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Development of piping and instrumentation diagram:

A diagram which shows the interconnection of process equipments and the


instrumentation used to control the process. In process industry a standard set of
symbols is used to prepare drawings of processes. The instrument symbols used in
these drawings are generally based on instrumentation standards and automation
society (ISA).
List of P & I diagram items:

Instrumentation and designations

Equipments with name and number

All valves and their identification

Miscellaneous

Piping and flow lines with line identifications

Control inputs, control outputs and interlocks

Identification of components and subsystems

Standards for P & I diagrams:

ASME

ANSI

ISA

Which things should not be included in P & I diagram:

Instrument root valves

Control relays

Manual switches

Equipment ratings or capacity

Primary instrument tubing and valves

Pressure, temperature and flow data

Elbow, tees and similar standard fittings

Extensive explanatory notes

Equipments:
Pumps:
A pump is a device used to move fluids, such as liquids or slurries, or gases. A pump
displaces a volume by physical or mechanical action. Pumps fall into five major
groups: direct lift, displacement, velocity, buoyancy and gravity pumps.
Instrumentation and valves for pump installation:
1. Strainers are used on the suction line.
2. Pressure gauges and Isolation valves are used at the suction line and
discharge line.
3. Non return relief valve is required at the discharge line when isolation valve
exist at the downstream of the boiler.
Selection of pumps:

If the material used is highly viscous like oil then we will use the gear pump.
These pumps cannot be used for the suspension.
Flow inducer pump are used where biological fluids like emulsions and
creams are used.
Mono pumps are used for the corrosive and gritty materials with uniform flow.
These pumps are used for feeding slurries to filter press.
Plunger pumps are used for the boiler feed water applications.
Diaphragm pumps are used for the toxic and corrosive materials these are
also useful for the materials which contain suspensions of abrasive solids.
Rotary pumps are used for the clean and moderately viscous liquids like light
lubricating oil.
Centrifugal pumps are used for clean and liquids having suspended solids.
Single stage pump of this type do not develop a high pressure. Multi stage
pump of this type develop a high pressure.

Compressors/Blowers are used for gases:

Reciprocating compressors are used for the viscous liquids like organic
materials.
Centrifugal pumps are used for catalytic reforming, petrochemical separation
plants.

Tanks:
Equipments that are used to store the fluids like water, oil, etc.
Instrumentation for the tanks:

Level gauges and level indicators are used for level measuring of the tanks.

Level alarms for low and high conditions are also used for the safety
purposes.
Level switches are also used for the safety of pumps. At the low low level the
pump trips.
Temperature indicators are also used to indicate the temperature locally.
In oil storage tanks heat tracing are also used for the pipe lines to maintain
their temperature.
Tanks should have vents, drain and over flow line for proper operation of the
system.
In case of pressurized tanks, safety valves and vaccum breakers should be
provided.
Steam traps are used for removing the condensate from steam lines at the
start up and during normal operations.
By pass lines are used which are used for the steam traps with globe valves
for the maintenance purposes.

Selection of valves:
Different types of valves are used in process industries on the basis of their
applications;
Gate valve:

These valves are fully open or closed.


These valves are not recommended for the controlling flow.
Direction of flow is not changed in these valves.
These valves are used for high pressure service, typically in excess of 15 MPa
(2250 psi) and when on/off service is required.

Globe valve:

These valves are used for controlling flow.


Globe valves are used for applications requiring throttling and frequent
operation.
They are not recommended where full, unobstructed flow is required.
They give a high pressure drop as compared to gate valve
All valves up to 2 in water steam system are normally globe type.
They have a temperature range of -10 to 600C.

Ball valve:

These valves are used for on/off services.


It has occasional applications in flow control.
Ball valves are used extensively in air and gas lines and having a
temperature range of -60 to 250C.

Check valve:

These valves permit flow in one direction only.


These valves are attached to the pump head on the inlet and outlet lines
Check valves are also often used when multiple gases are mixed into one gas
stream. A check valve is installed on each of the individual gas streams to
prevent mixing of the gases in the original source.

Selection of check valves:


Lift check valves:

These valves are suitable for applications where a small amount of


leakage, under reverse flow conditions, is acceptable.

The design of the lift check valves generally limits its use to water
applications.

These are also used to prevent reverse flow of condensate in steam traps
and on the outlets of cyclic condensate pumps

These valves are used in horizontal line not in vertical line due to their
design

Swing check valves:

These valves give a large pressure drop.

These valves are used for the water and steam applications in the boilers.

These valves are used mainly on larger pipelines, because on smaller


pipelines the pressure drop becomes significant.

These valves are used on both horizontal and vertical lines.

Ball check valves:

These valves are used as isolation valves in the pumps.

These are also used for the level gauges as isolation valves

Wafer check valves:

These valves are used to fit between the set of flanges.

Disc check valves:

Disc check valves with no spring are used where the differential pressure
across the valve is small.

Disc check valves with nimonic spring are used in high temperature
applications.

Disc check valves with heavy duty spring are used to prevent steam
boilers from flooding.

The design of these check valves allows them to install in any position,
including vertical pipe lines where the fluid flows downward.

Wafer check valves:

These valves are used to prevent boiler water being forced back along the
feed line into the storage tank when feed pump stops running.

These check valves should always be inserted after a steam trap to


prevent the back flow of condensate flooding the steam place. The check
valve will also prevent the steam trap from becoming damaged by any
hydraulic shock in the condensate line.

A check valve of this type should be installed after each pump to prevent
the reverse flow through the pump when it has been shut off.

These valves should be used as vacuum breakers, by fitting them in


reverse. When the vacuum is created, the valve opens, allowing the air to
be drawn in from the atmosphere.

A check valve of this type should be fitted in each supply line to prevent
reverse flow along the different lines which will lead to contamination. A
common blending application is the mixing of hot and cold water to
provide hot water.

These valves are used to prevent damage to equipment such as flow


meters and control valves, all of which can be damaged by the reverse
flow.

Check valves of this type also stop the contents of strainers from being
deposited in upstream pipe work by back flowing.

These check valves must be inserted on the outlet of each boiler to


prevent any ateam flowing into boilers, which may be on hot stand by.

Split check valves:

The pressure drop across the split disc check valve is significantly lower
than across other types.

They are capable of being used with lower pressures.

These valves can be installed in any position, including vertical pipe lines.
Butterfly valve:

A pressure drop is always induced in the flow, regardless of valve position.


The valve may also be opened incrementally to throttle flow.
The resilient butterfly valve, which uses the flexibility of rubber, has the
lowest pressure rating.
Working pressure ranges from 232 psi up to 1450 psi.

Diaphragm valve:
Diaphragm valves can be manual or automated.

Their application is generally as shut-off valves in process systems within the


food and beverage, pharmaceutical and biotech industries.
Hydraulic diaphragm valves also exist for higher pressure and lower speed
operations.

Needle valve:
A needle valve is a type of valve having a small port and a threaded, needle-shaped
plunger. It allows precise regulation of flow, although it is generally only capable of
relatively low flow rates.

Needle valves are usually used in flow metering applications, especially when
a constant, calibrated, low flow rate must be maintained for some time, such
as the idle fuel flow in a carburetor.
Needle valves are often used as bleed valves in hot water heating
applications.

Safety valve:
A safety valve is a valve mechanism for the automatic release of a substance from a
boiler, pressure vessel, or other system when the pressure or temperature exceeds
preset limits. It is part of a bigger set named pressure safety valves (PSV) or
pressure relief valves (PRV).

Safety valves also evolved to protect equipment such as pressure vessels


(fired or not) and heat exchangers.
They are required on water heaters, where they prevent disaster in certain
configurations in the event a thermostat should fail.

Solenoid valve:
A solenoid valve is an electromechanical valve for use with liquid or gas. The valve
is controlled by an electric current through a solenoid coil.

Solenoid valves may have two or more ports: in the case of a two-port valve
the flow is switched on or off; in the case of a three-port valve, the outflow is
switched between the two outlet ports. Multiple solenoid valves can be
placed together on a manifold.
Their tasks are to shut off, release, dose, distribute or mix fluids.
Solenoid valves are used in fluid power pneumatic and hydraulic systems, to
control cylinders, fluid power motors or larger industrial valves. Automatic
irrigation sprinkler systems also use solenoid valves with an automatic
controller.
They are commonly used to control a larger valve used to control the
propellant (usually compressed air or CO2).

Valve operating positions of solenoid valves:


Two port valves:
Operating positions for 2-port valves can be either shut (closed) so that no flow at
all goes through, fully open for maximum flow or sometimes partially open to any
degree in between

In plants with remote-controlled process operation, such as oil refineries and


petrochemical plants, some 2-way valves can be designated as normally
closed (NC) or normally open (NO) during regular operation.

Examples of normally open valves are isolation valves, which are usually only
shut when there is a problem with a unit or a section of a fluid system such as
a leak in order to isolate the problem from the rest of the system.

Three-port valves
It has three ports. They are commonly made such an intermediate position. Often 3way valves are ball or rotor valves.

Many faucets are that incoming cold and hot water can be regulated in
varying degrees to give out coming water at a desired temperature.
Depending on demand the control the proportion of the flow that goes to the
two outlet pipes: One to radiators, one to hot water system. In a mixing
actuation and digital positioners

Four-port valves
A 4-port valve is a valve whose body has four ports equally spaced round the body
and the disc has two passages to connect adjacent ports. It is operated with two
positions.

It can be used to isolate and to simultaneously bypass a sampling cylinder


installed on a pressurized water line.

It is useful to take a fluid sample without affecting the pressure of a hydraulic


system and to avoid degassing (no leak, no gas loss or air entry, no external
contamination).

Miscellaneous selection:
Vents:
These are special type of fittings used to remove the condensate from the stream
lines at the start up and during normal operations.
Steam trap:
It is a special form of valve allows water and steam or inert gas to pass through
while holding back the steam.
Reducers:
Pipe reducer is tube fittings that are widely used in a number of industries in order
to providing greatest connection flexibility in connecting fractional tubes in various
installations. Selection of reducers:
Concentric reducers:
Concentric Reducers are used to join pipe or tube sections on the same axis.
They provide an in-line conical transition between pressurized pipes of differing
diameters.

Concentric reducers will transition gracefully between the piping and the
pump.
The concentric reducers help in transporting slurries or abrasive liquids.
They are useful in services where cavitation is present.
Then transporting between flanges or pipes of different ratings and wear
protection is necessary, concentric reducers are ideal.

Eccentric reducers:
Concentric reducers are designed with the small and large diameters on opposite
ends and joined by a cone shaped transition section.

Reducer decreases the turbulence or material entrapment during operation.


To reduce the stress in pipe.
Protects against start-up surges.
Filled eccentric reducers are used on slurry and abrasive applications which in
turn prevent the collection of material that can settle in the arches.

Swages:

These are used to connect the butt welded piping to smaller screwed or socket
welded piping.
Special fittings:
Some of the special fittings like elbows, bends, tees, cross and wyes are used
depending upon the conditions used for the piping.
Strainers and filters:
Silencers and filters are used to remove the impurities like solid particles and the
suspensions in the fluid (liquid and gases).

Y strainers are typically used in applications where the amount of solids to be


removed is small, and where frequent clean-out is not required.
They are most often installed in gaseous services such as steam, air,
nitrogen, natural gas, etc. Y strainers can handle the pressure up to 1500
psi.

Piping:
Pipe:
A hollow cylinder or tube used to conduct a liquid, gas or fine dissolved solid.
Selection of pipe:

Steel and wrought iron pipes are used to carry out water, steam, oil and gas.
Cast iron pipe are installed underground to carry out water, gas and sewage.
Copper tubing is used in plumbing and heating where vibrations and
misalignments are factors such as in automotive, hydraulic and pneumatic
design.
Plastic pipe are used in chemical industry due to the resistance to corrosion
and chemicals. These pipes are not recommended where heat or pressure is
a factor.

Piping material specifications are given at the end table # 1.


Temperature specifications for the materials used in piping:

Carbon steel from 50 to 450C.


Low alloy steel from 100 to 650C.
High alloy steel from 100 to 850C.

Pipe joint selection:

Socket welds are used for the line having a rating of 300 ANSI, 600 ANSI and
the size between to 2 pipe size.

Flanges are used for the line having a rating of 300 ANSI and the size varies
from 2 to 24 pipe size.
Butt weld joints are used for the line having a rating of 600 ANSI and the size
varies between 2 to 24 pipe size.

Flanges selection:

Orifice flanges are used for the conjunction with orifice meter for measuring
the rate of flow of liquids.
Blind flanges are used to blank off the ends of piping valves and pressure
vessel openings.
Socket weld flanges with raised face are used up to a size of 2.5 size pipe.
Slips on flanges raised face are used up to a size of 4 size pipe.
Weld neck raised face are used up to a size starting from 1 to above than 4
size pipe.
Long weld necks are used for the size of pipe above than 4.
Heavy barrel flanges are used where thickness of the flanges greater than 50
mm required.