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PATRON
Lion.Dr.K.S.Rangasamy, MJF Founder & President

EDITORIAL … Computing play models

key role in today’s IT

ADVISORS
Kavithaa Srinivashaan, M.A.,M.B.A., Executive Director Dr. N. Kannan, M.Sc., Ph.D. Principal Prof.K.Natarajan, M.Sc.,M.Phil., Director, Center for Information

wave. Since we have to cope up with the changing needs, in this issue we have discussed some of the computing scenarios. Cloud computing, Grid computing,

Ubiquitous computing are some renowned topics discussed in this issue. Please send your and to

Technology Mr. R. Pugazendi, M.Sc.,M.Phil.,M.E., HOD, Department of Computer

comments, articles

suggestions

Science & Applications

ksrcas.ishare@gmail.com.

EDITORIAL TEAM
S.Sasikala, M.Sc., M.Phil., PGDPM &IR., S.Ranichandra, M.Sc., MBA.,M.Phil., S.Nithya., M.Sc(CS & IT)., G.Anwar Basha., M.C.A., S.Maheswaran, III BCA ’A’., M.Karthikeyan, III B.Sc(CS) ’C’., & Office bearers of TRACE and ACAI

By, Editorial Board

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CONTENTS Articles 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Cloud computing Vs Grid computing Microsoft introduces new input tools for Indian languages Academic difficulty forum Revolutionary web2.0 tools Terms to know Ubiquitous Computing Tech Zone 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. How to upgrade RAM How to avoid unwanted emails Steps to give best battery life to our laptop Jargons Innovative IT gadgets Web site defacement surges over 14% Fun Zone 13. IT Freaks

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Author

computing”. what way

The question is in Cloud from computing Distributed

different
S.Sasikala, Lecturer, CS Article Title Cloud computing Vs Grid Computing Article Description This article discusses the differences in cloud computing and grid Computing. This article is suitable for all people who wish to know the difference between cloud computing and grid computing.

computing and grid computing? This question in partly answered here. Please go through and send your comments. You may have wondered about cloud computing as compared to grid computing. In this article, I talk about cloud computing service

I want to share with the readers of this magazine one interesting event that took place recently. Our CIT Director raised a pertinent question in the knowledge sharing meeting for which I have an answer here. In our college every Monday evening, we are conducting a knowledge sharing meeting, where each and every faculty will deliver a lecture on recent topics in turn. Last week on 14.12.2009, one faculty member was delivering a expert lecture on “Cloud

types and the similarities and differences between cloud and grid computing. I look at why cloud computing may be advantageous over grid computing, what issues to consider in both, and some security concerns. I use Amazon Web Services as an example. To get cloud computing to work, you need three things: thin clients (or clients with a thick-thin and

switch),

grid

computing,

utility computing. Grid computing

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links disparate computers to form one large infrastructure, harnessing unused resources. Utility particular benefit to small and medium-sized businesses who

wish to completely outsource their data-center infrastructure, or large companies who wish to get peak load capacity without incurring the higher cost of building larger data centers internally. In both

computing is paying for what you use on shared servers like you pay for a public utility (such as electricity, gas, and so on). With grid computing, you can provision computing resources as a utility that can be turned on or off. Cloud computing goes one step further with on-demand resource provisioning. This eliminates overprovisioning when used with

instances, service consumers use what they need on the Internet and pay only for what they use. The service consumer no longer has to be at a PC, use an application from the PC, or

utility pricing. It also removes the need to over-provision in order to meet the demands of millions of users. Cloud Computing With cloud computing, companies can scale up to massive capacities in an instant without having to invest in new infrastructure, train new personnel, or license new software. Cloud computing is of

purchase a specific version that's configured for smartphones,

PDAs, and other devices. The consumer does not own the or

infrastructure,

software,

platform in the cloud. He has lower upfront costs, capital

expenses, and operating expenses. He does not care about how servers and networks are

maintained in the cloud. The consumer can access multiple

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servers anywhere on the globe without knowing which ones and where they are located. Grid Computing Cloud computing evolves from grid computing and provides ondemand resource provisioning. alleviated if that component has a failover component on another node, but problems can still arise if components rely on other pieces of software to accomplish one or more grid computing tasks. Large system images and associated hardware to operate and maintain them can contribute to large capital and operating expenses. Similarities and differences Cloud computing and grid

Grid computing may or may not be in the cloud depending on what type of users are using it. If the users are systems administrators and integrators, they care how things are maintained in the cloud. They upgrade, install, and

computing are scalable. Scalability is accomplished through load

virtualize servers and applications. If the users are consumers, they do not care how things are run in the system. Grid computing requires the use of software that can divide and farm out pieces of a program as one large system image to several thousand computers. One concern about grid is that if one piece of the software on a node fails, other pieces of the software on other nodes may fail. This is

balancing of application instances running separately on a variety of operating systems and connected through Web services. CPU and network bandwidth is allocated and de-allocated on demand. The system's storage capacity goes up and down depending on the

number of users, instances, and the amount of data transferred at a given time.

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Both computing types involve multitenancy and multitask, S3. You can store an object as small as 1 byte and as large as 5 GB or even several terabytes. S3 uses the concept of buckets as containers for each storage

meaning that many customers can perform different tasks, accessing a single or multiple application instances. Sharing resources

location of your objects. The data is stored securely using the same data storage infrastructure that Amazon uses for its ecommerce Web sites. While the storage

among a large pool of users assists in reducing infrastructure costs and peak load capacity. Cloud and grid

computing service-level

provide computing in the grid is well suited for dataintensive storage, it is not suited economically for storing

agreements (SLAs) for uptime guaranteed availability

of, say, 99 percent. If the service slides below the level of the guaranteed uptime service, the consumer will get service credit for receiving data late. The Amazon S3 provides a Web services interface for the storage and retrieval of data in the cloud. Setting a maximum limits the number of objects you can store in must be

objects as small as 1 byte. In a data grid, the amounts of distributed data large for maximum

benefit. A computational grid focuses on computationally intensive

operations. Amazon Web Services in cloud computing offers two

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types of instances: standard and high-CPU. If a company outsources or creates Issues to consider Four issues stand out with cloud and grid computing: threshold policy, hidden behavior. Threshold policy Let's suppose I had a program that did credit card validation in the cloud, and we hit the crunch for the December buying season. interoperability costs, and issues, applications with one cloud Interoperability issues

computing vendor, the company may find it is difficult to change to another computing vendor that has proprietary APIs and different formats exporting problems interoperability between these for data. of of importing This and creates achieving applications two cloud

unexpected

computing vendors. You may need to reformat data or change the logic in applications. Although industry cloud-computing

Higher demand would be detected and more instances would be created to fill that demand. As we moved out of the buying crunch, the need would be diminished and the instances of that resource would be de-allocated and put to other use.
service-level agreements (SLAs)

standards do not exist for APIs or data import and export, IBM and Amazon worked Web Services to have make

together

interoperability happen. Hidden costs Cloud computing does not tell you what hidden costs are. For

instance, companies could incur

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higher network charges from their service providers for storage and database applications containing terabytes of data in the cloud. This outweighs costs they could save on new infrastructure, training new personnel, or licensing new resources, turning them over to other work. If the tests show unexpected results of credit card validation or releasing unused resources, you will need to fix the problem before running the

application in the cloud. Security issues In February 2008, Amazon's S3 and EC2 suffered a three-hour outage. Even though an SLA provides data recovery and service credits for this type of outage, consumers missed sales

software. In another instance of incurring network costs,

companies who are far from the location of cloud providers could experience latency, particularly

when there is heavy traffic. Unexpected behaviour Let's suppose your credit card validation application works well at your company's internal data center. It is important to test the application in the cloud with a pilot study to check for unexpected behavior. include Examples how the of tests

opportunities and executives were cut off from critical business information they needed during the outage. Instead of waiting for an outage to occur, consumers should do

application

security testing on their own— checking how well a vendor can recover data. The test is very simple. No tools are needed. All you have to do is to ask for old

validates credit cards, and how, in the scenario of the December buying crunch, it allocates

resources and releases unused

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data you have stored and check how long it takes for the vendor to recover. If it takes too long to recover, ask the vendor why and how much service credit you would get in different scenarios. Verify if the checksums match the original data. An area of security testing you should do is to test a trusted algorithm to encrypt the data on your local computer, and then try to access data on a remote server in the cloud using the decryption keys. If you can't read the data once you have accessed it, the decryption keys are corrupted, or the vendor is using its own encryption algorithm. You may need to address the algorithm with the vendor. Another issue is the potential for problems with data in the cloud. To protect the data, you may want to manage your own private keys. Check with the vendor on the Software development in cloud To develop software using highend databases, the most likely choice is to use cloud server pools at the internal data corporate center and extend resources temporarily with Amazon Web services for testing purposes. This allows private key management. Amazon will give you the certificate if you sign up for it.

project managers to better control costs, manage security, and

allocate resources to clouds a project is assigned to. The project managers could also assign

individual hardware resources to different cloud types: Web

development cloud, testing cloud, and production cloud. The cost associated with each cloud type may differ from one another. The cost per hour or usage with the development cloud is most likely lower than the production cloud, as additional features, such as SLA

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and security, are allocated to the production cloud. The managers can limit projects to certain clouds. For instance, internal data center and replacing them systems with cloud computing energy for

reduces

running and cooling hardware. By consolidating these systems in remote centers, they can be

services from portions of the production cloud can be used for the production configuration.

handled more efficiently as a group. Second, techniques for cloud computing promote

Services from the development cloud can be used for development purpose only. To optimize assets at varying stages of the project of software development, the

telecommuting techniques, such as remote printing and file transfers, potentially reducing the need for office space, buying new furniture, disposing of old furniture, having your office cleaned with chemicals and trash disposed, and so on. They also reduce the need for driving to work and the resulting carbon dioxide emissions. Conclusion This article helps you plan ahead for working with cloud by

managers can get cost-accounting data by tracking usage by project and user. If the costs are found to be high, managers EC2 to can use

Amazon

temporarily

extend resources at a very low cost provided that security and data recovery issues have been

resolved. One incentive for cloud computing is that it may be more environmentally friendly. First,

reducing the number of hardware components needed to run

knowing how cloud computing compares to grid computing, how you can resolve issues in cloud and grid computing, and what security

applications on the company's

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issues exist with data recovery and managing private keys in a pay-ondemand environment. Potential The reported incidents of phishing spiked nearly 42 per cent to 708 cases against 497 incidents that were reported between JanuaryOctober 2008. “The rise in instances of Internet threats is not just specific to India, but is being seen globally. With more and more businesses and consumers going online, we have witnessed a massive spike sectors such as power, railways, aviation and defence.

consumers' demands for increased capacities over the Internet present a challenge for the developers and other members of a project team. Being aware of and resolving the issues of Web application design and potential security issues can make your team's experiences trouble-free. Web site defacement surges over 14% in January-October The incidents of Indian Web site defacement reported in popular domains such as ‘.com' and ‘.in' rose over 14 per cent on a cumulative basis during JanuaryOctober 2009 to 5,239, as

(phishing, malware, virus attacks, Trojans, botnets) over the last three years,” said Mr Amit Nath Country Manager of security firm Trend Micro. Web site defacement includes hacking and insertion of malware, while phishing involves acquiring sensitive information such as

compared to the year-ago period. This is as per data compiled by Indian Computer Emergency

Response Team (Cert-in), which tackles hacking or virus attacks on the information systems in vital

usernames, passwords or credit card numbers by masquerading as an authentic site. This is often

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done by directing users to enter personal information at a fake Web site which looks virtually identical to the authentic one. "The growth in Web site identifies `crisis' in the context of IT infrastructure - hacking, `denial of service' attacks, virus attacks, data centre disruption due to natural calamity, and defacement of sites. There have been rising concerns Chinese over assaults the on persistent Indian defacement is tracking the increase in Internet usage. Although

initially hacking was most often done with the purpose of gaining fame, it is now motivated by financial organised Akhilesh gains crime Tuteja, and involves Mr IT

computer networks. Media reports over the last few years have documented how Chinese hackers are constantly scanning India's networks, a move that allows them to identify vulnerabilities content. and

groups," COO,

Advisory, KPMG said. As per CERT-in statistics, as many as 1,118 Indian sites were defaced by hackers in October this year, compared to 692 incidents

access

National

Informatics Centre and several Indian embassies overseas have been targets of such attacks, in the past
Do U Know

reported in September 2009, and 503 cases in the October 2008. Earlier this year, in a bid to protect IT infrastructure in critical sectors such as petroleum, power and aviation, telecom,

3D software

banking,

Government finalised a `National Crisis Management Plan'. The plan

Swift3D is the marquee tool for producing vector-based 3D content for Flash. Also comes in plug-in form for transforming models in Lightwave or 3DS Max into Flash animations.

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Author

G.Anwar Basha, Lecturer, CS Article title To Upgrade the RAM Article Description This article gives the details about to upgrading the RAM.

To increase the random-access memory (RAM) of your computer, you must know the type of RAM it uses, how the RAM is presently configured and how many open RAM slots are available. Step 1 Check the owner's manual or motherboard manual to determine if RAM is parity or non-parity. The website of the company you purchased the computer from usually will tell you what kind of memory your computer needs as well. Step 2 Find out the speed of RAM (for example, 60 nanoseconds).

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Step 3 Determine whether the computer uses single in-line memory modules (SIMMs) or dual in-line memory modules (DIMMs). Step 4 Find out whether the computer uses regular, FPM, EDO, or Synch DRAM. Step 5 Determine the number of pins on the motherboard: 30, 72 or 168. Step 6 Remove the cover from the machine to find the number of open RAM slots. Look for between two and eight same-sized parallel sockets on the main circuit board. Usually at least two of those sockets will contain RAM - ruler-shaped circuit boards with chips on one Step 7 Purchase additional RAM that matches existing memory specifications. or both sides.

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Author  Step 3 Let the battery drain
G. Manigandaprabhu II B.Sc(CS) ’B’

as much as possible before recharging if you have an NiMH battery.  Step 4 Recharge an NiMH battery  Step 5 Travel with an extra battery.  Step 6 Avoid running the Use the two between long

Article title Tips to give best battery life to a laptop computer Article Description This article gives the details about providing best battery life to a computer  Step 1 Charge the battery for 12 hours before use.  Step 2 Let the battery drain completely before

periods of inactivity.

batteries equally.

recharging if you have a nickel-cadmium (NiCad)

floppy and CD drives off the battery, if possible.  Step 7 Reduce the display's brightness when possible.

battery. Upgrade to a nickelmetal-hydride (NiMH)

battery or better, a lithiumion battery if one is made for your machine.

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Author

Avoid including your email address when you post to newsgroups. Step 4

A.R.Abdul Jabbar Sheriff,
II B.Sc (CS) ‘B’

Send a complaint message to the postmaster at the spammer's ISP, if you can figure it out. Many spammers forge return addresses, but you can

Article title How to stop unwanted email instructions? Article Description This article gives the steps to stop unwanted emails coming to us. Step 1 Contact your ISP and

sometimes figure out the ISP from the full email header. In some email programs you can right-click on the email

complain. ISPs don't like spam any more than you do; the mail clogs their servers. The ISP can filter out mail from a suspected spammer address. Step 2 Avoid displaying your email address in Internet chat rooms and only give out your email address on secure sites. Step 3

message and choose Options or Properties information. Step 5 Be careful when selecting a free ISP or e-mail account. Some of these services make their money by letting to see this

'sponsors' send email messages to their subscribers.

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Step 6 If your email provider doesn't have a built-in spam filter, search the Web for email filters and other anti-spam software. Many of these programs are free and can be easily installed. Step 7 Invest in anti-spam software such as CYBERSitter or

Spamkiller.

What is Amazon EC2 ? Amazon EC2 (Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud) is a web service offered by Amazon that allows customers/business to run applications in the Amazon computing environment. “Ec2 is a commercial web service which lets ″ customers to rent computing resources from Amazon computing cloud. Instead of managing their own servers, companies can increase capacity or add new web features by purchasing more gigabytes through EC2. Server outsourcing through Amazon EC2 will potentially save companies hardware costs and time.

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Author

S.Sundarraj, III BCA ‘C’ Article title Innovative IT gadgets Article Description This article gives the details innovative IT gadgets which have been explored for our life. Medical Gadget : Bionic i-LIMB B-membrane Laptop/Desktop Concept computer designed by Korean designer Won-Seok Lee. No bulky monitors, just a UFO shape system that displays screen like a projector. System Revolutionary new prosthetic

technology has made life easier and more fulfilling for a California woman who is an upper extremity amputee. The revolutionary iLIMB hand and his innovative interface system would enable her to accomplish her goals at work and encourage her to more actively use her right arm.

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Author These engineered M.Jagadeesh, III BCA ‘C’ Article title Microsot introduces input tools for Indian languages Article Description This article gives the details about input tools for Indian languages PC users can now enter text in Indian languages, easy and quick. Microsoft recently showcased the set of tools for Indian languages at the Microsoft Center India in tools by have the been Emerging

Markets Labs (EM Labs) team of the Microsoft India Development Center (MSIDC) and the

technology can be leveraged to support other syllabic languages beyond Indian languages. These input tools use free-form transliteration. Users spell Indian language words in a natural (phonetic) way using English alphabet, which the tools

transliterate into the right words in the chosen Indian language. In addition, to desktop and web versions, visual keyboards for all supported languages are also available. “There is a huge demand to consume and interact with Indian language content today. Tools that make it easy to search,

Development Hyderabad.

The beta version of the tools will be made available as a free download and will initially

support six languages—Bengali, Hindi, Kannada, Malayalam,

Tamil and Telugu.

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communicate and create content in Indian languages are key for broader computing adoption and the tools we are showcasing today are aimed at addressing this need,” said Srini Koppolu,

Do U Know

Steganography vs. Cryptography

Steganography’s goal is to keep the presence of a message secret, or hide the fact that communication is taking place

Corporate Vice President and Managing Director, MSIDC. “The desktop version is unique among the free-form transliteration offerings in the market today, in that it enables the user to enter Indian language text directly into any application running such on as

Cryptography’s goal is to obscure a message or

communication so that it cannot be understood.

Cryptography — the science of writing in secret codes — addresses all of the elements necessary for secure over an

Microsoft

Windows,

Microsoft Word or Windows Live Messenger.,” said Koppulu. “The web version allows the user to enter text on any web page without requiring software

communication

insecure channel, namely privacy, confidentiality, key exchange, authentication,

and non-repudiation. Steganography and

download. The visual keyboard enables users who are not familiar with English alphabet to visually select and directly enter Indian language characters,” he added.

Cryptography make great partners. It is common

practice to use cryptography with steganography

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Author

Ms.J.Pavithra, Lecturer,CS DEPT Article title Academic Difficulty Forum Article Description This article gives the details about Photoshop and its tools and list out the tools with their purpose Since we want to open a forum for discussing the informative and innovative questions asked by students we have created this section in our Ishare. Here the student queries posted to our mailbox will be reviewed and answers will be published. Question: Shall I know the tools and their uses in Adobe Photoshop? By, A.R.Abdul Jabbar Sheriff, II B.Sc(CS) ‘B’ Answer is provided by Ms.J.Pavithra, Lecturer of Computer Science Department Adobe Photoshop, or simply Photoshop, is a graphics editing program developed and published by Adobe Systems. It is the current market leader for commercial bitmap and image manipulation software, and is the flagship product of Adobe Systems.

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A SAMPLE WORKSPACE OF PHOTOSHOP

Photoshop Toolbox
Icon Tool Key Purpose Icon Tool Key Purpose

Elliptical Marquee

M

selecting

Single Row Marquee -

selecting

Rectangular Marquee

M

selecting

Single Column Marquee

selecting

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Lasso L selecting Move V transforming

Polygonal Lasso

L

selecting

Magic Wand

W

selecting

Magnetic Lasso

L

selecting

Crop

C

transforming

Slice

K

web design

Slice Select

K

web design

Healing Brush

J

retouching

Patch

J

retouching

Brush Clone Stamp

B

painting

Pencil Pattern Stamp

B

painting

S

painting restores to selected history state

S

painting Painting

History Brush

Y

Art History Brush

Y

Icon

Tool

Key

Purpose

Icon

Tool

Key

Purpose

Airbrush Background Eraser Paint Bucket Blur Smudge Dodge

J E G R R O

painting erasing painting unfocusing painting tonal adjustment

Eraser Magic Eraser Gradient Sharpen Sponge Burn

E E G R O O

erasing erasing painting focusing color adjustment tonal adjustment

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Horizontal Type Horizontal Type Mask Direct Selection Pen Add Anchor Point Convert Point Rounded Rectangle Polygon Custom Shape Color Sampler Notes Hand Color Selecting box T T A P U U U I typing typing drawing drawing drawing drawing drawing drawing drawing color information nonprintable data navigating displays current color Vertical Type Vertical Type Mask Path Selection Freeform Pen Delete Anchor Point Rectangle Ellipse LIne Eyedropper Measure Audio Annotation Zoom Color Replacement T T A P U U U I I typing typing drawing drawing drawing drawing drawing drawing choosing color geometrical measurements non-printable data image viewing retouching

N H -

N Z J

Icon

Tool

Key

Purpose

Icon

Tool

Key

Purpose

Mode Selector

Q

selecting

Jump to Image Ready

Shift+ Ctrl+ M

web design

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Author

TimZon discussion

- The private video solution for the

enterprise."the
S.Prema, Lecturer, CS

perfect

collaboration tool enabling virtual teams to communicate effectively through video and across

Article title Revolutionary web2.0 tools Article description
This article gives the details about the tools available in web2.0, a milestone in cloud computing .

timezones" Timzon is currently in beta and is available for Google apps and Google Gmail users.

Dimdim WiZiQ - is a place where you can teach and learn using an easy-touse Virtual Classroom. You are welcome to give private and public live online sessions, teach for free or earn money teaching. As a learner you can attend public sessions on various topics from academics to anything under the sun.

-

lets

you

deliver

synchronised live presentations, whiteboards and web pages while sharing voice and video over the Internet, required. with no download

TheFlashMeetingProject - Allows a dispersed group of people to meet from anywhere in the world with an internet connection.

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MultiMedia Tools each photo, fun effects, and more.

VoiceThread - is a collaborative, multimedia slide show that holds images, documents, and videos and allows people to leave

Brainstorming Tools

Bubbl.us - is a simple and free web application that lets you

comments !!

brainstorm online.

Vocaroo - The premier voice recording service.

Exploratree - is a free web resource where you can access a library of ready-made interactive

Masher - free, and super-easy to mash a video from photos and video clips . Eyejot - Video Mail in a Blink! It's fun, it's easy and there's nothing to install!

thinking guides, print them, edit them or make your own. You can share them and work on them in groups too.

LucidChart - Here are some of its features:

PhotoPeach - Make your own social slideshow in seconds.

Creating

crisp,

attractive

flow charts for the web or print has never been so fast and easy.

PhotoPeach helps you share your memories in a lively and vivid way by moving your photos like a video with your choice of

Everyone

works

on

a

document at the same time. Collaborators get your

background music, captions on

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changes immediately when you save.

in order to inspire you. The object is to put the right words in the right place and the right order to capture the essence, story, and meaning of the picture.

Share your flow charts as a web page, PDF, or image. Publish an always-updated image of your work.

Tikatok - is where kids channel Any computer with Internet their imagination into stories – and publish those stories into books for you to share and treasure with friends and family. Explorer 6+, FireFox, Safari, or Chrome works with LucidChart without requiring words are used in context. Just copy text from a document and paste it into the box, and then click on the "Grab Vocabulary!" button. Young Novelist Workbooks - here you will find NaNoWriMo’s 100% awesome, Novelist non-lame Young

VocabGrabber will automatically create a list of vocabulary from your text, which you can then sort, filter, and save.

Workbooks!

SceneCaster - is a 3D social media application and online community where anyone can visualize their

Confusing Words - is a collection of 3210 words that are

ideas, share them, and make them real.

troublesome to readers and writers. Homework Tracker PicLits.com - is a creative writing site that matches beautiful images with carefully selected keywords Soshiku - is a simple but powerful way for students to keep track of

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their homework, and to never miss a due date again.

Collaborate workers, partners

with customers

coand

Deadline - is the simplest calendar ever made. You write in plain English, and it will set up a reminder for you. Once your appointments have been entered, you can quickly search through them based on words or dates.

• •

Turn emails into tasks Attach Google Docs to tasks and projects

Knetwit - is a new, exciting social networking and knowledge

collaboration site that is available to students and teachers at colleges

JogLab - create a Jog (a mnemonic device or memorable phrase) to help remember your stuff. Memory experts learn this way; it’s as easy as 1,2,3..

around the world

lets you create an online academic where the environment college

community can share notes, ideas, issues, and content Simplify your

Manymoon

from journey.

their

educational

worklife. Use Manymoon to:

Manage your private and shared tasks

enables the community to share its resources and be more successful in their studying and come together

Find out what other people are working on

Simple

tracking

and

with other students using Study Groups.

completion of projects

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Gigabyte: 2^30 = 1,073,741,824 bytes = 1024 megabytes. Gigahertz: Billions of cycles per second. GIF: (Graphics Interchange Format) A standard for digitised images compressed with the LZW algorithm, defined in 1987 by CompuServe (CIS). Handshaking: Predetermined hardware or software activity designed to establish or maintain two machines or programs in synchronisation. Hard Boot: A boot which resets the entire system. Inkjet Printer: A class of printer in which small ink droplets are sprayed electrostatically from a nozzle onto the paper. IRQ: (Interrupt Request) The name of an input found on many processors which causes the processor to suspend normal instruction execution temporarily and to start executing an interrupt handler routine. Jargon File: The on-line hacker Jargon File. A large collection of (often amusing) definitions of computing terms. Java Archive: A compressed archive file containing Java class files, filename extension: ".jar". The Java Development Kit contains a tool called "jar" for creating .jar files, similar to the standard Unix tar command. As well as archiving and compressing the Java class files, it also inserts a "manifest" file which can contain information about the class files, such as a digital signature. Combining class files into a single archive file makes it possible to download them in a single HTTP transaction. This, and the compression, speeds up execution of Java programs delivered via the Internet. Jumper: A removable wire or small plug whose presence or absence is used to determine some aspect of hardware configuration.

Author

Naveenkumar , III Bsc(cs) c

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but an intranet is still seen primarily as a corporate

productivity tool.

What Is an Extranet? Allowing controlled access to an otherwise network business Intranets and Extranets An "intranet" is the generic term for a collection networks of private an What Is Groupware? Groupware is software designed to improve the productivity of sharing. private enables transactions company business-toand file

computer

within

organization. An "extranet" is a computer network that allows controlled access from the outside for specific business or educational purposes. Intranets and extranets are communication tools designed to enable easy information sharing within workgroups.

individuals with common goals or interests. Groupware applications often support information sharing on corporate intranets.

What Is a Portal? Portals deliver networked

information to a targeted audience What Is an Intranet? Many schools and non-profit using Web and/or groupware

technologies.

groups have deployed intranets,

Ishare Ubiquitous computing
Author systems and applications can be described At their core, all models of ubiquitous computing (also called pervasive computing) share a vision of small, inexpensive, robust networked processing devices, distributed at all scales throughout everyday life and generally turned to distinctly common-place ends. For example, a domestic ubiquitous computing environment might interconnect lighting and environmental controls with personal biometric monitors woven into clothing so that illumination and heating conditions in a room might be modulated, continuously and imperceptibly. Another common scenario posits refrigerators "aware" of their suitably-tagged contents, able to both plan a variety of menus from the food actually on hand, and warn users of stale or spoiled food. Mark Weiser proposed three basic forms for ubiquitous system devices, see also Smart device: tabs, pads and boards. Tabs: wearable centimetre sized devices Pads: hand-held decimetre-sized devices Boards: meter sized interactive display devices.

S.Nithya, Lecturer, CS

Ubiquitous computing (ubicomp) is a post-desktop model of human-computer interaction in which information processing has been thoroughly integrated into everyday objects and activities. In the course of ordinary activities, someone "using" ubiquitous computing engages many computational devices and systems simultaneously, and may not necessarily even be aware that they are doing so. This model is usually considered an advancement from the desktop paradigm. This paradigm is also described as pervasive computing, ambient intelligence. When primarily concerning the objects involved, it is also physical computing, the Internet of Things, haptic computing, and things that think. Rather than propose a single definition for ubiquitous computing and for these related terms, a taxonomy of properties for ubiquitous computing has been proposed, from which different kinds or flavours of ubiquitous

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Components and Subsystems

A circuit board from a Dutch computer on which Edgsar Dijkstra implemented a famous operating system called THE in the 1960's.

A printed circuit board from "crossbar switch" or C.mmp -an experimental multiprocessor built by Bill Wulf 's group at Carnegie Mellon University in the 1970's. Cimmp had 16 PDP-11 processors.

The module for a CDC 160 computer. This small peripheral computer was used to control the input and output magnetic tape preparation for the CDC 1604 - the first high performance commercial machine to use transistors. A CDC 6600 logic board.

A "gift" from Cray Computer Inc., containing contains three GaAS chips that were to be part of the Cray 3 computer (before Cray Computer went bankrupt). The large brownish item in the center is a miniature "printed circuit board" -- the idea was to bind the chips directly to this board (rather than to first package them in individual carriers) -- this allowed smaller, denser packaging.

TRAINING AND PLACEMENT ACTIVITY “Educational Excellence”
K.S.RANGASAMY COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCE DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & APPLICATIONS (UG)

WIPRO (WASE)-Aptitude Training & Test
A Written Aptitude test (20 Analytical+ 20 Logical & Numerical + 20 Verbal) was conducted on 9th December, 2009 for the final year UG students who are eligible to attend WIPRO interview. Mock Technical and Mock HR interview will be conducted after Aptitude tests. Two day Aptitude coaching was also given to the interested students (students who have enrolled their names at the placement cell on or before 20th Dec, 09). The date of training is also informed through email.

We welcome your valuable comments, suggestions & articles to Ishare, Department of Computer Science & Applications (UG) K.S.R College of Arts and Science, Tiruchengode-637215 Phone: 04288 -274741(4), Mail : ksrcas.ishare@gmail.com