After completing the modeling of the geometry and loads it is time to define
earthquake loads. In Robot there are implemented many codes for earthquake. In our
case we used EN1998-1-1:2004.
The first step is to generate the Modal analysis case. In order to do this the user
has to access the Analysis Type command from the Analysis Menu. Below it is
presented the Analysis Type window. In this window we can see the load cases that
were defined earlier (1-5). To define Modal analysis press the New button.
By pressing the New button another window opens and here we have to select
the Modal option. As the windows shows the other options are not yet available
because in order to access them the modal analysis has to be already defined.
Alter selecting the Modal option and pressing the OK button the program opens
the window where the user can select the parameters for the modal analysis. This
window is presented bellow.
In this window the user must indicate the number of modes that the analysis will
calculate. Depending on the type of structure that is calculated and form the personal
experience the user has to indicate a number of modes. In our case we have indicated
70 modes. The most important rule is that after calculation, in the modal analysis results
table, the Relative mass on X and Y direction to be more than 90% in the last calculated
mode (in our case in the 70th mode). If this is not happening the user has to increase the
number of modes until this condition is fulfilled.
Another important option in this window is the Disregard density option. Now the
check box for this option is not checked. This means that the program will transform the
first case Self weight into masses automatically. So it is important that in the Load to
mass Conversion window the user not to convert this case into masses. There are
some cases where the user wants to have full control over the conversion of the loads
into masses and in this case the Disregard density option will be checked and the user
will indicate to the program to convert the self weight case into masses manually and
can also increase this mass by using a coefficient.
The user can select one of the three analysis modes:
The next step is to generate the seismic analysis case. Press the New button
and see the New Case Definition window. Now, after defining the Modal case, there are
available all the other analysis types.
Select the seismic type and the EN 1998-1-1:2004 code, and press the OK
button. This will open the EC8 Parameters window presented below:
The next step is to indicate the direction definition parameters by pressing the
Direction definition button in the dynamic analysis parameter dialog to define the
direction of spectral/seismic excitation.
Newmark combination
Quadratic combination
After selecting all the parameters and closing the window we will see that in the
Analysis Type window the program generated seismic cases(7,8,9) and Newmark
combinations (10-21).
The next step is to indicate the Load to Mass Conversion parameters in the
following window.
You can define loads/masses at once for all calculation purposes. It is not
necessary to define separately static loads or masses taken into account in structure
analyses (static and dynamic, respectively). On the basis of the pre-defined static loads
one may create masses to be used during dynamic calculations.
To convert static loads to masses, do the following.
1.
Determine the cases for which conversion of loads to masses will be carried
out. Provide the numbers of load cases; define the direction of the conversion
process and the multiplication coefficient to be applied to the value of the static
load.
2.
Determine the set of directions in the global coordinate system (X, Y, Z) along
which the masses will operate.
3.
Determine the dynamic analysis case that will use the masses created from
loads. Select Add Mass to Global Mass so the masses created from loads will
be taken into account in all cases of dynamic structure analyses.
4.
Click Add.
Mass direction - X, Y or Z.
Case - a number of the modal case to which a load is converted or dynamic for
all cases.
Now that all the parameters are indicated we can close the Analysis Type
window and perform a Calculation of the structure by selecting from Analysis menu the
Calculation command.
After the program finishes calculation we can read the first results about the
seismic analysis by selecting from the Results menu/Advanced/Modal Analysis. In the
table below we can see the results:
Here we can see that our structure has a period of 0.19 sec. This means that
the structure is very rigid.
Also we can see that the mass participation condition is fulfilled as in the 70 th
mode we have 92.39% on X direction and 90.64% on Y direction (values indicated by
green circles). In the case that these values were less that 90% we would have to
change in the modal analysis parameter window the number of modes (increasing it)
and recalculate the structure until the condition is fulfilled.
Before reading the results on bars there is one more important thing to do. We
have to indicate for each case the Combination Sign in the Analysis Type window.
Click Set to ascribe the selected mode to the seismic or spectral case.
The middle part of the dialog contains a table for the seismic and spectral analyses of
the current structure. For each type of analysis, the table presents the following data.
Case number
Case name
Main mode (user defined in the top of the dialog or 0) - The sign of the results
for this mode will be assumed for the entire combination.
If a main mode is set to 0, then the combination sign calculated from the formula for
calculating CQC or SRSS combinations will be assumed.
The bottom part of the dialog box selects the default type of calculations to be applied in
the case of seismic combination.
CQC - Complete Quadratic Combination
SRSS - Square Root of Sums of Squares
10% - 10% double sum
2SM - double sum.
In order to choose the main mode on each direction we have to return to the
Modal Analysis results table. Here we can see with red circles the values that indicates
the main modes for each direction.
The rule is to see for each direction which mode has the biggest value for
Current mass. In our case we can see that in the X direction we have in the 2nd mode
71.29% , in the Y direction we have in the 1st mode 70.68% and in the Z direction we
have in the 4th mode 45.76%.
With the definition of the main modes we have finished the modeling of the
seismic cases according to EN1998-1-1:2004. Now we can proceed to the design of the
structure elements.