pertains to
both the M-Series appliance and the Panorama virtual appliance) in either Buffered Log Forwarding mode
or in the Live Mode Log Forwarding mode.

Logging Options

Description

Buffered Log Forwarding from


Device

Allows each managed firewall to buffer logs and send the logs at 30-second
intervals to Panorama (not user configurable).

Default: Enabled

Buffered log forwarding is very valuable when the firewall loses connectivity to
Panorama. The firewall buffers log entries to its local hard disk and keeps a
pointer to record the last log entry that was sent to Panorama. When connectivity
is restored the firewall resumes forwarding logs from where it left off.
The disk space available for buffering depends on the log storage quota for the
platform and the volume of logs that are pending roll over. If the firewall was
disconnected for a long time and the last log forwarded was rolled over, all the
logs from its local hard disk will be forwarded to Panorama on reconnection. If
the available space on the local hard disk of the firewall is consumed, the oldest
entries are deleted to allow logging of new events.

Live Mode Log Forwarding from


Device

In live mode, the managed firewall sends every log transaction to Panorama at
the same time as it records it on the firewall.

This option is enabled when the check


box for Buffered Log Forwarding
from Device is cleared.

Define log forwarding preference on a Panorama virtual appliance that is in a high availability (HA)
configuration:

When logging to a virtual disk, enable logging to the local disk on the active-primary Panorama peer
only. By default, both Panorama peers in the HA configuration receive logs.

When logging to an NFS, enable the firewalls to send only newly generated logs to a secondary
Panorama peer, which is promoted to primary, after a failover.

Logging Options

Pertains to

Only Active Primary Logs to Local


Disk

Panorama virtual appliance that is Allows you to configure only the


logging to a virtual disk and is set active-primary Panorama peer to save logs
up in a high availability (HA)
to the local disk.
configuration.

Default: Disabled

Palo Alto Networks

Description

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Manage Log Collection

Logging Options

Pertains to

Description

Get Only New Logs on Convert to


Primary

Panorama virtual appliance that is


mounted to a Network File
System (NFS) datastore and is set
up in a high availability (HA)
configuration

With NFS logging, when you have a pair of


Panorama servers configured in a high
availability configuration, only the primary
Panorama peer mounts the NFS datastore.
Therefore, the firewalls can only send logs to
the primary Panorama peer, which can write
to the NFS datastore.

Default: Disabled

When an HA failover occurs, the Get Only


New Logs on Convert to Primary option
allows an administrator to configure the
managed firewalls to send only newly
generated logs to Panorama. This event is
triggered when the priority of the
active-secondary Panorama is promoted to
primary and it can begin logging to the NFS.
This behavior is typically enabled to prevent
the firewalls from sending a large volume of
buffered logs when connectivity to
Panorama is restored after a significant
period of time.

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Configure Log Forwarding from Panorama to External Destinations

Configure Log Forwarding from Panorama to External


Destinations
Panorama enables you to forward logs to external servers, including syslog, email, and SNMP trap servers.
Forwarding firewall logs from Panorama reduces the load on the firewalls and provides a reliable and
streamlined approach to forwarding logs to remote destinations. You can also forward logs that Panorama and
its managed collectors generate.
To forward firewall logs directly to external services and also to Panorama, see Configure Log
Forwarding.
For details about all the log collection deployments that Panorama supports, see Log Forwarding
Options.
On a Panorama virtual appliance running Panorama 5.1 or earlier releases, you can use Secure
Copy (SCP) commands from the CLI to export the entire log database to an SCP server and
import it to another Panorama virtual appliance. A Panorama virtual appliance running Panorama
6.0 or later releases, and M-Series appliances running any release, do not support these options
because the log database on those platforms is too large for an export or import to be practical.

Configure Log Forwarding from Panorama to External Destinations

Step 1

Configure Log Forwarding to Panorama. Configure the firewalls to forward logs to Panorama.

Step 2

Configure a server profile for each


1.
external service that will receive log data.
2.

Select Panorama > Server Profiles and select the type of


server that will receive the log data: SNMP Trap, Syslog, or
Email.
Configure the server profile. Optionally, you can configure
separate profiles for different log types and severity levels or
WildFire verdicts.
Configure an SNMP Trap server profile. For details on how
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) works for
Panorama and Log Collectors, refer to SNMP for Palo Alto
Networks Devices.
Configure a Syslog server profile. If the syslog server
requires client authentication, use the Panorama >
Certificate Management > Certificates page to create a
certificate for securing syslog communication over SSL.
Configure an Email server profile.

Step 3

Configure the destinations for:


Firewall logs that a Panorama virtual
appliance collects.
Logs that Panorama (a virtual
appliance or M-Series appliance) and
managed collectors generate.

1.
2.

3.
4.

Palo Alto Networks

Select Panorama > Log Settings.


For System, Correlation, and Threat logs, click each Severity
level, select the SNMP Trap, Email, or Syslog server profile you
just created, and click OK.
For WildFire logs, click each Verdict, select the SNMP Trap,
Email, or Syslog server profile you just created, and click OK.
For Config, HIP Match, and Traffic logs, click the edit icon,
select the SNMP Trap, Email, or Syslog server profile you just
created, and click OK.

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Configure Log Forwarding from Panorama to External Destinations (Continued)

Step 4

(M-Series appliance only) Configure the


destinations for firewall logs that an
M-Series appliance in Panorama or Log
Collector mode collects.

1.
2.
3.

Each Collector Group can


forward logs to different
destinations. If the Log Collectors
are local to a high availability (HA) 4.
pair of M-Series appliances in
Panorama mode, you must log
5.
into each HA peer to configure
log forwarding for its Collector
Group.
6.

Select Panorama > Collector Groups and select the Collector


Group that receives the firewall logs.
Select the Collector Log Forwarding tab.
For each log Severity level in the System, Threat, and
Correlation tabs, click a cell in the SNMP Trap, Email Profile,
or Syslog Profile column, and select the server profile you just
created.
In the Config, HIP Match, and Traffic tabs, select the SNMP
Trap, Email, or Syslog server profile you just created.
For each Verdict in the WildFire tab, click a cell in the SNMP
Trap, Email Profile, or Syslog Profile column, and select the
server profile you just created.
Click OK to save your changes to the Collector Group.

Step 5

(SNMP trap forwarding only) Enable


your SNMP manager to interpret traps.

Load the Supported MIBs for Palo Alto Networks devices and, if
necessary, compile them. For the specific steps, refer to the
documentation of your SNMP manager.

Step 6

(Syslog forwarding only) If the syslog


server requires client authentication, and
the firewalls forward logs to M-Series
appliances in Log Collector mode, assign
a certificate that secures syslog
communication over SSL.

Perform the following steps for each M-Series appliance in Log


Collector mode:
1. Select Panorama > Managed Collectors and select the Log
Collector.
2. In the General tab, select the Certificate for Secure Syslog,
and click OK.

Step 7

Commit your configuration changes.

1.
2.

3.

Step 8

Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama, and


click Commit again.
Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Device Group, select
all the device groups of the firewalls from which Panorama
collects logs, select the Include Device and Network
Templates check box, and click Commit again.
(M-Series appliance only) Click Commit, for the Commit Type
select Collector Group, select the Collector Group you just
configured to forward logs, and click Commit again.

(Optional) Verify the external services are Email serverVerify that the specified recipients are receiving
receiving logs from Panorama.
logs as email notifications.
Syslog serverRefer to the documentation for your syslog server
to verify it is receiving logs as syslog messages.
SNMP managerUse an SNMP Manager to Explore MIBs and
Objects to verify it is receiving logs as SNMP traps.

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Log Collection Deployments

Log Collection Deployments


The following topics describe how to configure log collection in the most typical deployments.
The deployments in these topics all describe Panorama in a high availability (HA) configuration.
Palo Alto Networks recommends HA because it enables automatic recovery (in case of server
failure) of components that are not saved as part of configuration backups. In HA deployments,
the Panorama management server only supports an active/passive configuration.

Plan a Log Collection Deployment

Deploy Panorama with Dedicated Log Collectors

Deploy Panorama with Default Log Collectors

Deploy Panorama Virtual Appliances with Local Log Collection

Plan a Log Collection Deployment

Panorama and Log Collector Platforms

Collector Groups with Single or Multiple Log Collectors

Log Forwarding Options

Panorama and Log Collector Platforms


Decide which platforms to use for the Panorama management server and Log Collectors based on the number,
logging rate, and geographic distribution of managed firewalls. (See Panorama Platforms for more platform
specifications and recommendations.)
If you initially implement log collection using the default Log Collectors but later require more
storage or higher logging rates than these support, you can switch to a deployment with
Dedicated Log Collectors (M-Series appliances in Log Collector mode). You can also implement
a hybrid deployment that includes both default and Dedicated Log Collectors. However, if you
initially implement log collection using Dedicated Log Collectors, you will lose logs if you later
switch to a deployment that involves only the default Log Collectors because of the reduced
storage capacity.

If you deploy firewalls remotely, consider the bandwidth requirement for the connection between the firewalls
and Panorama, in addition to whether Panorama supports the required logging rate. Deploying Dedicated Log
Collectors close to the firewalls can increase the bandwidth for log forwarding.
The following table summarizes your choice of Panorama management server when considering the number of
firewalls.

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Log Collection Deployments

Number of
managed firewalls

Panorama Management Server

10

Panorama virtual appliance


or

Manage Log Collection

M-Series appliance in Panorama mode


111,000

M-Series appliance in Panorama mode

The following table summarizes your choice of Log Collector when considering the firewall logging rate.
Logging Rate

Log Collector

10,000 logs/second Depends on the Panorama management server:


Virtual appliancePanorama collects logs without any Log Collector.
M-Series applianceLocal default Log Collector
> 10,000 logs/second M-Series appliance in Log Collector Mode. Each Dedicated Log Collector can process up to
50,000 logs/second. The M-100 appliance can store up to 4TB of log data. The M-500 appliance
can store up to 8TB of log data. Add Dedicated Log Collectors as needed when the logging output
exceeds these thresholds.

Collector Groups with Single or Multiple Log Collectors


You can configure a Collector Group with multiple Log Collectors (up to eight) to ensure log redundancy or to
accommodate logging rates that exceed the capacity of a single Log Collector (see Panorama Platforms). To
understand the risks and recommended mitigations, see Caveats for a Collector Group with Multiple Log
Collectors.

Log Forwarding Options


By default, each firewall stores its log files locally. To use Panorama for centralized log monitoring and report
generation, you must Configure Log Forwarding to Panorama. You can also Configure Log Forwarding from
Panorama to External Destinations for archiving, notification, or analysis. When forwarding from Panorama,
you can include the System and Config logs that Panorama and its Log Collectors generate. External services
include syslog servers, email servers, or SNMP trap servers. The device (firewall, Panorama virtual appliance, or
M-Series appliance) that forwards the logs to external services converts the logs to the appropriate format
(syslog message, email notification, or SNMP trap).
Palo Alto Networks devices support the following log forwarding options:

Forward logs from firewalls to Panorama and from Panorama to external servicesThis configuration is
best for deployments in which the connections between firewalls and external services have insufficient
bandwidth to sustain the logging rate, which is often the case when the connections are remote. This
configuration improves firewall performance by offloading some processing to Panorama.

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Log Collection Deployments

You can configure each Collector Group to forward logs to different destinations.

Figure: Log Forwarding to Panorama and then to External Services

Forward logs from firewalls to Panorama and to external services in parallelIn this configuration, both
Panorama and the external services are endpoints of separate log forwarding flows; the firewalls dont rely
on Panorama to forward logs to external services. This configuration is best for deployments in which the
connections between firewalls and external services have sufficient bandwidth to sustain the logging rate,
which is often the case when the connections are local.

Figure: Log Forwarding to External Services and Panorama in Parallel

Forward logs from firewalls directly to external services and also from Panorama to external servicesThis
configuration is a hybrid of the previous two and is best for deployments that require sending syslog
messages to multiple Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) solutions, each with its own
message format (for example, Splunk and ArcSight). This duplicate forwarding doesnt apply to SNMP traps
or email notifications.

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Deploy Panorama with Dedicated Log Collectors


The following figures illustrate Panorama in a Distributed Log Collection Deployment. In these examples, the
Panorama management server comprises two M-Series appliances in Panorama mode, configured for
active/passive high availability (HA). Alternatively, you can use a pair of Panorama virtual appliances (if
managing 10 or fewer firewalls). The firewalls send logs to Dedicated Log Collectors (M-Series appliances in
Log Collector mode). This is the recommended configuration if the firewalls generate logs at a rate exceeding
10,000 logs/second. (For details on deployment options, see Plan a Log Collection Deployment.)
It is a best practice to assign only one Log Collector to each Collector Group (Figure: Single Dedicated Log
Collector Per Collector Group). However, if any single firewall generates more than 4 TB of logs for the required
log retention period, the Collector Group receiving the logs requires multiple Log Collectors (Figure: Multiple
Dedicated Log Collectors Per Collector Group). See Caveats for a Collector Group with Multiple Log
Collectors to understand the risks and recommended mitigations associated with the latter configuration.
Figure: Single Dedicated Log Collector Per Collector Group

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Figure: Multiple Dedicated Log Collectors Per Collector Group

Perform the following steps to deploy Panorama with Dedicated Log Collectors. Skip any steps you have already
performed (for example, the initial setup).
Deploy Panorama with Dedicated Log Collectors

Step 1

Perform the initial setup of the Panorama For each M-Series appliance:
management server (virtual appliances or 1. Rack mount the M-Series appliance. Refer to the M-100 or
M-Series appliances) and the Dedicated
M-500 Hardware Reference Guide for instructions.
Log Collectors.
2. Perform Initial Configuration of the M-Series Appliance.
For each virtual appliance (if any):
1. Install the Panorama Virtual Appliance.
2. Perform Initial Configuration of the Panorama Virtual
Appliance.
For each Panorama appliance regardless of type:
3. Register Panorama and Install Licenses.
4. Install Content and Software Updates for Panorama.
For the Panorama management server:
5. Set Up HA on Panorama.

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Step 2

Switch from Panorama Mode to Log


Collector Mode on each M-Series
appliance that will serve as a Dedicated
Log Collector.

1.
2.

Log in to the Panorama CLI of the Dedicated Log Collector.


Enter the command request system system-mode logger,
then enter Yes to confirm the change to Log Collector mode.
The appliance will reboot.

Switching the mode of an


M-Series appliance deletes any
existing log data and delete all
configurations except the
management access settings. After
the switch, the M-Series appliance
retains CLI access but loses web
interface access.
Step 3

(Optional) Add disks for each Dedicated In the Dedicated Log Collector CLI, enter the following commands
Log Collector that requires more than the and confirm the request when prompted:
request system raid add B1
default 1TB of storage. This example uses
request system raid add B2
the drives in disk bays B1 and B2.

Step 4

Enable connectivity for distributed log


collection on each Dedicated Log
Collector.

In the Dedicated Log Collector CLI, enter the following commands,


where <IP address1> and <IP address2> represent the
management interfaces of the primary and secondary Panorama
respectively.
set deviceconfig system panorama-server <IPaddress1>
set deviceconfig system panorama-server-2 <IPaddress2>
commit

Step 5

Record the serial number of each


Dedicated Log Collector. You will need
this when you add the Log Collectors as
Managed Collectors.

In the Dedicated Log Collector CLI, enter the following command


to display the serial number:

Step 6

(Optional) If you will use SNMP to


monitor Log Collectors, Configure the
SNMP management software.

Load all the PAN-OS MIB files into your SNMP management
software and, if necessary, compile them. Refer to your SNMP
manager documentation for the specific steps.

Step 7

Add a Firewall as a Managed Device.


1.
Perform this step for all the firewalls you
will assign to Log Collectors.
2.

Step 8

Configure Log Forwarding to Panorama

138 Panorama 7.0 Administrators Guide

show system info

If you have not already, perform the initial setup of each firewall
that you will assign to a Log Collector.
In the web interface of the primary Panorama management
server peer, select Panorama > Managed Devices, click Add,
enter the serial number of each firewall (one line per serial
number), and click OK.

By default, firewalls store all log files locally. You must configure the
firewalls to forward logs to Panorama.

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Log Collection Deployments

Deploy Panorama with Dedicated Log Collectors (Continued)

Step 9

(Optional) If you will forward logs from Use the web interface of the primary Panorama to perform the
Panorama to external services, configure a following steps:
server profile for each service.
1. Select Panorama > Server Profiles and select the type of
server that will receive the log data: SNMP Trap, Syslog, or
Email.
2. Configure the server profile:
SNMP Trap server profile
Syslog server profile
Email server profile

3.

You can configure separate profiles for different log


types and severity levels or WildFire verdicts. You can
also assign separate profiles to each Collector Group.
To forward firewall logs, you assign the server profiles
when you configure the Collector Groups (Step 12).
To forward the System and Config logs that the M-Series
appliances generate:
a. Select Panorama > Log Settings > System.
b. For System logs, click each Severity level, assign a server
profile, and click OK.
c. For Config logs, edit the Config settings, assign a server
profile, and click OK.

Step 10 (Optional) Modify Log Forwarding and


Buffering Defaults.

Palo Alto Networks

Use the web interface of the primary Panorama management server


peer to perform the following steps:
1. Select Panorama > Setup > Management and edit the Logging
and Reporting Settings.
2. Define the Log Storage and Log Export and Reporting
settings as desired.
It is a best practice to select the Buffered Log
Forwarding from Device option.
The Log Storage quotas and Max Days (expiration
periods) you configure here apply only to the System
and Config logs that the M-Series appliances generate.
You set the storage settings for firewall logs when you
configure the Collector Groups.

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Deploy Panorama with Dedicated Log Collectors (Continued)

Step 11 Configure a Managed Collector for each


Dedicated Log Collector.

Use the web interface of the primary Panorama management server


peer to perform the following steps:
1. Select Panorama > Managed Collectors and click Add.
2. In the General tab, Collector S/N field, enter the serial number
you recorded for the Log Collector.
3. Enter the IP address of the primary Panorama management
server peer in the Panorama Server IP field and the IP address
of the secondary Panorama management server peer in the
Panorama Server IP 2 field. These fields are required.
4. In the Authentication tab, select the password Mode and enter
a Password (the default is admin).
5. In the Management tab, you must complete one or both of the
following field sets for the management interface, depending
on the IP protocols of your network:
IPv4IP Address, Netmask, and Default Gateway
IPv6IPv6 Address/Prefix Length and Default IPv6
Gateway

6.

7.

8.
9.

140 Panorama 7.0 Administrators Guide

If you configured Eth1 and/or Eth2 interfaces during the task


Perform Initial Configuration of the M-Series Appliance,
configure the settings in the Eth1 and/or Eth2 tabs. You must
select the Eth1/Eth2 check box in the corresponding tab
before you configure the settings.
Return to the General tab and select the interfaces to use for
Device Log Collection and Collector Group Communication.
Panorama uses the management (mgmt) interface by default.
Eth1 and Eth2 are only available if you configured them in the
corresponding tabs.
If you increased storage capacity on the Log Collector, select
the Disks tab, Add each additional disk pair, and click OK.
Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama, and
click Commit again.

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Log Collection Deployments

Deploy Panorama with Dedicated Log Collectors (Continued)

Step 12 Configure a Collector Group.

Use the web interface of the primary Panorama management server


peer to perform the following steps:
1. Select Panorama > Collector Groups, click Add, and enter a
Name for the Collector Group. After you save the Collector
Group, you cannot change its name.
2. If you configured the SNMP management software to monitor
Log Collectors, select the Monitoring tab and configure the
SNMP settings.
3. In the Device Log Forwarding tab, Collector Group Members
section, assign one or multiple Log Collectors to the group.
4. In the Device Log Forwarding tab, Log Forwarding
Preferences section, assign firewalls according to the number of
Log Collectors in this Collector Group:
Single Log CollectorAssign the firewalls that will forward
logs to that Log Collector, as illustrated in Figure: Single
Dedicated Log Collector Per Collector Group.
Multiple Log CollectorsAssign each firewall to both Log
Collectors for redundancy. When you configure the
preferences, make Log Collector 1 the first priority for half
the firewalls and make Log Collector 2 the first priority for
the other half, as illustrated in Figure: Multiple Dedicated
Log Collectors Per Collector Group.
5.

6.

7.

Return to the General tab, click the Log Storage value and
allocate the desired Log Storage capacity (log quotas) and Max
Days (expiration periods) for each log type (System, Config,
HIP Match, Traffic, Threat, and WildFire). This applies to the
logs that firewalls and Log Collectors forward to Panorama.
If you created server profiles for forwarding firewall logs from
Panorama to external destinations, select the Collector Log
Forwarding tab and assign the profiles to the desired external
services. The profiles can be the same or different for each
Collector Group.
Click OK to save your changes.

The next step depends on your deployment:


If each Collector Group has only one Log Collector, repeat
Step 12 for each Collector Group before proceeding.
If you assigned all the Log Collectors to this Collector Group,
skip to Step 13.
Step 13 Commit your changes.

1.
2.

Palo Alto Networks

Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama, and


click Commit again.
Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Collector Group,
select the Collector Groups you added, and click Commit again.

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Deploy Panorama with Default Log Collectors


The following figures illustrate Panorama in a centralized log collection deployment. In these examples, the
Panorama management server comprises two M-Series appliances in Panorama mode, configured for
active/passive high availability (HA). The firewalls send logs to the default (predefined) local Log Collector on
each Panorama M-Series appliance. This is the recommended deployment if Panorama manages more than 10
firewalls and the firewalls generate up to 10,000 logs/second. (For details on deployment options, see Plan a
Log Collection Deployment.)
It is a best practice to assign only one Log Collector to each Collector Group (Figure: Single Default Log
Collector Per Collector Group). However, if any single firewall generates more than 4 TB of logs for the required
log retention period, the Collector Group receiving the logs requires multiple Log Collectors (Figure: Multiple
Default Log Collectors Per Collector Group). See Caveats for a Collector Group with Multiple Log Collectors
to understand the risks and recommended mitigations associated with the latter configuration.
After implementing this deployment, if the logging rate increases beyond 10,000 logs per second,
it is recommended that you add Dedicated Log Collectors (M-Series appliances in Log Collector
mode) as described in Deploy Panorama with Dedicated Log Collectors. Such an expansion
might require reassigning firewalls from the default Log Collectors to Dedicated Log Collectors.

Figure: Single Default Log Collector Per Collector Group

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Figure: Multiple Default Log Collectors Per Collector Group

Perform the following steps to deploy Panorama with default Log Collectors. Skip any steps you have already
performed (for example, the initial setup).
Deploy Panorama with Default Log Collectors

Step 1

Perform the initial setup of each M-Series 1.


appliance.
2.
3.
4.

Perform Initial Configuration of the M-Series Appliance.


Register Panorama and Install Licenses.
Install Content and Software Updates for Panorama.
Set Up HA on Panorama.

Step 2

(Optional) Add disks for each Panorama In the CLI of the M-Series appliance, enter the following commands
appliance (primary and secondary) that
and confirm the request when prompted:
request system raid add B1
requires more than the default 1TB of
request system raid add B2
storage. This example uses the drives in
disk bays B1 and B2.

Step 3

Enable connectivity between the M-Series 1.


appliances.

In the CLI of the primary Panorama, enter the following


commands, where <IP address2> represents the management
interface of the secondary Panorama.

set deviceconfig system panorama-server <IPaddress2>


commit

2.

In the CLI of the secondary Panorama, enter the following


commands, where <IP address1> represents the management
interface of the primary Panorama.

set deviceconfig system panorama-server <IPaddress1>


commit

Step 4

Record the serial number of the default 1.


Log Collector on the secondary
Panorama. This is the serial number of the 2.
M-Series appliance. You will need this
when you add the Log Collector as a
managed collector.

Palo Alto Networks

Log in to the Panorama Web Interface of the secondary


Panorama.
In the Dashboard tab, General Information section, record the
Serial # value.

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Deploy Panorama with Default Log Collectors (Continued)

Step 5

(Optional) If you will use SNMP to


Load all the PAN-OS MIB files into your SNMP management
monitor the Log Collectors, configure the software and, if necessary, compile them. Refer to your Simple
SNMP management software.
Network Management Protocol (SNMP) manager documentation
for the specific steps.

Step 6

Add a Firewall as a Managed Device.


1.
Perform this step for all the firewalls you
will assign to Log Collectors.
2.

Step 7

Configure Log Forwarding to Panorama

Step 8

(Optional) If you will forward logs from Use the web interface of the primary Panorama to perform the
Panorama to external services, configure a following steps:
server profile for each service.
1. Select Panorama > Server Profiles and select the type of
server that will receive the log data: SNMP Trap, Syslog, or
Email.
2. Configure the server profiles:
SNMP Trap server profile

If you have not already, perform the initial setup of each firewall
that you will assign to a Log Collector.
In the web interface of the primary M-Series appliance, select
Panorama > Managed Devices, click Add, enter the serial
number of each firewall (one line per serial number), and click
OK.

By default, firewalls store all log files locally. You must configure the
firewalls to forward logs to Panorama.

Syslog server profile


Email server profile

3.

You can configure separate profiles for different log


types and severity levels or WildFire verdicts. You can
also assign separate profiles to each Panorama HA peer
when you configure the Collector Groups. For example,
you might want each HA peer to forward logs to a
different syslog server.
To forward firewall logs, you assign the server profiles
when you configure the Collector Groups (Step 12).
To forward the System and Config logs that the M-Series
appliances generate:
a. Select Panorama > Log Settings > System.
b. For System logs, click each Severity level, assign the server
profiles you just created, and click OK.
c. For Config logs, edit the Config settings, assign the server
profiles you just created, and click OK.

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Deploy Panorama with Default Log Collectors (Continued)

Step 9

(Optional) Modify Log Forwarding and


Buffering Defaults.

Use the web interface of the primary Panorama to perform the


following steps:
1. Select Panorama > Setup > Management and edit the Logging
and Reporting Settings.
2. Define the Log Storage and Log Export and Reporting
settings as desired.
It is a best practice to select the Buffered Log
Forwarding from Device option.
The Log Storage quotas and Max Days (expiration
periods) you configure here apply only to the System
and Config logs that Panorama generates. You set the
storage settings for firewall logs when you configure the
Collector Groups.

Step 10 Configure a Managed Collector that is


local to the primary Panorama.

Use the web interface of the primary Panorama to perform the


following steps:
1. Select Panorama > Managed Collectors and select the default
Because the default Log Collector is
Log Collector.
predefined on the M-Series appliance, you
2.
If you configured separate M-Series appliance interfaces during
dont need to add it, only edit it.
the task Perform Initial Configuration of the M-Series
Appliance, in the General tab select the interfaces to use for
Device Log Collection and Collector Group Communication.
Otherwise, Panorama uses the management (mgmt) interface
by default.
3. If you increased storage capacity on the primary M-Series
appliance, select the Disks tab and Add each additional disk
pair.
4. Click OK to save your changes.

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Deploy Panorama with Default Log Collectors (Continued)

Step 11 Configure a Managed Collector that is


local to the secondary Panorama.
Even though this Log Collector is
local to the secondary Panorama,
the Panorama management server
treats it as a remote Log Collector
because its not local to the
primary Panorama. Therefore you
must manually add it using the
web interface of the primary
Panorama.

Use the web interface of the primary Panorama to perform the


following steps:
1. In the Panorama web interface, select Panorama > Managed
Collectors and click Add.
2. In the General tab, Collector S/N field, enter the serial number
you recorded for the default Log Collector on the secondary
Panorama.
3. Enter the IP address of the primary Panorama in the
Panorama Server IP field and the IP address of the secondary
Panorama in the Panorama Server IP 2 field. These fields are
required.
4. In the Authentication tab, enter a Password (the default is
admin).
5. In the Management tab, you must complete one or both of the
following field sets with the management interface values of the
secondary Panorama:
IPv4IP Address, Netmask, and Default Gateway
IPv6IPv6 Address/Prefix Length and Default IPv6
Gateway

6.

7.

8.

9.

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If you configured Eth1 and/or Eth2 interfaces during the task


Perform Initial Configuration of the M-Series Appliance,
configure the settings in the Eth1 and/or Eth2 tabs. You must
select the Eth1/Eth2 check box in the corresponding tab to
configure the settings.
Return to the General tab and select the interfaces to use for
Device Log Collection and Collector Group Communication.
Panorama uses the management (mgmt) interface by default.
Eth1 and Eth2 are only available if you configured them in the
corresponding tabs.
If you increased storage capacity on the secondary M-Series
appliance, select the Disks tab and Add each additional disk
pair.
Click OK and Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama,
and click Commit again. Wait until the HA synchronization
finishes before proceeding.

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Log Collection Deployments

Deploy Panorama with Default Log Collectors (Continued)

Step 12 Configure a Collector Group.

Use the web interface of the primary Panorama to perform the


following steps:
Because the default Collector Group is
Panorama > Collector Groups and select the default
predefined on the M-Series appliance, you 1. Select
Collector Group on the primary Panorama.
dont need to add it, only edit it.
If you add multiple Log Collectors to a single Collector
group, it is a best practice to select the Enable log
redundancy across collectors check box.
2. If you configured the SNMP management software to monitor
Log Collectors, select the Monitoring tab and configure the
SNMP settings.
3. In the Device Log Forwarding tab, Collector Group Members
section, assign Log Collectors according to how many this
Collector Group will have:
Single Log CollectorBy default, the local Log Collector on
the primary Panorama is pre-assigned to the default
Collector Group so you do not need to assign any member.
Multiple Log CollectorsAssign the Log Collector that is
local on the secondary Panorama. The local Log Collector
on the primary Panorama is pre-assigned.
4.

In the Device Log Forwarding tab, Log Forwarding


Preferences section, assign firewalls according to the number of
Log Collectors in this Collector Group:
Single Log CollectorAssign the firewalls that will forward
logs to the default Log Collector of the primary Panorama,
as illustrated in Figure: Single Default Log Collector Per
Collector Group.
Multiple Log CollectorsAssign each firewall to both Log
Collectors for redundancy. When you configure the
preferences, make Log Collector 1 the first priority for half
the firewalls and make Log Collector 2 the first priority for
the other half, as illustrated in Figure: Multiple Default Log
Collectors Per Collector Group.

5.

6.

Return to the General tab, click the Log Storage value and
allocate the desired Log Storage capacity (log quotas) and Max
Days (expiration periods) for each firewall log type (System,
Config, HIP Match, Traffic, Threat, and WildFire).
If you created server profiles for forwarding firewall logs from
Panorama to external destinations, select the Collector Log
Forwarding tab and assign server profiles for the desired
external services. The profiles can be the same or different for
each Collector Group.

The next step depends on your deployment:


If you assigned all the Log Collectors to this Collector Group,
skip to Step 14.
If each Collector Group has only one Log Collector, perform
Step 13 to add another Collector Group.

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Deploy Panorama with Default Log Collectors (Continued)

Step 13 (Only if each Collector Group has one


Log Collector) Configure a Collector
Group for the Log Collector on the
secondary Panorama.

Use the web interface of the primary Panorama to perform the


following steps:
1. Select Panorama > Collector Groups, click Add, and enter a
Name for the Collector Group on the secondary Panorama.
After you save the Collector Group, you cannot change its
name.
2. If you configured the SNMP management software to monitor
Log Collectors, select the Monitoring tab and configure the
SNMP settings.
3. In the Device Log Forwarding tab, Collector Group Members
section, assign the default Log Collector of the secondary
Panorama.
4. In the Device Log Forwarding tab, Log Forwarding
Preferences section, assign the firewalls that will forward logs to
the default Log Collector of the secondary Panorama, as
illustrated in Figure: Single Default Log Collector Per Collector
Group.
5. In the General tab, click the Log Storage value and allocate the
desired Log Storage capacity (log quotas) and Max Days
(expiration periods) for each firewall log type (System, Config,
HIP Match, Traffic, Threat, and WildFire).
6. Click OK to save your changes.
If you want each Panorama HA peer to forward firewall logs
to a different destination (for example, different syslog
servers), log in to the web interface of the secondary peer,
select Panorama > Collector Groups, select the Collector
Group you just added, select the Collector Log Forwarding
tab, assign the server profiles, and click OK.

Step 14 Commit your changes.

Use the web interface of the primary Panorama to perform the


following steps:
1. Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama, and
click Commit again.
2. Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Collector Group,
select the Collector Groups you added, and click Commit again.

Step 15 Manually fail over so that the secondary


Panorama becomes active.

Use the web interface of the primary Panorama to perform the


following steps:
1. Select Panorama > High Availability.
2. In the Operational Commands section, click Suspend local
Panorama.

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Deploy Panorama with Default Log Collectors (Continued)

Step 16 On the secondary Panorama, configure Use the web interface of the secondary Panorama to perform the
the network settings of the Log Collector following steps:
that is local to the primary Panorama.
1. In the Panorama web interface, select Panorama > Managed
Collectors and select the Log Collector that is local to the
primary Panorama.
2. In the General tab, enter the IP address of the secondary
Panorama in the Panorama Server IP field and the IP address
of the primary Panorama in the Panorama Server IP 2 field.
3. In the Management tab, you must complete one or both of the
following field sets with the management interface values of the
primary Panorama:
IPv4IP Address, Netmask, and Default Gateway
IPv6IPv6 Address/Prefix Length and Default IPv6
Gateway

4.

5.
Step 17 Manually fail back so that the primary
Panorama becomes active.

Click OK and Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama,


and click Commit again. Wait until the HA synchronization
finishes before proceeding.
Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Collector Group,
select the Collector Groups you added, and click Commit again.

Use the web interface of the secondary Panorama to perform the


following steps:
1. Select Panorama > High Availability.
2. In the Operational Commands section, click Suspend local
Panorama.

Deploy Panorama Virtual Appliances with Local Log Collection


The following figure illustrates Panorama in a centralized log collection deployment. In this example, the
Panorama management server comprises two Panorama virtual appliances, configured for active/passive high
availability (HA). The firewalls send logs to the Panorama management server (to its virtual disk or Network
File Share [NFS] datastore). By default, both the primary and secondary Panorama receive logs. This
configuration suits firewall management within a VMware virtual infrastructure in which Panorama manages up
to 10 firewalls and processes up to 10,000 logs/second. (For details on deployment options, see Plan a Log
Collection Deployment.) By default, the Panorama virtual appliance has a single disk partition for all data, and
10.89GB of this space is allocated for log storage. If necessary, you can Expand Log Storage Capacity on the
Panorama Virtual Appliance.
After implementing this deployment, if the number of managed firewalls increases beyond 10, it
is recommended that you use M-Series appliances in Panorama mode as the Panorama
management server.
If the logging rate increases beyond 10,000 logs per second, it is recommended that you add
Dedicated Log Collectors (M-Series appliances in Log Collector mode).
Deploy Panorama with Dedicated Log Collectors describes a deployment with Dedicated Log
Collectors managed by Panorama virtual appliances or by M-Series appliances in Panorama
mode.

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Figure: Panorama Virtual Appliances with Local Log Collection

Perform the following steps to deploy Panorama virtual appliances with local log collection. Skip any steps you
have already performed (for example, the initial setup).
Deploy Panorama Virtual Appliances with Local Log Collection

Step 1

Perform the initial setup of each


Panorama virtual appliance.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Step 2

Add a Firewall as a Managed Device.


1.
Perform this step for all the firewalls that
will forward logs to Panorama.
2.

Step 3

Configure Log Forwarding to Panorama

150 Panorama 7.0 Administrators Guide

Install the Panorama Virtual Appliance.


Perform Initial Configuration of the Panorama Virtual
Appliance.
(Optional) Expand Log Storage Capacity on the Panorama
Virtual Appliance.
Register Panorama and Install Licenses.
Install Content and Software Updates for Panorama.
Panorama High Availability.
If you have not already, perform the initial setup of each firewall
that you will assign to a Log Collector.
In the Panorama web interface, select Panorama > Managed
Devices, click Add, enter the serial number of each firewall (one
line per serial number), and click OK.

By default, firewalls store all log files locally. You must configure the
firewalls to forward logs to Panorama.

Palo Alto Networks

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Log Collection Deployments

Deploy Panorama Virtual Appliances with Local Log Collection (Continued)

Step 4

(Optional) Configure log forwarding


from Panorama to external services.
This step applies to logs that the
Panorama virtual appliances generate
(System and Config logs) and logs that
Panorama collects from the firewalls
(System, Config, HIP Match, Traffic,
Threat, and/or WildFire logs).

Use the web interface of the primary Panorama to perform the


following steps:
1. Select Panorama > Server Profiles and select the type of
server that will receive the log data: SNMP Trap, Syslog, or
Email.
2. Configure the server profiles:
SNMP Trap server profile
Syslog server profile
Email server profile

3.
4.

5.
6.

If necessary, you can configure a separate profile for


each log type and severity level or WildFire verdict.
Select Panorama > Log Settings.
For System, Correlation, and Threat logs, click each Severity
level, select the SNMP Trap, Email, or Syslog server profile you
just created, and click OK.
For WildFire logs, click each Verdict, select the SNMP Trap,
Email, or Syslog server profile you just created, and click OK.
For Config, HIP Match, and Traffic logs, click the edit icon,
select the SNMP Trap, Email, or Syslog server profile you just
created, and click OK.

Step 5

(Optional) Modify Log Forwarding and


Buffering Defaults.

Use the Panorama web interface to perform the following steps:


1. Select Panorama > Setup > Management and edit the Logging
and Reporting Settings.
2. Define the Log Storage and Log Export and Reporting
settings as desired.
If you want only the primary Panorama to receive logs, select
the Only Active Primary Logs to Local Disk check box.
It is a best practice to select the Buffered Log
Forwarding from Device option.

Step 6

Commit your changes.

Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama, and click
Commit again.

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Palo Alto Networks

Manage Licenses and Updates


As an administrator, you can use Panorama to centrally manage licenses and software/content updates on
managed devices (firewalls and Log Collectors). When you deploy licenses or updates, Panorama checks in with
the Palo Alto Networks licensing server or update server, verifies the request validity, and then allows retrieval
and installation of the license/update on the devices. This capability facilitates deployment by eliminating the
need to repetitively perform the tasks on each device. It is particularly useful for managing firewalls that do not
have direct Internet access or for managing M-Series appliances in Log Collector mode, which do not support
a web interface.
Before deploying updates, see Panorama, Log Collector, and Firewall Version Compatibility for
important details about update version compatibility among Palo Alto Networks devices.
You must activate a support subscription directly on each firewall; you cannot use Panorama to
deploy support subscriptions.
To activate licenses or install updates on Panorama itself, see Register Panorama and Install
Licenses and Install Content and Software Updates for Panorama.

Manage Licenses on Firewalls Using Panorama

Deploy Updates to Devices Using Panorama

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Manage Licenses on Firewalls Using Panorama


The following steps describe how to retrieve new licenses using an auth-code and push the license keys to
managed firewalls. It also describes how to manually update (refresh) the license status of firewalls that do not
have direct Internet access. For firewalls that have direct Internet access, Panorama automatically performs a
daily check-in with the licensing server, retrieves license updates and renewals, and pushes them to the firewalls.
The check-in is hard-coded to occur between 1 and 2 A.M.; you cannot change this schedule.
You cannot use Panorama to activate the support license of firewalls. You must access the
firewalls individually to activate their support licenses.
To activate licenses for Panorama itself, see Register Panorama and Install Licenses.

Manage Licenses on Firewalls Using Panorama

Activate new licenses.

154 Panorama 7.0 Administrators Guide

1.

Select Panorama > Device Deployment > Licenses and click


Activate. This option allows you to activate a newly purchased

2.

subscription, for example, a Threat subscription.


Find or filter for the managed firewalls and enter the
authentication code(s) that Palo Alto Networks provided for
the device in the Auth Code column.

3.

Click Activate.

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Manage Licenses and Updates

Manage Licenses on Firewalls Using Panorama

Manage Licenses on Firewalls Using Panorama (Continued)

Update the license status of firewalls.

Palo Alto Networks

1.

Select Panorama > Device Deployment > Licenses.


Each entry on the tab indicates whether the license is active or
inactive and displays the expiration date for active licenses.

2.

If you have previously activated the auth-code for the support


subscription directly on the firewall, click Refresh and select
one or more firewalls from the list. Panorama retrieves the
license(s), deploys it to the managed firewalls and updates the
licensing status on the Panorama web interface.

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Deploy Updates to Devices Using Panorama

Manage Licenses and Updates

Deploy Updates to Devices Using Panorama


You can use Panorama to qualify software and content updates by deploying them to a subset of the firewalls
or Dedicated Log Collectors (M-Series appliances in Log Collector mode) before installing the updates on all
managed devices. If you want to schedule periodic content updates, Panorama requires a direct Internet
connection. To deploy software or content updates on demand (unscheduled), the procedure differs depending
on whether Panorama has an Internet connection.

Supported Updates by Device Type

Schedule a Content Update to Devices Using Panorama

Install a Software Update on Firewall HA Pairs

Deploy an Update to Devices when Panorama Has an Internet Connection

Deploy an Update to Devices when Panorama Has No Internet Connection


You do not install SSL VPN client or GlobalProtect agent/app software on firewalls; you activate
the software on firewalls so that users can download it onto client systems.
You cannot deploy GlobalProtect data file updates on demand; you can only schedule them
(Device > Dynamic Updates) using templates or directly through the web interface of a firewall.

Supported Updates by Device Type


The software and content updates you can install depend on which subscriptions are active on each device and
the device type:
Device

Software Updates

Content Updates

Dedicated Log Collectors

Panorama

Applications signatures
Antivirus signatures
WildFire

Firewalls

PAN-OS

Applications signatures

SSL VPN client

Applications and Threats signatures

GlobalProtect agent/app

Antivirus signatures
BrightCloud URL filtering
WildFire
GlobalProtect data files

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Deploy Updates to Devices Using Panorama

Schedule a Content Update to Devices Using Panorama


For a list of content updates you can install on firewalls and Log Collectors, see Supported Updates by Device
Type. Panorama requires a direct Internet connection for scheduled updates. Otherwise, you can perform only
on-demand updates (see Deploy an Update to Devices when Panorama Has No Internet Connection). On each
firewall receiving the update, PAN-OS generates a log to indicate the installation succeeded (Config log) or failed
(System log).
Before deploying updates, see Panorama, Log Collector, and Firewall Version Compatibility for
important details about update version compatibility among Palo Alto Networks devices.
Panorama can download only one update at a time. If you schedule the updates to download
during the same time interval, only the first download will succeed. Therefore it is a best practice
to stagger the scheduled updates.
To install a content update on a Panorama virtual appliance or on an M-Series appliance in
Panorama mode, see Install Content and Software Updates for Panorama.

Perform the following steps for each update type you want to schedule.
Schedule a Content Update to Devices Using Panorama

Step 1

Select Panorama > Device Deployment > Dynamic Updates, click Schedules, and click Add.

Step 2

Specify a Name to describe the schedule, the update Type, and the update frequency (Recurrence). The
available frequency options depend on the update Type:
Wildfire: Select Every 15 Mins (minutes), Every 30 Mins, or Every Hour.
WF-Private: Select Every 5 Mins, Every 15 Mins, Every 30 Mins, or Every Hour.
Antivirus:
HourlyEnter the Minutes Past the Hour when the update will start.
DailySelect the Time of day when the update will start.
WeeklySelect the Day of the week and Time of day when the update will start.
Other update types: Select Daily or Weekly.
PAN-OS uses the Panorama timezone for update scheduling.
The WildFire Private (WF-Private) option is only available if the WildFire Server field (Panorama >
Setup > WildFire) is set to a WF-500 Wildfire appliance, not to the WildFire cloud.

Step 3

Specify the Action to schedule:


Download And Install (best practice)Select the Devices (for firewalls) or Log Collectors option, then
select the devices to which the update will apply.
Download OnlyPanorama downloads the update but does not install it on devices.

Step 4

Click OK and Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama, and click Commit again.

Install a Software Update on Firewall HA Pairs


To avoid downtime when installing software updates on firewall peers in a high availability (HA) configuration,
install the updates in the following sequence.

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Manage Licenses and Updates

PAN-OS synchronizes the sessions of HA peers even when you upgrade between major releases
(for example, from 6.0 to 6.1).

Install a Software Update on Firewall HA Pairs

Step 1

Install the software update on the


secondary firewall.

Log in to Panorama and perform one of the following procedures


on the secondary firewall:
Deploy an Update to Devices when Panorama Has an Internet
Connection
Deploy an Update to Devices when Panorama Has No Internet
Connection
For either procedure, in the Deploy Software File dialog, you
must clear the Group HA Peers check box. In the HA Status
column, icons indicate the peer state: green for active and
yellow for passive.

Step 2

Trigger a manual failover on the primary 1.


firewall so that it becomes passive and the
secondary becomes active.
2.

Log in to the primary firewall, select Device > High Availability


> Operational Commands and click Suspend local device.
Log in to the secondary firewall and, on the Dashboard, High
Availability widget, verify that the Local firewall state is active
and the Peer firewall is suspended.

Step 3

Install the software update on the primary Repeat Step 1 for the primary firewall.
firewall.

Step 4

Restore the primary firewall to the active 1.


state.

Log in to the primary firewall, select Device > High Availability


> Operational Commands and click Make local device
functional.

2.

Wait two minutes and then, on the primary firewall Dashboard,


High Availability widget, verify that the Local firewall state is
active and the Peer firewall is passive.

Deploy an Update to Devices when Panorama Has an Internet Connection


For a list of software and content updates you can install on firewalls and Dedicated Log Collectors (M-Series
appliances in Log Collector mode), see Supported Updates by Device Type.

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Manage Licenses and Updates

Deploy Updates to Devices Using Panorama

Before deploying updates, see Panorama, Log Collector, and Firewall Version Compatibility for
critical details about update version compatibility among Palo Alto Networks devices.
If both Panorama and managed firewalls require updates, upgrade Panorama (see Install
Content and Software Updates for Panorama) before upgrading the firewalls.
If you must upgrade firewalls to a PAN-OS maintenance release for which the feature release is
higher than the currently installed software, you must upload (without installing) the feature
release to the firewalls before uploading and installing the maintenance release. For example, to
upgrade firewalls from PAN-OS 5.0.12 to PAN-OS 6.0.4, you must upload PAN-OS 6.0.0 to the
firewalls before you upload and install PAN-OS 6.0.4 on the firewalls.
Panorama displays a warning if you manually deploy a content update when an existing schedule
has started or is scheduled to start within five minutes. For details, see Schedule a Content
Update to Devices Using Panorama.
If you will deploy software updates to firewall pairs in a high availability (HA) configuration, install
the updates on one peer at a time as described in Install a Software Update on Firewall HA Pairs.

Deploy an Update to Devices when Panorama Has an Internet Connection

Step 1

Select Panorama > Device Deployment and select the update type: Software (PAN-OS), SSL VPN Client,
GlobalProtect Client (GlobalProtect agent/app), or Dynamic Updates (content).

Step 2

Click Check Now to check for the latest updates. If an update is available, the Action column displays Upgrade
(for BrightCloud URL Filtering) or Download (for all other content categories and software).

Step 3

Review the Version, File Name, and Platform columns to determine the update you want to deploy.
In the Software update page, the Platform values indicate the target platform for each software image:
A numberPAN-OS software for hardware-based firewalls (for example, 5000 indicates the PA-5000 Series
firewalls)
vmPAN-OS software for VM-Series firewalls
mPanorama software for the M-Series appliance (Dedicated Log Collector)
PanVPNSSL VPN client software
PanGPGlobalProtect agent/app software

Step 4

In the Action column of the desired update, click Upgrade or Download. After a successful upgrade/download,
the value Upgrade/Download changes to Install (for content, Panorama, or PAN-OS updates) or Activate (for
SSL VPN or GlobalProtect agent/app updates).
By default, you can download up to two software or content updates of each type to Panorama. When
you start any download beyond that maximum, Panorama deletes the oldest update of the selected type.
To change the maximum, see Manage Panorama Storage for Software and Content Updates.

Step 5

Click Install or Activate and select the firewalls or Log Collectors on which to apply the update.
You must install content updates before software updates. Also, you must install the Applications and
Threats updates before the Antivirus and WildFire updates. URL Filtering updates have no restrictions
in terms of installation sequence.

Step 6

(PAN-OS software updates only) For firewalls that are in a high availability configuration, clear the Group HA
Peers check box to upgrade one HA peer at a time. In the HA Status column, icons indicate the peer state:
green for active and yellow for passive.

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Deploy an Update to Devices when Panorama Has an Internet Connection (Continued)

Step 7

Select one of the following check boxes depending on your purpose:


Upload only to device (do not install)If the file you selected is for a feature release (for example, 6.0.0) and
you will install a maintenance release (for example, 6.0.3) immediately after, select this option to create the
libraries and directories that are required for the maintenance release.
Reboot device after installSelect this option for all other scenarios. The installation cannot finish until the
device reboots.

Step 8

Click OK to start the installation or upload. The results of the installation attempt appear on screen.

Step 9

To verify the software and content update versions running on each managed firewall, select Panorama >
Managed Devices, locate the firewall (Device Name column) and review the values in the Software Version
column.

Step 10 To verify the software and content update versions running on a Dedicated Log Collector, Log in to the
Panorama CLI of the M-Series appliance and enter the show system info command. The output will resemble
the following:
sw-version: 7.0
app-version: 366-1738
app-release-date: 2014/10/29 15:46:03
av-version: 1168-1550
av-release-date: 2014/10/21 14:31:27
threat-version: 366-1738
threat-release-date: 2014/10/29 15:46:03

Deploy an Update to Devices when Panorama Has No Internet Connection


For a list of software and content updates you can install on firewalls and Dedicated Log Collectors (M-Series
appliances in Log Collector mode), see Supported Updates by Device Type.
Before deploying updates, see Panorama, Log Collector, and Firewall Version Compatibility for
critical details about update version compatibility among Palo Alto Networks devices.
If both Panorama and managed firewalls require updates, upgrade Panorama (see Install
Content and Software Updates for Panorama) before upgrading the firewalls.
If you need to upgrade firewalls to a PAN-OS maintenance release for which the feature release
is higher than the currently installed software, you must upload (without installing) the feature
release to the firewalls before uploading and installing the maintenance release. For example, to
upgrade firewalls from PAN-OS 5.0.12 to PAN-OS 6.0.4, you must upload PAN-OS 6.0.0 to the
firewalls before you upload and install PAN-OS 6.0.4 on the firewalls.
If you will deploy software updates to firewall pairs in high availability (HA) configuration, install
the updates on one peer at a time as described in Install a Software Update on Firewall HA Pairs.

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Manage Licenses and Updates

Deploy Updates to Devices Using Panorama

Deploy an Update to Devices when Panorama Has No Internet Connection

Step 1

Download the update to a host that has


Internet access. Panorama must have
access to the host.

1.
2.

On a host with Internet access, go to the Palo Alto Support


website (https://support.paloaltonetworks.com) and log in.
In the Resources section, select Software Updates or (for
content) Dynamic Updates.
In the Software Updates page, the filename of the update
package indicates the following:
Software typePanOS, Panorama, PanVPN (SSL VPN
client), or PanGP (GlobalProtect agent/app)
Device modelA number for hardware-based firewalls, vm
for VM-Series firewalls, or m for the M-Series appliance
Software release

Step 2

Upload the update.

3.

In the Download column, click the Download link for the


desired software or content update and save the file to the host.

1.

Log in to Panorama, select Panorama > Device Deployment,


and select the update type: Software (PAN-OS), SSL VPN
Client, GlobalProtect Client (GlobalProtect agent/app), or
Dynamic Updates (content).
Click Upload.
(Content updates only) Select the update Type.
Enter the path to the update File on the host or click Browse
to find it, and click OK.

By default, you can upload up to


two software or content updates
of each type to Panorama. When
you start any upload beyond that 2.
maximum, Panorama deletes the 3.
oldest update of the selected type. 4.
To change the maximum, see
Manage Panorama Storage for
Software and Content Updates.

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Deploy an Update to Devices when Panorama Has No Internet Connection (Continued)

Step 3

Install the update.

1.

You must install content updates


before software updates. Also, you
must install the Applications and
Threats updates before the
Antivirus and WildFire updates.
URL Filtering updates have no
restrictions in terms of installation 2.
sequence.
3.

Begin the installation according to the update type:


Panorama or PAN-OS softwareClick the Install link in
the Action column.
ContentClick the Install From File button.
SSL VPN client or GlobalProtect agent/appClick the
Activate From File button.
(Content updates only) Select the update Type.
(Content, SSL VPN, or GlobalProtect updates only) In the File
Name drop-down, select the file you just uploaded.

4.
5.

6.

Select the firewalls or Log Collectors on which you want to


apply the update.
If some firewalls are in a high availability (HA) configuration,
clear the Group HA Peers check box to upgrade one HA peer
at a time. In the HA Status column, icons indicate the peer state:
green for active and yellow for passive.
(PAN-OS update only) Select one of the following check boxes:
Upload only to device (do not install)If the file you
selected is for a feature release (for example, 6.0.0) and you
will install a maintenance release (for example, 6.0.3)
immediately after, select this option to create the libraries
and directories that the maintenance release requires.
Reboot device after installSelect this option for all other
scenarios. The installation cant finish until the device
reboots.

7.

Click OK to start the installation.


Select Panorama > Managed Devices.
Locate the firewall (Device Name column) and review the
values in the Software Version, Apps and Threat, Antivirus,
URL Filtering, and GlobalProtect Client columns.

Step 4

Verify the software or content version


running on each managed firewall.

1.
2.

Step 5

Verify the software or content version


running on each Log Collector.

show system info

Log in to the Panorama CLI of the M-Series appliance and enter the
command. The output will resemble the
following:
sw-version: 6.1.0
app-version: 366-1738
app-release-date: 2014/10/29 15:46:03
av-version: 1168-1550
av-release-date: 2014/10/21 14:31:27
threat-version: 366-1738
threat-release-date: 2014/10/29 15:46:03

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Monitor Network Activity


Panorama provides a comprehensive, graphical view of network traffic. Using the visibility tools on Panorama
the Application Command Center (ACC), logs, and the report generation capabilitiesyou can centrally
analyze, investigate and report on all network activity, identify areas with potential security impact, and translate
them into secure application enablement policies.
This section covers the following topics:

Use Panorama for Visibility

Use Case: Monitor Applications Using Panorama

Use Case: Respond to an Incident Using Panorama

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Use Panorama for Visibility


In addition to its central deployment and firewall configuration features, Panorama also allows you to monitor
and report on all traffic that traverses your network. While the reporting capabilities on Panorama and the
firewall are very similar, the advantage that Panorama provides is that it is a single pane view of aggregated
information across all your managed firewalls. This aggregated view provides actionable information on trends
in user activity, traffic patterns, and potential threats across your entire network.
Using the Application Command Center (ACC), the App-Scope, the log viewer, and the standard, customizable
reporting options on Panorama, you can quickly learn more about the traffic traversing the network. The ability
to view this information allows you to evaluate where your current policies are adequate and where they are
insufficient. You can then use this data to augment your network security strategy. For example, you can enhance
the security rules to increase compliance and accountability for all users across the network, or manage network
capacity and minimize risks to assets while meeting the rich application needs for the users in your network.
The following topics provide a high-level view of the reporting capabilities on Panorama, including a couple of
use cases to illustrate how you can use these capabilities within your own network infrastructure. For a complete
list of the available reports and charts and the description of each, refer to the online help.

Monitor the Network with the ACC and AppScope

Analyze Log Data

Generate, Schedule, and Email Reports

Monitor the Network with the ACC and AppScope


Both the ACC and the AppScope allow you to monitor and report on the data recorded from traffic that
traverses your network.
The ACC on Panorama displays a summary of network traffic. Panorama can dynamically query data from all
the managed firewalls on the network and display it in the ACC. This display allows you to monitor the traffic
by applications, users, and content activityURL categories, threats, security policies that effectively block data
or filesacross the entire network of Palo Alto Networks next-generation firewalls.
The AppScope helps identify unexpected or unusual behavior on the network at a glance. It includes an array
of charts and reportsSummary Report, Change Monitor, Threat Monitor, Threat Map, Network Monitor,
Traffic Mapthat allow you to analyze traffic flows by threat or application, or by the source or destination for
the flows. You can also sort by session or byte count.
Use the ACC and the AppScope to answer questions such as:
ACC

What are the top applications used on the network


and how many are high-risk applications? Who
are the top users of high-risk applications on the
network?

What are the top URL categories being viewed in


the last hour?

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Monitor > AppScope

What are the Application usage trendswhat are


the top five applications that have gained use and
the top five that have decreased in use?

How has user activity changed over the current


week as compared to last week or last month?

Palo Alto Networks

Monitor Network Activity

ACC

What are the top bandwidth-using applications?


Who are the users/hosts that consume the highest
bandwidth?

What content or files are being blocked and are


there specific users who trigger this File
Blocking/Data Filtering rule?

What is the amount of traffic exchanged between


two specific IP addresses or generated by a
specific user? Where is the destination server or
client located geographically?

Use Panorama for Visibility

Monitor > AppScope

Which users and applications take up most of the


network bandwidth? And how has this
consumption changed over the last 30 days?

What are the threats on the network, and how are


these incoming and outgoing traffic threats
distributed geographically?

You can then use the information to maintain or enforce changes to the traffic patterns on your network. See
Use Case: Monitor Applications Using Panorama for a glimpse into how the visibility tools on Panorama can
influence how you shape the acceptable use policies for your network.
Here are a few tips to help you navigate the ACC:

Switch from a Panorama view to a Device viewUse the Context drop-down to access the web interface
of any managed firewall. For details, see Context SwitchFirewall or Panorama.

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Change Device Group and Data SourceThe default Data Source used to display the statistics on the
charts in the ACC is Panorama local data, and the default Device Group setting is All. Using the local data on
Panorama provides a quick load time for the charts. You can, however, change the data source to Remote
Device Data if all the managed devices are on PAN-OS 7.0. If the managed firewalls have a mix of PAN-OS
7.0 and earlier releases, you can only view Panorama data. When configured to use Remote Device Data,
Panorama will poll all the managed firewalls and present an aggregated view of the data. The onscreen
display indicates the total number of firewalls being polled and the number of firewalls that have responded
to the query for information.

Select the Tabs and Widgets to ViewThe ACC includes three tabs and an array of widgets that allow
you to find the information that you care about. With the exception of the application usage widget and host
information widget, all the other widgets display data only if the corresponding feature has been licensed on
the firewall, and you have enabled logging.

Tweak Time Frame and Refine DataThe reporting time period in the ACC ranges from the last 15
minutes to the last hour, day, week, month, or any custom-defined time. By default, each widget displays the
top 10 items and aggregates all the remaining items as others. You can sort the data in each widget using
various attributesfor example, sessions, bytes, threats, content, and URLs. You can also set local filters to
filter the display within the table and graph in a widget, and then promote the widget filter as a global filter
to pivot the view across all the widgets in the ACC.

Analyze Log Data


The Monitor tab on Panorama provides access to log data; these logs are an archived list of sessions that have
been processed by the managed firewalls and forwarded to Panorama.
Log data can be broadly grouped into two types: those that detail information on traffic flows on your network
such as applications, threats, host information profiles, URL categories, content/file types and those that record
system events, configuration changes and alarms.
Based on the log forwarding configuration on the managed firewalls, the Monitor > Logs tab can include logs for
traffic flows, threats, URL filtering, data filtering, host information profile (HIP) matches, and WildFire
submissions. You can review the logs to verify a wealth of information on a given session or transaction. Some
examples of this information are the user who initiated the session, the action (allow or deny) that the firewall
performed on the session, and the source and destination ports, zones, and addresses. The System and Config
logs can indicate a configuration change or an alarm that the firewall triggered when a configured threshold was
exceeded.
If Panorama will manage firewalls running software versions earlier than PAN-OS 7.0, specify a
WildFire server from which Panorama can gather analysis information for WildFire samples that
those firewalls submit. Panorama uses the information to complete WildFire Submissions logs
that are missing field values introduced in PAN-OS 7.0. Firewalls running earlier releases wont
populate those fields. To specify the server, select Panorama > Setup > WildFire, edit the
General Settings, and enter the WildFire Server name. The default is wildfire-public-cloud,
which is the WildFire cloud hosted in the United States.

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Use Panorama for Visibility

Generate, Schedule, and Email Reports


Panorama allows you to generate reports manually as needed, or schedule reports to run at specific intervals.
You can save and export reports, or you can configure Panorama to email reports to specific recipients. The
ability to share reports using email is particularly useful if you want to share reporting information with
administrators who do not have access to Panorama.
It is recommended that you install matching software releases on Panorama and the firewalls for
which you will generate reports. For example, if the Panorama management server runs
Panorama 6.1, install PAN-OS 6.1 on its managed firewalls before generating the reports. This
practice avoids issues that might occur if you create reports that include fields supported in the
Panorama release but not supported in an earlier PAN-OS release on the firewalls.

You can create the following types of reports:


Report Type

Description

Predefined

A suite of predefined reports in the Monitor > Reports tab that are available in four
categories: Applications, Threats, URL Filtering, and Traffic.

User-activity

The user activity report is a predefined report that is used to create an on-demand report to
document the application use and URL activity broken down by URL category for a specific
user with estimated browse time calculations. This report is available in the Monitor > PDF
Reports > User Activity Reports tab.

Custom

Create and schedule custom reports that displays exactly the information you want to see by
filtering on conditions and columns to include. You can generate reports to query data from
a summary database on Panorama or on the remote devices (that is the managed firewalls),
or use the detailed reports on Panorama or on the remote devices. To view the databases
available for generating these reports, see the Monitor > Manage Custom Reports tab. You
can also create Report Groups (Monitor > PDF Reports > Report Groups tab) to compile
predefined reports and custom reports as a single PDF.

PDF Summary

Aggregate up to 18 predefined reports, graphs, and custom reports into one PDF
document.

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Generate, Schedule, and Email Reports

Step 1

Generate reports.

The steps to generate a report depend on the type:


Create a custom report.
a. Select Monitor > Manage Custom Reports.
b. Click Add and enter a Name for the report.
c. Select a Database for the report. You can use a summary
database or detailed logs on Panorama or on the managed
firewalls.
d. Select the Scheduled check box.
e. Define your filtering criteria. Select the Time Frame, the
Sort By order, Group By preference, and select the columns
that must display in the report.
f. (Optional) Select the Query Builder attributes to further
refine the selection criteria.
g. To test the report settings, select Run Now. If necessary,
modify the settings to change the information that the report
displays.
h. Click OK to save the custom report.
Run a PDF Summary Report.
a. Select Monitor > PDF Reports > Manage PDF Summary.
b. Click Add and enter a Name for the report.
c. Use the drop-down for each report group and select one or
more of the elements to design the PDF Summary Report.
You can include up to 18 elements.
d. Click OK to save the settings.

Step 2

Configure a Report Group.


It can include predefined reports, PDF
Summary reports, and custom reports.
Panorama compiles all the included
reports into a single PDF.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

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Select Monitor > PDF Reports > Report Groups.


Click Add and enter a Name for the report group.
(Optional) Select the Title Page check box and add a Title for
the PDF output.
Select from the Predefined Report, PDF Summary Report and
the Custom Report lists.
Click Add to include the selected reports in the report group.
Click OK to save the settings.

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Use Panorama for Visibility

Generate, Schedule, and Email Reports (Continued)

Step 3

Configure an Email server profile.

1.
2.
3.

Select Panorama > Server Profiles > Email.


Click Add and enter a Name for the profile.
For each Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP) server (up to
four), click Add and enter the information required to connect
to the server and send email:
NameA name to identify the SMTP server (1-31
characters). This field is just a label and doesnt have to be
the hostname of an existing server.
Email Display NameThe name to display in the From
field of the email.
FromThe email address where notification emails will be
sent from.
ToThe email address to which notification emails will be
sent.
Additional RecipientTo send notifications to a second
account, enter the additional address here.
Email GatewayThe IP address or hostname of the SMTP
gateway to use to send the emails.

Step 4

Schedule the report for email delivery.

4.

Click OK to save the profile.

1.
2.
3.

Select Monitor > PDF Reports > Email Scheduler.


Click Add and enter a Name for the email scheduler profile.
Select the Report Group, the Email server profile you just
created (Email Profile), and the Recurrence for the report.
To verify that the email settings are accurate, click Send test
email.
Click OK and Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama,
and click Commit again.

4.
5.

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Use Case: Monitor Applications Using Panorama

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Use Case: Monitor Applications Using Panorama


This example takes you through the process of assessing the efficiency of your current policies and determining
where you need to adjust them to fortify the acceptable use policies for your network.
When you log in to Panorama, the Top Applications widget on the Dashboard gives a preview of the most used
applications over the last hour. You can either glance over the list of top applications and mouse over each
application block that you want to review the details for, or you can navigate to the ACC tab to view the same
information as an ordered list. The following image is a view of the Top Applications widget on the Dashboard.

The data source for this display is the application statistics database; it does not use the traffic logs and is
generated whether or not you have enabled logging for security rules. This view into the traffic on your network
depicts everything that is allowed on your network and is flowing through unblocked by any policy rules that
you have defined.
You can select and toggle the Data Source to be local on Panorama or you can query the managed firewalls
(Remote Device Data) for the data; Panorama automatically aggregates and displays the information. For a
speedier flow, consider using Panorama as the data source (with log forwarding to Panorama enabled) because
the time to load data from the remote devices varies by the time period for which you choose to view data and
the volume of traffic that is generated on your network. If your managed firewalls have a combination of
PAN-OS 7.0 and earlier versions, remote device data is not available.
Going back to the list of top applications, we can see that bittorrent is very popular. If you now click into the
link for the bittorrent application, bittorrent is applied as a global filter and the display in the ACC pivots to show
information on the application, users who accessed the application, and the details on the risk level and
characteristics of the application.

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In the User Activity widget, you can also see how many users are using BitTorrent and the volume of traffic being
generated. If you have enabled User-ID, you will be able to view the names of the users who are generating this
traffic, and drill in to review all the sessions, content or threats associated with each user. View the Compromised
Hosts widget in the Threat Activity tab to see what correlation objects were matched on, and view the match
evidence associated with the user and application. You can also view the threat name, category and ID in the
Threat Activity widget.

With BitTorrent set as a global filter, use the Destination IP Activity and the Destination Regions widgets to verify
where the traffic was destined. You can also view the ingress and egress zones and the security rule that is letting
this connection through.

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For more detailed information, jump into the traffic logs for a filtered view and review each log entry for
ports used, packets sent, bytes sent and received. Adjust the columns to view more information or less
information based on your needs.
The Monitor > App-Scope> Traffic Map tab displays a geographical map of the traffic flow and provides a view of
incoming versus outgoing traffic. You can also use the Monitor > App-Scope > Change Monitor tab to view changes
in traffic patterns. For example, compare the top applications used over this hour to the last week or month to
determine if there is a pattern or trend.
With all the information you have now uncovered, you can evaluate what changes to make to your policy
configurations. Here are some suggestions to consider:

Be restrictive and to create a pre-rule on Panorama to block all BitTorrent traffic. Then use Panorama device
groups to create and push this policy rule to one or more firewalls.

Enforce bandwidth use limits and create a QoS profile and policy rule that de-prioritizes non-business
traffic. Then use Panorama templates to push this rule to one or more firewalls. Refer to Panorama
Templates for defining QoS policy using templates.

Reduce risk to your network assets and create an application filter that blocks all file sharing applications that
are peer-to-peer technology with a risk factor of 4 or 5. Make sure to verify that the bittorrent application is
included in that application filter, and will therefore be blocked.

Schedule a custom report group that pulls together the activity for the specific user and that of top
applications used on your network to observe that pattern for another week or two before taking action.

Besides checking for a specific application, you can also check for any unknown applications in the list of top
applications. These are applications that did not match a defined App-ID signature and display as unknown-udp
and unknown-tcp. To delve into these unknown applications, click on the name to drill down to the details for the
unclassified traffic.
Use the same process to investigate the top source IP addresses of the hosts that initiated the unknown traffic
along with the IP address of the destination host to which the session was established. For unknown traffic, the
traffic logs, by default, perform a packet capture (pcap) when an unknown application is detected. The green
arrow in the left column represents the packet capture snippet of the application data. Clicking on the green
arrow displays the pcap in the browser.

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Having the IP addresses of the servers (destination IP), the destination port, and the packet captures, you will
be better positioned to identify the application and make a decision on how you would like to take action on
your network. For example, you can create a custom application that identifies this traffic instead of labeling it
as unknown TCP or UDP traffic. Refer to the article Identifying Unknown Applications for more information
on identifying unknown application and Custom Application Signatures for information on developing custom
signatures to discern the application.

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Use Case: Respond to an Incident Using Panorama

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Use Case: Respond to an Incident Using Panorama


Network threats can originate from different vectors, including malware and spyware infections due to drive-by
downloads, phishing attacks, unpatched servers, and random or targeted denial of service (DoS) attacks, to name
a few methods of attack. The ability to react to a network attack or infection requires processes and systems that
alert the administrator to an attack and provide the necessary forensics evidence to track the source and
methods used to launch the attack.
The advantage that Panorama provides is a centralized and consolidated view of the patterns and logs collected
from the managed firewalls across your network. You can use the information from the automated correlation
engine alone or in conjunction with the reports and logs generated from a Security Information Event Manager
(SIEM), to investigate how an attack was triggered and how to prevent future attacks and loss of damage to your
network.
The questions that this use case probes are:

How are you notified of an incident?

How do you corroborate that the incident is not a false positive?

What is your immediate course of action?

How do you use the available information to reconstruct the sequence of events that preceded or followed
the triggering event?

What are the changes you need to consider for securing your network?

This use case traces a specific incident and shows how the visibility tools on Panorama can help you respond to
the report.

Incident Notification

Review the Widgets in the ACC

Review Threat Logs

Review WildFire Logs

Review Data Filtering Logs

Update Security Rules

Incident Notification
There are several ways that you could be alerted to an incident depending on how youve configured the Palo
Alto Networks firewalls and which third-party tools are available for further analysis. You might receive an email
notification that was triggered by a log entry recorded to Panorama or to your syslog server, or you might be
informed through a specialized report generated on your SIEM solution, or a third-party paid service or agency
might notify you. For this example, lets say that you receive an email notification from Panorama. The email
informs you of an event that was triggered by an alert for a Zero Access gent.Gen Command And Control Traffic
that matched against a spyware signature. Also listed in the email are the IP address of the source and destination
for the session, a threat ID and the timestamp of when the event was logged.

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Review the Widgets in the ACC


In the ACC> Threat Activity tab, check the Compromised Hosts widget and Threat Activity widget for any critical or
high severity threats.

Look into the matching object and click the match count link to view the match evidence for the incident.

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Review Threat Logs


To begin investigating the alert, use the threat ID to search the threat logs on Panorama (Monitor > Logs > Threat).
From the threat logs, you can find the IP address of the victim, export the packet capture (PCAP, has a green
arrow icon in the log entry) and use a network analyzer tool such as WireShark to review the packet details. In
the HTTP case, look for a malformed or bogus HTTP REFERER in the protocol, suspicious host, URL strings,
the user agent, the IP address and port in order to validate the incident. Data from these pcaps is also useful in
searching for similar data patterns and creating custom signatures or modifying security policy to better address
the threat in the future.

As a result of this manual review, if you feel confident about the signature, consider transitioning the signature
from an alert action to a block action for a more aggressive approach. In some cases, you may choose to add
the attacker IP to an IP block list to prevent further traffic from that IP address from reaching the internal
network.
If you see a DNS-based spyware signature, the IP address of your local DNS server might display
as the Victim IP address. Often this is because the firewall is located north of the local DNS
server, and so DNS queries show the local DNS server as the source IP rather than showing the
IP address of the client that originated the request.
If you see this issue, enable the DNS sinkholing action in the Anti-Spyware profile in security rules
to identify the infected hosts on your network. DNS sinkholing allows you to control outbound
connections to malicious domains and redirect DNS queries to an internal IP address that is
unused; the sinkhole that does not put out a response. When a compromised host initiates a
connection to a malicious domain, instead of going out to the Internet, the firewall redirects the
request to the IP address you defined and it is sinkholed. Now, reviewing the traffic logs for all
hosts that connected to the sinkhole allows you locate all compromised hosts and take remedial
action to prevent the spread.

To continue with the investigation on the incident, use the information on the attacker and the victim IP address
to find out more information, such as:

Where is the attacker located geographically? Is the IP address an individual IP address or a NATed IP
address?

Was the event caused by a user being tricked into going to a website, a download, or was it sent through an
email attachment?

Is the malware being propagated? Are there other compromised hosts/endpoints on the network?

Is it a zero-day vulnerability?

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The log details


for each log entry display the Related Logs for the event. This information points you to the
traffic, threat, URL filtering or other logs that you can review and correlate the events that led to the incident.
For example, filter the traffic log (Monitor > Logs > Traffic) using the IP address as both the source and the
destination IP to get a complete picture of all the external and internal hosts/clients with which this victim IP
address has established a connection.

Review WildFire Logs


In addition to the Threat logs, use the victim IP address to filter though the WildFire Submissions logs. The
WildFire Submissions logs contain information on files uploaded to the WildFire service for analysis. Because
spyware typically embeds itself covertly, reviewing the WildFire Submissions logs tells you whether the victim
recently downloaded a suspicious file. The WildFire forensics report displays information on the URL from
which the file or .exe was obtained, and the behavior of the content. It informs you if the file is malicious, if it
modified registry keys, read/wrote into files, created new files, opened network communication channels,
caused application crashes, spawned processes, downloaded files, or exhibited other malicious behavior. Use this
information to determine whether to block the application that caused the infection (web-browsing, SMTP,
FTP), make more stringent URL Filtering rules, or restrict some applications/actions (for example, file
downloads to specific user groups).
Access to the WildFire logs from Panorama requires the following: a WildFire subscription, a File
Blocking profile that is attached to a Security rule, and Threat log forwarding to Panorama.
If Panorama will manage firewalls running software versions earlier than PAN-OS 7.0, specify a
WildFire server from which Panorama can gather analysis information for WildFire samples that
those firewalls submit. Panorama uses the information to complete WildFire Submissions logs
that are missing field values introduced in PAN-OS 7.0. Firewalls running earlier releases wont
populate those fields. To specify the server, select Panorama > Setup > WildFire, edit the
General Settings, and enter the WildFire Server name. The default is wildfire-public-cloud,
which is the WildFire cloud hosted in the United States.

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If WildFire determines that a file is malicious, a new antivirus signature is created within 24-48 hours and made
available to you. If you have a WildFire subscription, the signature is made available within 30-60 minutes as part
of the next WildFire signature update. As soon as the Palo Alto Networks next-generation firewall has received
a signature for it, if your configuration is configured to block malware, the file will be blocked and the
information on the blocked file will be visible in your threat logs. This process is tightly integrated to protect
you from this threat and stems the spread of malware on your network.

Review Data Filtering Logs


The Data Filtering log (Monitor > Logs > Data Filtering) is another valuable source for investigating malicious
network activity. While you can periodically review the logs for all the files that you are being alerted on, you can
also use the logs to trace file and data transfers to or from the victim IP address or user, and verify the direction
and flow of traffic: server to client or client to server. To recreate the events that preceded and followed an event,
filter the logs for the victim IP address as a destination, and review the logs for network activity.

Because Panorama aggregates information from all managed firewalls, it presents a good overview of all activity
in your network. Some of the other visual tools that you can use to survey traffic on your network are the Threat
Map, Traffic Map, and the Threat Monitor. The threat map and traffic map (Monitor > AppScope > Threat Map or
Traffic Map) allow you to visualize the geographic regions for incoming and outgoing traffic. It is particularly
useful for viewing unusual activity that could indicate a possible attack from outside, such as a DDoS attack. If,
for example, you do not have many business transactions with Eastern Europe, and the map reveals an
abnormal level of traffic to that region, click into the corresponding area of the map to launch and view the
ACC information on the top applications, traffic details on the session count, bytes sent and received, top
sources and destinations, users or IP addresses, and the severity of the threats detected, if any. The threat
monitor (Monitor > AppScope > Threat Monitor) displays the top ten threats on your network, or the list of top
attackers or top victims on the network.

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Update Security Rules


With all the information you have now uncovered, you can sketch together how the threat impacts your
networkthe scale of the attack, the source, the compromised hosts, the risk factorand evaluate what
changes, if any, to follow through. Here are some suggestions to consider:

Forestall DDoS attacks by enhancing your DoS Protection profile to configure random early drop or to drop
SYN cookies for TCP floods. Consider placing limits on ICMP and UDP traffic. Evaluate the options
available to you based on the trends and patterns you noticed in your logs, and implement the changes using
Panorama templates.
Create a dynamic block list (Objects > Dynamic Block Lists), to block specific IP addresses that you have
uncovered from several intelligence sources: analysis of your own threat logs, DDoS attacks from specific
IP addresses, or a third-party IP block list.
The list must be a text file that is located on a web server. Using device groups on Panorama, push the object
to the managed firewalls so that the firewalls can access the web server and import the list at a defined
frequency. After creating a dynamic block list object, define a Security rule that uses the address object in the
source and destination fields to block traffic from or to the IP address, range, or subnet defined. This
approach allows you to block intruders until you resolve the issue and make larger policy changes to secure
your network.

Determine whether to create shared policy rules or device group rules to block specific applications that
caused the infection (web-browsing, SMTP, FTP), make more stringent URL Filtering rules, or restrict some
applications/actions (for example, file downloads to specific user groups).

On Panorama, you can also switch to the device context and configure the firewall for Botnet reports that
identify potential botnet-infected hosts on the network.

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Panorama High Availability


Panorama High Availability (HA) is a configuration in which two Panorama servers are placed in a group
(two-device cluster) to provide redundancy in the event of a system or network failure. Panorama in HA
provides continuity in the task of centrally administering and monitoring the firewalls to secure your network.

Panorama HA Prerequisites

Priority and Failover on Panorama in HA

Failover Triggers

Logging Considerations in Panorama HA

Synchronization Between Panorama HA Peers

Manage a Panorama HA Pair

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Panorama HA Prerequisites
To configure Panorama in HA, you require a pair of identical Panorama servers with the following requirements
on each:

The same form factorMust both be hardware-based appliances (M-Series appliances) or virtual
appliances. For HA, the M-Series appliances must be in Panorama mode; M-Series appliances in Log
Collector mode do not support HA.

The same Panorama OS versionMust be running the same version of Panorama in order to
synchronize configuration information and maintain parity for a seamless failover.

The same set of licensesMust purchase and install the same device management capacity license for
each Panorama.

(Panorama virtual appliance only) Unique serial numberMust have a unique serial number for each
Panorama virtual appliance; if the serial number is duplicated, both instances of Panorama will be placed in
a suspended mode until you resolve the issue.

The Panorama servers in the HA configuration are peers and you can use either (active-primary or
passive-secondary) to centrally manage the devices with a few exceptions (see Synchronization Between
Panorama HA Peers). The HA peers use the management port to synchronize the configuration elements
pushed to the managed devices and to maintain state information. Typically, Panorama HA peers are
geographically located in different sites, so you need to make sure that the management port IP address assigned
to each peer is routable through your network. HA connectivity uses TCP port 28 with encryption enabled. If
encryption is not enabled, ports 28769 and 28260 are used for HA connectivity and to synchronize
configuration between the HA peers. The maximum latency between the peers is 50ms. To determine the
latency, use Ping during a period of normal traffic.

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Priority and Failover on Panorama in HA

Priority and Failover on Panorama in HA


Each Panorama peer in the HA pair is assigned a priority value. The priority value of the primary or secondary
peer determines which will be eligible for being the main point of administration and log management. The peer
set as primary assumes the active state, and the secondary becomes passive. The active peer handles all the
configuration changes and pushes them to the managed firewalls; the passive peer cannot make any
configuration changes or push configuration to the managed firewalls. However, either peer can be used to run
reports or to perform log queries.
The passive peer is synchronized and ready to transition to the active state if a path, link, system, or network
failure occur on the active device.
When a failover occurs, only the state (active or passive) of the device changes; the priority (primary and
secondary) does not. For example, when the primary peer fails, its status changes from active-primary to passiveprimary.
A peer in the active-secondary state can perform all functions with two exceptions:

It cannot manage device deployment functions such as license updates or software upgrades on the managed
firewalls.

It cannot log to an NFS until you manually change its priority to primary. (Panorama virtual appliance only)

The following table lists the capabilities of Panorama based on its state and priority settings:

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Priority and Failover on Panorama in HA

Panorama High Availability

For more information, see Panorama HA Prerequisites or Set Up HA on Panorama.

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Failover Triggers

Failover Triggers
When a failure occurs on the active device and the passive device takes over the task of managing the firewalls,
the event is called a failover. A failover is triggered when a monitored metric on the active device fails. This
failure transitions the state on the primary Panorama from active-primary to passive-primary, and the secondary
Panorama becomes active-secondary.
The conditions that trigger a failover are:

The Panorama peers cannot communicate with each other and the active peer does not respond to health
and status polls; the metric used is HA Heartbeat Polling and Hello Messages.
When the Panorama peers cannot communicate with each other, the active peer monitors whether the
devices are still connected to it before a failover is triggered. This check helps in avoiding a failover and
causing a split-brain scenario, where both Panorama peers are in an active state.

One or more of the destinations (IP addresses) specified on the active peer cannot be reached; the metric
used is HA Path Monitoring.

In addition to the failover triggers listed above, a failover also occurs when the administrator places the device
is a suspended state or if preemption occurs. Preemption is a preference for the primary Panorama to resume the
active role after recovering from a failure (or user-initiated suspension). By default, preemption is enabled and
when the primary Panorama recovers from a failure and becomes available, the secondary Panorama
relinquishes control and returns to the passive state. When preemption occurs, the event is logged in the System
log.
If you are logging to an NFS datastore, do not disable preemption because it allows the primary peer (that is
mounted to the NFS) to resume the active role and write to the NFS datastore. For all other deployments,
preemption is only required if you want to make sure that a specific device is the preferred active device.

HA Heartbeat Polling and Hello Messages


The HA peers use hello messages and heartbeats to verify that the peer is responsive and operational. Hello
messages are sent from one peer to the other at the configured Hello Interval to verify the state of the other.
The heartbeat is an ICMP ping to the HA peer, and the peer responds to the ping to establish that the devices
are connected and responsive. By default, the interval for the heartbeat is 1000 milliseconds and 8000ms for
hello messages.

HA Path Monitoring
Path monitoring checks for network connectivity and link state for a specified IP address. The active peer uses
ICMP pings to verify that one or more destination IP addresses can be reached. You can, for example, monitor
the availability of an interconnected networking devices like a router or a switch, connectivity to a server, or
some other vital device that is in the flow of traffic. Make sure that the node/device configured for monitoring
is not likely to be unresponsive, especially when it comes under load, as this could cause a path monitoring
failure and trigger a failover.

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Failover Triggers

Panorama High Availability

The default ping interval is 5000ms. An IP address is considered unreachable when three consecutive pings (the
default value) fail, and a device failure is triggered when any or all of the IP addresses monitored become
unreachable. By default, if any one of the IP addresses becomes unreachable, the HA state transitions to
non-functional.

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Logging Considerations in Panorama HA

Logging Considerations in Panorama HA


Setting up Panorama in an HA configuration provides redundancy for log collection. Because the managed
devices are connected to both Panorama peers over SSL, when a state change occurs, each Panorama sends a
message to the managed devices. The devices are notified of the Panorama HA state and can forward logs
accordingly.
By default, when the managed devices cannot connect to Panorama (M-Series appliance and the
Panorama virtual appliance), they buffer the logs; when the connection is restored, they resume
sending logs from where it was last left off.

The logging options on the hardware-based Panorama and on the Panorama virtual appliance differ:

Logging Failover on a Panorama Virtual Appliance

Logging Failover on an M-Series Appliance

Logging Failover on a Panorama Virtual Appliance


On the Panorama virtual appliance, you have the following log failover options:
Log Storage Type

Description

Virtual disk

By default, the managed devices send logs as independent streams to each Panorama HA
peer. By default, if a peer becomes unavailable, the managed devices buffer the logs and
when the peer reconnects it resumes sending logs from where it had left off (subject to disk
storage capacity and duration of the disconnection).
Logging to a virtual disk provides redundancy in logging. However, the maximum log
storage capacity is 2TB.
The option to forward logs only to the active peer is configurable (see Modify Log
Forwarding and Buffering Defaults). However, Panorama does not support log
aggregation across the HA pair. So, if you log to a virtual disk or local disk, for
monitoring and reporting you must query the Panorama peer that collects the logs
from the managed devices.

Network File Share (NFS)

Palo Alto Networks

When configured to use an NFS, only the active-primary device mounts to the NFS-based
log partition and can receive logs. On failover, the primary device goes into a
passive-primary state. In this scenario, until preemption occurs, the active-secondary
Panorama manages the devices, but it does not receive the logs and it cannot write to the
NFS. To allow the active-secondary peer to log to the NFS, you must manually switch it to
primary so that it can mount to the NFS partition. For instructions, see Switch Priority after
Panorama Failover to Resume NFS Logging.

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Logging Failover on an M-Series Appliance


If you are using a pair of M-Series appliances (must be in Panorama mode), the managed devices can send logs
to only one peer in the HA pair, either the active or the passive peer. Unlike the virtual Panorama deployment,
you cannot configure the devices to send logs to both peers, however, the RAID-enabled disks on the M-Series
appliance protect against disk failure and loss of logs.
If you have a distributed log collection set up where the managed devices are sending logs to a Dedicated Log
Collector, the Panorama peers in HA will query all the managed Log Collectors for aggregated log information.
For more information, see Panorama HA Prerequisites or Set Up HA on Panorama.

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Synchronization Between Panorama HA Peers

Synchronization Between Panorama HA Peers


The Panorama HA peers synchronize the running configuration each time you commit changes on the active
Panorama peer. The candidate configuration is synchronized between the peers each time you save the
configuration on the active peer or just before a failover occurs.
Settings that are common across the pair, such as shared objects and policy rules, device group objects and rules,
template configuration, and administrative access configuration, are synchronized between the Panorama HA
peers.
The settings that are not synchronized are those that are unique to each peer, such as the following:

Panorama HA configurationPriority setting, peer IP address, path monitoring groups and IP addresses

Panorama configurationManagement port IP address, FQDN settings, login banner, NTP server, time
zone, geographic location, DNS server, permitted IP addresses for accessing Panorama, and Simple
Network Management Protocol (SNMP) system settings

Scheduled configuration exports

NFS partition configuration and all disk quota allocation for logging

Disk quota allocation for the different types of logs and databases on the Panorama local storage (SSD)
If you use a master key to encrypt the private keys and certificates on Panorama, you must use
the same master key on both HA peers. If the master keys differ, Panorama cannot synchronize
the HA peers.

For more information, see Panorama HA Prerequisites or Set Up HA on Panorama.

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Panorama High Availability

Manage a Panorama HA Pair

Set Up HA on Panorama

Test Panorama HA Failover

Switch Priority after Panorama Failover to Resume NFS Logging

Restore the Primary Panorama to the Active State


To install software or content updates, see Install Updates for Panorama with HA Configuration.

Set Up HA on Panorama
Review the Panorama HA Prerequisites before performing the following steps:
Set Up HA on Panorama

Step 1

Set up connectivity between the MGT


ports on the HA peers.

The Panorama peers communicate with each other using the MGT
port. Make sure that the IP addresses you assign to the MGT port
on the Panorama servers in the HA pair are routable and that the
peers can communicate with each other across your network. To set
up the MGT port, see Perform Initial Configuration of the
Panorama Virtual Appliance or Perform Initial Configuration of the
M-Series Appliance.
Pick a device in the pair and complete the remaining tasks.

Step 2

Enable HA and (optionally) enable


encryption for the HA connection.

1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

Select Panorama > High Availability and edit the Setup


section.
Select Enable HA.
In the Peer HA IP Address field, enter the IP address assigned
to the peer device.
In the Monitor Hold Time field, enter the length of time
(milliseconds) that the system will wait before acting on a
control link failure (range is 1000-60000, default is 3000).
If you do not want encryption, clear the Encryption Enabled
check box and click OK: no more steps are required. If you do
want encryption, select the Encryption Enabled check box,
click OK, and perform the following tasks:
a. Select Panorama > Certificate Management > Certificates.
b. Select Export HA key. Save the HA key to a network location
that the peer device can access.
c. On the peer device, navigate to Panorama > Certificate
Management > Certificates, select Import HA key, browse
to the location where you saved the key, and import it.

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Set Up HA on Panorama (Continued)

Step 3

Set the HA priority.

1.
2.

3.

Step 4

In Panorama > High Availability, edit the Election Settings


section.
Define the Device Priority as Primary or Secondary. Make
sure to set one peer as primary and the other as secondary.
If both peers have the same priority setting, the peer
with the higher serial number will be placed in a
suspended state.
Define the Preemptive behavior. By default preemption is
enabled. The preemption selection enabled or disabled
must be the same on both peers.
If you are using an NFS for logging and you have
disabled preemption, to resume logging to the NFS see
Switch Priority after Panorama Failover to Resume NFS
Logging.

To configure path monitoring, define one Perform the following steps for each path group that includes the
or more path groups.
nodes that you want to monitor.
1. Select Panorama > High Availability and, in the Path Group
The path group lists the destination IP
section, click Add.
addresses (nodes) that Panorama must
2. Enter a Name for the path group.
ping to verify network connectivity.
3. Select a Failure Condition for this group:
any triggers a link monitoring failure if any one of the IP
addresses becomes unreachable.
all triggers a link monitoring failure only when none of the
IP addresses are reachable.
4.
5.

Step 5

(Optional) Select the failure condition for 1.


path monitoring on Panorama.
2.

Add each destination IP address you want to monitor.

Click OK. The Path Group section displays the new group.
Select Panorama > High Availability and edit the Path
Monitoring section.
Select a Failure Condition:
all triggers a failover only when all monitored path groups
fail.
any triggers a failover when any monitored path group fails.

3.

Click OK.

Step 6

Save your configuration changes.

Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama, and click
Commit again.

Step 7

Configure the other Panorama peer.

Repeat Step 2 through Step 6 on the other peer in the HA pair.

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Set Up HA on Panorama (Continued)

Step 8

Verify that the Panorama servers are


paired in HA.

After you configure both Panorama servers for HA:


1. Access the Dashboard on each Panorama, and view the High
Availability widget.
2. Verify the Panorama servers are paired and synchronized:
Active PanoramaThe state of the Local peer must be
active and the Running Config must be synchronized.
Passive PanoramaThe state of the Local peer must be
passive and the Running Config must be synchronized.

Test Panorama HA Failover


To test that your HA configuration works properly, trigger a manual failover and verify that the peer transitions
states successfully.
Test Panorama HA Failover

Step 1

Log in to the active Panorama peer.

You can verify the state of the Panorama server in the bottom right
corner of the web interface.

Step 2

Suspend the active Panorama peer.

Select Panorama > High Availability, and then click the Suspend
local Panorama link in the Operational Commands section.

Step 3

Verify that the passive Panorama peer has On the Panorama Dashboard, High Availability widget, verify that
taken over as active.
the state of the Local passive server is active and the state of the
Peer is suspended.

Step 4

Restore the suspended peer to a


On the Panorama you previously suspended:
functional state. Wait for a couple
1. Select Panorama > High Availability and, in the Operational
minutes, and then verify that preemption
Commands section, click Make local Panorama functional.
has occurred, if preemptive is enabled.
2. In the High Availability widget on the Dashboard, confirm that
this (Local) Panorama has taken over as the active peer and that
the other peer is now in a passive state.

Switch Priority after Panorama Failover to Resume NFS Logging


Support for a Network File Share (NFS) based logging mechanism is only available on the
Panorama virtual appliance.

When a Panorama HA pair is configured to use a Network File Share (NFS) based logging mechanism, only the
primary Panorama peer is mounted to the NFS-based log partition and can write to the NFS. When a failover
occurs, and the passive Panorama becomes active, its state is active-secondary. Although a secondary Panorama
peer can actively manage the devices, it cannot receive logs or write to the NFS because it does not own the
NFS partition. When the managed device cannot forward logs to the primary Panorama peer, the logs are

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written to the local disk on each device. The devices maintain a pointer for the last set of log entries that were
forwarded to Panorama so that when the passive-primary Panorama becomes available again, they can resume
forwarding logs to it.
Use the instructions in this section to manually switch priority on the active-secondary Panorama peer so that
it can begin logging to the NFS partition. The typical scenarios in which you might need to trigger this change
are as follows:

Preemption is disabled. By default, preemption is enabled on Panorama and the primary peer resumes as
active when it becomes available again. When preemption is disabled, you need to switch the priority on the
secondary peer to primary so that it can mount the NFS partition, receive logs from the managed devices,
and write to the NFS partition.

The active Panorama fails and cannot recover from the failure in the short term. If you do not switch the
priority, when the maximum log storage capacity on the firewall is reached, the oldest logs will be overwritten
to enable it to continue logging to its local disk. This situation can lead to loss of logs.

Switch Priority after Panorama Failover to Resume NFS Logging

Step 1

Log in to the currently passive-primary Panorama, select Panorama > Setup > Operations and, in the Device
Operations section, click Shutdown Panorama.

Step 2

Log in to the active-secondary Panorama, select Panorama > High Availability, edit the Election Settings, and
set the Priority to Primary.

Step 3

Click OK and Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama, and click Commit again. Do not reboot when
prompted.

Step 4

Log in to the Panorama CLI and enter the following command to change the ownership of the NFS partition
to this peer: request high-availability convert-to-primary

Step 5

Select Panorama > Setup > Operations and, in the Device Operations section, click Reboot Panorama.

Step 6

Power on the Panorama peer that you powered off in Step 1. This peer will now be in a passive-secondary state.

Restore the Primary Panorama to the Active State


By default, the preemptive capability on Panorama allows the primary Panorama to resume functioning as the
active peer as soon as it becomes available. However, if preemption is disabled, the only way to force the primary
Panorama to become active after recovering from a failure, a non-functional, or a suspended state, is by
suspending the secondary Panorama peer.
Before the active-secondary Panorama goes into a suspended state, it transfers the candidate configuration to
the passive device so that all your uncommitted configuration changes are saved and can be accessed on the
other peer.

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Suspend the Secondary Panorama

Step 1

Suspend Panorama.

1.
2.

Step 2

Verify that the status displays that the


device was suspended at user request.

Log in to the Panorama peer that you want to place in a


suspended state.
Select Panorama > High Availability, and click the Suspend
local Panorama link in the Operational Commands section.

On the Dashboard, High Availability widget, verify that the Local


state is suspended.
A failover is triggered when you suspend a peer, and the other
Panorama takes over as the active peer.

Restore the Primary Panorama to a Functional State

Step 3

Restore the suspended Panorama to a


functional state.

1.

2.

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In the Panorama > High Availability tab, Operational


Commands section, click the Make local Panorama functional
link.
On the Dashboard, High Availability widget, confirm that the
device has transitioned to either the active or passive state.

Palo Alto Networks

Administer Panorama
This section describes how to administer and maintain Panorama. It includes the following topics:

Manage Configuration Backups

Compare Changes in Panorama Configurations

Validate a Panorama Configuration

Restrict Access to Configuration Changes

Add Custom Logos to Panorama

View Panorama Task Completion History

Manage Storage Quotas and Expiration Periods for Logs and Reports

Monitor Panorama

Reboot or Shut Down Panorama

Configure Panorama Password Profiles and Complexity


For instructions on completing initial setup, including defining network access settings, licensing,
upgrading the Panorama software version, and setting up administrative access to Panorama,
see Set Up Panorama.

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Manage Configuration Backups


A configuration backup is a snapshot of the system configuration. In case of a system failure or a
misconfiguration, a configuration backup allows you to restore Panorama to a previously saved version of the
configuration. On Panorama, you can manage configuration backups of the managed firewalls and that of
Panorama:

Manage configuration backups of the managed devicesPanorama automatically saves every


configuration change that is committed to a managed firewall running PAN-OS version 5.0 or later. By
default, Panorama stores up to 100 versions for each firewall. This value is configurable.

Manage Panorama configuration backupsYou can manually export the running configuration of
Panorama, as required.

Export a configuration file packageIn addition to its own running configuration, Panorama saves a
backup of the running configuration from all managed firewalls. You can generate a gzip package of the latest
version of the configuration backup of Panorama and that of each managed firewall either on-demand or
schedule an export using the Scheduled Config Export capability. The package can be scheduled for daily
delivery to an FTP server or a Secure Copy (SCP) server; the files in the package are in an XML format, and
each file name references the firewall serial number for easy identification.

You can perform the following tasks to manage configuration backups:

Schedule Export of Configuration Files

Manage Panorama and Firewall Configuration Backups

Configure the Number of Configuration Backups Panorama Stores

Load a Configuration Backup on a Managed Firewall

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Schedule Export of Configuration Files


Use these instructions to schedule daily exports of the configuration file package that contains the backup of
the running configuration of Panorama and the managed firewalls. You require superuser privileges to configure
the export.
If Panorama has a high availability (HA) configuration, you must perform these instructions on each peer to
ensure the scheduled exports continue after a failover. Panorama does not synchronize scheduled configuration
exports between HA peers.
Schedule the Export of Configuration Files

Step 1

Select Panorama > Scheduled Configuration Export.

Step 2

Click Add, and enter a Name and Description for the file export process.

Step 3

Select Enable to allow the configuration file export.

Step 4

Using the 24-hour clock format, enter a daily Scheduled Export Start Time or select one from the drop-down.

Step 5

For the export Protocol, select Secure Copy (SCP) or File Transfer Protocol (FTP).

Step 6

Enter the details for accessing the server, including: Hostname or IP address, Port, Path for uploading the file,
Username, and Password.

Step 7

(SCP only) Click Test SCP server connection. To enable the secure transfer of data, you must verify and accept
the host key of the SCP server. Panorama doesnt establish the connection until you accept the host key. If
Panorama has an HA configuration, perform this step on each HA peer so that each one accepts the host key
of the SCP server. If Panorama can successfully connect to the SCP server, it creates and uploads the test file
named ssh-export-test.txt.

Step 8

Click OK and Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama, and click Commit again.

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Manage Panorama and Firewall Configuration Backups


Manage Panorama and Firewall Configuration Backups

Step 1

Select Panorama > Setup > Operations.

Step 2

In the Configuration Management section, select from the following options:


Revert to last saved Panorama configurationOverwrites the current candidate configuration and
restores the last saved candidate configuration from disk.
Revert to running Panorama configurationReverts all changes saved to the candidate configuration; it
effectively allows you to undo all configuration changes that were made since the last commit operation.
Save named Panorama configuration snapshotSaves the candidate configuration to a file. Enter a file
name or select an existing file to overwrite. Note that the current active configuration file
(running-config.xml) cannot be overwritten.
Save candidate Panorama configurationSaves the candidate configuration to disk; it is the same as using
the Save link at the top of the page to save the changes to the candidate configuration file.
Load Panorama configuration versionLoads a configuration file from a list of previously committed
versions.
Load named Panorama configuration snapshotLoads a selected candidate configuration; you can select
a previously imported or saved configuration. The current candidate configuration is overwritten.
Export named Panorama configuration snapshotExports the active configuration (running-config.xml)
or a previously saved or imported configuration. Select the configuration file to be exported. You can open
the file and/or save it in any network location.
Export Panorama configuration versionExports a previously committed version of the configuration
file. Select the version to export.
Export Panorama and devices config bundleThis option is used to manually generate and export the
latest version of the configuration backup of Panorama and that of each managed firewall. To automate the
process of creating and exporting the configuration bundle daily to a Secure Copy (SCP) or FTP server, see
Schedule Export of Configuration Files.
Export or push device config bundleAfter you import a firewall configuration into Panorama, Panorama
creates a firewall configuration bundle named <firewall_name>_import.tgz, in which all local policies and
objects are removed. You can then click Export or push device config bundle to perform one of the
following actions:
Push & Commit the configuration bundle to the firewall. This action cleans the firewall (removes any local
configuration from it), enabling you to manage the firewall from Panorama.
Export the configuration to the firewall without loading it. When you are ready to load the configuration, log
in to the firewall CLI and run the configuration mode command load device-state. This command cleans
the firewall in the same way as the Push & Commit option.
Import device configuration into PanoramaEnables you to Migrate a Firewall to Panorama Management.
Import named Panorama configuration snapshotImports a previously exported configuration file. Click
Browse to locate the saved file and click OK to import.

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Manage Configuration Backups

Configure the Number of Configuration Backups Panorama Stores


Configure the Number of Configuration Backups Panorama Stores

Step 1

Select Panorama > Setup > Management and edit the Logging and Reporting Settings.

Step 2

For the Number of Versions for Config Backups, enter a value between 1 and 1048576. The default is 100.

Step 3

Click OK and Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama, and click Commit again.

Load a Configuration Backup on a Managed Firewall


Use Panorama to load a configuration backup on a managed firewall. You can choose to revert to a previously
saved or committed configuration on the firewall. Panorama pushes the selected version to the managed
firewall, and the current candidate configuration on the firewall is overwritten.
Load a Configuration Backup on a Managed Firewall

Step 1

Select Panorama > Managed Devices.

Step 2

Select the Manage... link in the Backups column.

Step 3

Select from the Saved Configurations or the Committed Configurations.


Click the link in the Version column to view the contents of the selected version.
Click Load to load a chosen configuration version.

Step 4

Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama, and click Commit again.

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Compare Changes in Panorama Configurations

Administer Panorama

Compare Changes in Panorama Configurations


To compare configuration changes on Panorama, you can select any two sets of configuration files: the
candidate configuration, the running configuration, or any other configuration version that has been previously
saved or committed on Panorama. The side-by-side comparison allows you to:

Preview the changes in configuration before committing them to Panorama. You can, for example, preview
the changes between the candidate configuration and the running configuration. As a best practice, select
the older version on the left pane and the newer version on the right pane, to easily compare and identify
modifications.

Perform a configuration audit to review and compare the changes between two sets of configuration files.

Compare Changes in Panorama Configurations

Step 1

Select Panorama > Config Audit.

Step 2

For each drop-down, select a configuration for the comparison.

Step 3

Select the number of lines that you want to include for Context, and click Go.
To easily compare versions, the changes have color highlighting.

Configure the Number of Versions Panorama Stores for Configuration Audits

Step 1

Select Panorama > Setup > Management and edit the Logging and Reporting Settings.

Step 2

For the Number of Versions for Config Audit, enter a value between 1 and 1048576. The default is 100.

Step 3

Click OK and Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama, and click Commit again.

View and Compare Panorama Configuration Files Before Committing

Click Commit, select Preview Changes, select the number of lines of context you want to see, and click OK.

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Validate a Panorama Configuration

Validate a Panorama Configuration


You can perform a syntactic validation (of configuration syntax) and semantic validation (whether the
configuration is complete and makes sense) of a Panorama candidate configuration before committing it. The
results display all the errors and warnings of a commit, including rule shadowing and application dependency
warnings. For example, the validation could indicate an invalid route destination or a missing account and
password that are required to query a server. This gives you the chance to fix errors before committing. You can
independently validate the configurations of Panorama, device groups, and templates.
Validate a Panorama Configuration

Validate a Panorama candidate configuration.

1.
2.
3.

After modifying the Panorama configuration, click Commit.


For the Commit Type, select Panorama.
Click Validate Changes.
If the validation succeeds, the Result field displays OK. The
Details field displays any errors or warnings.

Validate a candidate configuration for a device


group or template.

1.

Click Commit, for Commit Type, select Template or Device


Group, and select a template or device group.

2.

(Optional) Select the Merge with Device Candidate Config


check box.
(Optionaldevice groups only) Select the Include Device and
Network Templates check box.
Click Validate Changes.
The Status column displays any errors or warnings, and
clicking the text displays details about them.

3.
4.

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Restrict Access to Configuration Changes

Administer Panorama

Restrict Access to Configuration Changes


Use locks to prevent multiple administrative users from making configuration changes or committing changes
on Panorama, shared policy rules, or to selected templates and/or device groups.

Types of Locks

Locations for Taking a Lock

Take a Lock

View Lock Holders

Enable Automatic Acquisition of the Commit Lock

Remove a Lock

Types of Locks
The available lock types are:

Config LockBlocks other administrators from making changes to the configuration. This type of lock
can be set globally or for a virtual system. It can be removed only by the administrator who set it or by a
superuser. The configuration lock is not released automatically.

Commit LockBlocks other administrators from committing changes until all of the locks have been
released. The commit lock ensures that partial configuration changes are not inadvertently committed to the
firewall or to Panorama when two administrators are making changes at the same time and the first
administrator finishes and commits changes before the second administrator has finished. The lock is
released automatically when the administrator who applied the lock commits the changes; the lock can be
removed manually by the administrator who took the lock or by the superuser.
If a commit lock is held on a firewall, and an administrator commits configuration changes or shared policy
rules to a template or device group that includes that firewall, the commit will fail with an error message
indicating that there is an outstanding lock on a firewall.
Read-only administrators who cannot make configuration changes to the firewall or Panorama
will not be able to take either lock.
Role-based administrators who cannot commit changes can take the config lock and save the
changes to the candidate configuration. They cannot, however, commit the changes themselves.
Because they cannot commit the changes, the lock is not automatically released on commit; the
administrator must manually remove the config lock after making the required changes.

Locations for Taking a Lock


The administrator can take a lock for any of the following:

Device groupRestricts

TemplateRestricts

changes to the selected device group but not its descendant device groups.

changes to the firewalls included in the selected template. (You cant take a lock for a
template stack, only for individual templates within the stack.)

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Restrict Access to Configuration Changes

SharedRestricts

changes to the centrally administered rulespre-rules and post-rulesthat are shared


across all device groups. For more information on shared rules, see Device Group Policies.

PanoramaRestricts

access to changes on Panorama.

Take a Lock
Take a Lock

Step 1

Click the lock icon at the top right of the web interface.

Step 2

Select Take Lock.

Step 3

For the Type, based on your role/permissions, select Commit or Config.

Step 4

As a best practice, add a Comment to describe the reasons for taking the lock.

Step 5

Click OK and Close.

View Lock Holders


Before changing a particular area of the configuration, check whether another administrator has taken the lock
for the area.
.

View Lock Holders

Click the lock icon on the top right corner of the web interface and review the details.
The lock icon displays the total number of locks taken. It also includes information on the username of the lock holder,
type of lock, the category in which the lock is held, when it was taken, the last activity by the administrator, and whether
or not the administrator is still logged in.

Enable Automatic Acquisition of the Commit Lock


By default, you must manually take a lock before you start making changes on Panorama. If you would like to
enable automatic acquisition of the commit lock, use the following procedure.
.

Enable Automatic Acquisition of the Commit Lock

Step 1

Select Panorama > Setup > Management tab and edit the General Settings.

Step 2

Select the Automatically Acquire Commit Lock check box.

Step 3

Click OK and Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama, and click Commit again.

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Administer Panorama

Remove a Lock
Remove a Lock

Step 1

Click the lock icon at the top right of the web interface.

Step 2

Select the lock that you want to release, click Remove Lock, and click OK.
Unless you are a superuser, you can remove only the lock that you previously took.

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Add Custom Logos to Panorama

Add Custom Logos to Panorama


You can upload image files to customize the following areas on Panorama:

Background image on the login screen

Header on the top left corner of the web interface; you can also hide the Panorama default background

Title page and footer image in PDF reports

Supported image types include .jpg, .gif, and .png. Image files for use in PDF reports cannot contain an alpha
channel. The size of the image must be less than 128 Kilobytes (131,072 bytes); the recommended dimensions
are displayed on screen. If the dimension is larger than the recommended size, the image will be automatically
cropped.
Add Custom Logos to Panorama

Step 1

Select Panorama > Setup > Operations.

Step 2

In the Miscellaneous section, click Custom Logos.

Step 3

Click the Upload logo icon and select an image for any of the following options: the login screen, the left corner
of the main user interface, the PDF report title page and the PDF report footer.

Step 4

Click Open to add the image. To preview the image, click the preview logo icon.

Step 5

(Optional) To clear the green background header on the Panorama web interface, select the check box for
Remove Panorama background header.

Step 6

Click Close to save your changes.

Step 7

Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama, and click Commit again.

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View Panorama Task Completion History

Administer Panorama

View Panorama Task Completion History


Use the Task Manager to view currently-running tasks, historical task data, event success or failure information,
and related errors.
View Panorama Task Completion History

Step 1

Click the Tasks icon on the bottom right corner of the web interface.

Step 2

Select the list of tasks to review. By default All Tasks are displayed.

Step 3

You can filter by All or Running tasks and select Jobs, Reports, or Log Requests:
JobsLists commits, auto commits, downloads and installs for software and dynamic updates performed
on locally on Panorama or centrally pushed to the managed firewalls from Panorama. Each job is a link; click
the link in the Type column to view details on the firewalls, status, and review errors, if any.
ReportsDisplays the status and start time for scheduled reports.
Log RequestsLists the log queries triggered from the Monitor >Log Viewer tab or the Dashboard. For
example, to display the logs in the URL Filtering widget or the Data Filtering widget on the Dashboard, log
requests are generated on Panorama.

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Manage Storage Quotas and Expiration Periods for Logs and Reports

Manage Storage Quotas and Expiration Periods for Logs


and Reports

Log and Report Storage

Log and Report Expiration Periods

Configure Storage Quotas and Expiration Periods for Logs and Reports

Log and Report Storage


You can edit the default storage quotas for each log type but not for reports. When a log quota reaches the
maximum size, Panorama starts overwriting the oldest log entries with the new log entries. The Panorama virtual
appliance and M-Series appliance have different locations for storing logs and different predefined storage
capacities for reports:

Panorama virtual appliancePanorama writes all logs to its assigned storage space, which can be any of
one the following:

The default 10.89GB storage allocated on the virtual disk that you created when installing Panorama.

An additional virtual disk: see Add a Virtual Disk to Panorama on an ESXi Server or Add a Virtual
Disk to Panorama in vCloud Air.

An NFS partition: see Mount the Panorama ESXi Server to an NFS Datastore.
The storage space for reports is 200MB.

M-Series appliancePanorama saves logs to its internal SSD and RAID-enabled disks. The M-Series
appliance uses its internal SSD to store the Config logs and System logs that Panorama and its Log Collectors
generate, and also to store the Application Statistics (App Stats) logs that Panorama automatically receives
at 15 minute intervals from all managed firewalls. Panorama saves all other log types to its RAID-enabled
disks. The RAID disks are either local to the M-Series appliance in Panorama mode or are in a Dedicated
Log Collector (M-Series appliance in Log Collector mode). To edit the storage quotas for logs on the RAID
disks, you must modify the Collector Group configuration. The storage space for reports is 500MB for
Panorama 6.1 or later releases and 200 MB for earlier releases.

Log and Report Expiration Periods


You can configure automatic deletion based on time for the logs that the Panorama management server and Log
Collectors collect from firewalls, as well as the logs and reports that Panorama and the Log Collectors generate
locally. This is useful in deployments where periodically deleting monitored information is desired or necessary.
For example, deleting user information after a certain period might be mandatory in your organization for legal
reasons. You configure separate expiration periods for:

ReportsPanorama deletes reports nightly at 2:00 a.m., when it generates scheduled reports.

Each log typePanorama evaluates logs as it receives them, and deletes logs that exceed the configured
expiration period.

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Manage Storage Quotas and Expiration Periods for Logs and Reports

Administer Panorama

Each summary log typePanorama evaluates logs after the various summary periods (hourly, daily, and
weekly), and deletes logs that exceed the configured expiration period.
Weekly summary logs that fall short of the expiration threshold when log deletion occurs could
age past the threshold before the next log deletion. For example, if you configure Traffic Summary
logs to expire after 20 days and a weekly Traffic Summary log is 19 days old when the device
deletes expired logs, the device doesn't delete that log. The next time the device checks for
weekly logs to delete, 7 days later, that log will be 26 days old.
Panorama synchronizes expiration periods across high availability (HA) pairs. Because only the
active HA peer generates logs, the passive peer has no logs or reports to delete unless failover
occurs and it starts generating logs.
Even if you dont set expiration periods, when a log quota reaches the maximum size, Panorama
starts overwriting the oldest log entries with the new log entries.

Configure Storage Quotas and Expiration Periods for Logs and Reports
Configure Storage Quotas and Expiration Periods for Logs and Reports

Step 1

Configure the storage quotas and


1.
expiration periods for:
Logs of all types that a Panorama
2.
virtual appliance receives from
firewalls.
App Stats logs that Panorama (a virtual
appliance or M-Series appliance)
3.
receives from firewalls.
System and Config logs that Panorama
(a virtual appliance or M-Series
appliance) and its Log Collectors
generate locally.

Select Panorama > Setup > Management and edit the Logging
and Reporting Settings.
In the Log Storage tab, enter the storage Quota (%) for each log
type. When you change a percentage value, the page refreshes
to display the corresponding absolute value (Quota GB/MB
column) based on the total allotted storage on Panorama.
Enter the Max Days (expiration period) for each log type (range
is 1-2,000). By default, the fields are blank, which means the
logs never expire.
To reset the quotas and expiration periods to the factory
defaults, click Restore Quota Defaults at the bottom
right of the dialog.

The Panorama management server stores


these logs.
If you reduce a storage quota such
that the current logs exceed it,
after you commit the change,
Panorama removes the oldest logs
to fit the quota.
Step 2

Configure the expiration period for


1.
reports that Panorama (a virtual appliance 2.
or M-Series appliance) generates.
3.

208 Panorama 7.0 Administrators Guide

Select the Log Export and Reporting tab.


Enter the Report Expiration Period in days (range is 1-2,000).
By default, the field is blank, which means reports never expire.
Click OK to save your changes.

Palo Alto Networks

Administer Panorama

Manage Storage Quotas and Expiration Periods for Logs and Reports

Configure Storage Quotas and Expiration Periods for Logs and Reports (Continued)

Step 3

Configure the storage quotas and


expiration periods for logs of all types
(except App Stats logs) that a Panorama
M-Series appliance receives from
firewalls.

1.
2.

The Log Collectors store these logs.


You configure these storage
quotas at the Collector Group
level, not for individual Log
Collectors.

3.

4.

5.
Step 4

Commit your changes.

1.
2.

Step 5

Verify that Panorama applied the storage 1.


quota changes.

2.

Palo Alto Networks

Select Panorama > Collector Groups and select the Collector


Group.
In the General tab, click the Log Storage value.
This field doesnt display a value unless you assigned
Log Collectors to the Collector Group. If the field
displays 0MB after you assign Log Collectors, verify that
you enabled the disk pairs when configuring the Log
Collector and that you committed the changes
(Panorama > Managed Collectors > Disks).
Enter the storage Quota(%) for each log type. When you change
a percentage value, the page refreshes to display the
corresponding absolute value (Quota GB/MB column) based
on the total storage allotted to the Collector Group.
Enter the Max Days (expiration period) for each log type (range
is 1-2,000). By default, the fields are blank, which means the
logs never expire.
To reset the quotas and expiration periods to the factory
defaults, click Restore Quota Defaults at the bottom
right of the dialog.
Click OK to save your changes.
Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama, and
click Commit again.
(M-Series appliance only) Click Commit, for the Commit Type
select Collector Group, select the Collector Group you
modified, and click OK.
Select Panorama > Setup > Management and, in the Logging
and Reporting Settings, verify that the Log Storage values are
correct for the logs that the Panorama management server
stores.
Select Panorama > Collector Groups, select the Collector
Group you modified, and verify that the Log Storage values in
the General tab are correct for the logs that the Log Collectors
store.
You can also verify the Collector Group storage quotas
by logging in to a Log Collector CLI and entering the
operational command show log-diskquota-pct.

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Monitor Panorama

Administer Panorama

Monitor Panorama
To monitor Panorama and its managed collectors, you can periodically view their System and Config logs (filter
the log data by device), configure a Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) manager to collect (GET)
Panorama statistics on a regular basis, or configure SNMP traps or email alerts that notify you when a monitored
metric changes state or reaches a threshold on Panorama. Email alerts and SNMP traps are useful for immediate
notification about critical system events that need your attention. To configure email alerts or SNMP traps, see
Configure Log Forwarding from Panorama to External Destinations.

Panorama System and Configuration Logs

Monitor Panorama and Log Collector Statistics Using SNMP

Panorama System and Configuration Logs


You can configure Panorama to send notifications when a system event or configuration change occurs. By
default, Panorama logs every configuration change to the Config logs. In the System logs, each event has a
severity level to indicate its urgency and impact. When you Configure Log Forwarding from Panorama to
External Destinations, you can forward all system events or just events of certain severity levels. The following
table summarizes the severity levels:
Severity

Description

Critical

Indicates a failure and the need for immediate attention, such as a hardware failure, including
high availability (HA) failover and link failures.

High

Serious issues that will impair the operation of the system, including disconnection of a Log
Collector or a commit failure.

Medium

Mid-level notifications, such as Antivirus package upgrades, or a Collector Group commit.

Low

Minor severity notifications, such as user password changes.

Informational

Notification events such as log in or log out, any configuration change, authentication success
and failure notifications, commit success, and all other events that the other severity levels dont
cover.

The M-Series appliance stores Config and System logs on its SSD. The Panorama virtual appliance stores the
logs on the assigned storage volume (see Set Up the Panorama Virtual Appliance). If you need longer-term log
storage for auditing, you can also Configure Log Forwarding from Panorama to External Destinations.
For information on using Panorama to monitor firewall logs, see Monitor Network Activity.

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Administer Panorama

Monitor Panorama

Monitor Panorama and Log Collector Statistics Using SNMP


You can configure an SNMP manager to request statistics from a Panorama management server and configure
Panorama to respond. For example, the SNMP manager can request the high availability (HA) mode, Panorama
state, and Panorama version. If the Panorama management server is an M-Series appliance in Panorama mode
(not a virtual appliance), it can also provide logging statistics: average logs per second, storage duration of each
log type, and log disk usage. Panorama doesnt synchronize SNMP configurations between HA peers; you must
enable SNMP requests and responses on each peer.
You can also configure a Dedicated Log Collector (M-Series appliance in Log Collector mode) to respond to
requests for statistics such as connection status, disk drive metrics, software version, average CPU, average logs
per second, and log storage duration for each log type. This information is useful when evaluating whether you
need to expand log storage capacity.
You cant configure an SNMP manager to control Panorama or Log Collectors (using SET
messages); an SNMP manager can only collect statistics (using GET messages).
For details on how Palo Alto Networks devices implement SNMP, see SNMP for Palo Alto
Networks Devices.

Monitor Panorama and Log Collector Statistics Using SNMP

Step 1

Configure the SNMP Manager to get


statistics from Panorama and the Log
Collectors.

Palo Alto Networks

The following steps are an overview of the tasks you perform on the
SNMP manager. For the specific steps, refer to the documentation
of your SNMP manager.
1. To enable the SNMP manager to interpret device statistics, load
the Supported MIBs for Palo Alto Networks devices and, if
necessary, compile them.
2. For each Panorama M-Series or virtual appliance that the
SNMP manager will monitor, define the connection settings (IP
address and port) and authentication settings (SNMPv2c
community string or SNMPv3 username and password) for the
device. All Palo Alto Networks devices use port 161.
The SNMP manager can use the same or different connection
and authentication settings for multiple devices. The settings
must match those you define when you configure SNMP on the
device (see Step 4). For example, if you use SNMPv2c, the
community string you define when configuring the device must
match the community string you define in the SNMP manager
for that device.
3. Determine the object identifiers (OIDs) of the statistics you will
monitor. For example, to monitor the logging rate, a MIB
browser shows that this statistic corresponds to OID
1.3.6.1.4.1.25461.2.3.30.1.1 in PAN-PRODUCT-MIB.my. For
details, see Use an SNMP Manager to Explore MIBs and
Objects.
4. Configure the SNMP manager to monitor the desired OIDs.

Panorama 7.0 Administrators Guide 211

Monitor Panorama

Administer Panorama

Monitor Panorama and Log Collector Statistics Using SNMP (Continued)

Step 2

Enable SNMP traffic on the management 1.


(MGT) interface of the Panorama
management server.
2.

Select Panorama > Setup > Management and edit the


Management Interface Settings.
In the Services section, select the SNMP check box and click
OK.

Step 3

Enable SNMP traffic on the management 1.


(MGT) interface of any M-Series
appliances in Log Collector mode:
2.

Select Panorama > Managed Collectors and select the Log


Collector.
Select the Management tab, select the SNMP check box, and
click OK.

Step 4

Configure the Panorama management


server to respond to statistics requests
from an SNMP manager.

Select Panorama > Setup > Operations and, in the


Miscellaneous section, click SNMP Setup.
Select the SNMP Version and configure the authentication
values as follows. For version details, see SNMP for Palo Alto
Networks Devices.
V2cEnter the SNMP Community String, which identifies
a community of SNMP managers and monitored devices
(Panorama, in this case), and serves as a password to
authenticate the community members to each other.

1.
2.

Dont use the default community string public; it is


well known and therefore not secure.
V3Create at least one SNMP view group and one user.
User accounts and views provide authentication, privacy, and
access control when SNMP managers get device statistics.
ViewsEach view is a paired OID and bitwise mask: the
OID specifies a MIB, and the mask (in hexadecimal
format) specifies which objects are accessible inside
(include matching) or outside (exclude matching) that MIB.
Click Add in the first list and enter a Name for the group
of views. For each view in the group, click Add and
configure the view Name, OID, matching Option (include
or exclude), and Mask.
Users: Click Add in the second list, enter a username in the
Users column, select the View group from the drop-down,
enter the authentication password (Auth Password) used
to authenticate to the SNMP manager, and enter the
privacy password (Priv Password) used to encrypt SNMP
messages to the SNMP manager.
3.
Step 5

Configure the Dedicated Log Collectors


(if any) to respond to SNMP requests.

212 Panorama 7.0 Administrators Guide

Click OK to save the settings.

For each Collector Group:


1. Select Panorama > Collector Groups and select the Collector
Group.
2. Select the Monitoring tab, configure the same settings as in
Step 4, and click OK.

Palo Alto Networks

Administer Panorama

Monitor Panorama

Monitor Panorama and Log Collector Statistics Using SNMP (Continued)

Step 6

Commit your changes.

1.
2.

Step 7

Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama, and click
Commit again.
Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Collector Group,
select the Collector Groups you edited, and click Commit again.

Monitor the Panorama and Log Collector Refer to the documentation of your SNMP manager.
statistics in an SNMP manager.

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Reboot or Shut Down Panorama

Administer Panorama

Reboot or Shut Down Panorama


The reboot option initiates a graceful restart of Panorama. A shutdown halts the system and powers it off. To
restart Panorama, after a shutdown, manually disconnect and re-cable the power cord on the system.
Reboot or Shut Down Panorama

Step 1

Select Panorama > Setup > Operations.

Step 2

In the Device Operations section, select Reboot Panorama or Shutdown Panorama.

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Administer Panorama

Configure Panorama Password Profiles and Complexity

Configure Panorama Password Profiles and Complexity


To secure the local administrator account, you can define password complexity requirements that are enforced
when administrators change or create new passwords. Unlike password profiles, which can be applied to
individual accounts, the password complexity rules are firewall-wide and apply to all passwords.
To enforce periodic password updates, create a password profile that defines a validity period for passwords.
Configure Panorama Password Profiles and Complexity

Step 1

Configure minimum password


complexity settings.

1.
2.
3.

4.

5.

Palo Alto Networks

Select Panorama > Setup > Management and edit the


Minimum Password Complexity section.
Select Enabled.
Define the Password Format Requirements. You can enforce
the requirements for uppercase, lowercase, numeric, and special
characters that a password must contain.
To prevent the account username (or reversed version of the
name) from being used in the password, select Block
Username Inclusion (including reversed).

Define the password Functionality Requirements.


If you have configured a password profile for an administrator,
the values defined in the password profile will override the
values that you have defined in this section.

Panorama 7.0 Administrators Guide 215

Configure Panorama Password Profiles and Complexity

Administer Panorama

Configure Panorama Password Profiles and Complexity (Continued)

Step 2

Create password profiles.

1.
You can create multiple password profiles 2.
and apply them to administrator accounts
as required to enforce security.

Select Panorama > Password Profiles and click Add.


Enter a Name for the password profile and define the
following:
a. Required Password Change Period: Frequency, in days, at
which the passwords must be changed.
b. Expiration Warning Period: Number of days before
expiration that the administrator will receive a password
reminder.
c. Post Expiration Grace Period: Number of days that the
administrator can still log in to the system after the password
expires.
d. Post Expiration Admin Login Count: Number of times that
the administrator can log in to the system after the password
has expired.

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Troubleshooting
The following topics address Panorama issues:

Troubleshoot Panorama System Issues

Troubleshoot Log Storage and Connection Issues

Replace an RMA Firewall

Diagnose Template or Device Group Commit Failures

View Task Success or Failure Status

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Troubleshoot Panorama System Issues

Troubleshooting

Troubleshoot Panorama System Issues

Generate Diagnostic Files for Panorama

Diagnose Panorama Suspended State

Monitor the File System Integrity Check

Manage Panorama Storage for Software and Content Updates

Recover from Split Brain in Panorama HA Deployments

Generate Diagnostic Files for Panorama


Diagnostic files aid in monitoring system activity and in discerning potential causes for issues on Panorama. In
order to assist Palo Alto Networks Technical Support in troubleshooting an issue, the support representative
might request diagnostic filestech support file or a stats dump file. The following procedure describes how
to download a diagnostic file and upload it to your support case.
Generate Diagnostic Files for Panorama

Step 1

Select Panorama > Support.


Click Generate Tech Support File.
Click Generate Stats Dump File.

Step 2

Download and save the file(s) to your computer.

Step 3

Upload the file(s) to your case on the Support Portal.

Diagnose Panorama Suspended State


If Panorama is in a suspended state, check for the following conditions:

Verify that the serial number on each Panorama virtual appliance is unique. If the same serial number is used
to create two or more instances of Panorama, all instances using the same serial number will be suspended.

Verify that you have set the HA priority setting on one peer as Primary and the other as Secondary. If the
priority setting is identical on both peers, the Panorama peer with a higher numerical value in serial number
is placed in a suspended state.

Verify that both Panorama HA peers are running the same Panorama version (major and minor version
number).

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Troubleshooting

Troubleshoot Panorama System Issues

Monitor the File System Integrity Check


Panorama periodically performs a file system integrity check (FSCK) to prevent corruption of the Panorama
system files. This check occurs after eight reboots or at a reboot that occurs 90 days after the last FSCK was
executed. If Panorama is running a FSCK, the web interface and Secure Shell (SSH) login screens will display a
warning to indicate that an FSCK is in progress. You cannot log in until this process completes. The time to
complete this process varies by the size of the storage system; depending on the size, it can take several hours
before you can log back in to Panorama.
To view the progress on the FSCK, set up console access to Panorama and view the status.

Manage Panorama Storage for Software and Content Updates


On Panorama, you can download (or manually upload) software images and content updates to centrally manage
them on firewalls and M-Series appliances in Log Collector mode. Supported Updates by Device Type lists
which updates these devices support. For Panorama itself, you can also manage updates for Applications,
Applications and Threats, Antivirus, and Wildfire.
The amount of space available on Panorama to store these images and updates is not user configurable. When
the used capacity of the alloted storage reaches 90%, Panorama alerts you to free up space (delete stored images)
for new downloads/uploads.
The maximum number of images is a global setting that applies to all the images and updates that Panorama
stores. You can use only the CLI to configure this setting. The default value is two images or updates of each
type.
Manage Panorama Storage for Software and Content Updates

Modify the maximum number of images or


updates of each type.

Access the Panorama CLI and enter the following, where <number>
can be between 2 and 64:
set max-num-images count <number>

View the number of images that Panorama


currently stores.
Use the web interface to delete images and
updates to free up space on Panorama.

Enter:
show max-num_images

1.

Select the type of update or image you want to delete:


Firewall or Log Collector updates and imagesSelect
Panorama > Device Deployment and select Software, SSL
VPN Client, GlobalProtect Client, or Dynamic Updates.
Panorama software imagesSelect Panorama > Software.
Panorama content updatesSelect Panorama > Dynamic
Updates.

2.

Palo Alto Networks

Click the X icon in the far right column for the image or update.

Panorama 7.0 Administrators Guide 219

Troubleshoot Panorama System Issues

Troubleshooting

Manage Panorama Storage for Software and Content Updates (Continued)

Use the CLI to delete images and updates to free Delete software images by filename:
up space on Panorama.
delete software image <filename>
Delete software images by version:
delete software version <version_number>

Delete content updates:


delete content update <filename>

Recover from Split Brain in Panorama HA Deployments


When Panorama is configured in a high availability (HA) setup, the managed firewalls are connected to both the
active and passive Panorama HA peers. When the connection between the active and the passive Panorama
peers fails, before the passive Panorama takes over as the active peer it checks whether any firewall is connected
to both the active and the passive peer. If even one firewall is connected to both peers, the failover is not
triggered.
In the rare event that a failover is triggered when a set of firewalls are connected to the active peer and a set of
firewalls are connected to the passive peer, but none of the firewalls are connected to both peers, it is called a
split brain. When a split brain occurs, the following conditions occur:

Neither Panorama peer is aware of the state nor the HA role of the other peer.

Both Panorama peers become active and manage a unique set of firewalls.

To resolve a split brain, debug your network issues and restore connectivity between the Panorama HA peers.
However, if you need to make configuration changes to your firewalls without restoring the connection between
the peers, here are a couple of options:

Manually add the same configuration changes on both Panorama peers. This ensures that when the link is
reestablished the configuration is synchronized.

If you need to add/change the configuration at only one Panorama location, make the changes and sync the
configuration (make sure that you initiate the sync from the peer on which you made the changes) when the
link between the Panorama peers is re-established.

If you need to add/change the configuration for only the connected firewalls at each location, you can make
configuration changes independently on each Panorama peer. Because the peers are disconnected, there is
no replication and each peer now has a completely different configuration file (they are out of sync).

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Troubleshooting

Troubleshoot Panorama System Issues

Therefore, to ensure that the configuration changes on each peer are not lost when the connection is
restored, you cannot allow the configuration to be automatically re-synchronized. To solve this problem,
export the configuration from each Panorama peer and manually merge the changes using an external diff
and merge tool. After the changes are integrated, you can import the unified configuration file on the
primary Panorama and then synchronize the imported configuration file with the peer.

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Troubleshoot Log Storage and Connection Issues

Troubleshooting

Troubleshoot Log Storage and Connection Issues

Verify Panorama Port Usage

Resolve Zero Log Storage for a Collector Group

Replace a Failed Disk on an M-Series Appliance

Replace the Virtual Disk on a Panorama ESXi Server

Recover Logs after Failure/RMA of M-Series Appliance in Log Collector Mode

Recover Logs after Failure/RMA of M-Series Appliance in Panorama Mode

Recover Logs after Panorama Failure/RMA in Non-HA Deployments

Regenerate Metadata for M-Series Appliance RAID Pairs

Verify Panorama Port Usage


To ensure that Panorama can communicate with managed firewalls, Log Collectors, and its high availability (HA)
peer, use the following table to verify the ports that you must open on your network.
On an M-Series appliance running Panorama 6.1 or later releases, you can optionally assign the
log collection and Collector Group communication functions to the Eth1 or Eth2 interfaces
(instead of to the default MGT interface). The ports listed in the following table apply regardless
of which function you assign to which interface. For example, if you assign log collection to MGT
and assign Collector Group communication to Eth2, then MGT will use port 3978 and Eth2 will
use port 28270. (The Panorama virtual appliance can only use the MGT interface for all these
functions.)

Communicating Devices & Direction Ports Used:


of Connection Establishment
5.0 and 5.1

Ports Used:
6.0 and 6.1

Description

Panorama and Panorama (HA)

28

For HA connectivity and


synchronization if encryption is
enabled.

28

Direction: Each peer initiates its own


connection to the other
Panorama and Panorama (HA)
Direction: Each peer initiates its own
connection to the other
Panorama and managed firewalls

28769 and 28260 (5.1) 28260 and


28769 and 49160 (5.0) 28769

For HA connectivity and


synchronization if encryption is not
enabled.

3978

A bi-directional connection where


the logs are forwarded from the
firewall to Panorama; and
configuration changes are pushed
from Panorama to the managed
firewalls. Context switching
commands are sent over the same
connection.

Direction: Initiated by the firewall

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3978

Palo Alto Networks

Troubleshooting

Troubleshoot Log Storage and Connection Issues

Communicating Devices & Direction Ports Used:


of Connection Establishment
5.0 and 5.1

Ports Used:
6.0 and 6.1

Description

Panorama and Log Collector

3978

For management and log


collection/reporting.

3978

Direction: Initiated by the Log Collector

Used for communication between


the default Log Collector on a
Panorama in Panorama mode, and
for communicating with Log
Collectors in a distributed log
collection deployment.
Log Collector to Log Collector

49190

28270

For distributing blocks and all binary


data between Log Collectors.

Direction: Each Log Collector initiates a


connection to the other Log Collectors
in the Collector Group

Resolve Zero Log Storage for a Collector Group


The log storage capacity for the Collector Group might display as 0MB if the disk pairs are not enabled for
logging. You must select the Log Collector and enable the disk pairs for logging in the Panorama > Managed
Collectors tab; for instructions, see Step 10 in the Manage Collector Groups topic.
To verify that the disks are enabled and available for log storage, select Panorama > Managed Collectors tab and
verify that the Log Collector displays as Connected and that the Configuration Status displays as In sync.

Replace a Failed Disk on an M-Series Appliance


If a disk fails on the M-Series appliance, you must replace the disk and reconfigure it in a RAID pair. This allows
the data to be mirrored and synchronized between the disks in the RAID pair.
Replace a Failed Disk

Step 1

Install the new disk in the appropriate


drive bay.

Refer to the M-100 or M-500 Hardware Reference Guide for


instructions to replace the failed with the new disk.

Step 2

Set up the disk in a RAID pair.

This example uses the drives in the disk bays B1.


1. Enter the following commands to add the disk to the RAID
pair and confirm the request when prompted:

The time required to mirror the data on


the drive may vary from several minutes
to a couple hours, depending on the
amount of data on the drive.

request system raid add B1

2.

To monitor the progress of the RAID configuration and verify


that the disk is RAID enabled, enter the following command:
show system raid detail

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Panorama 7.0 Administrators Guide 223

Troubleshoot Log Storage and Connection Issues

Troubleshooting

Replace the Virtual Disk on a Panorama ESXi Server


You cant resize a virtual disk after adding it to a Panorama virtual appliance on an ESXi server. Because the
Panorama virtual appliance allows only one log storage location, if you need to increase or decrease disk space
for logging, you must replace the virtual disk on the ESXi server to adjust the log storage capacity.
Replace the Virtual Disk on a Panorama ESXi Server

Step 1

Export the logs before detaching the


virtual disk from the Panorama virtual
appliance. The logs on the disk will no
longer be accessible after the disk is
detached.

1.
2.

Access the CLI on the Panorama virtual appliance.


Check the current disk usage:

3.

Export the logs. The command has the following syntax:

admin@Panorama> show system logdb-quota


admin@Panorama> scp export logdb to <user
account>@<IP of SCP server>: <directory path with
destination filename>

For example:
admin@Panorama> scp export logdb to
sabel@10.236.10.30:/Panorama/log_file_exportMay2013

You must specify a filename. The command saves a .tar


file with that filename to the Secure Copy (SCP) server.
Because the export process compresses the files, the
size of the exported file will be smaller than the size on
disk.
Step 2

Replace the virtual disk.

224 Panorama 7.0 Administrators Guide

1.
2.

Power off the Panorama virtual appliance.


Edit the settings on the Panorama virtual appliance to add a
new virtual disk with the desired capacity. The virtual disk type
must be IDE and the maximum capacity is 2TB.

3.

Remove the virtual disk you want to replace.

Palo Alto Networks

Troubleshooting

Troubleshoot Log Storage and Connection Issues

Replace the Virtual Disk on a Panorama ESXi Server (Continued)

Step 3

Import the logs into the new virtual disk. 1.

2.
3.

4.

Power on the Panorama virtual appliance. The reboot process


might take several minutes and the message cache data
unavailable will appear.
Log in to the Panorama virtual appliance.
Select Panorama > Setup > Management and verify that the
Logging and Reporting Settings section displays the modified
log storage capacity accurately.

Use the Panorama CLI to import the logs into the new virtual
disk:

admin@Panorama> scp import logdb from <user


account>@<IP of SCP server>: <directory path with
destination filename>

Recover Logs after Failure/RMA of M-Series Appliance in Log Collector


Mode
If a system failure occurs on an M-Series appliance in Log Collector mode (Dedicated Log Collector), use the
following procedure to recover the logs on the replacement M-Series appliance. This procedure applies whether
the Panorama management server that manages the Log Collector is a Panorama virtual appliance or an
M-Series appliance in Panorama mode.

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Recover Logs after Failure/RMA of M-Series Appliance in Log Collector Mode

Step 1

Perform the following tasks on the


new/replacement M-Series appliance in
Log Collector mode.

1.
2.
3.
4.

Step 2

On the Panorama management server


1.
that is managing the M-Series appliance in
Log Collector mode, add the new Log
Collector as a managed collector.

2.

Set Up the M-Series Appliance.


Register Panorama.
Switch from Panorama Mode to Log Collector Mode.
Transfer licenses as necessary: refer to How to Transfer
Licenses to a Spare Device.
Use the Panorama web interface to Configure a Managed
Collector or use the following CLI commands:
configure
set log-collector <log-collector_SN> deviceconfig
system hostname <log-collector-hostname>
exit

Verify that the Log Collector has been added and is connected
to Panorama.
show log-collector serial-number <log-collector_SN>

3.

The disk pairs will display as disabled at this stage of the


restoration process. Verify that the status is
present/available.
Commit your changes to Panorama. Dont commit the changes
to the Collector Group just yet.
configure
commit
exit

Step 3

Remove the RAID disks from the failed


M-Series appliance.

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1.
2.

Power off the M-Series appliance.


Make sure to maintain the disk pair association as you remove
them from the appliance.
Although you can place a disk pair from slot A on the failed
device into Slot B on the replacement device, you must keep the
pair together in the same slot; otherwise, the data might not be
successfully restored.

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Recover Logs after Failure/RMA of M-Series Appliance in Log Collector Mode (Continued)

Step 4

Prepare the disks for migration.

1.

Generating the metadata for each


2.
disk pair rebuilds the indexes.
Therefore, depending on the data
size, this process can take a long
time to complete. If you are
replacing four RAID pairs, you
can launch four CLI sessions and
issue the command independently
in each session to complete the
metadata regeneration process
simultaneously for all the pairs.
For details, see Regenerate
Metadata for M-Series Appliance
3.
RAID Pairs.

Insert the disks in the new M-Series appliance in Log Collector


mode.
For each disk pair that you need to migrate, issue the following
command to enable the disk pair on the new Log Collector.
request system raid add <slot> force no-format

For example:
request system raid add A1 force no-format
request system raid add A2 force no-format

The force and no-format arguments in this command are


required. The force argument associates the disk pair with this
replacement appliance; the no-format argument prevents
reformatting of the drives and retains the logs stored on the
disks.
Generate the metadata for each disk pair.
request metadata-regenerate slot <slot_number>

For example:
request metadata-regenerate slot 1

Step 5

Migrate the logs.

For each disk pair, complete the migration of the logs from the old
Log Collector to the new Log Collector. The following command
attaches the disk pair to the new appliance.
request log-migration from
<SN_of_old_log_collector> old-disk-pair
<log_disk_pair> to <SN_of_new_log_collector>
new-disk-pair <log_disk_pair>

For example:
request log-migration from 003001000010
old-disk-pair A to 00300100038 new-disk-pair A

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Step 6

Reconfigure the Collector Group.

1.

Add the new Log Collector as a member of the Collector


Group.
configure
set log-collector-group <collector_group_name>
logfwd-setting collectors <SN_managed_collector>

2.

For each managed firewall, redefine the preference list:


set log collector-group <group_name> logfwd-setting
devices <device_serial_number>

For example:
set log collector-group DC-Collector-Group
logfwd-setting devices 0030010110010

3.

Delete the failed Log Collector from the Panorama


configuration and commit your changes to Panorama.
delete log-collector <old_serial>
commit

For example:
delete log-collector 003001000010
commit
exit

4.

Commit the Collector Group changes so that the managed


firewalls can send logs to the new Log Collector.
commit-all log-collector-config
log-collector-group <collector_group_name>

For example:
commit-all log-collector-config
log-collector-group DC-Collector-Group

Step 7

Synchronize the configuration between


the Panorama HA peers.

Synchronize the running configuration using:


Panorama web interfaceSelect the Dashboard tab and, in the
High Availability widget, click Sync to peer.
Panorama CLIEnter the following command:
request high-availability sync-to-remote
running-config

Recover Logs after Failure/RMA of M-Series Appliance in Panorama Mode


You can recover logs from a RAID disk on an M-Series appliance in Panorama mode only if Panorama has a
high availability (HA) configuration. If an M-Series appliance has a system failure, you can transfer the RAID
disks to a replacement M-Series appliance and recover the logs stored on the disks of the failed appliance. The
ability to migrate the disks to another appliance enables you to regain access to the log data and to resume log
queries and generate reports.
This workflow covers the following scenarios where the M-Series appliances are in Panorama mode and have
an HA configuration:

One Panorama peer is configured as a managed Log Collector and receives logs from the managed firewalls.

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Both Panorama peers are managed Log Collectors that belong to one Collector Group. (Note that this is not
a recommended deployment). For details, see Figure: Multiple Default Log Collectors Per Collector Group.

Each Panorama is configured as a managed collector and assigned to separate Collector Groups (Log
Collector Group1 and Log Collector Group2). For details, see Figure: Single Default Log Collector Per
Collector Group.

Recover Logs after Failure/RMA of M-Series Appliance in Panorama Mode

Step 1

Remove the RAID disks from the


M-Series appliance that failed.

1.
2.

Power off the M-Series appliance.


Make sure to mark the disk pairs as you remove them from the
appliance.
Although you can place a disk pair from slot A on the failed
device into Slot B on the replacement device, you must keep the
pair together in the same slot; otherwise, the data might not be
successfully restored.

Step 2

Perform the following tasks on the


new/replacement M-Series appliance.

1.
2.
3.

Set Up the M-Series Appliance.


Register Panorama.
Transfer licenses as necessary: refer to How to Transfer
Licenses to a Spare Device.
Set the HA priority value to match that of the peer you are
replacing. See Manage a Panorama HA Pair for more
information.
Verify that HA is functional.

4.

5.

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Recover Logs after Failure/RMA of M-Series Appliance in Panorama Mode (Continued)

Step 3

Prepare the disks for migration.

1.
Generating the metadata for each 2.
disk pair rebuilds the indexes.
Therefore, depending on the data
size, this process can take a long
time to complete. If you are
replacing four RAID pairs, you
can launch four CLI sessions and
issue the command independently
in each session to complete the
metadata regeneration process
simultaneously for all the pairs.
3.
For details, see Regenerate
Metadata for M-Series Appliance
RAID Pairs.

Insert the disks in to the new M-Series appliance.


For each disk pair that you need to migrate, issue the following
command to enable the disk pairs on the new Log Collector.
request system raid add <slot> force no-format

For example:
request system raid add A1 force no-format
request system raid add A2 force no-format

The force and no-format arguments are required. The force


argument associates the disk pair with this replacement
appliance. The no-format argument prevents reformatting of
the drives and retains the logs stored on the disks.
Generate the metadata for each disk pair.
request metadata-regenerate slot <slot_number>

For example:
request metadata-regenerate slot 1

Step 4

Synchronize the configuration from the Synchronize the running configuration using:
other Panorama peer to this replacement Panorama web interfaceSelect the Dashboard tab and, in the
Panorama.
High Availability widget, click Sync to peer.
Panorama CLIEnter the following command:
request high-availability sync-to-remote
running-config

Step 5

Add the new Log Collector as a managed 1.


collector.

Use the Panorama web interface to Configure a Managed


Collector or use the following CLI commands:

Dont enable the disks on the managed


collector, yet. The disks are enabled
automatically when the logs are
successfully migrated.

configure
set log-collector <log-collector_SN> deviceconfig
system hostname <log-collector-hostname>
exit

2.

Verify that the Log Collector has been added and is connected
to Panorama.
show log-collector serial-number <log-collector_SN>

3.

The disk pairs will display as disabled at this stage of the


restoration process. Verify that the status is
present/available.
Commit your changes to Panorama. Do not commit the
changes to the Collector Group just yet.
configure
commit
exit

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Recover Logs after Failure/RMA of M-Series Appliance in Panorama Mode (Continued)

Step 6

Migrate the logs.

1.

For each disk pair, issue the command to complete the


migration of the logs to the new appliance.
request log-migration from
<SN_of_old_log_collector> old-disk-pair
<log_disk_pair> to <SN_of_new_log_collector>
new-disk-pair <log_disk_pair>

For example:
request log-migration from 003001000010
old-disk-pair A to 00300100038 new-disk-pair A

2.

Commit the changes to Panorama.


configure
commit
exit

Step 7

Reconfigure the Collector Group.

1.

Add the managed collector as a member of the Collector


Group.
set log-collector-group <collector_group_name>
logfwd-setting collectors <SN_managed_collector>

2.

The old Log Collector still appears in the list of members,


because you did not yet delete it from the configuration.
Redefine the preference list that the managed firewalls use for
forwarding logs.
set log collector-group <group_name> logfwd-setting
devices <device_serial_number>

3.

Delete the failed Log Collector from the Collector Group.


delete log collector-group <group_name>
logfwd-setting collectors <old_serial>

For example:
delete log collector-group DC-Collector-Group
logfwd-setting collectors 003001000010

4.
5.

Commit the changes to Panorama.


Commit the Collector Group changes so that the managed
firewalls can send logs to the new Log Collector.
commit-all log-collector-config
log-collector-group <collector_group_name>

For example:
commit-all log-collector-config
log-collector-group DC-Collector-Group

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Step 8

Synchronize the running configuration


between the Panorama HA peers.

1.
2.

In the Panorama web interface, select the Dashboard tab and,


in the High Availability widget, click Sync to peer.
On the active-primary Panorama peer, confirm that the
configuration is synchronized.

Recover Logs after Panorama Failure/RMA in Non-HA Deployments


If a system failure occurs on a Panorama server that is managing one or more Dedicated Log Collectors and the
Panorama server is not deployed in an HA configuration, use this procedure to restore the configuration on the
replacement Panorama and regain access to the logs on the Log Collectors.
To manage data, Panorama maintains a ring file that maps the segments and partitions used for storing logs on
the Log Collector. This ring file is stored to the internal SSD on an M-Series appliance or on the internal disk
of the Panorama virtual appliance that manages the Log Collector(s). When Panorama is not configured in HA
and a system failure occurs, the ring file cannot be automatically recovered. Therefore, when you replace
Panorama, in order to access the logs on the managed Collectors, you must restore the ring file.
As a best practice, Palo Alto Networks recommends deploying Panorama in an HA configuration.
When deployed in HA, the primary Panorama peer that manages the Log Collectors stores the
ring file to its internal storage (SSD of an M-Series appliance or the internal disk of the Panorama
VM). Panorama then automatically synchronizes this ring file to the secondary/passive peer,
thereby maintaining access to logs on the managed Log Collectors.

Use the following workflow after you have registered the new appliance and transferred licenses on the Support
Portal as needed (refer to How to Transfer Licenses to a Spare Device), performed initial configuration and
retrieved the license on the replacement Panorama.
Recover Logs after Panorama Failure/RMA in Non-HA Deployments

Step 1

Restore the configuration from the old


Restore the configuration from the old Panorama server to the new
Panorama to the replacement Panorama. server.
This task assumes that you have followed 1. Select Panorama > Setup > Operations.
2. Select Import named Panorama configuration snapshot,
the recommendation to back up and
Browse to locate the saved file and click OK to import.
export your Panorama configuration in
order to recover from a system failure.
3. Select Load named Panorama configuration snapshot and
select the version you just imported.
4. Click Commit, for the Commit Type select Panorama, and
click Commit again.

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Recover Logs after Panorama Failure/RMA in Non-HA Deployments (Continued)

Step 2

Verify that connections to the managed


collectors are restored.

Select Panorama > Managed Collectors and check that the


managed collectors are connected.
If the managed collector does not display, it indicates that you do not
have the most recent Panorama configuration. Your configuration
snapshot was taken before the managed Log Collector/Collector
Group configuration was implemented on Panorama. For
reconfiguring the managed Log Collector/Collector Group
configuration, see Step 4.

Step 3

Fetch the ring file to restore access to the 1.


logs stored on the managed collector.
2.

Access the CLI on Panorama.


Enter the following command to fetch the ring file:
request fetch ring from log-collector
<serial_number>

For example:
request fetch ring from log-collector 009201000343

3.

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Step 4

(Only required if the managed collector


configuration is missing on Panorama.)

1.

Access the CLI on the managed collector and enter the


following commands to view the last entries in the log. These
command allow you to verify the name of the managed
collector that you must define on Panorama.
a. Enter the command:
request fetch ring from log-collector
<serial_number>

The following error will display:


Server error: Failed to fetch ring info from
<serial_number>

b. Enter the command:


less mp-log ms.log

The following error will display:


Dec04 11:07:08 Error:
pan_cms_convert_resp_ring_to_file(pan_ops_cms.c:
3719): Current configuration does not contain
group CA-Collector-Group

The error message indicates that the missing Collector


Group has the name CA-Collector-Group.
2.

Create the Collector Group on Panorama, and add the


managed collector as a member of this Collector Group.
set log-collector-group CA-Collector-Group
set log-collector-group CA-Collector-Group
logfwd-setting collector 009201000343

3.
4.

Commit the changes to Panorama. Do not commit to Collector


group at this point.
Fetch the fetch the ring file from the Log Collector using the
command:
request fetch ring from log-collector
<serial_number>

5.

Commit the changes to the Collector Group.


commit-all log-collector-config
log-collector-group <log_collector_group_name>

Regenerate Metadata for M-Series Appliance RAID Pairs


When a system failure occurs on the M-Series appliance and you need to physically move the disks from one
appliance to another, regenerating the metadata is necessary. The metadata is required to locate logs on the disk;
when a user issues a log query, the query consults this metadata to access the requested log data.
For each configured RAID disk pair in the M-Series appliance, you must access the appliance CLI and run the
following command to regenerate the metadata:
request metadata-regenerate slot <slot_number>

For example:

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request metadata-regenerate slot 1

The size of the RAID disks determines how long metadata regeneration takes. On average, it takes an hour for
every 100GB. When you run the command, the CLI session is locked until the command is fully executed. You
can use multiple CLI sessions to save time. For example, to replace four RAID pairs with a total of 4TB of log
data, launch four CLI sessions and run the command in each session to regenerate metadata simultaneously for
all the pairs/slots in about 10 hours.
During metadata regeneration, the Collector Group to which these disks belong is not available and the disk
pair is not available for any logging or reporting operations (writes/queries). However, you can perform other
tasks such as handling new firewall connections or managing configuration changes on the managed firewalls.
All other Collector Groups that Panorama manages and that arent part of this RMA process can perform the
assigned logging and reporting functionality as normal.

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Replace an RMA Firewall


To minimize the effort required to restore the configuration on a managed firewall involving a Return
Merchandise Authorization (RMA), replace the serial number of the old firewall with that of the
new/replacement firewall on Panorama. To then restore the configuration on the replacement firewall, either
import a firewall state that you previously generated and exported from the firewall or use Panorama to generate
a partial device state for managed firewalls running PAN-OS 5.0 and later versions. By replacing the serial number
and importing the device state, you can resume using Panorama to manage the firewall.

Partial Device State Generation for Firewalls

Before Starting RMA Firewall Replacement

Restore the Firewall Configuration after Replacement

Partial Device State Generation for Firewalls


When you use Panorama to generate a partial device state, it replicates the configuration of the managed
firewalls with a few exceptions for Large Scale VPN (LSVPN) setups. You create the partial device state by
combining two facets of the configuration on a managed firewall:

Centralized configuration managed by PanoramaPanorama maintains a snapshot of the shared policy


rules and templates that it pushes to firewalls.

Local configuration on the firewallWhen a configuration change is committed, each firewall sends a copy
of its local configuration file to Panorama. Panorama stores this file and uses it to compile the partial device
state bundle.
In an LSVPN setup, the partial device state bundle that you generate on Panorama is not the
same as the version that you export from a firewall (by selecting Device > Setup > Operations
and clicking Export device state). If you manually ran the device state export or scheduled an
XML API script to export the file to a remote server, you can use the exported device state in your
firewall replacement workflow.
If you did not export the device state, the device state that you generate in the replacement
workflow will not include the dynamic configuration information, such as the certificate details and
registered firewalls, that is required to restore the complete configuration of a firewall functioning
as an LSVPN portal. See Before Starting RMA Firewall Replacement for more information.

Panorama does not store the device state; you generate it on request using the CLI commands listed in Restore
the Firewall Configuration after Replacement.

Before Starting RMA Firewall Replacement

The managed firewall (that was replaced) must have been on PAN-OS 5.0.4 and later version. Panorama
cannot generate the device state for firewalls running older PAN-OS versions. If you need to restore the
configuration for a firewall running a version earlier than PAN-OS 5.0.4, refer to the article Configuration
Recovery with Panorama.

Record the following details about the old firewall:

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Serial numberYou must enter the serial number on the Support portal to transfer the licenses from
the old firewall to your replacement firewall. You will also enter this information on Panorama, to
replace all references to the older serial number with the serial number of the replacement firewall.

(Recommended) PAN-OS version and the content database versionInstalling the same software
and content database versions, including the URL database vendor allows you to create the same state
on the replacement firewall. If you decide to install the latest version of the content database, you may
notice differences because of updates and additions to the database. To verify the versions installed on
the firewall, access the firewall system logs stored on Panorama.

Prepare the replacement firewall for deployment. Before you import the device state bundle and restore the
configuration, you must:

Verify that the replacement firewall is of the same model and is enabled for similar operational
capability. Consider the following operational features: does it need to be enabled for multi-virtual
systems, support jumbo frames, or be enabled to operate in CC or FIPS mode?

Configure network access, transfer the licenses, and install the appropriate PAN-OS version and the
content database version.

You must use the Panorama CLI to complete this firewall replacement process. This CLI-based workflow is
available for the superuser and panorama-admin user roles.

If you have an LSVPN configuration, and are replacing a Palo Alto Networks firewall deployed as a satellite
device or as an LSVPN portal, the dynamic configuration information that is required to restore LSVPN
connectivity will not be available when you restore the partial device state generated on Panorama. If you
have been following the recommendation to frequently generate and export the device state for firewalls in
an LSVPN configuration, use the device state that you have previously exported from the firewall itself
instead of generating one on Panorama.
If you have not manually exported the device state from the firewall, and need to generate a partial device
state on Panorama, the missing dynamic configuration impacts the firewall replacement process as follows:

If the firewall you are replacing is a portal device that is explicitly configured with the serial number
of the satellite devices (Network > GlobalProtect > Portals > Satellite Configuration), when restoring the
firewall configuration, although the dynamic configuration is lost, the portal firewall will be able to
authenticate the satellite devices successfully. The successful authentication will populate the dynamic
configuration information and LSVPN connectivity will be reinstated.

If you are replacing a satellite firewall, the satellite firewall will not be able to connect and
authenticate to the portal. This connection failure occurs either because the serial number was not
explicitly configured on the firewall (Network > GlobalProtect > Portals > Satellite Configuration) or
because although the serial number was explicitly configured, the serial number of the replaced firewall
does not match that of the old firewall. To restore connectivity, after importing the device state bundle,
the satellite administrator must log in to the firewall and enter the credentials (username and password)
for authenticating to the portal. When this authentication occurs, the dynamic configuration required
for LSVPN connectivity is generated on the portal.
However, if the firewall was configured in a high availability configuration, after restoring the configuration,
the firewall will automatically synchronize the running configuration with its peer and attain the latest
dynamic configuration required to function seamlessly.

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Restore the Firewall Configuration after Replacement


Restore the Firewall Configuration after Replacement
Tasks on the new firewall:

Use the CLI for a more streamlined workflow.

Step 1

Perform initial configuration and verify


network connectivity.

Use a serial port connection or a Secure Shell (SSH) connection to


add an IP address, a DNS server IP address, and to verify that the
firewall can access the Palo Alto Networks updates server.

Step 2

(Optional) Set the Operational mode to


match that on the old firewall.
A serial port connection is required for
this task.

1.

debug system maintenance-mode

2.
3.

Step 3

Retrieve the license(s).

Enter the following CLI command to access maintenance mode


on the firewall:
To boot into the maintenance partition, enter maint during the
boot sequence.
Select the Operational mode as Set FIPS Mode or Set
CCEAL 4 Mode from the main menu.

Enter the following command to retrieve your licenses:


request license fetch

Step 4

(Optional) Match the operational state of Enter the commands that pertain to your firewall settings:
set system setting multi-vsys on
the new firewall with that of the old
set system setting jumbo-frame on
firewall. For example, enable multi-virtual
system (multi-vsys) capability for a
firewall that was enabled for multi-vsys
capability.

Step 5

Upgrade the PAN-OS version on the


firewall.

Enter the following commands:


1. To upgrade the content database version:

You must upgrade to the same OS and


content database version that is installed 2.
on the old firewall.
3.

request content upgrade download <xxx-xxxx>

To install the content database version that you downloaded:


request content upgrade install version <xxx-xxxx>

To upgrade the PAN-OS software version:


request system software download version 5.x.x

4.

To install the content database version that you downloaded:


request system software install version 5.x.x

Tasks on the Panorama CLI:

You cannot perform these tasks on the Panorama web interface.

(Skip this step if you have manually exported the


device state from your firewall.)

Enter one of the following commands:

Step 6

Export the device state bundle to a


computer using Secure Copy (SCP) or
TFTP.

scp export device-state device <old serial#> to


<login> @ <serverIP>: <path>

or,
tftp export device-state device <old serial#> to
<login> @ <serverIP>: <path>

The export command generates the


device state bundle as a tar zipped file and
exports it to the specified location. This
device state will not include the LSVPN
dynamic configuration (satellite
information and certificate details).

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Restore the Firewall Configuration after Replacement (Continued)

Step 7

Replace the serial number of the old


1.
firewall with that of the new replacement
firewall on Panorama.
2.
By replacing the serial number on
Panorama you allow the new firewall to
connect to Panorama after you restore
3.
the configuration on the firewall.

Enter the following command in Operational mode:


replace device old <old SN#> new <new SN#>

Enter Configuration mode and commit your changes.


configure
commit

Exit Configuration mode.


exit

Tasks on the new firewall:

You can use the firewall web interface to perform these tasks.

Step 8

1.
2.

Import the device state and commit the


changes on the firewall.

3.
4.
5.

Tasks on Panorama:

Step 9

Access the web interface of the firewall.


Select Device > Setup > Operations and click the Import Device
State link in the Configuration Management section.
Browse to locate the file and click OK.
Click Commit to save you changes to the running configuration
on the firewall.
To confirm that the device state restored includes the references
to Panorama pushed polices and objects, verify that a little green
icon appears beside the device name.

You can now use the Panorama web interface to access and manage
the replaced firewall.

Verify that the firewall configuration was 1.


successfully restored.
2.
3.

Access the Panorama web interface and select Panorama >


Managed Devices.
Verify that the Connected column for the replaced firewall has
a check mark icon.
To synchronize the firewall with Panorama, click Commit, for
the Commit Type select Device Group, select the device group
that contains the firewall, select the Include Device and
Network Template check box, and click Commit again.

After replacing the firewall, if you need to generate reports for a period that spans the duration
when the old firewall was functional and after you installed the replacement firewall, you must
generate a separate query for the serial number of each firewall because replacing the serial
number on Panorama does not overwrite the information in the logs.

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Diagnose Template or Device Group Commit Failures

Troubleshooting

Diagnose Template or Device Group Commit Failures


A template or device group commit could fail because the ability to receive template and device groups
configuration changes from Panorama is disabled on the firewall. To resolve the error, access the firewall web
interface, select Device > Setup, edit the Panorama Settings, and then click Enable Device and Network Template
and Enable Panorama Policy and Objects.

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Troubleshooting

View Task Success or Failure Status

View Task Success or Failure Status


Use the Task Manager icon
at the bottom right of the Panorama web interface to view the success or
failure of a task. The Task Manager also displays a detailed message to help debug an issue. For details, see View
Panorama Task Completion History.

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View Task Success or Failure Status

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Troubleshooting

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