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CARMEL B. SABADO CE-164 PROF.Allan E.

Milano
BSCE-5 Timber Excel Program
*note:the boxes in yellow should be inputed by the designer,while blue ones are computed by the program.=)

DESIGN OF PRATT TRUSS

DATA:
Type of wood: pahutan
Bending and Tension(Fb) 13.80 MPa Wn2 Wnt
Shear(Fv) 1.34 MPa
Compression(Fc) 8.14 MPa
Modulus of Elasticity(E) 9100.00 MPa
Relative Density(G) 0.55
Specific Gravity 5.40 kN/m3 θ WDL+LL

LOADINGS:
Wind Pressure 0.96 kPa
Minimum Roof Live Load 0.80 kPa
GI roofing 0.15 kPa
Residential Live Load 2.00 kPa

SPACING:
Purlins 0.40 m
Truss 2.75 m
Floor Joist 0.40 m

DESIGN OF PURLINS

DATA: TRIAL DIMENSION:


Span 12.00 m 150 x 200 mm
Height 2.00 m I= 1.00E+08 mm 4

Theta, θ; 9.46

LOADINGS:
Live load 0.32 Kn/m
Roofing 0.06 Kn/m
Purlin weight 0.16 Kn/m
WDL+LL 0.54 Kn/m
Load Combinations:
Condition 1: DL + LL
WDL+LL = 0.53 kN/m governs!!
Condition 2: DL + LL + WL
WDL+LL+WL = 0.23 kN/m LOAD COMBINATION:
Windward:
Pn = 1.3(sinq - 0.5)P -0.27
Leeward:
MOMENTS: Pn = -0.5P -0.48
Mn = Mx = 1/8(WnLx ) 2
9.62 Kn-m
(WW) Wn1 = Pn(Spacing) -0.11
Mt = My = 1/12(WnLy2) 0.18 Kn-m (LW) Wn1 = Pn(Spacing) -0.19
Wn2 = WDL+LL(cosq) 0.53
Wnt = WDL+LL(sinq) 0.09
SHEAR:
WN = Wn1 + Wn2 0.42
Vx = (1/2)WnLx 3.21 Kn Wt = Wnt 0.09

Vy = (1/2)WnLy 0.09 Kn

CHECK FOR BENDING:


6 Mx 6 My
To be safe, Fb > Fact =  2 = 9.86 Kn-m < 13.80
bh 2 b h
it is safe!=)

CHECK FOR SHEAR;


3 Vx 3 Vy
To be safe, Fv > Fvact =  = 0.16 Kn < 1.34
2 bh 2 bh
it is safe!=)

CHECK FOR DEFLECTION: ****To be safe, Yall > Yact

Yact = (5/384)(WLn4/EI) = 0.44 mm


Yallow = L/360 = 7.64 mm

it is safe!=) Therefore use

DESIGN OF TRUSS
TRIAL DIMENSION:
75 x 200 mm
I= 5.00E+07 mm 4
1.512

LOAD CARRIED BY THE TRUSS: 9.194


θ
Loadings:
GI roofing = 5.02 Kn 9.069
Wt. of Purlins = 0.45 Kn
Min. Roof LL = 26.76 Kn
total = 32.23 Kn
15.84
Weight of truss:
Overall Length of Truss = 67.99 m θ 16.06
Weight of Truss = 5.5 Kn
TOTAL 37.73 Kn

Windward
wind load = -9.19 Kn/m
fx = 0.3 Kn
fy = 1.81 Kn

Leeward
wind load = -16.06 Kn/m
fx = 0.53 Kn
fy = 3.17 Kn

Load carried by the ceiling:


Ceiling Load = 0.01 Kn/m

18.87 KN

Forces Due to DL + LL
9.433 Kn 9.43 Kn

M
M

N
9.433 Kn L

9.433 Kn
K

9.433 Kn
J
ceiling load

A B C D E F

3.0 3.0 3.0 m 3m 3.000 m 3.0000

24 m

1.35 KN

Forces Due to Wind Load 0.83 KN


1.814 Kn 3.17 Kn

0.3023 KN M 0.53

1.814 KN N
L
0.3023 KN

1.814 Kn K
0.3023 KN

J
1.814 Kn
0.3023 KN

A B C D E F
3.0 3.0 3.0 m 3m 3.000 m 3.0000

24 m

NOTE: the reactions and axial bar forces are solved using the GRASP SOFTWARE. The calculations an
instead, a summary in table form is provided.

Summary of Bar Forces:

Top Chords Length DL + LL WL DL + LL + WL


AJ 3.04 56.90 11.00 67.90
JK 3.04 56.90 10.70 67.60
KL 3.04 -57.30 -8.800 -66.10
LM 3.04 -76.40 -11.70 -88.10
MN 3.04 -76.40 -13.70 -90.10
NO 3.04 -57.30 -10.30 -67.6
OP 3.04 56.90 19.80 76.7
PI 3.04 56.90 19.30 76.20
Bottom ChordS
AB 3.00 -56.20 -11.2 -44.30
BC 3.00 56.60 11.90 71.10
CD 3.00 75.40 14.50 88.40
DE 3.00 70.70 13.00 83.70
EF 3.00 70.70 13.00 83.70
FG 3.00 75.40 15.60 91.00
GH 3.00 56.60 11.7 68.30
HI 3.00 -56.20 -18.50 -74.70
Verticals
BJ 0.50 -9.30 -1.900 -11.200
KC 1.00 9.40 1.300 10.700
LD 1.50 -3.10 -1.0 -4.10
ME 2.00 0.002 0.000 0.002
NF 1.50 -3.10 -1.800 -4.900
OG 1.00 9.40 2.000 11.400
HP 0.50 -9.30 -3.100 -12.400
Diagonals
BK 3.16 -118.80 -19.90 -138.70
CL 3.35 -21.10 -2.900 -24.00
DM 3.61 5.60 1.800 7.40
MF 3.61 5.60 3.200 8.80
NG 3.35 -21.10 -4.400 -25.50
OH 3.16 -118.80 -31.80 -150.60

Design of Truss Members


Stresses Length
Top Chord -88.110 3.041
Bottom chord 91.000 / -74.700 3.000
Vertical 11.400 / -12.400 0.500
Diagonal 8.800 / -150.600 3.160

DESIGN OF Top Chord

TRIAL DIMENSION:
150 x 200 mm
I= 1.00E+08 mm 4

P= -88.110 Kn
L= 3041.38 mm

L/d = 20.28

.5
K=
π E
2 6 fc   = 21.44 since L/d<K and L/d>11 it is short column

To be safe:
Fc >= fc

π2 E
Fc = 2
36  
L
d
Fc = 6.07
fc = P/A = 2.94 < 6.07 it is safe!=)

Therefore use 150 x 200 mm for BOTTOM CHORD

DESIGN OF Bottom Chord

TRIAL DIMENSION:
100 x 200 mm
I= 6.67E+07 mm4

P= 91.000 Kn
L= 3000.00 mm

L/d = 30

.5
K=
π E
2 6 fc   = 21.44 since L/d>K and L/d>11 it is long column

To be safe:
Fc >= fc

π2 E
Fc = 2
36  
L
d
Fc = 8.14
fc = P/A = 4.55 < 8 it is safe!=)

Therefore use 100 x 200 mm for BOTTOM CHORD

Check for Stress Reversals: To be safe:

Fb >= ft

Fb = 13.80 MPa
P
f t= = 6.23 < 13.80 it is safe!=)
 3/5  A g

Since Fb > Ft, Use 100 x 200 mm for VERTICALS

DESIGN OF Verticals

TRIAL DIMENSION:
75 x 200 mm
I= 5.00E+07 mm4
P= 11.400 / -12.400 Kn
L= 2000.00 mm

L/d = 26.67

.5
K=
π E
2 6 fc   = 21.44 since L/d>K and L/d>11 it is long column

To be safe:
Fc >= fc

π2 E
Fc = 2
36  
L
d
Fc = 3.51
fc = P/A = 0.76 < 3.51 it is safe!=)

Therefore use 75 x 200 mm for BOTTOM CHORD

Check for Stress Reversals: To be safe:

Fb >= ft

Fb = 13.80 MPa
P
f t= = 1.38 < 13.80 it is safe!=)
 3/5  A g

Since Fb > Ft, Use 75 x 200 mm for VERTICALS

DESIGN OF Diagonals

TRIAL DIMENSION:
150 x 200 mm
I= 1.00E+08 mm4

P= 8.800 / -150.600 Kn
L= 3160.00 mm

L/d = 21.07
.5
K=
π
2    E
6 fc
= 21.44 since L/d<K and L/d>11 it is short column

To be safe:
Fc >= fc

π2 E
Fc = 2
36  
L
d
Fc = 5.62E+00
fc = P/A = 0.29 < 5.62.E+00 it is safe!=)

Therefore use 150 x 200 mm for BOTTOM CHORD

Check for Stress Reversals: To be safe:

Fb >= ft

Fb = 13.80 MPa
P
f t= = 8.37 < 13.80 it is safe!=)
 3/5  A g

Since Fb > Ft, Use 150 x 200 mm for VERTICALS


12.17

2.00 m

12.00 m
-0.27 kN/m (+) Windward (-) Leeward

-0.48 kN/m

-0.11 kN/m
-0.19
0.53 kN/m
0.09 kN/m

0.42 kN/m
0.09 kN/m

13.80 Mpa

1.34 Mpa

###X 200 mm thick purlins


16.06

2.64
9.433 Kn

O 9.43 kn

P 9.43 kn

G H

3.0000 m 3.0000 3.0000

0.53 KN
3.17 Kn

0.53 KN
3.17 kn
O

0.53 KN
P 3.17 kn

0.53 KN

G H I
3.0000 m 3.0000 3.0000

E. The calculations and the drawings are not shown here.

L + LL + WL
is short column
is long column
is long column
is short column
CARMEL B. SABADO CE-164 PROF.Allan E. Milano
BSCE-5 PROJECT 2 OCT. 19, 2009

EXCEL SOLUTIONS

1.) Design the vertical member using steel bar and its square/rectangular washer
if Fs=100 MPa for steel (assume hole diameter = bolt diameter ).

a.) Use steel bar


Given: Fs = 100 MPa
P= 11.4 kN

Solution :
Fs = P As = P = 11400 N = 114 mm2
As Fs 100 MPa

As = π dr2 dr = 120 mm2 ( 4 ) = 12.05 mm ø


4 π

Therefore, use dr = 16 mm ø steel rod.

b.) Design Washer


Given: Fs = 100 MPa Fq = 2.07 MPa
Fb = 13.8 MPa Fv = 1.1 MPa
Fp = 8.14 MPa E= 9100 MPa
STEEL :
Fb = 100 MPa
Solution :
Assume hole diameter = steel diameter
dh = 16 mm ø P= 11.4 kN
Ps = As Fs = π 0 100 = 20.11 kN
4
T = P + Ps = 11.4 + 20.11 = 15.75 kN
2 2
Design washer : Assume it to be square
Fq = T ; Aw = T = 15.75
Aw Fq 2.07
Aw = 7610.19 mm2 ( Net Area )
Find b of washer :
= b - π ( dh )
2 2
Aw = Anet
4
7610.19 = b2 - π 256
4
b = 88.38 mm
Since b > Lchord = 75 mm, use b 75
= mm2
Revise as rectangular washer:
2
Aw = Anet = bL - π ( dh )
4
7610.19 = 75 L - π 256
4
L = 104.15 mm
SAY L = 110 mm
WASHER : 75 mm x 110 mm

Find thickness, t :
t = 6M ; Fb = Fs
bFb

M = T ( b - dn ) ; dn = 1.5 dh + 3 = 1.5(16) +3
8 dn = 27 mm

M = 15.75 0.11 - 0.03


8
M = 163.44 N.mm
t= 6 163.44 ; t = 9.44 mm
0.11 100 SAY t = 10 mm

Therefore, use rectangular washer dimension:


110 x 75 x 10 mm

2.) Design the wooden splicing at member 6, using wooden side plates .
( both sides ) and 16 mm diameter bolts
Given : P = 91 kN at member 2 Group 2 Apitong
Member 6: 100 mm x 200 mm From Table : ( Double Shear )
L = 200 mm P// = 4.36 kN/bolt
d = 16 mm QL = 3.07 kN/bolt
100 mm

Solution :
P/2

l P

P/2
a.) Find number of bolts :
P// ( n ) = P/2
n = 91 2
4.36
n = 10.44 bolts = 12 bolts in 2 rows
b. ) Find thickness of wooden side plate :

100 mm

P
L
Check from Tension :

b.1 ) Fb = P/2
3/5 Ag
13.8 = 45.5
3/5 Ag
Ag = 5495.17 mm2 = Lt ; L = 100 mm
t = 5495.17
100
t = 54.95 mm
Say t = 55 mm

b.2 ) Fb = P/2
Anet
Anet = 45.5
13.8
Anet = 3297.10 mm2
Anet =( L - # holes
[ øh ] ) t ; #holes = 2 ( cross-section )
; øh = øb + 3
øh = 16 + 3
øh = 19 mm
3297.10 = 100 - 2 19 t
t = 53.18 mm
Say t = 55 mm
Use the larger value for thickness. Therefore, t = 55 mm
IF t = 55 mm
Anet = 100 - 2 19 55
Anet = 3410 mm2
fb = 45.5
3410
fb = 13.34 MPa < Fb = 13.8 MPa OK!

DETAILS OF WOODEN SIDE PLATE :


grain

end

g
P/2

end

edge s s edge
From minimum requirements :
s ≥ 4 d ( // to grain )
Use : g = 2.5 d if l/d = 2
s = 4 d g = 5 d if l/d ≥ 6
s = 4 16 l/d = 200 16 = 12.5
s = 64 mm o. c. g = 5 d
g = 5 16
g = 80 mm o. c.

Edge : e = 1.5 d ( // to grain )


e = 1.5 16
e = 24 mm ( edge )
End : e = 5 d ( tension ; hardwood )
e = 5 16
e = 80 mm ( end )
3.) Design the notching at joint A :
Given : P= 67.9 kN ( C )
Fp = 8.14 MPa
Fq = 2.07 MPa

Solution :
θ= tan-1 2.4
6
θ= 9.46

θ
Py 3
P = 67.9 kN
Px

θ/2 = 4.73
Py = Psin θ/2 = 67.9 sin 4.73 = 5.60 kN
Px = Pcos θ/2 = 67.9 cos 4.73 = 67.67 kN

B A

75 αAC

αBC C
BC

75

AC
AC

For section BC :
αBC = 4.73
rBC = pq
psin αBC + qcos2αBC
2

= 8.14 2.07
8.14 sin2 4.73 + 2.07 cos2 4.73
rBC = 7.98 MPa

Equate δBC = rBC


Px = 7.98
75 BCrequired

BCrequired = 67.67
75 7.98
BCreq
uired = 113.05 mm

For section AC :
αAC = 90 - θ/2 = 90 - 4.73 = 85.27
rAC = pq
psin αAC + qcos2αAC
2

= 8.14 2.07
2
8.14 sin 85.27 + 2.07 cos2 85.27
rAC = 2.08 MPa

Equate δAC = rAC


Py = 2.08
75 ACrequired
ACrequired = 5.60
75 2.08
ACrequired = 35.89 mm

Use the larger one :


Use BCrequired = 113.05 mm

hrequired :
Try from BC :
hrequired = 113.05 cos 4.73
hrequired = 112.67 mm

Try from AC :
hrequired = 35.89 cos 85.27
hrequired = 2.96 mm

Therefore, use hrequired = 70.48 mm


SAY hrequired = 113 mm
ar washer
0.5
DESIGN OF PEAK JOINT

3" x 8"

3" x 8"

-90.1kN
16 mm Φ
-24.0kN

Data needed for the design of peak joint

P1 = -90.10 kN

P2 = -24.000 kN

Top Chord member = 150mm x 200mm

Diagonal Chord member = 150mm x 200mm

Compression Parallel to Grain, p = 8.14 MPa

Compression Perpendicular to grain, q = 2.07 MPa

Sloving for diagonal stress, r:

θ1 = 21.8 ˚

θ2 = 40.23 ˚

P1x = P cos θ1 = (-90.1)(cos 21.8) =

P1y = P sin θ1 = (-90.1)(sin 21.8) =

P2x = P cos θ2 = (-24)(cos 30.96) =


P2y = P sin θ2 = (-24)(sin 30.96) =

sin θ1 = AB / 200 AB =

cos θ1 = BC /200 BC =

sin θ2 = DE /200 DE =

cos θ2 = EF / 200 EF =

using Hankinson's formula, we have:

rBC = (8.14 x 2.07) / (8.14(sin2 21.8) + 2.07(cos2 21.8))

= 5.796 MPa

rEF p q= / (p sin2θ + q cos2θ) = (8.14 x 2.07) / (8.14(sin2 30.96) + 2.07(co

= 3.661 MPa

rBF = rBC - rBF = 2.135 MPa

At plane BC and EF:(actual stress)

Bearing Area:

Af = 141.29(200 - 28) = 24302.06 mm2

Af = 121.03(200 - 28) = 20817.71 mm2

A = 45119.77 mm2

Px = P1x + P2x = 101.98 kn

factual = Px / A = 1.130 Kpa

Since factual < 2.135 MPa ok!


β1 = 90˚ - 11.31˚ = 68.2 ˚

β1 = 90˚ - 30.96˚ = 49.77 ˚

rAB = p q / (p sin2θ + q cos2θ) = (8.14 x 2.07) / (8.14(sin2 78.69) +

= 2.307 MPa

rDE = p q / (p sin2θ + q cos2θ) = (8.14 x 2.07) / (8.14(sin2 78.69) +

= 3.005 MPa

rAE = rAB + rDE = 5.312 MPa

At plane AB and DE:(actual stress)

Bearing Area:

A1 = 50*110 - (π/4)(282) = 4884.25 mm2

A2 = 50*110 - (π/4)(282) = 4884.25 mm2

A = 9768.5 mm2

Py = P1y + P2y = 48.961 kN

factual = Py / A = 5.012 kN

Since factual = 12.992 > 5.312 MPa ok!

DESIGN OF SIDE PLATE & NO. OF BOLTS

Dressed Dimension: 3 5/8" x 7 1/2"

P P
For bolt shear:

from NSCP table: P/bolt = 12.01 kN/bolt

using metal side plates:

Psp = 1.25(12.01) = 15.01 kN/bolt

no. of bolts, n

n = P / Psp = 97.249 / 15.0125

= 6.82325 say 7 bolts

Check for bending:

7 1/2

3 5/8

Ab = (3 5/8" x 7 1/2") - 2 (3/4" x 3 5/8") = 21.75

= 1403.22 mm2

P = Fb Ab = (25.90)(1403.2)

= 20487.06 kN

Since P > 105.09 kN ok!

Thickness of Side Plate:

for each plate:

P/2 = 105.088 / 2 = 52.54 kN

σ = P/A allowable σ = 124 MPa


124 MPa = 52.57 x 103 / (138 x t)

t = 3.07058 mm say 3 mm
75mm x 110mm 4mm washer

3" x 8"

3" x 8"

-90.1kN
16 mm Φ
-24.0kN

83.657 kN

33.460 kN

18.323 kN
15.501 kN

50.367 mm

141.29 mm

88.606 mm

121.03 mm

.8))

in2 30.96) + 2.07(cos2 30.96))


/ (8.14(sin2 78.69) + 2.07(cos2 78.69))

/ (8.14(sin2 78.69) + 2.07(cos2 78.69))


in2