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8/20 ID 2202

Crystal palace by Joseph Paxton

Perfectly symmetrical with prefabricated parts

Well known for greenhouse design before the crystal palace (iron girder,
superstructure and glassskin
1851 feet long with anterior heigh of 108 feet
Skeleton of cast iron columns supporting a network of girders
It has hollow pillars that are doubled up as drain pipes: 24 miles of guttering
Uses 300,000 sheets of glass in the largest size that had ever been made

The Great Exhibition made a surplus of 186,000 euros

Viewed by over 6,200,000 visitors: six million from Britain.

Popular attraction
o glass fountain Worlds first glass fountain by Follett Osler. Four tons
of glass
o Dr George Merryweather Tempest prognosticator barometer
o Hermann Ploucquet had strange displays of taxidermy
One of the mmost popular American attractions was the reaper manufactured
by cyrus McCormick. Invented, 1831, Virginia. Makes use of revolving reel.
o It was awarded the first prize gold metal
Samuel Colt has 200 guns displayed including the Colt Naxy Revolver, and
Colt Dragoon Revolver

Victorian Furniture Design from Crystal Palace exhition of 1851


Queen Victoria domestic life important, beauty is paramount to living a

happy life, and ornanment is key.
Focus on adding Beauty to lifestyle: domesticity ornament
Individually handcrafted with carved wood
Carved with curves within curves that are symmetrical and repeated
Victorian chairs are small in scale and intended to be more decorative than
Victorian Pattern books would show pictures that could be use as guides or
Cooke and Wheatstone telegraph, 1850s. Curves within curves individually
hand crafted with focus on beauty
Victorian scissors, manufactured by the Sheffield Company in sterling silver
(displayed at Great Exhibition
Cast Iron scissors much more simple
Thonet Brothers chair#14 awarded bronze medal, composed of 6 parts.
o Characterized by gentle curve and machine made unlike Victorian
ornamental curve and handcrafted

Thomas Sheater desk (Arts and crafts Movement)


The start of the third movement.

Individually handcrafted (Victorian influence) but no Victorian ornament.

Focus on function

Universal Exposition 1889, Paris.

Eiffel tower constructed to be the entrance to the universal exposition.

o Pylon of Honor
o Composed of iron in a towering lattic pattern
o Hydraulic Elevators
It was a worlds fair to celebrate the centennial of the French revolution 32
Million people
Crystal Palace Iron superstructer glass

1880s Arts and Crafts Movement

Gustav Stickley

- Great Britain, William Morris

United States,

Gustave Stickley
o Had some of his design, but was very much at odds with it.
William Morris
o Have nothing ni your house that you do not know to be useful, or
believe to be beautiful
o Arts by the people for the people
o Morris and Company
Employed craftspeople to had-carve wooden chairs, benches,
and table
Individual Crafting
Called Stick furnitures, because of simplicity
He avoided curves, too Victorian and timeconsuming
Takes pattern from nature and bring them indoors nature
domesticated or idealized
o Geometrically configured
o All facing parallel to the plane
o Decorative colors
Gustave Stickley
o The Craftsman book
o Furniture was all manmade rather than machine made, and it was
crafted to be simple and sueful.
o No nails were used
o Wood was fumed with ammonia to give it a dark finish
o Truth to materials
Starting with wood, and ending with wood.

No Nails
Consistency and honors the element
Traveled to California and toured the Spanish mission

Influences on arts and crafts movement


American philosophohical Transcendentalism

o Among the core beliefs was the idea of an ideal spiritual state where
one is in harmony with nature
Henry David Thoreau
o Best known for book Walden, a reflection upon simple living in nature
o Natural Materials taken from the natural environment, materials not
tampered with
o Furniture that fits with environmental concerns
o Furniture so functional that its simplicity focuses the use on essential
needs and harmony with nature

Victorian Design + Industrial Revolution design = Arts and Crafts movement

Siegfried Bing

Opened his famous shop LArt Nouveau Shop Paris,ca 1895

Encouraged all designers working for him to appropriate images from nature.
Take Nature form, remove from nature, and turn it into an ornament
(Conforming to position and repeating arrangement
Abstracted natural forms
Bing required that the designers working for him use ornanmental patterns
taken from nature, but he also reqyured that these patterns be
o Abstracted natural forms
o Geometrically idealized (ovals, circles, which present rational nature)
o Symmetrical
o Harrmonically repetitive
o Nature as dynamic, vital

Eugene Gaillard (1862-1933) buffet

Rene Lalique - peacock pin

Tiffany, Wisteria lamp, ca. 1895, peacock vase, zinnia lamp

Geometrical idealized
Three patterns of leaves, symmetrical, and three color combination
Peacock vase

The Exposition Universelle of 1900

A worlds fair held in Paris, France

To celebrate the achievements of the past century and to accelerate
development into the next
The style that was universally present in the explositon was the Art Nouveau
Part of the Exposition was the Olympic game which were spread over five
o Escalators were installed
o Moving sidewalks
Rudolf Diesel exhibited his diesel engine, running on peanut oil
Campbell soup was awarded a metal
Celestial Globe
o 150 feet in diameter
o sun, stars, planets and comets reproduced by electricity
Pavilion Bleu Restaurant
Georges De Feure, furniture which was displayed in Bing Pavillion
Eugene Grasset, Snowdrops

Emile Galle

A French artist who worked in galss, considered to be one of the major forces
in the School of Nancy Art Nouveau movement

Hector Guimard

An architect that desgiend private residences

Designeed many of the metro stations for the new underground
transportation system

Charles Darwin

Evolutionism Relation of all living things to each other by their response to

the natural environment
Adaptation How individuals refine their interaction with antural forces
Natural Selection Power of nature to affect the organmism
Metamorphosis Nature is constantly becoming something else