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BIOMETRICS - Introduction
The word biometric can be defined as "life - measure." It is used in security and access control applications to mean measurable physical characteristics of a person that can be checked on an automated basis. The term "Biometrics" has been used to refer to the emerging field of technology devoted to identification of individuals using biological traits, such as those based on retinal or iris scanning, fingerprints, or face recognition. Neither the journal "Biometrics" nor the International Biometric Society is engaged in research, marketing, or reporting related to this technology. Likewise, the editors and staff of the journal are not knowledgeable in this area. Biometrics refers to methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits. In information technology, in particular, biometrics is used as a form of identity access management and access control. It is also used to identify individuals in groups that are under surveillance. Biometric characteristics can be divided in two main classes:

Physiological are related to the shape of the body. Examples include, but are not limited to fingerprint, face recognition, DNA, hand and palm geometry,iris recognition, which has largely replaced retina, and odor/scent. Behavioral are related to the behavior of a person. Examples include, but are not limited to typing rhythm, gait, and voice. Some researchers[1] have coined the term behaviometrics for this class of biometrics.

Strictly speaking, voice is also a physiological trait because every person has a different pitch, but voice recognition is mainly based on the study of the way a person speaks, commonly classified as behavioral.

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Biometrics

Biometrics is the automated method of recognizing a person based on a physiological or behavioral characteristic. Biometric technologies are becoming the foundation of an extensive array of highly secure identification and personal verification solutions. Biometrics is expected to be incorporated in solutions to provide for Homeland Security including applications for improving airport security, strengthening the United States' national borders, in travel documents, visas and in preventing ID theft. Now, more than ever, there is a wide range of interest in biometrics across federal, state, and local governments. Congressional offices and a large number of organizations involved in many markets are addressing the important role that biometrics will play in identifying and verifying the identity of individuals and protecting national assets. There are many needs for biometrics beyond Homeland Security. Enterprise-wide network security infrastructures, secure electronic banking, investing and other financial transactions, retail sales, law enforcement, and health and social services are already benefiting from these technologies. A range of new applications can been found in such diverse environments as amusement parks, banks, credit unions, and other financial organizations, Enterprise and Government networks, passport programs and driver licenses, colleges, physical access to multiple facilities (e.g., nightclubs) and school lunch programs

What is a Biometrics system?

There are two main modules in a biometrics system. "Storing" and "comparing". The systems must first store your information before it can use this stored information to compare and verify. The storing process however differs between different systems.

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For instance, if the biometrics system uses thumb impression as the mode of verification, then your thumb impression will be first captured in film and stored in the biometrics database system. Instead of storing as it is, the system will compress and store it. If for instance your face is used as the mode of verification, then your face will be photographed in different angles and stored in the biometrics database systems. The same goes for voice recording and eyes mode of verification. Once this storing process is done, the 'comparing' process is done daily or as and when required. For example let us assume that your company uses finger print biometrics systems. When you come to office daily, there will be a finger print reader at the entrance. You will have to put your finger on this finger print reader which will capture your finger print and send to the biometrics system. The biometrics system will then 'compare' this finger print to the finger print that was previously stored in the database. If both of them match then you are authenticated. Biometric-based authentication applications include workstation, network, and domain access, single sign-on, application logon, data protection, remote access to resources, transaction security and Web security. Trust in these electronic transactions is essential to the healthy growth of the global economy. Utilized alone or integrated with other technologies such as smart cards, encryption keys and digital signatures, biometrics are set to pervade nearly all aspects of the economy and our daily lives. Utilizing biometrics for personal authentication is becoming convenient and considerably more accurate than current methods (such as the utilization of passwords or PINs). This is because biometrics links the event to a particular individual (a password or token may be used by someone other than the authorized user), is convenient (nothing to carry or remember), accurate (it provides for positive authentication), can provide an audit trail and is becoming socially acceptable and inexpensive. Biometric authentication requires comparing a registered or enrolled biometric sample (biometric template or identifier) against a newly captured biometric sample (for example, a fingerprint captured during

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a login). During Enrollment a sample of the biometric trait is captured, processed by a computer, and stored for later comparison. Biometric recognition can be used in Identification mode, where the biometric system identifies a person from the entire enrolled population by searching a database for a match based solely on the biometric. For example, an entire database can be searched to verify a person has not applied for entitlement benefits under two different names. This is sometimes called "one-to-many" matching. A system can also be used in Verification mode, where the biometric system authenticates a person's claimed identity from their previously enrolled pattern. This is also called "one-to-one" matching. In most computer access or network access environments, verification mode would be used. A user enters an account, user name, or inserts a token such as a smart card, but instead of entering a password, a simple touch with a finger or a glance at a camera is enough to authenticate the user.

Biometric-based authentication applications include workstation and network access, single sign-on, application logon, data protection, remote access to resources, transaction security, and Web security. The promises of e-commerce and e-government can be achieved through the utilization of strong personal authentication procedures. Secure electronic banking, investing and other financial transactions, retail sales, law enforcement, and health and social services are already benefiting from these technologies. Biometric technologies are expected to play a key role in personal authentication for largescale enterprise network authentication environments, Point-of-Sale

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and for the protection of all types of digital content such as in Digital Rights Management and Health Care applications. Utilized alone or integrated with other technologies such as smart cards, encryption keys and digital signatures, biometrics are anticipated to pervade nearly all aspects of the economy and our daily lives. For example, biometrics is used in various schools such as in lunch programs in Pennsylvania, and a school library in Minnesota. Examples of other current applications include verification of annual pass holders in an amusement park, speaker verification for television home shopping, Internet banking, and users' authentication in a variety of social services. Using biometrics for identifying human beings offers some unique advantages. Biometrics can be used to identify you as you. Tokens, such as smart cards, magnetic stripe cards, photo ID cards, physical keys and so forth, can be lost, stolen, duplicated, or left at home. Passwords can be forgotten, shared, or observed. Moreover, today's fast-paced electronic world means people are asked to remember a multitude of passwords and personal identification numbers (PINs) for computer accounts, bank ATMs, e-mail accounts, wireless phones, web sites and so forth. Biometrics hold the promise of fast, easy-touse, accurate, reliable, and less expensive authentication for a variety of applications. There is no one "perfect" biometric that fits all needs. All biometric systems have their own advantages and disadvantages. There are, however, some common characteristics needed to make a biometric system usable. First, the biometric must be based upon a distinguishable trait. For example, for nearly a century, law enforcement has used fingerprints to identify people. There is a great deal of scientific data supporting the idea that "no two fingerprints are alike." Technologies such as hand geometry have been used for many years and technologies such as face or iris recognition have come into widespread use. Some newer biometric methods may be just as accurate, but may require more research to establish their uniqueness. Another key aspect is how "user-friendly" a system is. The process should be quick and easy, such as having a picture taken by a video camera, speaking into a microphone, or touching a fingerprint scanner. Low cost is important, but most implementers understand

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that it is not only the initial cost of the sensor or the matching software that is involved. Often, the life-cycle support cost of providing system administration and an enrollment operator can overtake the initial cost of the biometric hardware. The advantage biometric authentication provides is the ability to require more instances of authentication in such a quick and easy manner that users are not bothered by the additional requirements. As biometric technologies mature and come into wide-scale commercial use, dealing with multiple levels of authentication or multiple instances of authentication will become less of a burden for users. An indication of the biometric activities. As of March 2005, NIST and NSA have co-sponsored and spearheaded a number of biometric-related activities including the development of a Common Biometric Exchange File Format (CBEFF) , NIST Biometric Interoperability, Performance, and Assurance Working Group, a BioAPI Users' and Developers' Seminar, and the NIST BioAPI Interoperability Test Bed. CBEFF describes a set of data elements necessary to support biometric technologies in a common way independently of the application and the domain of use (e.g., mobile devices, smart cards, protection of digital data, biometric data storage). CBEFF facilitates biometric data interchange between different system components or between systems, promotes interoperability of biometric-based application programs and systems, provides forward compatibility for technology improvements, and simplifies the software and hardware integration process. CBEFF was developed by a Technical Development Team, comprised of members from industry, NIST and NSA and in coordination with industry consortiums (BioAPI Consortium and TeleTrusT) and a standards development group (ANSI/ASC X9F4 Working Group). CBEFF is described in detail in NISTIR 6529, "Common Biometric Exchange File Format (CBEFF)", January 3, 2001. The International Biometric Industry Association (IBIA) is the Registration Authority for CBEFF format owner and format type values for organizations and vendors that require them. The NIST Biometric Interoperability, Performance and Assurance Working Group supports advancement of technically efficient and compatible biometric technology solutions on a national and international basis. It promotes and encourages exchange of

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information and collaborative efforts between users and private industry in all things biometric. The Working Group consists of eightyfive organizations representing biometric vendors, system developers, information assurance organizations, commercial end users, universities, government agencies, national labs and industry organizations. The Working Group is currently addressing development of a simple testing methodology for biometric systems as well as addressing issues on biometric assurance. In addition, the Working Group is addressing the utilization of biometric data in smart card applications by developing a smart card format compliant to the Common Biometric Exchange File Format (CBEFF).

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Characteristics of biometrics
Biometric technologies should be considered and evaluated giving full consideration to the following characteristics:

Universality: Every person should have the characteristic. People who are mute or without a fingerprint will need to be accommodated in some way.

Uniqueness: Generally, no two people have identical characteristics. However, identical twins are hard to distinguish.

Permanence: The characteristics should not vary with time. A person's face, for example, may change with age.

Collectibility: The characteristics must be easily collectible and measurable.

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Performance: The method must deliver accurate results under varied environmental circumstances.

Acceptability: The general public must accept the sample collection routines. Non-intrusive methods are more acceptable.

Circumvention: The technology should be difficult to deceive.

The following factors are needed to have a successful biometric identification method:

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The physical characteristic should not change over the course of the person's lifetime The physical characteristic must identify the individual person uniquely The physical characteristic needs to be easily scanned or read in the field, preferably with inexpensive equipment, with an immediate result The data must be easily checked against the actual person in a simple, automated way.

Other characteristics that may be helpful in creating a successful biometric identification scheme are:
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Ease of use by individuals and system operators The willing (or knowing) participation of the subject is not required Uses legacy data (such as face recognition or voice analysis).

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BIOMETRIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEMS
Biometric identification systems can be grouped based on the main physical characteristic that lends itself to biometric identification:FINGERPRINT Fingerprint ridges are formed in the womb; you have fingerprints by the fourth month of fetal development. Once formed, fingerprint ridges are like a picture on the surface of a balloon. As the person ages, the fingers get do get larger. However, the relationship between the ridges stays the same, just like the picture on a balloon is still recognizable as the balloon is inflated. The patterns of friction ridges and valleys on an individual's fingertips are unique to that individual. For decades, law enforcement has been classifying and determining identity by matching key points of ridge endings and bifurcations. Fingerprints are unique for each finger of a person including identical twins. One of the most commercially available biometric technologies, fingerprint recognition devices for desktop and laptop access are now widely available from many different vendors at a low cost. With these devices, users no longer need to type passwords - instead, only a touch provides instant access. Fingerprint systems can also be used in identification mode. Several states check fingerprints for new applicants to social services benefits to ensure recipients do not fraudulently obtain benefits under fake names. New York State has over 900,000 people enrolled in such a system.

Hand geometry Hand geometry is the measurement and comparison of the different

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physical characteristics of the hand. Although hand geometry does not have the same degree of permanence or individuality as some other characteristics, it is still a popular means of biometric authentication.

Hand and Finger Geometry These methods of personal authentication are well established. Hand recognition has been available for over twenty years. To achieve personal authentication, a system may measure either physical characteristics of the fingers or the hands. These include length, width, thickness and surface area of the hand. One interesting characteristic is that some systems require a small biometric sample (a few bytes). Hand geometry has gained acceptance in a range of applications. It can frequently be found in physical access control in commercial and residential applications, in time and attendance systems and in general personal authentication applications.

Palm Vein Authentication This system uses an infrared beam to penetrate the users hand as it is waved over the system; the veins within the palm of the user are returned as black lines. Palm vein authentication has a high level of authentication accuracy due to the complexity of vein patterns of the palm. Because the palm vein patterns are internal to the body, this would be a difficult system to counterfeit. Also, the system is contactless and therefore hygienic for use in public areas.

Retina scan A retina scan provides an analysis of the capillary blood vessels located in the back of the eye; the pattern remains the same throughout life. A scan uses a low-intensity light to take an image of

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the pattern formed by the blood vessels. Retina scans were first suggested in the 1930's.

Iris scan An iris scan provides an analysis of the rings, furrows and freckles in the colored ring that surrounds the pupil of the eye. More than 200 points are used for comparison. Iris scans were proposed in 1936, but it was not until the early 1990's that algorithms for iris recognition were created (and patented). All current iris recognition systems use these basic patents, held by Iridian Technologies. This recognition method uses the iris of the eye which is the colored area that surrounds the pupil. Iris patterns are thought unique. The iris patterns are obtained through a video-based image acquisition system. Iris scanning devices have been used in personal authentication applications for several years. Systems based on iris recognition have substantially decreased in price and this trend is expected to continue. The technology works well in both verification and identification modes (in systems performing one-to-many searches in a database). Current systems can be used even in the presence of eyeglasses and contact lenses. The technology is not intrusive. It does not require physical contact with a scanner. Iris recognition has been demonstrated to work with individuals from different ethnic groups and nationalities.

Face recognition Facial characteristics (the size and shape of facial characteristics, and their relationship to each other). Although this method is the one that human beings have always used with each other, it is not easy to automate it. Typically, this method uses relative distances between common landmarks on the face to generate a unique "faceprint." The identification of a person by their facial image can be done in a number of different ways such as by capturing an image of the face in the visible

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spectrum using an inexpensive camera or by using the infrared patterns of facial heat emission. Facial recognition in visible light typically model key features from the central portion of a facial image. Using a wide assortment of cameras, the visible light systems extract features from the captured image(s) that do not change over time while avoiding superficial features such as facial expressions or hair. Several approaches to modeling facial images in the visible spectrum are Principal Component Analysis, Local Feature Analysis, neural networks, elastic graph theory, and multi-resolution analysis. Some of the challenges of facial recognition in the visual spectrum include reducing the impact of variable lighting and detecting a mask or photograph. Some facial recognition systems may require a stationary or posed user in order to capture the image, though many systems use a real-time process to detect a person's head and locate the face automatically. Major benefits of facial recognition are that it is non-intrusive, hands-free, continuous and accepted by most users.

Signature Verification: Although the way you sign your name does change over time, and can be consciously changed to some extent, it provides a basic means of identification. This technology uses the dynamic analysis of a signature to authenticate a person. The technology is based on measuring speed, pressure and angle used by the person when a signature is produced. One focus for this technology has been e-business applications and other applications where signature is an accepted method of personal authentication.

Speaker Recognition: The analysis of the pitch, tone, cadence and frequency of a person's voice.

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Speaker recognition has a history dating back some four decades, where the output of several analog filters were averaged over time for matching. Speaker recognition uses the acoustic features of speech that have been found to differ between individuals. These acoustic patterns reflect both anatomy (e.g., size and shape of the throat and mouth) and learned behavioral patterns (e.g., voice pitch, speaking style). This incorporation of learned patterns into the voice templates (the latter called "voiceprints") has earned speaker recognition its classification as a "behavioral biometric." Speaker recognition systems employ three styles of spoken input: text-dependent, textprompted and textindependent. Most speaker verification applications use text-dependent input, which involves selection and enrollment of one or more voice passwords. Text-prompted input is used whenever there is concern of imposters. The various technologies used to process and store voiceprints includes hidden Markov models, pattern matching algorithms, neural networks, matrix representation and decision trees. Some systems also use "anti-speaker" techniques, such as cohort models, and world models. Ambient noise levels can impede both collection of the initial and subsequent voice samples. Performance degradation can result from changes in behavioral attributes of the voice and from enrollment using one telephone and verification on another telephone. Voice changes due to aging also need to be addressed by recognition systems. Many companies market speaker recognition engines, often as part of large voice processing, control and switching systems. Capture of the biometric is seen as non-invasive. The technology needs little additional hardware by using existing microphones and voice-transmission technology allowing recognition over long distances via ordinary telephones (wire line or wireless).

Biometric authentication: what method works best?
There does not appear to be any one method of biometric data gathering and reading that does the "best" job of ensuring secure authentication. Each of the different methods of biometric

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identification have something to recommend them. Some are less invasive, some can be done without the knowledge of the subject, some are very difficult to fake.

Face recognition Of the various biometric identification methods, face recognition is one of the most flexible, working even when the subject is unaware of being scanned. It also shows promise as a way to search through masses of people who spent only seconds in front of a "scanner" - that is, an ordinary digital camera. Face recognition systems work by systematically analyzing specific features that are common to everyone's face - the distance between the eyes, width of the nose, position of cheekbones, jaw line, chin and so forth. These numerical quantities are then combined in a single code that uniquely identifies each person.

Fingerprint identification Fingerprints remain constant throughout life. In over 140 years of fingerprint comparison worldwide, no two fingerprints have ever been found to be alike, not even those of identical twins. Good fingerprint scanners have been installed in PDAs like the iPaq Pocket PC; so scanner technology is also easy. Might not work in industrial applications since it requires clean hands. Fingerprint identification involves comparing the pattern of ridges and furrows on the fingertips, as well as the minutiae points (ridge characteristics that occur when a ridge splits into two, or ends) of a specimen print with a database of prints on file.

Hand geometry biometrics Hand geometry readers work in harsh environments, do not require clean conditions, and forms a very small dataset. It is

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not regarded as an intrusive kind of test. It is often the authentication method of choice in industrial environments.

Retina scan There is no known way to replicate a retina. As far as anyone knows, the pattern of the blood vessels at the back of the eye is unique and stays the same for a lifetime. However, it requires about 15 seconds of careful concentration to take a good scan. Retina scan remains a standard in military and government installations.

Iris scan Like a retina scan, an iris scan also provides unique biometric data that is very difficult to duplicate and remains the same for a lifetime. The scan is similarly difficult to make (may be difficult for children or the infirm). However, there are ways of encoding the iris scan biometric data in a way that it can be carried around securely in a "barcode" format. (See the SF in the News article Biometric Identification Finally Gets Started for some detailed information about how to perform an iris scan.)

Signature A signature is another example of biometric data that is easy to gather and is not physically intrusive. Digitized signatures are sometimes used, but usually have insufficient resolution to ensure authentication.

Voice analysis Like face recognition, voice biometrics provide a way to authenticate identity without the subject's knowledge. It is

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easier to fake (using a tape recording); it is not possible to fool an analyst by imitating another person's voice.

Biometric data that does not change Security personnel look for biometric data that does not change over the course of your life; that is, they look for physical characteristics that stay constant and that are difficult to fake or change on purpose. Most of us can remember when biometric security checks were the stuff of science fiction or action movies like James Bond. However, biometric identification is becoming commonplace as hardware and software come down in price.

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History of biometrics
The term "biometrics" is derived from the Greek words bio (life) and metric (to measure). Biometrics is becoming an interesting topic now in regards to computer and network security, however the ideas of biometrics have been around for many years. Possibly the first known example of biometrics in practice was a form of finger printing being used in China in the 14th century, as reported by explorer Joao de Barros. He wrote that the Chinese merchants were stamping children's palm prints and footprints on paper with ink to distinguish the young children from one another. This is one of the earliest known cases of biometrics in use and is still being used today. In the 1890s, an anthropologist named Alphonse Bertillion sought to fix the problem of identifying convicted criminals and turned biometrics into a distinct field of study. He developed 'Bertillonage', a method of bodily measurement whichgot named after him. The problem with identifying repeated offenders was that the criminals often gave different aliases each time they were arrested. Bertillion realized that even if names changed, even if a person cut his hair or put on weight, certain elements of the body remained fixed, such as the size of the skull or the length of their fingers. His system was used by police authorities throughout the world, until it quickly faded when it was discovered that some people shared the same measurements and based on the measurements alone, two people could get treated as one. After this, the police used finger printing, which was developed by Richard Edward Henry of Scotland Yard, instead. Essentially reverting to the same methods used by the Chinese for years. However the idea of biometrics as a field of study with usefull identification applications, was there and interest in it has grown. Today we have the technology to realise the aims, and to refine the accuracy

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of biometric identification, and therefore the possibility of making it a viable field.

Advantages Biometrics allows you to replace "what you have" and "what you know" security adages with the all important "who you are" byword, hence contibuting one of the most substial benefits to the security arena. Advantages of biometrics will help in your quest to curb the "Why Biomterics" question. We have enlisted some of the most sought after advantages of biometrics for you; Advantages of Biometrics : * Increase security - Provide a convenient and low-cost additional tier of security. * Reduce fraud by employing hard-to-forge technologies and materials. For e.g. minimize the opportunity for ID fraud, buddy punching. * Eliminate problems caused by lost IDs or forgotten passwords by using physiological attributes. For e.g. Prevent unauthorized use of lost, stolen or "borrowed" ID cards. * Reduce password administration costs. * Replace hard-to-remember passwords which may be shared or observed. * Integrate a wide range of biometric solutions and technologies, customer applications and databases into a robust and scalable control solution for facility and network access

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* Make it possible, automatically, to know WHO did WHAT, WHERE and WHEN!

* Offer significant cost savings or increasing ROI in areas such as Loss Prevention or Time & Attendance. * Unequivocally link an individual to a transaction or event.

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Biometric identification can provide extremely accurate, secured access to information; fingerprints, retinal and iris scans produce absolutely unique data sets when done properly Current methods like password verification have many problems (people write them down, they forget them, they make up easy-to-hack passwords) Automated biometric identification can be done very rapidly and uniformly, with a minimum of training Your identity can be verified without resort to documents that may be stolen, lost or altered.

Disadvantages of biometric system

The finger print of those people working in Chemical industries are often affected. Therefore these companies should not use the finger print mode of authentication. It is found that with age, the voice of a person differs. Also when the person has flu or throat infection the voice changes or if there there are too much noise in the environment this method maynot authenticate correctly. Therefore this method of verification is not workable all the time

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For people affected with diabetes, the eyes get affected resulting in differences. Biometrics is an expensive security solution.

The disadvantages are numerous however: criminals have been known to remove fingers to open biometric locks, Biometrics requires a lot of data to be kept on a person, these systems are not always reliable as human beings change over time if you are ill; eyes puffy, voice hoarse or your fingers are rough from laboring for example it maybe more difficult for the machinery to identify you accurately. Every time you use Biometrics you are being tracked by a database bringing up a range of privacy issues. The final disadvantage is the expense and technical complexity of such systems. Biometric security and business ethics A variety of ethical concerns with biometric identification methods have been registered by users:
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Some biometric identification methods are relatively intrusive (like retina scans) The gathering of biometric information like fingerprints is associated with criminal behavior in the minds of many people Traditionally, detailed biometric information has been gathered by large institutions, like the military or police; people may feel a loss of privacy or personal dignity People feel embarrassed when rejected by a public sensor Automated face recognition in public places could be used to track everyone's movements without their knowledge or consent.

Areas where biometric is being currently applied
• • • • • • In making of identity cards, passport, driving license etc. In defense services. In secret services.(CBI, KGB, FBI, RAW etc) In police investigation. In computer systems and laptops. In nuclear research center.

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• In few R&D department. • In ammunitions center. • Number of companies has installed biometric security at their workplace. • In banking system. • In some of the cars launched by many international companies • Fighter planes and submarines • Registration of sale deed.

CHALLENGES
There are also many questions about how the biometric data will be stored and used:

How will masses of biometric data be stored? These are not fingerprint cards stored in a secured building; this is easily moved and duplicated electronic information. How will this information be safeguarded? Who will have access to this information? Will companies be allowed access to face biometrics, letting them use security cameras to positively identify customers on a routine basis? How would you feel about walking into a store you've never been in before, only to be greeted by name by a sales associate who has just read a summary of all of your recent purchases? What if the stored is altered or tempered through any condition?

MAJOR PROBLEM BEFORE INSTALLATION OF BIOMETRICS

COST – it is the main hurdle, for instance, an iris recognition module costs US$ 2000 and a fingerprint scan module costs US$ 250. thus technology has to be made available for widespread use.

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AWARENESS – A large number of people are not even aware about the use and application of biometrics. AVAIBILITY – Biometric devices and security system are not easily available in different parts of the world. PRIVACY – The technology should be non-invasive and nonintrusive. For e.g. the iris recognition technique may reveal that you are a drinker or a smoker or even worse a drug addict and you may not want to reveal this………..thus people have to be sensitized that only requisite information would be extracted from their eyes.

FUTURE OF BIOMETRICS
The future is bright and sunny!!!! A system that analyses body odour is under development.Each human smell consists different amount of volatiles…In this system the sensors try to obtain odour from non intrusive parts of the body like back of hand. Currently DNA testing by latest methods takes atleast 10 minutes and ergo it cannot be taken as a biometric tool,but it holds a great promise in the future. Ear shape is also considered to be unique and the technology involved is currently under development. Do you know that each human being has got a unique tongue print!!!! How about sticking out your tongue in front of a machine at a public place to identify yourself !!!!Now that is intrusive technology for you…..

CONCLUSION

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The science of biometrics although in it’s infancy is advancing rapidly. Just as aeronautical engineering took decades to catch up with Wright Brothers, we hope to eventually catch up with thousands of system users who are successfully using these devices in a wide variety of applications. The goal is to provide a more secure working environment in a cost effective and user friendly way….

SOME OF THE DOMESTICALLY

BIOMETRIC

SECURITY

SYSTEMS

BEING

USED

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