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Graham Raeper

Schlumberger Public

MWD and LWD Introduction


LWD Interpretation & Development
Schlumberger DCS Scandinavia

Schlumberger Public

4/23/2004

An asterisk is used throughout this presentation to denote a mark


of Schlumberger. Other company, product, and service names may
be trademarks, registered trademarks, or service marks of others.

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Measurement While Drilling Tools

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Measure the Direction & Inclination of the wellbore


Allow drilling tools to be oriented (mud motors,
Whipstocks)
Provide mechanism for transmitting downhole data
to surface
May provide Gamma Ray & Drilling Mechanics
measurements
May provide power for LWD tools

Logging While Drilling Tools


Measure petrophysical properties
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MWD History
Early Patents

First WL log (resistivity) 1927


SP 1931

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Jakosky patent, 1929


Otis & Alder, 1955

Induction Resistivity & dipmeter 1947


Density 1957
SNP (neutron) & compensated density - 1962

First DD in 30s (1934 for first relief well)

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MWD Evolution

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1960s Teledrift tool developed - mechanical inclinometer with


positive mud pulse, still used today
1969 SNEA & Raymond Precision Industries start development
work on mud pulse telemetry MWD system (these projects are
combined to form Teleco in 1972)
1978 Teleco MWD tool commercialized
1980 Schlumberger complete first MWD job in the Gulf of Mexico
-Multi-Sensor MWD tool (D&I/ GR/ RES/ DWOB/ DTOR)
1984 NL Baroid Introduce first 2MHz resistivity tool
1986 First Triple Combo (GR/ RES/ Density Neutron) LWD string
1993 Sonic compressional LWD tools introduced
2001 Seismic while drilling, Formation Pressure while drilling

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Telemetry Principles
Mud

Pressure

Positive Pulse:
1 BPS
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Time
Mud

Pressure

Continuous wave:
up to 12 Bits Per Second
Time

Mud

Pressure

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Time

Starting with our telemetry, on this slide is represented the PowerPulse


series of MWD tools.

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Negative Pulse:
2 BPS

All those tools specifications are listed in the drilling services catalogs that
you were provided. Please refer to this documentation for specifications.
All PowerPulse tools are identical except for the 6 holes where the
standard PowerPulse is replaced by the Vision475 MWD, a combination of
PowerPulse and Vision Resistivity.
The PowerPulse comprises 5 elements, a collar, which only has one plugs
on the outside (the read out port), extenders to allow communication with
LWD tools, a turbine to power the tools, an electronic cartridge to control
turbines and modulator as well as communication with LWD tools, and
finally a unique telemetry system, the modulator.
The way the modulator is working is simple as you can see on the right
side of the slide, it is composed of a stator and a rotor, when the rotor
turns it is closing and opening the gap on the stator thus creating a
pressure wave.
This pressure wave is captured on surface. The interesting thing is that we
are actually not looking at the delta pressure seen on surface but rather at
the frequency of this pressure wave.
This gives us the fastest and the most reliable telemetry on the market
today.

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MWD Inside...

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The MWD Sonde is centered in the collar


(Mud flow in the center of the tool for some LWD tools)
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MWD Systems available in different sizes


PowerPulse*
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Impulse*

SlimPulse*

Objective: MWD tools available today

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MWD Surveys Sensors

Extender

Extender

3 Magnetometers

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3 Accelerometers

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MWD Surveys Sensors

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Azimuth Error:
- Magnetic parts
- LWD Power
- Collar Mass
- Collar Hot Spots

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Inclination Error:
- Movement
- Misalignment of the MWD
collar in the wellbore
- Accelerometer misalignment
- Temperature

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Sensor sets arranged orthogonally

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Uncertainties
Well path is computed from surveys by minimum curvature method
-1200

-1000

-800

-600

-400

-200

400

SPIDER VIEW
Scale (1 cm = 100 m)

A-1 H Survey

600

800

400

A-3 H Plan
1500

1400

1300

12
00

2100

200

1200

1400

1300

1600

1500

1600

1800

1700

1900

2000

77
21

0
1700

Azimuthal Accuracy: 1
(FMI GPIT Az. Acc. = 2)

-200

00
19

Default Color
Main
Proposal
Survey

A-2 H Pilot Survey

20
00

2325

2300

2200

210
0

2100

-400

-400

1300

00
20

1400
19
190
000

20
00

<<< SOUTH

00
21

1800

1500

1700

00
16

-600

-600

A4H Plan

-1000

-800

-600
<<< WEST

-400

-200

200
EAST >>>

400

600

800

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Inclination accuracy: 0.1


(FMI GPIT Incl. Acc. = 0.5)

1800

-200

200

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NORTH >>>

200

1600

A-2 AH Survey

400

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Link from MWD tool to LWD tools

Extender

A BHA must be assembled from tools around 30 ft long

A link must be provided for electrical connection to other tools in the string
SLB use extenders to provide the link to between MWD and other tools
An alternative method is to use an electrode set into the thread face of the
collar
Extenders provide both the communication and power link

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Extender

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Logging While Drilling

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The goal in developing LWD tools was to provide near


wireline quality measurements while drilling
Early MWD tools provided basic electrode (short
normal) type resistivity & Gamma Ray measurements
2 MHz resistivity tools developed to obtain higher
quality resistivity measurement in all mud types
Density/ Neutron measurement developed to provide
Triple Combo service supports large percentage of
wells

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Triple Combo
Gamma Ray, Resistivity, Density, Pef, Neutron

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Provides
measurements of
most commonly
used wireline
string
Majority of LWD
logs are not
duplicated by
equivalent wireline
service

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LWD FE Capability - Today


Measurements

Conveyance LWD

yes

yes

yes

yes

no

16-bins

yes

yes

yes

no

5 outputs

20 outputs

5 outputs

5 outputs

12-bins

56-bins

yes

no

yes

yes

yes

yes

yes

yes

Yes

yes (memory only)

yes

yes
no

yes

yes

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Objective: High Service Quality

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yes

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Thermal Neutron
Bulk Density
Azimuthal Density
Photoelectric factor
Spectroscopy / Sigma
Multi-depth Propagation R
Multi-depth Laterolog R
Azimuthal Resistivity
Micro-Resistivity Image
Compressional Dt
Shear Dt
Seismic Check shot
VSP
Formation Pressure
Fluid samples
NMR

Conveyance WL

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LWD Acquisition Workflow - Differences


between Wireline and LWD
Wireline
Data is directly associated to depth indexes as it is acquired- DLIS

Depth is calculated from length of cable in hole - independant

LWD

Tools do not know the depth / only surface systems know the bit depth

Tools record data in time (clock, resets, shifts)

2 types of acquisition: Real-Time and Recorded Mode

Real time data, transmitted by the MWD tool via pressure pulses in the mud
column is associated with depth as it is acquired

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Surface Sensors

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Depth sensor
SPT
Weight/Torque
Pump press.
Pump stroke
Surf. RPM
Etc

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The MWD unit

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Signal Demodulation
Principles
Type of signals
Downhole (MWD-Motor..)

Uphole (Pumps-Rig..)

Echoes & Reflections

Electrical Noise
Characteristics

Frequencies

Attenuation

Direction
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DSPScope

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DSPScope Spectrogram

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Demodulation

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Objective: Understand Demodulation


The Frame Display function is the parent application of SPM Demodulation. This
application performs the following functions:

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Translates the raw bits demodulated by the receiver module into raw data point
values (D-points).
Sends the D-points to the IDEAL backend.
Displays the decoded frame and decoding status.
The Frame Display application also contains a toolbar to launch or open the
associated window of many of the SPM Demodulation functions. Simply clicking
on one of the toolbar buttons displays the appropriate control window.
The Frame Display window displays any number of previous frames and is only
limited by screen size. Simply resizing the window with the mouse covers or
uncovers as much frame history as desired. The values are displayed in raw
decimal format. The conversion to engineering units occurs after being sent to
IDEAL.
The Frame Display window displays the most important demodulation
information on the screen. You can check the
Decoded raw D-points
Sync status (In Sync, Out Of Sync Pump Down, Signal Loss, Searching, or
Precursor)
History decoded frame quality
Frame ID
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Telemetry is Key
Drilling Optimisation Data
70

50

65

Increased rate of penetration

40

60

55

45

40

AZI (deg)

CD&I

INCL (deg)

PWD

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Slip
Stick

10

30

25
1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

4000

4500

0
5000

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(/m)

30
50

MD(ft)

Formation
Evaluation
Data
1 bit per second
3 bits per second
6 bits per second
QC Da

ta

Or 2.2 BPS log and a


Real-time density image

Or 4.3 BPS log and a


Real-time resistivity
image

ced L
Advan
0.8 BPS

WD
1.7 BPS

(m/hr)

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es
High R

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Recording Mode Acquisition Rate

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To record 2 samples/ft
with an acquisition
rate programmed at 10
sec, your ROP have to
be limited to180ft/hr
(60m/hr)

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Read-Out Port (ROP)

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ROP Communication with tool


to downlaod memory
Battery switch (LWD)

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Data vs Time -> Data vs Depth


Depth vs Time

+ Data vs Time

= Data vs Depth

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Time to Depth Conversion


Depth Based Data

Time Based Data

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HOUR

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0.00

Gamma Ray

150.00

Gamma Ray

150.00

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0.00

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Errors from Time/Depth merge


To present recorded LWD logs, the data (recorded downhole against time) needs to be
combined with a surface measurement of depth (also recorded against time).

The clocks might be incorrectly synchronized.

Clocks are not perfect, and will drift.

Clocks can reset, causing jumps.

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This can lead to additional errors due to the incorrect alignment of the two independently
recorded times:

Each of these effects cause unpredictable effects on the log.

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However, the time/depth merge can easily be checked by comparing the RM


data with the RT data.

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Depth Tracking

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Depth Acquisition
Any changes in depth entered
by the engineer is reported
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Depth encoders

Depth Log / Tracking Sheet

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Depth - What does the Client Want?

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True Depth
Absolute Depth
Relative Depth
Reproducible Depth

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Which Depth is That?


What is the depth of this formation top?
Wireline depth,
attempt 2

True depth

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Drillers depth

Anadrills depth
at time t2

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Wireline depth,
attempt 1

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Anadrills depth
at time t1

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LWD Depth vs Wireline Depth


Wireline depth is the Geoscientists reference. Drillers depth is
the Drillers reference.

those corrections are difficult to apply, and are often


incomplete. The corrections are greater than the inaccuracy

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If Wireline depth is corrected properly, it is more accurate; but

of drillers depth.
The industry does not want two different measurements of the
same thing. They want a repeatable measurement.
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Depth is our most important measurement.


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Depth Measurement
LWDs depth is the driller's depth.

1. Difference between drillers depth and true depth.


2. Difference between LWDs measurement of depth and
drillers depth

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There are 3 different areas that affect the accuracy of LWD depth (closeness to
true value):

3. Errors caused by the incorrect alignment in time of the depth


file and the data file (time/depth merge problems)
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Difference Between Drillers Depth and


True Depth
Drillers depth comes from measuring the length of pipe in the
derrick. Effects it does not account for include:

Drillpipe stretch

Thermal Expansion

Ballooning effects

Errors in the measurement

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Additional errors are introduced when


measuring the depth of deviated holes
as the pipe does not lie in the center of
the hole.
Errors are also introduced in the
conversion from measured to true
vertical depth.

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ItItisisaavalid
validmeasurement,
measurement,useful
usefulfor
for
determining
bed
thicknesses
and
determining bed thicknesses and
geosteering
geosteeringapplications
applications

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Summary of stretch calculations


Horizontal Well.

The following results were obtained from the analysis for the amount of pipe stretch:
Sliding into the hole
3.75 ft
Reaming into the hole at 200 ft/hr
8.67 ft
Rotating off bottom
8.75 ft
Reaming out of the hole
9.08 ft
Sliding out of the hole
13.52 ft

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A well was analyzed using drilling engineering software. The well was vertical to 3000
ft. Then, it built at 3 deg/100 ft to 38 degrees, which was held until 13000 ft. It built again
at 3 deg/100 ft to 90 degrees This was achieved at 14679 ft. Total depth was 17960 ft.

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Difference between LWDs measurement of


depth and drillers depth
Draworks sensor, Geolograph and/or Rig Motion Sensor
Clamp Line Tensiometer (CLT) used to determine when
drillpipe goes into and out of slips.

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(RMS) used to determine block position

Combination of above used to determine length


of pipe in the hole.
Checked against drillers pipe tally every connection.
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MWD Depth Measurement

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LWD Measurements

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Resistivity Frequency Range

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Why 2MHz?
Induction-type LF measurement relies on cancellation of the direct
coupling (balanced arrays)
very sensitive to geometry, not suited to LWD (shock)

At 2MHz, phase-shift and attenuation can be


measured between two coils
Borehole compensation cancels differences between the two
receivers

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2 MHz Resistivity Theory


Current from Top Transmitter induces an
electromagnetic field within the formation. This
propagates away from the transmitter.
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The wave induces a current at the receivers. The phase


and amplitude of the wave are measured and
converted to resistivity.

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Propagation Measurement

Transmitter

EM-wave is attenuated in
conductive formations

Near receiver

Receiver

Far receiver

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Receiver

Finite propagation speed


causes phase-differences
Transmitter
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Emag Wave Geometry

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Equal amplitude lines

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Equal phase lines

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ARC475/Phasor induction DOI

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ARC475/Phasor induction

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DOI Considerations
2 Parameter Influencing DOI:

The greater the distance T/R the deeper the DOI

Signal frequency

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Distance from Transmitter to Receiver

The lower the frequency the deeper the DOI

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400 KHz Measurement


Depth of investigation:

Deeper in conductive formations

Better signal in conductive formations (< 1 Ohm.m)

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Similar in resistive formations


Advantages:

Less sensitive to eccentering


Limitation:

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Less accurate at higher resistivity (low PS & ATT sensitivity to


Rt)

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Depth Of Investigation Comparison

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Blended (Best) Resistivity

Eccentering Effect

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2MgHz Phase Shift


400KHz Phase Shift
2MgHz Attenuation
400KHz Attenuation

Sorry about the quality-This log shows a log that has been severely affected by eccentering. 2-MHz tools are severely affected by
eccentering when there is a large Rt/Rm contrast or a large Rm/Rt contrast. In this case the blue curves in
track two are the 2-MHz phase shift outputs and the black curves in track three are the attenuation curves.
Both are affected by eccentering that has been exaggerated by a washout. In this case the environment
had a large Rm/Rt contrast (OBM and a Rt of less than 1 ohmm.

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One of the biggest advantages of the 400-kHz outputs is the immunity to eccentering. To take advantage
of the deeper reading 400-kHz at low resistivity and the immunity to eccentering as well as take advantage
of the higher signal to noise ratio and better vertical resolution of the 2-MHz a new output was created. It
is called the blended or best resistivity (P16B--Phase shift 16 -in spacing /blended output). The 400kHz
curve is presented below 1 ohmm, the 2MHz output is presented above 2 ohmm and the output is a
weighted average between 1 & 2 ohmm. This will be the standard presentation for the commercial version
of IDEAL 6.1 The blended outputs are the red and green curves. Note that they are very well behaved.

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Polarization Horn Effect

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Polarization Horn Effect

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VISION
Resistivity
vs. AIT
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The VISION resistivity log is extensively used for formation evaluation. It has a similar
response to the Array Induction Tool. Here five PS curves are plotted against the AIT. At low
resistivities, PS curves have about a one foot vertical resolution. The resolution is not
constant like the AIT, as the PS resolution degrades to 2 feet at 50 ohmms.

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The attenuation curve resolution is severely affected by an increase in resistivity. The


attenuation curve has a resolution of 2 feet at 1 ohmm but 8 feet at 50 ohmms.
The curve mnemonics are also different from that of an AIT.
For a VISION curve:
1st letter denotes the curve--either P for Phase Shift or A for attenuation
second two numbers represent the spacing (10,16,22,28,34, or 40 -inch)

Unlike the AIT this is not the constant depth of Investigation!!!

The last letter is either H for High frequency (2-MHz) or L for low frequency (400-kHz)
Note that the IMPulse currently does not have the 400-kHz option but will be modified latter in
2000 that will provide it with increased memory to 50 MB, dual frequency, digital electronics
and simultaneous acquisition.

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GeoVISION Resistivity Tool

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GeoVISION Resistivity
GVR Azimuthal Button Resistivity Measurements

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GeoVISION Current Focusing

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Ring Resistivity Principle

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WL dual laterolog Resistivity response

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GVR focused Ring Resistivity response

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GRV Imaging: Break-outs and


Button Averaging

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GVR Azimuthal Caliper

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Caliper data can be acquired from several sources using LWD data.
A real-time ultrasonic caliper is made with the Vision675 density tool

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resistivity caliper from the CDR, ARC and RAB in WBM


Today the resistivity calipers are only available in memory but should be available in real-time
by the end of the year (99).
The caliper data provides a picture of the shape of the bore hole, indicating the severity of
formation breakout and the primary directions of failure
The diagram above shows caliper data from the Geovision resistivity tool at different depths,
highlighting that breakout has occurred long the north-west / south-east plane.
The resistivity image data from the same tool over the same interval clearly shows the areas of
breakout along that plane
The caliper data can also be used to potential hazardous areas while tripping, running tubulars
or wireline

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GVR and FMI Comparison


Azimuthal Resistivity for Geological and Fracture Analysis

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Fracture presence and orientation are often key parameters to

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drilling successful horizontal wells.


This examples compares a wireline FMI Formation MicroImager (left image) to a GeoVISION resistivity image (right
image) acquired during the drilling process.
Note the fracture in the middle of each image. This sine wave
has a different orientation to the bedding planes.

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GeoVISION Real Time Images


Real Time Image

Recorded Mode Image

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70 ft

Ref.: SPE - 71331


This is an example of a compressed and decompressed image compared
to a recorded mode image straight from the tool memory (I.e. retrieved
when the tool was on the surface. Although the resolution of the
compressed and decompressed image is poorer the main feature of
cutting up through a thin conductive bed can clearly be seen.

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Density Neutron Measurement

LWD tools use different


methods to record density
data with the lowest
standoff as the tool rotates

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Wireline density tools


typically use a skid mounted
source & detector to obtain
good contact with borehole

Neutron porosity
measurements can be
corrected for mud standoff
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Vision Azimuthal Density Neutron (VADN)

-C137 Gamma ray source


Density Nal
-Two gain-stabilized
scintillationSection
detectors

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-AmBe neutron source


Neutron
-He3 detectors
Section
-Thermal neutrons

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Density Borehole Compensation


RHOmc < RHOb
DRHO > 0

RHOmc > RHOb


DRHO < 0

RHO ss

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RHO ls

RHOb = RHO ls + DRHO


DRHO = f (RHO ls - RHO ss)

RHOmc

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RHOb
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SPINE & RIBS algorithm


compensates up to 1 stand-off

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ADN Dual Source Assembly

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Assembly

Density Source
Neutron Source

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CLAMP-ON STABILISER

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BUILT-IN STABILISER

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ADN Images Theory


Azimuthal
Azimuthal source
source and
and detectors
detectors
Schlumberger Public

ADN
ADN Density
Density Image
Image

Color
Color
scale
scale
Quadrant
Quadrant arrays
arrays

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4/23/2004

Image Resolution
(Relative pixel sizes)

Schlumberger Public

One inch
scale

Pef

GVR

UBI

FMI

Despite this coarseness of image, density images can prove invaluable.


They can be acquired in oil and water based muds. Using LWD allows
measurements in complex shaped wells that would require risky TLC runs
if they are possible at all.

Schlumberger Public

Density
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4/23/2004

Furthermore many of these wells are logged at high angles, where even
thin bed are seen over many feet within the borehole.
As with any imaging tool a contrast in the medium being measured is
required to identify beds.

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4/23/2004

Image resolution Limitation

35

Schlumberger Public

The sinusoids are not


resolved for apparent dips of
less than 35 Degrees

Schlumberger Public

6 in

8.5 in

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4/23/2004

VADN Images
PowerDrive - 2D Images

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80 GR
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Ultrasonic
Pef
RHOS
RHOB (quad.) ROSI
RHOB (sect.) ROIM
RHOL

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4/23/2004

Comparison Real Time vs. Memory Image


RTI

RMI

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Schlumberger Public

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4/23/2004

LWD Calipers
Ultrasonic Caliper

direct

Density Caliper
Caliper from multiple DOI Resistivity
Neutron Caliper

Derived

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Phase Caliper from Propagation Tool

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4/23/2004

Ultrasonic Caliper Measurement

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83 GR
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Schlumberger Public

Borehole spiraling

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4/23/2004

Advantages of the Ultrasonic Caliper


Direct and Azimuthal Measurement
Works in OBM and WBM
Good Precision (0.1 0.2 in.)

Factors that Affects Accuracy

84 GR
4/23/2004

Schlumberger Public

Acoustic Impedance Contrast between Mud and Formation


Signal Attenuation in Heavy Mud
Standoff Range up to 2.5 in.
Hole Rugosity / Target Alignment

Schlumberger Public

Available in Real Time

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4/23/2004

VADN/FMS
Image Comparison
Drilling
down
sequence

Schlumberger Public

parallel to
bedding

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Schlumberger Public

Drilling
down
sequence

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Schlumberger Public

VADN

Density
Dynamic
Image

Pef
Dynamic
Image

Schlumberger Public

VADN

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4/23/2004

Azimuthal Density Reveals Filtrate Drape


Azimuthal Formation Evaluation - Gravity Segregation of Fluids

Schlumberger Public

Gas

filtrate

This is a quadrant density presentation from a horizontal well in a high

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permeability gas zone.


All quadrant densities (top, bottom, left and right) are crossed-over the neutron in
the characteristic gas signature.
The quadrant densities themselves do not agree in the homogeneous formation.
The bottom density has the highest reading. The top density is the lightest.
This is due to filtrate drape - gravity segregation to the bottom of the wellbore.
This generally occurs in high permeability gas zones due to the buoyancy force.
Note the difference that this may make on resistivity measurements - GVR would
be useful in this case to compute quadrant water saturations.

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Azimuthal Porosity GeoSteering

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This example illustrates the benefit of azimuthal density geosteering. A gas zone is overlain by a shale. In
zone A, all four quadrants measure low densities and crossover the neutron, indicating a gas zone. The
top quadrant has a lower density than the bottom quadrant. This may be a result of filtrate drape, which
is gravity segregation of filtrate invasion toward the low side of this horizontal well.
The drillpipe is sliding for a short section, until zone B. The density measurement for the top of the
wellbore has increased as it is now measuring the shale bed above the wellbore. The other three
quadrants (bottom, left and right) still indicate gas. With the azimuthal measurement, you would now make
a decision to turn down, away from the shale boundary. However, with an average density, it may not
even be recognized that the wellbore was approaching a shale boundary.
The tool and drill pipe slides again to zone C. Now the wellbore is further into the shale section. Only the
bottom density indicates gas. Only now, would an average density reading indicate that a steering
decision would need to be made, but it still would not provide a direction.

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4/23/2004

Sonic while drilling


transmitter

Receivers

Schlumberger Public

Receivers

Attenuator

Transmitter

Bottom Hole Assembly - ISONIC

Schlumberger Public

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The ISONIC8 is combinable with any 8-in. LWD measuring device and is
traditionally run with LWD triple combo tools (e.g. CDR/RAB and CDN).
Similarly, the ISONIC6 can be run with all 6 3/4-in. collar LWD/MWD tools.
Both tools can be run with all bit types. Pictured is a typical quad-combo bottom
hole assembly. In such a configuration, the ADN/CDN will always be at the top
of the BHA to allow for source retrieval. The ISONIC would be typically next,
but it can be placed anywhere in the string, above or below the MWD tool, even
just above the bit in low noise environments (e.g. rotary drilling - not hard
rocks).
The ISONIC can be run with or without a downhole motor or geosteering
assembly.

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4/23/2004

ISONIC-Array Sonic While Drilling

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Recorded Mode Data

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ISONIC Vs. Wireline Sonic

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Delta-T in Overpressure Zone

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ISONIC Applications
Real-time

Recorded mode

Schlumberger Public

Porosity measurement
Lithology identification
Seismic correlation real-time input for synthetic seismograms
Pore pressure trends while drilling
Real-time decision making

Porosity measurement
Lithology identification
Mechanical properties (hard rocks)
Improved quality sonic measurements

Formation alteration (shales) & invasion


Hole enlargement

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4/23/2004

ISONIC Applications

Schlumberger Public

ISONIC applications can be divided into two groups - real time and recorded mode
applications . Real time measurements provide the client with unique opportunities for
better drilling decisions. The two main applications are real time seismic correlation and
pore pressure indication.
Real Time Seismic Correlation
From real time ISONIC compressional slowness measurements, real time synthetic
seismograms can be computed. These seismograms can be used to correlate the clients
surface seismic data to drillers depth. The client will learn where the bit is located on his
seismic section. This gives the client the opportunity to re-evaluate his drilling operation
before he reaches total depth.
Pore Pressure Indication
In most sand/shale sequences, compaction increases with depth due to increasing
overburden with depth. Sound travels faster through sand/shale sequences the more
compacting occurs. Therefore, compressional delta-t lessens with depth at relatively
constant rate. When overpressured formations occur, pore space is greater than normal
and the delta-t value increases above the expected trend. Therefore, slow delta-t values
above the compacting trend indicate overpressured formations.
Recorded Mode
The major recorded mode application is wireline sonic replacement. Seismic tie and
sonic porosity (computed from delta-t and used as an input to the petrophysical
evaluation (i.e. lithology, porosity, etc.) are the primary customer objectives for sonic data.
When running ISONIC in fast rocks, shear slowness can be acquired from the recorded
data. Combining shear with compressional slowness allows for mechanical property
computations such as IMPact*, MechPro* and Frachite*.
ISONIC compressional data is gathered well before wireline data can be acquired. This
means that the measurements are made before formation alteration, stress relief,
invasion and increasing hole enlargement can occur. The result is that ISONIC slowness
measurements may be a truer representation of the formation properties than subsequent
wireline sonic measurements.

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LWD Shear Measurement


in Slow Formations

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Schlumberger Public

The presence of drill collar requires an alternative to


standard wireline-like technology.
A Dipole measurement requires a very large
dispersion correction
R&D programs led to the starting of development
work in quadrupole technology for LWD

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4/23/2004

Why Quadrupole?
Empty
borehole

Borehole
with collar

Dipole

Formation Shear

Strong collar
interference
Collar mode

More sensitive
to shear

Less sensitive
to shear

Schlumberger Public

Borehole mode

Borehole mode
Formation Shear

Quadrupole

Small collar
interference

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4/23/2004

Shear slowness in slow formations is derived from the measurement of


dipole or quadrupole modes. Both of these modes are dispersive. They
propagate at the shear slowness at low frequencies. As the frequency gets
higher sensitivity to the shear slowness decrease and sensitivity to mud
slowness and other environmental parameters increase. Therefore, one
would like to make the measurement at as low frequency as possible.
However, for the dipole mode the presence of the drilling collar in the
borehole interferes with the formation dipole wave at the low frequencies
making it very difficult to extract formation shear information if at all
possible. The quadrupole collar mode on the other hand is cut-off at low
frequencies and interferes very little with the formation quadrupole wave.
In summary quadrupole measurement is much better suited to shear
logging in slow formations in LWD environment.

Schlumberger Public

Collar mode

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4/23/2004

Seismic While Drilling Principle


Surface System

sea floor

LWD Tool

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Schlumberger Public

seismic reflector

Surface source
Downhole receivers
Waveforms recorded in
downhole memory
Downhole processing
Real-time check-shot
via MWD telemetry
Look-ahead imaging

Schlumberger Public

MWD telemetry

Source

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4/23/2004

SeismicVision System
Downhole Tool

Surface System

Schlumberger Public

Rugged LWD technology


Multiple sensors (3 Geophones, 1
Hydrophone)
Processor, memory, telemetry

Triangular cluster (450 in3)


Bottled air supply
Special control system

SPE71365

The SeismicMWD system has two main components, a downhole tool and
a surface system.

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4/23/2004

The downhole tool was constructed of typical rugged LWD technology. It


was configured with multiple sensors including geophones, hydrophones
and accelerometers. In addition, it has a processor for downhole
computations, memory for storing data and a telemetry system for
transmitting data to the surface.
The surface system for these tests included a triangular airgun cluster with
a total volume of 450 cu in. A bottled air supply was used to reduce
maintenance for the long while-drilling operation. A specially developed
control system was used to activate the source in a manner that would be
synchronized with the downhole recordings.

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4/23/2004

Check shot data from Seismic While Drilling

Schlumberger Public

Wireline

First field test in Wyoming.

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Traces in top section acquired while tripping down.


Bottom trace acquired while drilling at connection time.
Wireline VSP was run after the test. Very good match in
che-ckshot times.

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4/23/2004

Applications
Real-time check-shot
Put the bit on seismic map

Update seismic velocities for PPP

Optimize ECD boundaries and drilling parameters

Update velocities for seismic reprocessing

Real-time salt proximity


Seismic look-ahead, 500+ ft (2003)
Replace intermediate wireline check-shot, save
rigtime

Schlumberger Public

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4/23/2004

Schlumberger Public

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4/23/2004

Example Exploration Well Plan


20

Schlumberger Public

16

Normally pressured
clastics

13 3/8
11 3/4

Pressure ramp

9 5/8

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4/23/2004

Now lets imagine drilling an exploration well in a highly challenging


environment with the SeismicMWD tool.

Schlumberger Public

Reservoir

The exploration basin is characterized by normally pressured clastics in


the shallow section, then a section with a severe pressure ramp and highly
over-pressured reservoirs.
To reach a deeper reservoir, the well must be geosteered accurately
through a step out section with an uncertain velocity profile.
To meet all of the objectives, wells in this region normally require flawless
planning, many casing strings and careful execution.
The well plan calls for a 20-, 13 3/8- and 9 5/8-in casing sequence and
contingent liners of 16 and 11 3/4-in. If needed, the contingent liners would
require underreaming and add considerable extra cost.
The key to success is to push the 20-in casing as deep as possible and to
set the 13 3/8-in casing exactly at the top of the pressure ramp that is an
obvious reflector on the surface seismic map but not easily recognizable
as a lithology change.

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4/23/2004

Drilling Office - Bit on Seismic

Surface
Seismic
in Depth

Schlumberger Public

Time-Depth
Curve and
Depth
Prediction

Distance
to Target

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Bit On Seismic

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4/23/2004

LWD-NMR

Schlumberger Public

This is a picture of the tool taken while testing at RMOTC (Rocky Mountain Oilfield Test Center) in June 1999
this is actually a picture of the first generation tool, but the second generation is essentially identical in the
antenna region shown here. The only difference is in the new tool has a longer section of slick drill collar than
the original tool. The tools currently being deployed are second generation tools.

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Describe picture
The spiral piece at the bottom is the field replaceable screw on stabilizer that is changed in the same way as a
drilling motor stabilizer.
Above this are antenna and wear bands.
The rest of the tool is slick.
Outline Presentation.
Questions rules (encourage interruption?)

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4/23/2004

NMR While Drilling


Tools available to
measure T2 (or T1)
in real time

Measurement
complicated
compared to
wireline by tool
motion

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4/23/2004

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4/23/2004

LWD-NMR Outputs

Schlumberger Public

Real Time Outputs


Lithology Independent Porosity
Bound Fluid Volume (BFV) / Free Fluid Volume (FFV)
T2LM (Log mean of T2)
Permeability
Hydrocarbon from Multi-Wait Time Porosities
Additional Outputs from Recorded Mode
Raw Echoes
Full Data Re-Processing
Full T2 Spectra
Motion Data

LWD-NMR Outputs

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The tool performs downhole a T2 inversion and computes outputs for transmission in real
time. These real-time outputs could be used for GeoSteering, well placement, sidetrack
decisions, etc.
Direct hydrocarbon identification using porosities from multiple polarization times (examples
shown later) (see FAQs for description of hydrocarbon identification/characterization
methods)
Permeability is calculated uphole from the bound fluid free-fluid ratio using Coates-Timur
equation or from the SDR equation if T2LM is transmitted, coefficients and exponents for
these equations can be set by the user at the wellsite based on client desires.
The tool records the raw echoes and this data can be used to reprocess the data in the
IDEAL wellsite software. A more detailed (more components in T2 spectrum) can be
computed from the raw data. In addition, the tool records full accelerometer and
magnetometer data whose primary purpose is for QC of NMR data, but some interesting
drilling engineering applications will also be shown.
------------------------------Note that the downhole memory of the tool is obviously not unlimited. No maximum footage
loggable specification can be given as the tool records verses time. Currently the tool can
record around 104 megabytes of memory. Note that the tool only records while circulating.
Prior to the job during the planning stage the memory can be set up to record for longer
periods of time by stackking the raw echoes. As NMR data is inherently statistical and when
reprocessed the echoes are stacked anyway, there is no significant loss of information. In
this way, the memory can be programmed to last as long as required.
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Schlumberger Public

Resonant region

Measurement & Motion

Borehole Wall

Resonant
Region

Experiment
Region

The slide above shows the tool at first centered in the borehole at the beginning of
the measurement cycle. An experiment region is established with the 90degree
pulse, the 180 pulse should then be performed with a coincident resonant zone, i.e.
the tool should not move. The diagram on the right shows how the resonant region
stays at a fixed radius around the tool but the experiment zone is fixed in the
formation. In other words the experiment is now in error due to movement.

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This is clearly a very great challenge with the drilling environment, either the
experiment has to be fast compared to the motion and or the tool should be
stabilized to reduce motion.
Also the slide demonstrates where the measurement is made. In a cylinder of a
particular thickness around the tool. It is where the magnetic field and the frequency
of the radio signal combine to produce a resonant effect in the hydrogen nuclei, this
is how only hydrogen is measured in the experiment. And also that no signal is
received from in front of or behind the resonant zone. In other words there is a well
defined and constant measurement region from this tool unlike other nuclear or
resistivity tools.

107

4/23/2004

Drilling Dynamics From Accelerometry


0.1 cm

Schlumberger Public

Bit Whirling
&
Hole
Enlargement

1.0 cm

The above are examples of the kinds of whirling motion it is possible to resolve using the
tools capabilities.

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Each graph shows the locus of lateral movement of the center of the tool, as it moves in the
bore hole. The scale is in meters, top left shows millimeter size whirl, top right sub millimeter
and bottom left shows centimeter range movement of about an inch that was constrained by
the tool hitting the borehole wall.
These motions are more or less damaging according to their shape and frequency of
oscillation. The lower left hand one may be particularly damaging as the oscillations are
much larger amplitude (6-7 cm) and the BHA is whirling around the outside of the borehole
contributing to borehole enlargement and possibly damaging formation by compressing mud
cake into the formation.
------------------------------------------------------------------------These were all recorded in one bit run in a shallow vertical hole with a rock bit at 500 ft/hr and
80-150 rpm parameters.

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4/23/2004

Quality Control of Motion Effects

Schlumberger Public

Lateral motion leads to


shortening of T2s
Effects Understood
Accelerometers lateral
motion velocity
QC from Accelerometry data.
QC from NMR data

Accelerometry Data Maximum Measurable T2

Accelerometer Package is for QC Purposes

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4/23/2004

The motion data can be used for quality control of the log in recorded mode or real-time by
utilizing the lateral velocity of the tool, to compute the maximum T2 that can be resolved.
This is an example drilling through a gas sand. From the accelerometry package we can
calculate an average lateral velocity shown in track 1. This leads to the red line in the T2 track
that shows the limit of the T2 that could be resolved under the motion conditions experienced
by the tool while the measurements are made. You can see that the transition from shale to
the shaley gas sand sees the appearance of a second T2 peak that is to the left of the T2
maximum line. A separation from the line of about a decade indicates that there is probably
little or no motion shortening of the T2. Further down in the slightly better pay the T2 peak
increases in time to the right but is still to the left of the line so is certainly not noise, but
because it is a little closer to the line it will be somewhat shortened due to tool motion.
NMR standalone QC is also being investigated by looking only at the NMR data and
determining motion effects by looking at the NMR data itself.

109

4/23/2004

Formation Pressure While Drilling

Draw Down Pump


Pressure Gauge

Sealing Element
System Volume

Schlumberger Public

Measurement
principle identical to
wireline formation pressure
measurements
Rely on direct contact with the
formation
Drill string movement must be stopped
A small area of the formation is sealed
off, and the pressure & mobility is tested
Dual packer type tools also exist
Tool shown is not a Schlumberger tool

Schlumberger Public

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4/23/2004

GeoSteering -The full picture

UDR Distance to boundary


Schlumberger Public

Vision Res. Medium DOI

Base Balder

GVR or VDN Real-Time Image

Gas injectors shall be


drilled near top reservoir

Top Heimdal

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4/23/2004

Top Chalk

Schlumberger Public

Base Heimdal

Producers shall be drilled 9 m above


OWC or near base reservoir

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4/23/2004

Drilling Performance Sensors

Schlumberger Public

VISION has a variety of Drilling performance sensors

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4/23/2004

Downhole weight, torque and multi-axis vibrations are not available on


VISION475.
PERFORM is a service which provides a Specialist Engineer who uses the
drilling performance sensors, surface indicators, offset well data,
knowledge database and local knowledge to improve the drilling process
to identify and reduce risk as well as improve overall ROP.

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4/23/2004

Increase Drillstring and Bit Life


BHA whirling in vertical hole

Multi axis shocks


Reduce drillstring fatigue
Reduce borehole enlargement
Increases ROP/bit life
Schlumberger Public

Larger shocks result in more shock counts

All of Anadrills MWD and LWD tools are designed with downhole shock
measurements.

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4/23/2004

In the MWD tools shock data is transmitted in real-time such that in the
event of high shocks drilling parameters can be adjusted and the effects
monitored.
Real-time shocks can reduce non productive time, as trips can be saved
by:
reducing pipe fatigue
failure of downhole components
increasing bit life.
Multi axis shock measurements are also available (ie. Axial, lateral and
torsional) With this information it is possible to determine the type of
vibrations experienced (e.g. bit bounce, stick slip, resonance etc.) and
thus take appropriate action
The shock measurements are alsoused to track wear and tear on the tools
and the level of maintenance required on a tool is based upon the severity
of shocks experienced.
It should be noted that although the MWD/LWD electronics are the most
susceptible damage from shocks, failure of these components is not
catastrophic. Where as the effect of high shocks on BHA connections can
lead to catastrophic failures.

113

4/23/2004

Early Washout Detection


BHA whirling in vertical hole

Schlumberger Public

Output Voltage vs. Flow Rate for 8-in. Turbine

The PowerPulse/Impulse MWD system uses a downhole turbine to


generate power. The output voltage from this turbine is directly
proportional to the flow rate passing through the tool and is thus a valuable
downhole flow meter which is sensitive to very small changes in flow.

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4/23/2004

As the example shows, any washout above the MWD tool is easily seen
from the turbine voltage, a lot earlier than it is seen at surface. Early
identification can help reduce non productive time for expensive fishing
trips. This can be set up as a smart alarm on the IDEAL system, thus
requiring no continuous interpretation of the data by the engineer.

114

4/23/2004

Stuck Pipe Avoidance

Schlumberger Public

Weight on Bit

Torque

The PowerPulse tool can be configured to provide real-time


measurements of downhole weight on bit and torque. These
measurements are made based on strain gauges mounted in the MWD
tool.

Schlumberger Public

115 GR
4/23/2004

The gauges for the weight on bit are aligned so that they are only sensitive
to the axial load (tension and compression on the drillstring). The torque
gauges are aligned so that they are only sensitive to the torsional effects
on the drillstring (I..e. not the axial forces)
These measurements are particularly valuable in deviated wells where
surface parameters of weight and torque can be unrepresentative of the
true downhole conditions. By using the downhole measurements the
performance of the bit can be optimized and premature damage of PDC
bits avoided.
By comparing both surface and downhole parameters a calculation of the
friction in the wellbore can be made and the onset of pipe.sticking
detected and action taken
The example shows how the sliding friction (drag) is increasing, indicating
the onset of a potential sticking problem. A wiper trip was made and the
log shows the impact of the corrective action. In this case it was
successful and drilling was resumed.
Thus using these measurements NPT an be reduced by optimizing bit
performance and avoiding stuck pipe.
The calculated friction factors are also a valuable input into the planning of
the next well.

115

4/23/2004

Accurate control of ECD


Modeled vs. Actual ECD

Schlumberger Public

Key for Deepwater drilling

Anadrill can provide real-time annular pressure measurements in each


hole size. This measurement is used to calculate the true ECD (effective
circulating density) while drilling to ensure that the ECD remains higher
than the formation pore pressure, yet lower than the fracture gradient of
the formation.

Schlumberger Public

Detect shallow water flows


Detect cuttings loading and swab/surge effects
Manage the pore pressure fracture grad window
116 GR
Minimize mud weight for optimum ROP
4/23/2004

Right hand diagram: shows the theoretical ECD (black). Without


downhole measurements this is the value used to define the mud weight
required to drill the well. The red curve shows the actual ECD as
measured by the downhole sensor and shows that there are major
fluctuations, compared to the modeled value, as a result of changing flow
rate and RPM. Other key factors that can effect the ECD are cuttings
loading pipe eccentricity, swab surge effects and temp/pressure effects. It
is clear therefore that in a well where there is a tight window between the
formation pore pressure and the fracture gradient to rely on a modeled
ECD value is dangerous and that real-time monitoring is crucial. This is
particularly true in the case of deepwater drilling where there can be a very
narrow window.
The ECD can also be calculated there is no circulation for accurate leak
off/formation integrity test measurements and to monitor swab/surge
effects
The APWD measurement has also proven to be a valuable tool for the
early detection of shallow water flows (a sharp increase is seen)
All annular pressure measurement can also be stored in the tools
downhole memory.
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4/23/2004

Staying within the Pressure Window


Staying within the pressure window

ISONIC example

Schlumberger Public

Left hand diagram: shows a real-time plot of the real-time ECD


measurement plotted against the theoretical fracture gradient and a realtime calculation of pore pressure based on LWD resistivity. The pore
pressure calculation is compared to the seismic pore pressure calculation
that was made prior to drilling the well.

Schlumberger Public

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4/23/2004

Accurate monitoring of both the pore pressure and ECD are key. This is
particularly the case in deepwater wells were the window between fracture
gradient and pore pressure can be very narrow.
Right hand diagram:shows an example of how LWD sonic data can also
be used for real-time pore pressure evaluation. The normal compaction
trend of the formation would result in a gradual decrease in sonic transit
time. However, in overpressured formations we see that the formation
becomes less compacted and the sonic transit time diverges from its
normal trend and increases as a function of over pressure.

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4/23/2004

Identification of Failure Modes


Shear Failure
Mud Weight too
Low
Schlumberger Public

Tensile Failure
Mud Weight too
High

Stress Direction

LWD images can be acquired from both the GVR


(GeoVISION Resistivity) and ADN (vision density).

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118 GR
4/23/2004

As well as clearly showing the interbedding of the


formations and the dip of the beds, these images can
be used to define fractures. Both the direction of the
fractures and the failure mode can be determined.
When combined with Real time images, this will be very
valuable in refining or confirming wellbore stability
models and drilling practices.
But in the above example, the explanation shows that
the mud weight is too high AND too low. How can this
be--which is it?

118

4/23/2004

Conclusion

is there a need for RT data?

Schlumberger Public

MWD/ LWD has developed quickly compared to wireline


technology
The technique is widely used in deviated wells and where rig rates
are high
In vertical wells and low rig day rates wireline is more economical
Almost all OH wireline measurements can be performed with LWD
fluid sampling and high definition images are the significant
measurements not yet available

119 GR
4/23/2004

Schlumberger Public

DEPTH control is the biggest single quality factor that


affects LWD measurements

119