an excel program that will help the user in designing a long-span timber pratt truss..=)

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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an excel program that will help the user in designing a long-span timber pratt truss..=)

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Milano

BSCE-5 Timber Excel Program

*note:the boxes in yellow should be inputed by the designer,while blue ones are computed by the program.=)

DATA:

Type of wood: pahutan

Bending and Tension(Fb) 13.80 MPa Wn2 Wnt

Shear(Fv) 1.34 MPa

Compression(Fc) 8.14 MPa

Modulus of Elasticity(E) 9100.00 MPa

Relative Density(G) 0.55

Specific Gravity 5.40 kN/m3 θ WDL+LL

LOADINGS:

Wind Pressure 0.96 kPa

Minimum Roof Live Load 0.80 kPa

GI roofing 0.15 kPa

Residential Live Load 2.00 kPa

SPACING:

Purlins 0.40 m

Truss 2.75 m

Floor Joist 0.40 m

DESIGN OF PURLINS

Span 12.00 m 150 x 200 mm

Height 2.00 m I= 1.00E+08 mm 4

Theta, θ; 9.46

LOADINGS:

Live load 0.32 Kn/m

Roofing 0.06 Kn/m

Purlin weight 0.16 Kn/m

WDL+LL 0.54 Kn/m

Load Combinations:

Condition 1: DL + LL

WDL+LL = 0.53 kN/m governs!!

Condition 2: DL + LL + WL

WDL+LL+WL = 0.23 kN/m LOAD COMBINATION:

Windward:

Pn = 1.3(sinq - 0.5)P -0.27

Leeward:

MOMENTS: Pn = -0.5P -0.48

Mn = Mx = 1/8(WnLx ) 2

9.62 Kn-m

(WW) Wn1 = Pn(Spacing) -0.11

Mt = My = 1/12(WnLy2) 0.18 Kn-m (LW) Wn1 = Pn(Spacing) -0.19

Wn2 = WDL+LL(cosq) 0.53

Wnt = WDL+LL(sinq) 0.09

SHEAR:

WN = Wn1 + Wn2 0.42

Vx = (1/2)WnLx 3.21 Kn Wt = Wnt 0.09

Vy = (1/2)WnLy 0.09 Kn

6 Mx 6 My

To be safe, Fb > Fact = 2 = 9.86 Kn-m < 13.80

bh 2 b h

it is safe!=)

3 Vx 3 Vy

To be safe, Fv > Fvact = = 0.16 Kn < 1.34

2 bh 2 bh

it is safe!=)

Yallow = L/360 = 7.64 mm

DESIGN OF TRUSS

TRIAL DIMENSION:

75 x 200 mm

I= 5.00E+07 mm 4

1.512

θ

Loadings:

GI roofing = 5.02 Kn 9.069

Wt. of Purlins = 0.45 Kn

Min. Roof LL = 26.76 Kn

total = 32.23 Kn

15.84

Weight of truss:

Overall Length of Truss = 67.99 m θ 16.06

Weight of Truss = 5.5 Kn

TOTAL 37.73 Kn

Windward

wind load = -9.19 Kn/m

fx = 0.3 Kn

fy = 1.81 Kn

Leeward

wind load = -16.06 Kn/m

fx = 0.53 Kn

fy = 3.17 Kn

Ceiling Load = 0.01 Kn/m

18.87 KN

Forces Due to DL + LL

9.433 Kn 9.43 Kn

M

M

N

9.433 Kn L

9.433 Kn

K

9.433 Kn

J

ceiling load

A B C D E F

24 m

1.35 KN

1.814 Kn 3.17 Kn

0.3023 KN M 0.53

1.814 KN N

L

0.3023 KN

1.814 Kn K

0.3023 KN

J

1.814 Kn

0.3023 KN

A B C D E F

3.0 3.0 3.0 m 3m 3.000 m 3.0000

24 m

NOTE: the reactions and axial bar forces are solved using the GRASP SOFTWARE. The calculations an

instead, a summary in table form is provided.

AJ 3.04 56.90 11.00 67.90

JK 3.04 56.90 10.70 67.60

KL 3.04 -57.30 -8.800 -66.10

LM 3.04 -76.40 -11.70 -88.10

MN 3.04 -76.40 -13.70 -90.10

NO 3.04 -57.30 -10.30 -67.6

OP 3.04 56.90 19.80 76.7

PI 3.04 56.90 19.30 76.20

Bottom ChordS

AB 3.00 -56.20 -11.2 -44.30

BC 3.00 56.60 11.90 71.10

CD 3.00 75.40 14.50 88.40

DE 3.00 70.70 13.00 83.70

EF 3.00 70.70 13.00 83.70

FG 3.00 75.40 15.60 91.00

GH 3.00 56.60 11.7 68.30

HI 3.00 -56.20 -18.50 -74.70

Verticals

BJ 0.50 -9.30 -1.900 -11.200

KC 1.00 9.40 1.300 10.700

LD 1.50 -3.10 -1.0 -4.10

ME 2.00 0.002 0.000 0.002

NF 1.50 -3.10 -1.800 -4.900

OG 1.00 9.40 2.000 11.400

HP 0.50 -9.30 -3.100 -12.400

Diagonals

BK 3.16 -118.80 -19.90 -138.70

CL 3.35 -21.10 -2.900 -24.00

DM 3.61 5.60 1.800 7.40

MF 3.61 5.60 3.200 8.80

NG 3.35 -21.10 -4.400 -25.50

OH 3.16 -118.80 -31.80 -150.60

Stresses Length

Top Chord -88.110 3.041

Bottom chord 91.000 / -74.700 3.000

Vertical 11.400 / -12.400 0.500

Diagonal 8.800 / -150.600 3.160

TRIAL DIMENSION:

150 x 200 mm

I= 1.00E+08 mm 4

P= -88.110 Kn

L= 3041.38 mm

L/d = 20.28

.5

K=

π E

2 6 fc = 21.44 since L/d<K and L/d>11 it is short column

To be safe:

Fc >= fc

π2 E

Fc = 2

36

L

d

Fc = 6.07

fc = P/A = 2.94 < 6.07 it is safe!=)

TRIAL DIMENSION:

100 x 200 mm

I= 6.67E+07 mm4

P= 91.000 Kn

L= 3000.00 mm

L/d = 30

.5

K=

π E

2 6 fc = 21.44 since L/d>K and L/d>11 it is long column

To be safe:

Fc >= fc

π2 E

Fc = 2

36

L

d

Fc = 8.14

fc = P/A = 4.55 < 8 it is safe!=)

Fb >= ft

Fb = 13.80 MPa

P

f t= = 6.23 < 13.80 it is safe!=)

3/5 A g

DESIGN OF Verticals

TRIAL DIMENSION:

75 x 200 mm

I= 5.00E+07 mm4

P= 11.400 / -12.400 Kn

L= 2000.00 mm

L/d = 26.67

.5

K=

π E

2 6 fc = 21.44 since L/d>K and L/d>11 it is long column

To be safe:

Fc >= fc

π2 E

Fc = 2

36

L

d

Fc = 3.51

fc = P/A = 0.76 < 3.51 it is safe!=)

Fb >= ft

Fb = 13.80 MPa

P

f t= = 1.38 < 13.80 it is safe!=)

3/5 A g

DESIGN OF Diagonals

TRIAL DIMENSION:

150 x 200 mm

I= 1.00E+08 mm4

P= 8.800 / -150.600 Kn

L= 3160.00 mm

L/d = 21.07

.5

K=

π

2 E

6 fc

= 21.44 since L/d<K and L/d>11 it is short column

To be safe:

Fc >= fc

π2 E

Fc = 2

36

L

d

Fc = 5.62E+00

fc = P/A = 0.29 < 5.62.E+00 it is safe!=)

Fb >= ft

Fb = 13.80 MPa

P

f t= = 8.37 < 13.80 it is safe!=)

3/5 A g

12.17

2.00 m

12.00 m

-0.27 kN/m (+) Windward (-) Leeward

-0.48 kN/m

-0.11 kN/m

-0.19

0.53 kN/m

0.09 kN/m

0.42 kN/m

0.09 kN/m

13.80 Mpa

1.34 Mpa

16.06

2.64

9.433 Kn

O 9.43 kn

P 9.43 kn

G H

0.53 KN

3.17 Kn

0.53 KN

3.17 kn

O

0.53 KN

P 3.17 kn

0.53 KN

G H I

3.0000 m 3.0000 3.0000

L + LL + WL

is short column

is long column

is long column

is short column

CARMEL B. SABADO CE-164 PROF.Allan E. Milano

BSCE-5 PROJECT 2 OCT. 19, 2009

EXCEL SOLUTIONS

1.) Design the vertical member using steel bar and its square/rectangular washer

if Fs=100 MPa for steel (assume hole diameter = bolt diameter ).

Given: Fs = 100 MPa

P= 11.4 kN

Solution :

Fs = P As = P = 11400 N = 114 mm2

As Fs 100 MPa

4 π

Given: Fs = 100 MPa Fq = 2.07 MPa

Fb = 13.8 MPa Fv = 1.1 MPa

Fp = 8.14 MPa E= 9100 MPa

STEEL :

Fb = 100 MPa

Solution :

Assume hole diameter = steel diameter

dh = 16 mm ø P= 11.4 kN

Ps = As Fs = π 0 100 = 20.11 kN

4

T = P + Ps = 11.4 + 20.11 = 15.75 kN

2 2

Design washer : Assume it to be square

Fq = T ; Aw = T = 15.75

Aw Fq 2.07

Aw = 7610.19 mm2 ( Net Area )

Find b of washer :

= b - π ( dh )

2 2

Aw = Anet

4

7610.19 = b2 - π 256

4

b = 88.38 mm

Since b > Lchord = 75 mm, use b 75

= mm2

Revise as rectangular washer:

2

Aw = Anet = bL - π ( dh )

4

7610.19 = 75 L - π 256

4

L = 104.15 mm

SAY L = 110 mm

WASHER : 75 mm x 110 mm

Find thickness, t :

t = 6M ; Fb = Fs

bFb

M = T ( b - dn ) ; dn = 1.5 dh + 3 = 1.5(16) +3

8 dn = 27 mm

8

M = 163.44 N.mm

t= 6 163.44 ; t = 9.44 mm

0.11 100 SAY t = 10 mm

110 x 75 x 10 mm

2.) Design the wooden splicing at member 6, using wooden side plates .

( both sides ) and 16 mm diameter bolts

Given : P = 91 kN at member 2 Group 2 Apitong

Member 6: 100 mm x 200 mm From Table : ( Double Shear )

L = 200 mm P// = 4.36 kN/bolt

d = 16 mm QL = 3.07 kN/bolt

100 mm

Solution :

P/2

l P

P/2

a.) Find number of bolts :

P// ( n ) = P/2

n = 91 2

4.36

n = 10.44 bolts = 12 bolts in 2 rows

b. ) Find thickness of wooden side plate :

100 mm

P

L

Check from Tension :

b.1 ) Fb = P/2

3/5 Ag

13.8 = 45.5

3/5 Ag

Ag = 5495.17 mm2 = Lt ; L = 100 mm

t = 5495.17

100

t = 54.95 mm

Say t = 55 mm

b.2 ) Fb = P/2

Anet

Anet = 45.5

13.8

Anet = 3297.10 mm2

Anet =( L - # holes

[ øh ] ) t ; #holes = 2 ( cross-section )

; øh = øb + 3

øh = 16 + 3

øh = 19 mm

3297.10 = 100 - 2 19 t

t = 53.18 mm

Say t = 55 mm

Use the larger value for thickness. Therefore, t = 55 mm

IF t = 55 mm

Anet = 100 - 2 19 55

Anet = 3410 mm2

fb = 45.5

3410

fb = 13.34 MPa < Fb = 13.8 MPa OK!

grain

end

g

P/2

end

edge s s edge

From minimum requirements :

s ≥ 4 d ( // to grain )

Use : g = 2.5 d if l/d = 2

s = 4 d g = 5 d if l/d ≥ 6

s = 4 16 l/d = 200 16 = 12.5

s = 64 mm o. c. g = 5 d

g = 5 16

g = 80 mm o. c.

e = 1.5 16

e = 24 mm ( edge )

End : e = 5 d ( tension ; hardwood )

e = 5 16

e = 80 mm ( end )

3.) Design the notching at joint A :

Given : P= 67.9 kN ( C )

Fp = 8.14 MPa

Fq = 2.07 MPa

Solution :

θ= tan-1 2.4

6

θ= 9.46

θ

Py 3

P = 67.9 kN

Px

θ/2 = 4.73

Py = Psin θ/2 = 67.9 sin 4.73 = 5.60 kN

Px = Pcos θ/2 = 67.9 cos 4.73 = 67.67 kN

B A

75 αAC

αBC C

BC

75

AC

AC

For section BC :

αBC = 4.73

rBC = pq

psin αBC + qcos2αBC

2

= 8.14 2.07

8.14 sin2 4.73 + 2.07 cos2 4.73

rBC = 7.98 MPa

Px = 7.98

75 BCrequired

BCrequired = 67.67

75 7.98

BCreq

uired = 113.05 mm

For section AC :

αAC = 90 - θ/2 = 90 - 4.73 = 85.27

rAC = pq

psin αAC + qcos2αAC

2

= 8.14 2.07

2

8.14 sin 85.27 + 2.07 cos2 85.27

rAC = 2.08 MPa

Py = 2.08

75 ACrequired

ACrequired = 5.60

75 2.08

ACrequired = 35.89 mm

Use BCrequired = 113.05 mm

hrequired :

Try from BC :

hrequired = 113.05 cos 4.73

hrequired = 112.67 mm

Try from AC :

hrequired = 35.89 cos 85.27

hrequired = 2.96 mm

SAY hrequired = 113 mm

ar washer

0.5

DESIGN OF PEAK JOINT

3" x 8"

3" x 8"

-90.1kN

16 mm Φ

-24.0kN

P1 = -90.10 kN

P2 = -24.000 kN

θ1 = 21.8 ˚

θ2 = 40.23 ˚

P2y = P sin θ2 = (-24)(sin 30.96) =

sin θ1 = AB / 200 AB =

cos θ1 = BC /200 BC =

sin θ2 = DE /200 DE =

cos θ2 = EF / 200 EF =

= 5.796 MPa

= 3.661 MPa

Bearing Area:

A = 45119.77 mm2

β1 = 90˚ - 11.31˚ = 68.2 ˚

= 2.307 MPa

= 3.005 MPa

Bearing Area:

A = 9768.5 mm2

factual = Py / A = 5.012 kN

P P

For bolt shear:

no. of bolts, n

7 1/2

3 5/8

= 1403.22 mm2

P = Fb Ab = (25.90)(1403.2)

= 20487.06 kN

124 MPa = 52.57 x 103 / (138 x t)

t = 3.07058 mm say 3 mm

75mm x 110mm 4mm washer

3" x 8"

3" x 8"

-90.1kN

16 mm Φ

-24.0kN

83.657 kN

33.460 kN

18.323 kN

15.501 kN

50.367 mm

141.29 mm

88.606 mm

121.03 mm

.8))

/ (8.14(sin2 78.69) + 2.07(cos2 78.69))

in2

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