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ALCOHOL has become an article of prime necessity in

many of the arts and manufactures, and enters largely,
in one form or another, into the daily consumption of
our people. This industry is pre-eminently based upon
scientific principles, which, if correctly understood, will
insure greatly increased profits to the producer, and, if
honestly applied, will tend in no small degree to miti-
gate the evils which grow out of the use of the article,
often prepared by so-called pr;lctical distillers, some of
whom are ignorant and others vicious. There are, how--
Entered according to Aot of Congress, in the year 1871, by ever, many intelligent and honorable exceptions-men
EENEY C A R E Y BAIRD, who, knowing how, manufacture pure and good liquors.
i n the "%ice of the Librarian of Congre,ss. at Washington. A11 ~ i g h treserved.
The undersigned, anxious to see a really good book
on this subject placed in the hands of American distillers,
rectifiers, and compounders, as well as dealers in wines
and liquors, has been u n a b c to find any work in the
English language which seemed a t all adequate to this
requirement, or to the actual wants of this industry a t
the present day. I n his extremity, he has naturally
turned to the technical literature of France, among
whose-people great intelligence and skill have long been
brought to bear in their applications of the principles of
science to the various arts. In the book of MM. Du-
plais, he believes he has found this great desideratum.
These authors, by reason of thorough education in all
those departments of science on which the a r t of the dis-
tiller depends, as well as by practical skill in every ma-
nipulation requisite for their application, are eminently -

C H A P T E R I.

C H A P T E R 11.

Saccharine o r Qlucosic Fermentation

Vinona o r Alcoholic Fermentation .
Sugar .
Water .
The Air .
Ferment .
Phenomena of the Vinous Fermentation
Accidents of Fermentation .
Acid Fermentation . ..
P u t r i d Fermentation
Viscous Fermentation ' .
Lactic Feqnentation
Sweat-House and Fermenting V a t s .:
C H A P T E R 1.11.
Distilling Apparatus
The Simple Apparatus .
Continued Apparatus , .
Derosne's Apparatus .
T o Commence the Operation .
T o Conduct the Operation .
T o E m p t y t h e Stills
, ...:.

, .

T o Terminate the Operation -. .

57 . ':
Insufficient Exhaustion of the Spent Liqnor .
T o Cleanse the Apparatns --
Testing the Spent Liquor
- " Imperfect Condensation of the Alcoholic Vapors .
Observations . . 60 Fires
Closing Remarks in Regard t o the Apparatus of Derosne . .
- - --
Enrot's New A ~ ~ a r a t for
n s Continuous Distillatian
Description of the Apparatns
. .
66 C H A P T E R TI.
T o w o r k the Apparatus . --
. ..
1. Facility of Setting np-Economy of Removal and Tmnsporta,
tion . -68 Spirits of Wine (Alcohol from Wine)
2. Remarkable Economy of Fuel
3. Facility of Use . --
- .
. 69
Vintage .
- Crushing . . . . .
4. Richness in Degree . .
Vatting .
5. Moderate Price . 69
Chemical Composition of N o s t
6. Simplicity of Cleaning . 70 Fermentation .

Belgian Apparatus . 71 Improvement of Must .

T o S e t Going and Use the Belgian Apparatus . . 72 Drawing off (Racking) .
Apparatus for Distilling P a s t y o r Semi-fluid Materials . 73
Expressing .
Method of Using the Apparatus - . 74
Rectifying Apparatus . . 75
Chemical Composition of Wine
Apparatus for Distilling Rum . 76
Choice of Wines for Distillation
Distillation . .
Machines and Utensils Necessary for a Distillery . . 77
. .
. T h e Wabher . . 78
T r o i s S i x o r ~ ~ i r i tof' s Wine (Rectified Spirits)
The R a s p . . .. . . 78
Alcohol from Molasses
Variety and Selection of Molasses .
T h e Root Cutter or Slicer . 'is Fermentation .
T h e Hydraulic Press . 78
The Steam Press . . 78
Alcohol from Beets
Chemical Analysis of the Beet
The V a t for the Conversion of Starch into Sugar
Different Processes for Distilling Beets .
Macerators . 79
Distillation o f Beet Spirit by Rasping and Pressure--
. . 79
T o Use the Apparatus . . Distillation of the Beet by Maceration .
. .. .. 80
Maceration by W a t e r
Maceration by H e a t
. ..
Nsw Method of Macerntion by H e a t .
C H A P T E R IV. Maceration ; the Cold Process
Maceration of Beet Chips .
Heating by the Naked Fire - 83 Direct Distillation of Beets .
Heating by Steam . 84 Process of Leplay .
Rectified Beet,Spirit .
C H A P T E R V. ...
Grnin Spirit .
Choice of Grain
Chemical Composition of Grain .
Accidents of Distillation - 87
. .
.>. Dextrine ..
Leaks in the Apparatus . . 87 Diastase
T h e Alcoholic P r o d u c t of Grain . 135
P r e p a r a t o r y Operations which a r e Necessary before Submitting
Grain to' t h e Alcoholic Fermentation
Steeping .
.. .
Essential Oils
Acids .
. .. - -- PA.30
Germination . . 137 Action of H e a t . 200
Drying rbe J l a l t . 139 Bhnagement and Progress of Rectification . - 201
Grinding . . 141 Purification of (Backings) Phlegm (Spirits of bad taste, from Beets,
lnfusion .
. .
. 141
Potatoes, Grnin, etc.), by N. Ortlin . .- 205
Alcoholic Fermentation of Groin . . 144 C H A P T E R 'VIII.
X e t h o d of Domhnsle . 145
A n o t h e r French Method .
- . . 147
from W i n e .

Old English Method . i49 ran dies

English Process ( N e w ) . . 151 Marc Brandy-Brandy from t h e G r a p e P o m a c e (Marc d e Raisin)
Belgian Process . 152 Distilling A p p a r a t u s of M. Villard of Lyons
New Process Generally used in Belgium . 154 Description of t h e A p p a r a t u s
Chemical Process . . 158 Cider Brandy, A p p l e Brandy . .
Alcohol from Rice . . 159 Portable Appnratus for continuous Distilling .
Alcobol from P o t a t o e s . . 160 P e a r Brandy . . . .
Annlysis of the P o t a t o . . 160 Brnndy from Beer
. ..
Selection of P o t a t o e s . 160 Rum
Testing t h e Quality of P o t n t o c s . 161 Kirschenwnsser o r Kirsch, Cherry B r a n d y . .
Processes for Distilling P o t a t o e s. . 162 Gin, Geneva . . ..
Distillation of Cooked P o t a t o e s ' . . 162
Cooking . . 162 C H A P T E R IX.
Reducing t o P u l p . . 163 T ~ 3E l ~ N n f n c r u n eo f SWISS
Alashing o r Saccharifxing b y Malted Barley . . 163 Absinthe of Portarlier .
Fcrmcntation . . 163 .
Distillation . . . 164 ,
Ahsintbe of bfontpellicr
Absinthe of Lyons .
nistillntion of P o t a t o e s by Rasping nnd Mncerntion . . . 164 Absinthe of Pongerolles .
Employment of t h e Residuum from t h e Distill:ttion of P o t a t o e s . 165
Absinthe of Ycsancon .
Distillation of P o t a t o e s by Saccharifzing t h e Sturch . . . 165 . .
Sacehnritication by Sulphuric Acid . . 166
Absinthe of Nimes
. -

Snccbarification by Mult . . 169

White Absinthe . .
T h e Ferment.ation . . 170 .
'Distillation . . 150
.Apparatus for Manufacturing Absinthe and Perfumed Spirits
Nnnagement of t h e A p p a r a t u s . .
R e m a r k s o n Spirits from Grain nnd Potatoes . . lil 'Causes of t h e Pernicious Effects of Absinthe .. .
Alcohol from Sorghum o r Chinese Sugar-cane . . 171
A p p a r a t u s of nl. B. V i d e . . . 177 C H A P T E R X.
Alcohol from the AspGodel -
., . 180
. . ..
Alcohol from F i g s
Alcohol from various substances (Vegetable and p t l ~ r r s ) .
Alcoholizahle Suhstnnces of t h e F i r s t Clnss .
. .
. Thermometere .

Tnhle converting t h e Degrees of t h e Centigrade Thermometer t o

. 247

Alcoholizable Substances of t h c S e c o n d Class .

General Observations on t h e Different K i n d s of Alcohol .
Degrees of t h a t of Reaumnr, a n d vice vevsa . . 249

Table for converting Degrees of the Fahrenheit Thermometer t o D e P A R T 11.

grees of Centigrade . . 250
. ,.-.
Table for converting Degrees ~f Centigrade Thermometer t o Degrees .
of Fahrenheit . . . .. za1. .. ESSENCES, ETC. . .

Hvdrometer, Alcoholometer, Areometer . . 251
&ntesimal ~ l c o h o l o m e t e of r Gay-Lussac . a33
Expkinstion of the use of t h e Table indicating the actual strength of
Spiritnous Liquors at any given Temperature .
Table indicating the actual strength of Spiritnoas Liquors . ..
. 254-..
.. .
. - C H A P T E R XII.
. .
Table by which t o find t h e valoe of Decrees on the Alcoholometer of
Cartier in terms of the Centesimal Alcoholometer . .
Comnarison of the Degrees of BnnmB's Hydrometer with the r e d
. 264 The Laboratory. Store-rooms, CeUars,&c.
Vessels and Utensils. .
. . 299

Specific Gravities . . 203


Furnace . - . 301
.. 308
Table of the proportion by weight of Absolute o r Real Alcohol in 100
oarts of Spirits of different Specific Gravities . .. .. ---
. -
~ i c o h o l o m e t r i cScale of M. Strope
Experimental Stills .
. a00
. 267
C H A P T E R XI=.
Assay Still of Gag-Lussac . . . 267 Application of H e a t . . - - 312
Assay Still of M. J. Salleron . 268
C H A P T E R XIV. . . .
INOREASINOT E E STRENOTE i Distillation a s applied t o Liqueurs
Rectification .
. ,316
.. .

Reduction . . . . . 272 The Selection a n d Preservation of Aromatic and other Substances, 325.
. -
Table for reducing Spirituous Liquors, indicating the quantity of water
necessary t o reduce one Hectolitre of Spirits from a higher t o a n
inferior degree . . ---

Raising the Proof of Brandy . 284 WATER.

Table exhibiting t h e actual value of Spirits at 850 Centesimal (33O
Cnrtier) reduced t o all degrees of proof found in the market. . 285' . :
Filtration and Preservation of W a t e r
Distilled W a t e r. . .. 329
Receipts for Aging Brandies and other Spirits, for improving them,
a n d for Imitating - the Aroma and Flavor of different growths . 286 :. . , C H A P T E R XVI.'
Cutting o r mixing common Brandies (Coupage) . 286 i .. . A a o m ~ n WATERS.
Imitation of Brnndies . - .
287 ..
': ;Aromatic Distilled Waters ' . .. . .. .. . .. 332
.. . ...
Processes for Imitating t h e Brandy of Armagnac 287 .
Method of Imitating the Brandy of Saintonge
Methods of Imitating Cognac Brandy - . .. 288
268 - ,:
.jPreservation of Aromatic Distilled Waters.
. Method of Depriving Aromatic Waters of their Odor.
'. ,Receipts for Aromatic Distilled Waters .. .
. .
.. ... 339
Improving Brnndies . 290 - :
. .. - .. 340
- .Water of Orange Flowers

. . .. -. .. 342
Low Wines prepared for redncing Spirits 291 . .
E x t r a c t o r Essence of Cognac. .. - . ..
291 '::
Rose W a t e r . .
Methods of ascertaining the Quality of Orange-Flower W a t e r
. 292 : 343
Improvement of different Spirits
New Method of Distilling Wines practised in the Charentes . 292 ,<:
.,. .
Water of Violets . 344 . .
PABE Syrup of Wheat - 376
- ..

W a t e r of Absinthe
W a t e r of Hyssop
.. .. . .
. 344
344 Honey
Levulose or Liquid Sugar -
. . ..
Peppermint W a t e r . . 345
Mannite . . . 378
W a t e r of Tea . . .. . 345 Glycyrrhizine, o r Saccharine Matter of Liquorice . . .. . 378
Anise W a t e r . . 345
Coriander W a t e r . 346 C H A P T E R XIX.
W a t e r of Mocha Coffee ' . . 346 SUGAR CONTINUED.
Cinnamon W a t e r . . 346 Clarification of S u g a r . .
Angelica Water . ; 347 Decolorizing Sugar . .
W a t e r of Bitter Almonds . . 347 Saccharometer (Pese-sirop) . - 381
Lemon W a t e r . . 347 Table. indicating the Quantity of good brown (Crude o r Raw) Sugar
Raspberry W a t e r . . 348 boltained in a Litre of Cold Syrup . . .
Maraschino W a t e r . . 348
W a t e r of Green Walnnts .
Aromatic W a t e r s without Distillation .
Table indicnting the Quantity of Refined Sngar contained in a litre
of Cold Syrnp . . . 389

01x.s o n ESSENCES.
-. . Degeneration and Preservation of Syrups
. . . . . 390
Volatile Oils o r Essences b y Distillation
355 Receipts for Sprups ;
. . 392
Volatile Oils o r Essences b y Expression
Rectification of Volatile Oils o r Essences . . .
357 Simple Syrup .
- . 392
Sophistication of Volatile Oils and the Means of Detecting the Fruud
357 ; Syrup of Orange Flowers
- 394

. . ..
359 Syrup of Capillaire
Sophistication by F a t or Fixed Oils . . 359 Syrup of T e a . 394
Sophistication by Alcohol . . . 360 Syrup of Gum Arabic . .
Sophisticstion by Common Volatile Oils . . 361 Syrup of Marsh Nallow . . .
396 ..
Receipts for the Volatile Oils o r Essences . . 361 .
-.. 397
Lemon Syrup
Volatile Oil o r Essence of Roses . . 362 Syrup of Oranges .
Volatile Oil o r Essence of Cinnamon . 364 Syrup of Violets
. . .. . . 397
-. 401
. Volatile Oil o r Easence of Bitter Almonds
Tsble of Volatile Oils o r Essences snsoeptible of bcing used by the
Distilling Liqnorist . . .
365 Syrup of Orgeat
Currant Syrup .

368 Syrup of Black Cherries . . . . . 401
Volatile Oils by Maceration, o r E x t r a c t s . 371 Fancy Syrup of Currants. . 401
Syrup of Cherries 403
CHAPTER XVIII. Syrup of Raspberries . . 403
SKIOAR. Syrup of Mulberries .
Glucose . -. . - . . .. . 374 Syrup of Raspberry Vinegar . .
Grape S u g a r . 374 Syrup of Brandy Punch . - 404 .
. . .
Grape Syrup
Sngar from P o t a t o Starch .. 375
Syrup of Cherry Punch
Common Syrup of Rum Punch. . . .
Syrup from P o t a t o Starch . .
376 Fioe Syrup of Rum Punch
. . 405
White Symps .
376 Glncosed Syrups. . 406
Colored Syrnps ; . 376 Syrup of Curranm . -. .
Syrup of Grain Starch . . 376 B
: 406

Essence of A locs
GlncoseZ Syrup of Currants . Essence of Catechu .
Glucosed Syrup of Orgeat Essence of Benzoin .
C H A P T E R XXI. Essence of Myrrh .
Essence of Tolu
COLORING. Essence of Nuskmallow . :.
, - . ..
Red Coloring . Essence of Grains of Paradise .
Yellow Coloring . . Essence of Cnrdnmon .,

Caromel . Essence of..Ccylon Cinnamon . . - ..

Blue Coloring . Essence of Cassin .
Coloring for Cnrncoa . Essence of Cloves .
Haematoxylin . Essence of Mace
Green Coloring . Essence of Nutmeps .
Violet Coloring . . Essence of Sassafras . .
Essence of Bitter Almonds . .
C H A P T E R XXII. Essence of Apricot Seeds .
PERFUMED SYRUPS. Essence of Celery .
. Essence of Cedrat .
Rectification of Perfnmcd Syrups
Backings or Phle,m . Essence of Lemon .
.. . ..
Receipts for Perfumed Spirits - Essence of Orange
Concentrated Essenceof Lemon
~ s s e k c eof Orange Flowers . .
Essence of Roses . Concentrated Essence of Oranges
Essence of Violets . Esprit #Anisette Ordinaire
Essence of Absinthe '(05cidal) : . Esprit *Anisette de Bourdeaux
Essence of Absinthe (Roman) . Esprit de Curacoa Ordinnire .
Essence of Genipi . Esprit de Curacoa de Hollande .
Essence of Hyssop . Essence of Coffee .
Esscn,ce of Lavender . Essence of T e a.
Essence of Balm
Essence of Peppermint - C H A P T E R XXIII.
Essence of Angelica Seed . . AROMATIC TLSCTLTRES.
Essence of Dill . . Tincture of Ambergris .
Essence of Aniseed . Tincture of Benzoin .
Essence of S t a r Anise . .
Essence of Caraway . Tincture of Cntechu
Tincture of N u s k . . ..
Essence of Coriander Tincturc of Storax .
EssGnce of Cumin' Seeds . -
Essence of Candy Carrot . . Tincture of Tolu

Essence of Fennel . Tincture of Orrisroot

Tincture of Vanilla.
Essence of Rnspberries . Tincture of Curacoa.
Essence of Angelich Root . .
Essence of Cnlnmus . Tincture of the Hulls of Bitter Almonds . .
Essence of Ginger . Tincture of Smaller Absinthe .
-Tincture of Hyssop .
Essence of Cnscarilln
Essence of Rosewood . .
Tincture of Galangnl. .. . . , .
Essence of Sandal-wood .. . . -
Tincture of Balm .

Tincture of Bay . 431 Parfait Amour .

Tincture of Black Currant Leaves - . 432 Huile de Roses .
Tincture of Black Currants . . 432 Eau des Sept-Greines . .
Oassis Ordinaire . . 434 Vespbtro .
Cnssis Demifio . . 434 Liqueurs Demieaes .
Tiucture of Raspberries . . 434 Anisette .
Tiucture of Black Cherries . 435 Creme d'Angeliqne .
. Tincture of W a l n u t l l u l l s . . . 435 Crbme de Celeri . .
Raspberry Viuegnr . . 435 CeutSeptAns .
Curacoa .
C H A P T E R XXIV. Creme de Fleurs d'ornnger
LIUUEUR~ Huqe de Framboises . .
Componudiog . . .
Creme de Menthe
Creme de Moka . .
Perfume . .
439 Crbme de Noyaux .
Mixing . 441 Parfait Amour .
Mellowing (Tranchage) . . 442 Huile de Roses .
Apparatus for Mellowing Liqueurs - . 443 Eau des Sept-Graiues . .
Coloring . . 444 Vespetro .
Sizing (Clarifying) . .
445 Punch Liqueur . ' .
. 448 Rum Punch Liqueur . .
Storing and Preservntion of Liqueurs - .
. 450 Fine Liqueurs .
Classification of Liqneurs .. - -
. ~452
Anisette .
~ ~and Receipts ~for ~ i q u e u r by
s~ Distillation ~ l ~ Creme d'Angelique
t ~.. ~ ~
. . 452 CentSept-Aus ..
Common Liqueurs
Anisette . . 453 Curncoa .
. 453 Eau de Vie d7Andaye
E a u d'Angelique
CenbSeptAns . .'. . 453 Enu de F i e de Dontzick .
Curacoa . . 453 Creme de Fleurs d'oranger
Fleurs d'oranger . 454 Crbme de Frnmboises
Framboises . . .. . 454 Hoile de Kirschenwasser .
Mint . . 454 Crblue de Menthe .
E a u de Noyaus . 454 Creme de hToyaux .
. . 454 Creme dc Moka . .
P a r s i t Amour
Huile dc ~ o s e s . . . 455 Huile d'CEilets . ScptGrnines . . . 455 Parfnit Amour .
Tesp6tro . - . . 455 Huile de Rhum . .
Liqueurs Doubles . . 456 Huile de Roses .
. . 456 Eau des SepeUrnines . .
E a u d'Angeliqne .. 456 Scubnc , .
CenbSept-Ans .' .
456 CrEme de Th6
. . . .
Curacoa . 457 Vespetro
Fleurs d'ornnger . .
457 Punch Liqueur .
Frnmboises 457 Superfine Liqueurs . . . . .
Huile de Menthe . . 457 Liqueurs Surfines F r n n ~ a i s e s
E a u de Nopnux .

.. . 457
PAGE Creme de Roses . 485
Anisette de Bordeaux
Genuine Anisette (Marie Brizard) .
. . .
Eau des Sept-Graines
Scuhnc de Lorraine .
. . . . 487
. 488 P a r i s . . 470 Creme d e Th6 de l a Chine . . 488
Lnisette de Lyon . . 470 Huilc de P 6 n u s . . 488
Ddlices de Rachel . . 471 Eau Verte d e Marseille . . 489
Creme #Absinthe . . 471 Vesp6tro de Montpellier . . 489
Creme d'Angelique . . 471 Enn Virginale ou de.Pucelle . . 489
E l i x i r do Cngliostro . . 472 West Indian Liqueurs . 490
Genuiue Receipt by N. CnZliostro . . 473 Baume Divin . . ,. . 491
Creme de Celeri . . . 473 Baume Humnin .. . 491
Liqueur dite de 1s Grande Chartreuse (green, yellow, and white) :. 474 Crbme d'Ananas . 491
ChinwChina . . 475 Creme des Barbndes . . 492
E a n de la Chine. .
476 Creme d c Cachou . . 492
E a u de l a COte-Sainte-AndrB . - .
Creme de Moka
Creme de Noyaux .
. 492
. 492
Cinnnmomurn and Creme de Cnnnelle.
E a u de la CSte-Aux-Noyaux . , 476 Creme Sapotille de I s -3lartiniqlie . . 493
Curnpoa (Old Receipt) . . 475 Euile de Badiane . . 493
Cnrapoa Blnnc . . . . 478 Huile d'Anis des Indes blanche and rouge . . . 493
Curogoa Sur6n . .
478 Buile de Cacao . . . 493
T h e Maoufacture o f 104 L i t r e s of Curnpoa . 4i9 Huile de CBdrats . 494
S p i r i t of Dried Ribbons of C'urnpon . . . 479 Huile de Cannelle . . 494
S p i r i t of Oranges . . . . 479 Huile des Urdoles . . . . . 494
E a n Divine . 480 Huile de Fernambouc . 494
Eau-dc-Vie d'Andaye . 480 Huile do Cirofle . 495.
Eau-de-Vie d e Dantzick . . . 480 Huile de R h u m . . . 495
. .

Fenouillette de 1'Ile de RhB 481 Huile de Vnnille . 495

Crbme de Fleurs d'oranger . . 481 Zinziber o r H u i l c de Giqgcmhre . . 495
Creme ile Frnmboises . 481 Foreign Liqueurs . . 496
H u i l e de Kirschenwnsser . . 481 Anisette de Hollande . 497
Elixir de G a r u s .. . 482 True Anisette de Hollnnde of the house of Winnnd Fockink of Amster-
Crbme de GBnepi des Alpcs . . 482 dam . . . . . 497
Mayorque . . 482 Curaqoa de Hollande , . . 497
Creme de Menthe . . 483 Genuine Dutch Curnpoa of t h e house of Winnnd Fockink ofAmsterdam 497
. . 483 Creme Genievre de Hollande . . 498
Liqueurs du Mezenc
Cr&me de Mille Fleurs .
Liqueur Flamande
. . 498
Creme de Moka
.. 484 Dutch Bitters . ,498
Crbme d e Noisette h la R o s e . 484 Amer de Eollande . . 498
Creme de Noyaux .
. .
Vdritahle E a u de V i e d e Dnntzick
Franzoesisch W a s s e r de Dnntzick
.. 499
Creme de Noynux de Phalsbourg
E a n de Noyaux de Phnlsbonrg of t h e house of Hoffman-Forty. , 485 Dentechland W a s s e r de Breslau .. . .. 500
Crbme d'(Eil1ets . 485 . ..
Persicot du P a l a t i n a t . 500

E a n d'Or . . 485 Usquehnngh d'Ecosse (Scotch) - -

, . 500
Parfnit-Amour d c Lorraine . 486 English Bitters.- . 501
Persico . . 486 1 u k e r m e s d e Florence . 501
Rnspeil's Liqueur H y g i h i q u e e t de Dessert . 486 Aqua Bianca d e Turin . . 502
H u i l e de Rhum. . 481
PAOE Liqueurs Surfiues .
. 502 ' Veritable Liqueur H y g i h i q u e e t de Dessert de Ruspnil .
Aqua d'Oro de Turin
Cedrato di Pnlcrmo . . 502 Liqueur Hygibniquc (de Saumur) .
L a Fiorelto de Florence . . 503 Liqueur Stomachique Dor6e .
L a Giovane de Turin . . 503 Crhme de Vnuille
Liquore delle Alpi . . ~. . 503 Crknle de Violette .
Mnrascbiuo dc Znrn . . 504 Oreme de Brou de Noix .
Myrobolauo, o r Nyrobolanti . .
504 Crhmc de Cassis . .
Olio di C'remona
505 Rntnfin de Cassis de Dijou . . . ..
Olio de hlncehcroni di Genova . . 505 Crbme de Cnssis dc Tournine .
Rosolio di Neuta di Pisa .
. 505 Rntnfia de Cerises de Grenoble . .
. .. . 505 Ratafia de Grcnoble, dit de Teyssbre . . .. .
Rosolio di Torino
Rubiuo di Veuezia . . 506 1
Ratafio de Merises de Grenoble . .
Chiraz ( A new Persian LiqUeUr) - . 607 Rntnfias de Louvres nud de Feuilly .
Nomenclature and Reccipts for Liqueurs by Infusion . 501 Ratafia de Prnmboises
Ordinary Liqueurs . . 508 Guiguolct d'Angcrs .
Fluile de Vauille Receipts for Preparing Liqueurs by Volatile Oils o r Essences without
Brou de N o i r . the use of the Still . .
Rntafia de Cassis Common Liqueurs (Ordinnires) . .
Cassis Ordinaire Anisette .
Ratafia de Framboises Enu d'Angeliq~~e
RataGa de Coiugs
Liqueurs Doubles
- . . -
Curn~on .
Huile de Vnuille Fleurs d'orangar
. BIenthe .
Brou de Noix
Ratnfia dc Cnssis . Enu de Noyaux
Parfait Amour .
Ratafia dc Framboises
Liqueurs Dcmifiues . Huile de Roses .
VespBtro .
Huile de Vuuille
Huile de Violettes . I~iqucnrsDemi-Fines .
Brou de Noix . Auisette .
Rntafia de Cnssis Urbmc d'Angelique .
Cassis D ~ m i I i n Creme de Celeri .
Rntafia de Cerises . Cent-Sept-Ans .
Ratafia de Framboises Cura~oa .
Ratafia de Quntre Fruits . Crhme de Fleurs d'Orauger . . -
Ratafia de Coiugs . Crhme de Meuthe .
Liqueurs Fines . Creme de Noyaux .
Huile de Vauille P a r h i t A m o ~ r r' .
Huile de Violettes . Buile de Roses . . . . .
Brou de Noix . Vespetro .
Ratafia dc Cassis Liqueurs Fines .
Ratafin de Cerisen . Anisette .
Ratafia de Frnmboises Creme d'Angeliqae .
Rntnfia de Qnatre Fruits . Crbme de Celeri . .
Ratafin de Coiugs .

PAQE Infusion of Toasted Bitter Almond Hulls . . . 534

. . Receipts for Cordial Wiues . 535
Curacoa . .
Alicaute . .. . . 535
. . Cyprus . 535
E a u de V i e de Dantzick
Creme de Fleurs d'oranger . . .
Constance . . . . . . 53.5
Elixir of Garus . .
Greuache . . 535
. . Mnlaga . 536
Creme de >leuthe
Creme de Noyaux . .
Nalvoisie de Madere . . 536
P a r h i t Amour . . 5:!6
Nuscat de Luncl . 536
Huilc de Roses . . 5:!6
Nuscat de Frontignau . 536
E a u de Sept-Grnines . . . 5:!6
Nadeira .
VespBtro . . .. 5:!6
Sherry Cordial . . .
Liqueurs Surfiues . Lierymn-~hristi . .
Anisette . . 527 Port .

Creme d'bbsiuthc . . 527 Rota .

Creme d'Angelique . . 527
Tokai . .
Creme de Ihrbndes . . 527
Creme de Celeri . . 528
Vermout de Turin
Vermont d'Italie (Receint of Ollivero) .
Cura~oa . . 528 Vermout de blade're . ' .
Liqueur dite de l a Gmnde-Chartreuse . . 528 .
E a u dc V i e de Vautzick . . 528
Factition:; Effervescing Wines
Creme de Flcurs d'Orauger . 528
Elixir de Garus' . . . 528 CHAPTER XXVI.
Huile de Kirscheuwasser . . .. . . 529 NEWMETHOD
Creme de Xeuthe . . 529
Liqueor de Mezenc -
Creme de Noyaus de Fhalsbourg .
Method o f Setting the Apparatus in Operation .
Creme de Roses . . . 529
Eau des Sept-Graines . . 529
VespOtro de Moutpcllier . . 530
Anisette de Hollnndc . . . 530
A l k e r m k d e Florence . 530' APPENDIX.
lhlarusquin de Znra . . 530
Rosolio de Turin . 530 The Btetrie Srstem of Weights and Measures . . 547
Creme de Jnsmin . 531 Tables showing the Relative Values of French and English Weights
Creme de Jouquille . . 531 aud Measures. &c . . 549
Creme CFleliotrope . .. . . 531 UNITED STATES IXTERNAL REVENUE.
Creme de R6si.dil . 531 Regulations and Instructions Concerning the T a x on Dist.illed Spirits 557
Creme de TubGrcuse . . 531 Regulations Concerning the Distillation of Brandy from Applcs,
Creme de JlilleEeurs . . . 531 Peaches, or..Grnpes. Exelusively . . 601
Additional Exemption in Relation t o Brandy Distilled from Apples,
CHAPTER XXV. Peaches, o r Grapes, Exclusively . . 617
WISES. Instructions a s to Survey of Distilleries .
. ..
. 618
Imitation of Cordial Wines ; 534
Regulations and Instructions Relative t o Tice Meters . 6'22

Spirit of T a r . . 534
xxviii CONTENTS.
Regulations in Relation t o t h e Use of Stamps for Distilled Spirits,
t h e Issue o f Stnmps for Rectified Spirits. and t o ~ r o v i d efor a
Uniform a n d Correct Mode for b h r k i n g a n d Branding Casks o r
P a c k u g e s of Spirits . . . 634
R e p o r t of the Committee of the National Academy of Sciences on
Methods of Inspecting a n d Assessing T a x on Distilled Spirits . 644 ON T E E
T a b l e o f Specific Gravity of Alcoholic Spirits a t 60° Fahrenheit . 651
T a b l e of Percentage by W e i g h t and Volume, and of Weights of Al-
cohol a n d W a t e r in 100 Gallons of Spirits at 600 Fahrenheit . 655- MANUFACTURE AND DISTILLATIORT OF ALCOHOLIC
T a b l e I. Containing t h e Densities found by Messrs. Cilpin and
BInaden for Spirits o f Different Strengths and at Various Tempe- ---
Table, 11. Showing Gilpin nnd B!agden's Densities corrected for
E r r o r s of Observation, a n d rcduced t o Standard of Tralles
T a b l e 111. Showing t h e T r u e Densities a n d ~ o l u m e sof Alcohol of P A R T I.
- .~ -
+ S- t r e n r t h from 1 t o 100 per cent., nod for every F i v e Degrees
of Temperature from 300 t o 1050. C H A P T E R I.
Supplement t o T a b l e 111. Giving Specific ~ r a v i t i c sfor Tempera-
tures - - between 00 a n d 250, Observed by Dr. Becknagel, a n d re- ALCOHOL.
duced t o Tralles' S t a n d a r d .
Tpble IV. Showing t h e A p p a r e n t Densities a n d A p p a r e n t P e r cents. UNDERthis name modern chemists designate a spirit-
- - - - .- -
rorresaoodinr - -
t o every T r u e P e r cent. from 1 t o 100, a n d for
every F i f t h Degree of Temperature from 300 t o 100° .
uous liquid of any degree or density. T h e terms brangy,
spirits of wine, of molasses, beets, o r w7(iskey employed i n
Supplement t o T a b l e IV. Giving A p p a r e n t Specific Gravities and the market to designate t h e varieties a n d extreme de-
A nL n a r c n t P e r cent. for Temperatures between 00 a n d 25O. ns de-
- r - ~- -
rived from t h e Supplement t o Table 111. . mrees
eIn of concentration
scientific of this
language b y t h e generic
same liquid,
term. are replaced
Experiments made a t t h e Surgeon-General's Office, United States
a r m y , in Washington City . . T h e word aZco7iot is of Arabic origin, and signifies a
O n PrAving t h e Strength of Spirits . - vwy subtile o r highly divided hody. It was formerly em-
O n Gauging t h e Quantity of Spirits ployed t o indicate t h e extreme tenuity given t o certain
powders. Boerhaave used it t o express t h e inflamma-
Explanation o f t h e Tables, a n d Directions for their U s e . ble prir:ciple reduced to its simplest terms without
T a b l e I. T r u e P e r cent. .
being decomposed.
Volumes . Pure or a d q d r o u s aZcohoZ is a transparent, colorless
liquid, of a strong and penetrating odor; of a warm and
T a b l e 11. .
Tatile 111. . . acrid taste, very volatile; when exposed to the air i t
T a b l e I. Showing t h e T r u e P e r cents. of P r o o f Spirit for uny Indi- evaporates by degrees ; inflammable by contact with
cation of t h e Byllrometer at Temperatures between 00 nnd 1000 F.
Corrections to Volume .
flame, i t burns with a white flame, leaves no residuum, .
and disengages much heat. Whell diluted with water
T a b l e 11. F o r Finding t h e Number of Gnllons a t 600 Fnhr. from t b e it burns with more diGculty, and its flame is blue and
W e i g h t a n d Strength of Spirituous Liquors .
T a b l e 111. Giving t h e Respectire Volumes of Absolute Alcohol nnd less brilliant. It is very sensitive to t h e influence of
W a t e r contained in 100 Volumes of Spirits of Different Strengths. changes of tempemture; expanding under t h e effects
a n d t h e Specific Gravities . 2
solves iodine, the resins, volatile oils, vegetable alkalies,
of heat, contracting in the cold. Exposed to a tem- almost all of the acids, &c. It precipitates from their
perature of 173O Fahr. (78O cent.) under a pressure of solutions gum, starch, albumen, gelatine, and many other
Om.76 i t boils and evaporates entirely. It has never substances. On account of these properties alcohol is
been frozen. ~m invaluable agent in analysis.
The specific gravity of pure alcohol a t 60° Fahr. I t has numerous applications in medicine and the arts;
(15O.5 cent.) is 0.793. I t s elementary composition is it serves as the vehicle for a host of remedies, forming
Carbon .. 52.32 the bases of the ethers, tinctures, aromatic spirits, &.
Oxygen . 34.38 . : Jt is never employed pure for these purposes, hut of dif-
Hydrogen . . 13.30 . . ferent degrees of strength, RS indicated by the alcohol-
meter. I t enters into the preparation of liquors and
cordials for the table, absinthes, perfumed extracts, and
Pure alcohol is decompo~edbypassing i t in thk form vinegars, and aromatic spirits, and is therefore used in
of vapor through a porcelain tube heated to redness. very large quantities by the perfumer and liquorist.
It is converted into carbonic acid, carburetted hydr* It is used by the anatomist and naturalist to preserve
gen, and water. These products indicate the constitu- their preparations from putrefaction. Finally, i t enters
ent principles of alcohol in a positive manner. into the manufacture of varnishes, stearine candles, gun
Alcohol mixes with water in a11 proportions. The caps, &c., for which large quantities are consumed.
increase of temperature which takes place in the mixture Alcohol is found in all substances (vegetable or
indicates the condensation and complete union of the other) which contain sugar or glucose ; i t is the product
two bodies. The volume of the mixture is in fact much of the decomposition of the saccharine principle which
less than the sum of the volumes of the original liquids. : takes place during the vinous or aZcohZic fermentation.
The maximum of contrnction takes place in a mixture It does not exist ready formed in these substances, but
of 580.625 parts of alcohol and 674.880 parts of water. only after they have passed through this kind of fermen-
100 volumes of this mixture contain 53.939 volumes of tation, and it may, by reason of its very great vola-
alcohol, and 49.836 volumes of water; in other words, tility, be separated by distillation from the water with
103.775 volumes are reduced to 100. which i t is united. It is on this principle that is
As has been said above, spirits and brandies* are founded the extraction of this product.
alcohols of different titles or degrees of strength, the All vinous liquors which yield alcohol by distillation
former known in commerce as recl$ed spiriia (tr& &), do not furnish it in equal quantities, the result depend-
a t 85 or 95 degrees of the centesimal alcoholmeter! . . ing on the quantity of saccharine matter contained in
The second vary from 40 to 60 degrees, according to::: the liquid. The larger the proportion of sugar the
the nature of the substances which have been used to greater will be the alcoholic product, the latter being
manufacture them. The chapters on the distillation of derived entirely from the former.
alcohols and brandies, and the reduction of spirits will Among the vegetables employed in Europe for the
give more ample details in regard to this subject. production of alcohol, the grape holds the first place, the .
Alcohol is of the greatest importance in chemistry. beet and rice come next. Potatoes, artichokes, carrots,
Next to water, i t is the most general solvent. I t dis- turnips, the stalks of Indian corn, sorghum a n d the daf-
.- fodil, although producing notable qualities of alcohol,
* T h e term, " brandy" is used here n s generic t o indicnte t h e spirit are much less employed. I t is the same of the cereals
from grape. F r o m molasses c o m e s rum; from grnin, whiskcy, &c. ;
and fruits in general. T h e molasses of the sugar factories by the use of instruments especially adapted to t h e
and refineries is almost entirely converted into alcohol, purpose, the uses of which will be described i n the
and tckes rank after t h e beet and rice. art~cleon t h e "Determination of the aZwhoZic st~ength
I n t h e United States, on the other hand, potatoes, of liquid9."
Indian corn, and t h e cereals furnish almost t h e whole Alcohol is a diffusible stimulant. I t s energy varies
of t h e alcohol found in the market, while large districts with t h e quantity of water with which it is mixed.
of country depend on the product of the orchards for When concentrated i t acts as a caustic on t h e living
their brandy. tissues of t h e animal economy, coagulating the albumen,
Hereafter we shall examine t h e method of obtaining and depriving them of their water. By injection into the
alcohol from each of t h e substances named above. I t is veins i t causes sudden death b y coagulating the blood.
impossible to obtain anhydrous alcohol by a simple dis- Its introduction into the stomach almost always causes
tillation. Whatever may be t h e merit of the rectifying death. Taken properly its action i s restricted, especially
apparatus, it is necessary to have recourse to very deli- to the sensitive and intellectual organs.
quescent salts or other substances which have a great "Alcohol," says Brillat-Savarin, "is the king of li-
affinity for water, such as carbonate of potash, acetate quids; it excites the taste to t h e highest degree; its vari-
of potash, chloride of c a l c i ~ ~ dried
m and melted, quick- ous preparations have opened u p to mankind new sources
lime, clay dried and finely divided, &c. of enjoyment ;i t supplies to certain medicines a n energy
P u r e alcohol being very diffjcult t o find in t h e market, which they could not have without i t ; i t has become in
t h e following, if not t h e most economical, is a t least the our hands a formidable weapon; for the nations of t h e
most convenient and prompt method for procuring i t :- new world have been almost as much overcome and
T h e spirit is allowed to macerate a t a gentle heat for destroyed by brandy as by fire-arms."
two days upon one-ter.:h of its weight of carbonate of
potash dried by the fire (100 gratnmes to t h e litre of
alcohol a t 85 degrees). It is agitated from time to time,
then distilled in a ,water 6ath, t o draw off all the alcohol
marking 94 degrees. T o this alcohol is then added C H A P T E R 11.
pulverized quicklime in t h e proportion of 500 gramnles
to t h e litre, leaving them in contact for two or three
days i n a hot room, and after decanting t h e alcohol from
t.he calcareous deppsit i t is distilled very geutly. The AN intestinal reaction which occurs:spontaneously in
product is perfectly pure dephlegmated alcohol, that is any vegetable or animal substance under the influence
to say, absolutely free from water. of a peculiar principle, called ferment aided by heat,
When we wish to ascertain if alcohol contains any whence are produced certain new substances which were
water, a fragment of caustic baryta is placed in contact not originally contained therein.
with t h e liquid. I f i t contains no water the baryta is As the periods of decomposition are characterized by
not altered ; on the contrary, if a n y water is present it some peculiar predominating principle, the distillers dis-
whitens, swells, becomes hydrated and falls into a powder; tinguish four kinds of fermentation, viz : The sacchariwe
T h e phenomenon is more marked i n proportion as the or glucosic, t h e vinous or alcoholic, t h e acid or acetic,
quantity o f water is greater. and the putrid.
T h e degree of concentration of alcohol is ascertained Although t h e vinous or alcoholic fermentation most
especially concerns the distiller, i t is nevertheless indis-
pensable, on account of the different alcohols extracted
Pears . Green.
6.4 11.5
Currants (red)
. . 0.5 6.25
from starch and the cereals (of which we shall speak
hereafter), that he should be perfectly familiar with the
. .. 4.9
laws which govern the saccharine fermentation. As to Penches . . 0.6 11.6 ,
acid and putrid fermentation, they may be considered,
Cherries . - 0.12 18.11
so far as the distiller is concerned, among the accidents. Experiment has demonstrated that the maturation of
to which we must refer further on. fruits is analogotas to that produced b-y the reaction of
feeble acids upon gum, starch, and the shavings of wood.
Saccharine or 43lucosic Fermentation.
Vinoas or Alcoholic Fermentation.
This fermentation is developed in starch dissolved in
water, when brought in contact either with malt (ger- Among the proximate principles of organic substances,
minated barley), gluten, or with a mineral or vegetable sugm alone gives occasion to vinous fermentation from
acid, agents which act as a ferment or leaven. mhlch alcohol is derived.
I t also takes place in the act of germination of seeds This fermentation cannot proceed without the con-
and the ripening of fruit. It is effected without any currence of five agents acting, each in a different direc-
visible movement in the material, solid or fluid, and tion, the union of which is, however, indispensable, viz :-
without disengaging carbonic acid. 1. Sugar or saccharine principle; 2. Water; 3. Heat;
T h e operation of saccharifiatwn is nothing more than 4. A ferment; and 5. Atmospheric air.
the transformation of. the amylaceous matter into glu- If one of these agents is suppressed, the vinous fer-
cose, that is to say, a true saccharine fermentation. mentation mill not take place, and consequeutly no
T h e substances just named are not the only ones alcohol will be produced, whatever be the materials
which may, under the influence of certain reagents, be used or the processes followed. The rale of each is of
transformed into sugar; gum, pectine, cellulose, etc., also more or less importance, and the success of the fermen-
enjoy this property. tation depends absolutely on their employment and
Green or unripe fruits contain a very small propor- combination.
tion of sugar, and, on the other hand, a considerable We shall now examine, in turn, the part played by
quantity of gum, mucilage, pectine, starch, lignine, and each of these agents in the fermentation in order to
a great amount of free acid. During the maturation 5 bring about the formation of alcohol.
part of the acid disappears under the influence of heat Sugar.-As we have said above, sugar is the only
and. the oxygen of the air, the cellular tissue diminishes constituent element that can produce alcohol. The rest
are mere auxiliaries to the decomposition.
and the quantity of sugar increases in such amanner that
instead of ligneous and acid fruits me have, if the ma- According to the principles of chemistry, as under-
turation is complete, some weeks after gathering them, stood to-day, sugar is a substance which, when dissolved
and brought in contact with a ferment, possesses the
fruits which contain a sweet and syrupy juice enclosed
in tough or leatherlike envelopes. property of being transformed into alcohol and carbonic
The following table will exhibit the proportions of. acid; entirely composed of oxygen, carbon, aud hydrogen.
It consists by weight of carbon 42.47; oxygen 50.73;
sugar contained in 100 parts of certain fruits, both green
and ripe :- hydrogen 6.90.
The fermentation is rapid or slow in accordance with
There are two marked varieties of sugar, the common the quantity of water employed. T o hasten or retard
or crystallizable and the uncrystallizable sugar. the operation, i t is only necessary to increase or di-
T h e first of these, generally obtained from the cane minish the dose, by adding water in the first case, and
and beet, is also found in the stalks of sorghum, Indian evaporating i t in the second; the best guide being the
corn,etc. The second is met m-ith in the grape, pear, saccharometre.
and other fruits, in the potato, in beans and in seeds. In order to exhibit more clearly the action of water
From a number of vegetables sugar may be extracted, in the course of the vinous fermentation, we shall pro-
differing more or less from that derived from the cane, ceed to give the results of some experiments made by
as the maple, beet, grape, or potato. This sugar will M. Duplais in June, 1854.
also undergo the vinous fermentation, and alcohol may Five fermenting vats, of a capacity of 25 hectolitres
be obtained from i t by distillation. each, situated in a place having an even temperature of
Again, there exist certain sugars susceptible of fermen- 20" C., received each 300 kilogrammes of molasses from
tation which, although differing entirely from the preced- the sugar refineries (215 litres at 42 degrees), and a
ing, are enlplo~edin a fluid state in the form of syrup or quantity of water suficient to make, in No. 1, 600 litres,
juice. These can neither be crystallized nor solidified. marking on the saccharometre 15"; in No. 2, 750 litres
Sugar is transformed into alcohol by the separation of marking 12O ; in No. 3, 1000 litres marking go; in No.
it part of the carbon or oxygen which i t contains. In 4, 1500 litres marking 6O; and in No. 5, 2250 litres
the course of this transformation i t loses half its weight marking 4O.
in gas. This result may serve to make known the The following table will exhibit the duration of the
quantity of alcohol of any desired strength which may fermentation and the alcoholic product of 2ach vat :-
be obtained from a properly fermented vat.
T h e liquid which the vat contains before fermentation
having been weighed by means of a densimetre or sac-
charometre @me sirop), it is easy to calculate the weight
of the sugar which i t contains in solution, and the half of
Quantity of liquid.

600 litres at 15O

I Duration of

8 days
Alcoholic pro-
78.75 litres
I Proportion
per 100.

. 26.25
this weight will give approximately the weight of pure 2 700 " " 12 5 " 83.55 " 27.85
alcohol which the fermentation will produce ; yet it 1000 '' *' 9 3 " 90.45 " 30.15
1500 " " 6 2 " 93.15 " 31.05
must be observed that practice often destroys the calcu- 2250 " ' 4 1 " 93.90 " 31.30
lations of theory, because the liquid tested may contain I I
tartrate of potassn, or other foreign matters, and conse-
quently less sugar than is indicated by the saccharome Thus it is evident that the proportion of water exer-
t r e ; moreover, i t is proper to take into account the cises a great influence, both on the duration and on the
acetic acid which is formed a t the expense of the alcohol products of the fermentation, and although it requires
as well as the loss by evaporation. more fuel to distil 1500 litres of a liquid which will
Water.-Of all natural agents for the disorganization produce 93.15 litres of alcohol, than for 750 litres which
of material substances, water occupies the first place. will produce 83.55 litres, the increase of fuel is more
The presence of this solvent par excellence, is not only than compensated by the increase of the product.
indispensable, but the more or less active and complete The choice of water for the vinous fermentation is not
change of the sugar into alcohol is dependent on the
proportion in which i t is used.
A vat of 10 hectolitres
a matter of indifference. T h a t which contains organic A'
', -
matters i n solution should be rejected, on account of its 40 8'
tendency t o r u n into t h e putrid fermentation. Water '' 60 'a

strongly impregnated with lime, o r salts of iron, should ' 100 and above.
also be rejected. Without t h e employment of filtered The power which orranic substances possess of fer-
water, as for cordials, liquors, etc., it is indispensable to menting under t h e intlience of heat and contact with
have i t pure and clear t o obtain a good result from the the air, a n d thus, when i n this condition, of producing
fermentation. the same phenomena i n other substances, wil! disappear
This article cannot be closed without one observation entirely when they are submitted to t h e temperature of
of very great importance. I n distilleries where t h e fer- boiling water. This general rule h a s no exception.
menting vats are heated by steam, if t h e pipes are not I f we take a substance naturally susceptible of fer-
sufficiently inclined, t h e water resulting from t h e con- kenting, of putrefying, and being decomposed, when left
densation of t h e steam in them may check or even even for a moment exposed to t h e action of t h e air, a n d
arrest the fermentation. This inconvenience may be if, after having arrested t h e movement of incipient
abated b y t h e use of rc, 66drip." change, by means of a temperature of 100° C., we pre-
Eeat.-In t h e disorganization of organic substnnces, vent all access of oxygen which alone can cause a re-
t h e intervention of heat is as important as t h a t of water. vival of this movement of decomposition, t h e substance
Like water, heat m a y be t h e cause of hastening or will preserve, as it is easy t o conceive, for a n indefinite
retarding t h e vinous fermentation. Below a temperature period of time, t h e condition and properties which it
of 12" C. it is checked, and ceases entirely with a very possessed a t t h e moment when it was submitted t o t h e
cold temperature. Between 1 5 O and lSO C. fermentation temperature of boiling water. I n fact t h e substance i s
sustains itself, and becomes more lively and more perfect in itself incapable of spontaneous motion ; so long as n o
beyond this point. It is not, however, necessary to ex- external cause acts on its atoms, they will preserve their
ceed 28O o r 30°, because this high temperature excites place and original character.
t h e acetic fermentation and will become very injurious. -
When a bottle is filled with t h e fresh juice of t h e
T h i s inconvenience m a y be obviated by cooling t h e mass grape, hermetically sealed, and suffered t o remain some
by means of a coiled pipe placed i n t h e vats, in which
cold water is caused t o circulate, a s is done i n many
hours. i n- boiling
acquired t h e same temperature as the water, the small
water, or a t least until the m -a- - t- ha-
English distilleries.' quantity of oxygen contained in t h e air which remains
H e a t is retained longer in large masses t h a n in small, in the bottle is absorbed during t h e action of t h e h e a t
a n d t h e fermentation becomes of itself the source of heat, by the elements of the must.
by reason of t h e rapidity of t h e decomposition of the I n this manner t h e alteration of t h e must is preven-
sugar; this rapidity being also i n proportion t o the tive; i t will no longer ferment; it will preserve its sweet
mass. Hence it follows t h a t t h e heat should be increased taste, and this condition will be maintained until t h e
in inverse proportion t o t h e bulk of t h e mass to be fer- bottle shall be opened, t h a t is t o say, until t h e moment
men ted. when the liquid shall be brought into a new contact with
I n general, with some exceptions which will be indi- the external air. B u t setting o u t from this time t h e
cated hereafter, t h e heat which should be applied to liquid will undergo t h e same modifications as recent
fermenting vats, is a s follows :- must; in other words, it will be, after some hours h a v e

displace the layer of carbonic acid gas interposed
between the liquid in fermentation and the atmospheric
elapsed, in fidl course of fermentation, which may, how- air. The period most to be apprehended for the forma-
ever, be interrupted and caused to cease entirely as a t tion of acetic acid in the vinous.fermentation, is towards
first, by means of a new ebullition. the end of t.he operation, for then the action of the
The Air.-By reason of its oxygen, the air is the ve- atmosphere is exercised only on the alcohol already
hicle of decomposition of organized bodies. It acts as formed and favors its transformation into acetic acid.
a leaven in the vinous fermentation, for which i t is Weak musts extracted from various substances in'
essentially the initial force. Nevertheless, when its which the vinous fermentation is completed cannot bear,
oxygen has given the impulse, i t ceases to be necessary by reason of the small quantity of alcohol which they
in the different periods through which the fermentation contain, contact with the air; iri them the acid fermen-
passes. This last, notwithstanding the exclusion of the tation begins as soon as the vinous fermentation has
air, continues its progress without interruption. ceased, and we may alnlost affirm. that the two fermen-
The juice of the grape, so long as i t is protected by its tations, under the circumstances indicated, in some mea-
envelope from contact with the atmospheric air, experi- sure progress side by side.
ences modifications which are scarcely appreciable. The Perment.-The term ferment is understood to apply
berry only dries by degrees. But i t i s sufticient to change to any substance which, when placed in a liquid capable
all the properties of this juice, if the envelope is opened of being fermented and properly arranged, causes i t to
with the point of a needle. When i t is protected from ferment with more activity and energy than i t would
contact with the air, and consequently preserved from have done if left to itself, and thus shortens this opera-
the chemical action which the oxygen of the air exercises tion.
upon one of its proximate principles, the must of the The ferment is a substance in a state of putrefaction,
grape will be preserved indefinitely; for in the absence whose atoms are i n continual motion, and which ,has
of a disturbing cause, the elements can experience no the property of causing the decomposition of sugar and
change, whatever be their facility of assuming new ar- its conversion into alcohol. May not this substance,
rangenlents. But when i t is exposed to the air and which has not been clearly defined, be considered as pe-
subjected to a proper temperature, there is produced an culiar, or rather as a modification of certain animal or-
active disengagement of gas, accompanied by movement ganisms? This last hypothesis is admitted by many
in the liquid, and all the suGar will disappear. The philosophers, because many animal substances, when in
juice of the grape now contarns a quantity of alcohol a state of decomposition, act as a ferment on sugar.
which is in direct proportion to the sugar which it con- According to the microscopic observations of Que-
tained before.
- -
venne, Turpin, a i d others, upon substances in a state of
fermentation, tG$errnent is endowed with vital action
Nevertheless, if the contact of the air is indispensable
'to set up the vinous fermentation, pa~ticularcare should and partakes of 'the nature of the animal or -
- - v.n--------
entdd- 7
be taken to prevent this contact when the fermentation i t appears to be organized, and to exist and develop itr
has commenced; by this precaution will be prevented self i t requires similar nourishmnnt-
~ ~ - --
<' This azotized substance, which exists as a gum in the.
the formation of acetic acid, which is always produced
a t the espense of the alcohol, and then becomes itself a greater part of organized matters, when placed under
most active leaven for the acetic fermentation. I t is certain influences and in proper conditions, is developed,
advisable, then, during the continuance of the fermenta- modified, and acts a s we shall demonstrate hereafter.
tion, to abstain as much as possible from uncovering the
vat, and producing any movement whatever that may
which provokes the change without participating therein
Sometimes i t exists already formed, but during the chemically.
course of fermentation it loses its quality of ferment. Tbe ferment most generally used is the Zeaven or yeaat
Sometimes, on the other hand, it not. only esists and of beer. The preference of distillers for this substance
acts, but, during the fermentation, i t develops itself is founded on its fermentable power, and on the facility
until i t acquires a weight five, six, and even sevenfold with which i t may be procured in the market.
more than it had a t the beginning. Yeast is a frothy substance which is drawn up by the
"In respect to the ferment we recognize three condi- carbonic acid gas, and collects o n the surface of the
tions in the phenomena of fermentation ;in the first, the liquid during the fermentation of the worts'of beer. I t
ferment does not exist, but may be produced spontane- is to be had of the brewers either in a liquid or solid
ously, as in the case of saccharine fruits; in the second, &ate, that is to say, fresh or'dry.
Fresh yeast in a semi-fluid state is to be preferred,
the ferment exists and acts, but is not reproduced: this
occurs when sugar is mixed with the leaven of beer; . -but
it is very di5cult to transport and preserve it; there-
fore dry yeast is most frequently used. The latter has
and in the third, the ferment may originate, act, and re-
produce itself, as happens in the course of the manufac-
been subjected to the action of a press, to deprive it of
iure of beer." the beer and render it solid. I n this state it is in the form
I n general the ferment does not act by virtue of its of a uniform brittle paste, neither stringy nor sticky, of
peculiar chemical nature, but simply as the cause of an a yellowish-white, and having a slight aromatic odor of
action which extends beyond the sphere of its own de- hops, without any mixture of an acid or putrid taste.
composition ; it impresses on the organic substances The fermentable power of yeast varies according to
with which it may be brought in contact the state of the quality of the beer from which i t is derived. If it
decomposition in which i t happens to be. c: The ferment results from n strong beer, i t is .much more substantial,
itself takes no part in' the chemical changes which it acts more gently and more certainly, and is more apt .to
pyovokes, and we can find, neither in the laws of affi- favor a healthy and sweet fermentation. If, on the
m.-l = -- -n
t Iv n ~.-the
- - .... forces of electricity, light,
- or beat, any other hand, it is derived from R small beer, it acts all
at once with a sort of violence, and,-after having ex-
legitimate explanation of its effects."
Whatever may be the nature of the ferment, it is very cited in the wort a hasty bubblirjg and kind of efferves-
evident that to cte action, in the course of fermentation, cence, i t loses all its energy, from which results a loss of
is due the change of sugar into alcohol. Ferment, as a portion of the spirituous principle, and is frequently
we have already said, is a substance undergoing decom- followed by acidity.
position or putrefaction, the particles of which are in The facility with which yeast passes to a state of
continual motion. This perturbation of elements, by putrefaction renders i t necessary to preserve i t in the
communicating itself to the sugar, dsstroys the state of cellar, or some other cool place, for a slightly elevated
' temperature may readily alter or corrupt it.
equilibrium of its peculiar atoms, whichare then grouped
in a different manner, according to their special attrac- . I t may be preserved a sufficiently long time, espe-
tions. The carbon of the sugar divides itself between cially as regards its freshness, when care is taken *to
the oxygen and hydrogen in such it manner as to form .
cover i t with water, which must be renewed every day.
two more .- stable and intimate compounds--carbonic acid A means of preserving yeast, a t all seasons, and which
has been employed with some success, consists in mixing

.and alcohol. .The elements of the ferment take-nopart

in the formation of the products which result from the this substance with very thick molas+e, so as to form a
sugar during the fermentation. I t is only the stimulant
which provokes the change without participating therein
Sometimes i t exists already formed, but during the chemically.
course of fermentation i t loses its quality of ferment. The ferment most generally used is the leaven. or yeaat
Sometimes, on the other hand, it not. only exists and of beer. The preference of distillers for this substance
acts, but, during the fermentation, i t develops itself is founded on its fermentable power, and on the facility
until i t acquires a weight five, six, and even sevenfold with which it may be procured in the market.
more than it had a t the beginning. Yeast is a frothy substance which is drawn up by the
"In respect to the ferment we recognize three condi- carbonic acid gas, and collects on t h e surface of the
tions in the phenomena of fermentation ;in the first, the liquid during the fermentation of the worts'of beer. It
ferment does not exist, but may be produced spontnne- is to be had of the brewers either in a liquid or solid
ously, as in the case of saccharine fruits; in the second, state, that is to say, fresh or dry:
the ferment exists and acts, but is not reproduced: this Fresh yeast in a semi-fluid state is to be preferred,
occurs when sugar is mixed with the leaven of beer; is very difficult to transport and preserve it; there-
and in the third, the ferment may originate, act, and re- fore dry yeast is most frequently used. The latter has
~ r o d u c eitself, as happens in the course of the manufac-
- ~
been subjected to the action of a press, to deprive it of
iure of beer." the beer and render it solid. I n this state it is in the form
In wgeneral the ferment does not act by virtue of its of a uniform brittle paste, neither stringy nor sticky, of
peculiar chemical nature, but simply as the cause of an a yellowish-white, and having a slight aromatic odor of
action which extends beyond the sphere of its own de- hops, without any mixture of an acid or pu&id taste.
composition ; it impresses on the organic substances The fermentable power of yeast varies according to
with which it may be brought in contact the state of the quality of the beer from which i t is derived. If i t
decomposition in which it happens to be. " The ferment results from a strong beer, i t is much more substantial,
itself takes no part in the chemical changes which it acts more gently and more certainly, and is more apt -to
pfovokes, and we can find, neither in ihe laws of affi- favor a healthy and sweet fermentation. If, on the
nity nor in the forces of electricity, light, or heat, any other hand, it is derived from a small beer, it acts all
legitimate explanation of its effects." at once with a sort of violence, and,-after having ex-
Whatever may be the nature of the ferment, it ie very cited in the wort a hasty bubblir>gand kind of efferves
evident that to its action, in the course of fermentation, cence, i t loses all its energy, from which results a loss of
is due the change of sugar into alcohol. Ferment, a8 a portionof the spirituous principle, and is frequently
we have already said, is a substance undergoing decom- followed by acidity.
position or putrefaction, the particles of which are in The facility with which yeast passes to a state of
continual motion. This perturbation of elements, by putrefaction renders it necessary to preserve i t in the
communicating itself to the sugar, dptroys the state of cellar, or some other cool place, for a slightly elevated
equilibrium of its peculiar atoms, which are then grouped temperature may readily alter or corrupt it.
in a different manner, according to th&r special attrac- . It may be preserved a sufficiently long time, espe-
tions. The carbon of the sugar divides itself between cially as regards its freshness, when, care is taken to
the oxygen and hydrogen in such a manner as to form cover i t with .water, which must be renewed every day. .
two more stable and intimate compounds--carbonic acid A means of preserving yeast. at all seasons, and which
and alcohol. The elements of the ferment take no part has been employed with some succese, consists in mixing
in the formation of the products which result from the this subst.anee with very thick molassee, 80 as to form R
sugar during the fermentation. I t is only the stimulant
32 DISTILLATION OF ALCOHOL. yeast i i ~a little boiling water, and pouring into i t two
T h e ferment t h u s mixed with sugar or or three drops of tincture of iodine. I f i t is pure, the
h a r d paste. liquid will not change color; if, however, it is adulte-
molasses," says Dumas, " will for years preserve i t s cha- rated, a decided blue color will be Iorodu---l
racteristic properties." According t o M. Payen a better - -CiCU.
Beer yeast is not t h e only substance which will cause
result is obtained by spreading o u t a thin layer of fresh the conversion of sugar into alcohol. All azotized sub-
yeast, and allowing i t to d r y in t h e open air b y exposure stances, as gluten, albumen, fibrine, caseine, &c., possess
t o t h e sun, o r in a current of slightly-heated air. this property i n a more or less decided degree, and they
c c I have," says he, ' l succeeded i n rendering t h e de- will act as much more promptly as they are more alter-
siccation more prompt by spreading t h e yeast whipped able, and when they have already arrived at a state of
t o a smooth broth on thick tables of plaster well dried, incipient putrefaction.
a n d t h u s rendered more absorbent." Another means All t h e vegetable juices t h a t contain sugar enter into
h a s appeared t o me t o be a t least as efficacious. I t con- a state of fermentation a few hours after they have
sists in mixing t h e whipped yeast with very d r y animal Seen expressed, as happens with the juice of sugar-cane,
black in powder (and consequently strongly hydroscopic), the beet, fruits, t h e sap of t h e maple, &c. This pheno-
o r with starch strongly heated a n d cooled i n a close menon results from t h e fact t h a t these juices contain a
vessel. T h e drying under these circumstances is easily notable proportion of nitrogenous fermentable material,
finished i n a current of air heated t o 30° or 35O C. which, however, does not possess the power of develop-
Whatever may he t h e method employed for preserv- ing fermentation until brought in contact with the a i r ;
i n g pure yeast it is very certain t h d t it will never possess for, in a vacuum, or i n contact with other gases t h a n t h e
either t h e strength o r t h e energy of t h a t which is newly
r--L---- - - therefbre it should never be used when fresh
yeast can be obtained.
air, these saccharine juices undergo no change, while a
very small quantity of atmospheric air will i n a short
time determine their fermentation.
Tt. i--
a" a imnortant to examine yeast with great care to
T h e varieties which exist i n yeast, as regards t h e

be assured of its quality. hit which is aci& o r the amount of ferment it contains, as well a s t h e distance
result of a bad fermentation, should be rejected. T h e of certain distilleries from the sources of supply, oblige
- - - ... is recognized
former u as follows : A strip of litmus
~- ~ . .paper
- the distillers to prepare leaven for themselves. By this
beink dipped into t h e suspected yeast, if it is ncid the means they act intelligently, and are assured of obtain-
blue will be changed t o a r e d ; if, however,
ing uniform results; nevertheless we must say t h a t
t h e yeast be good, fresh, a n d well preserved, t h e litmus leaven is never so energetic as good yeast.
paper will be slightly reddened, b u t if washed i n fresh T h e following receipt will always produce a leaven,
water t h e blue will be restored. As to t h a t which re- the eficacy of which has been proven by experience :-
a r l-l t-- -- - .-
a from a vicious fermentation it is a l m ~ impossible
~$ .
Malted wheat. very dry and polverized . 4 0 02 grammes.
t o detect it, unless by employing t h e means hereafter Malted barley ground and dried in a furnace.
indicated i n t h e article on the phenomena of f e ~ - m e n l a t h , Hops . 250 "
or when t h e decomposition is so f a r advanced i n t h e Strong glue . - 250 "
nltnred leaven t h a t t h e disagreeable odor which it ex-
- R i v e r water .'
. - 4 0 litres.
hales may be recognized. G o o d fresh and dry yeast . 1 kilog. 500 grms.
Frequently t h e d r y yeast is sophisticated. T h e fraud Boil t h e hops i n 24 Ktres of water until reduced to
consists in t h e addition of r y e o r wheat flour, or, more one-third, filter through a cloth, then, after allowing it
likely, wheat or potato starch. T h i s mixture is readily 3
detected by d i s s o l ~ i n ga small quaptity of t h e suspected
The object of the soap and butter is to prevent the
to cool to 3fi0 C., work in the flour. The glue is to be fermentation from being too tumultuous.
dissolved in the remaining 16 litres of water a t a boiling
heat, and the solution mixed with the flour dough. The
Phenomena of the Vinous Fermentation.
mass is then allowed to cool down to 24O C., and the I
yeast is added. T h e mass will very soon begin to fer- Now that we have explained the r81e of the five in-
ment, and, a t the end of twenty-four hours, will have dispensable agents of the vinous fermentation, their
been converted into a very good leaven fit for immediate combination and use, me shall describe the phenomena
use. of the operation itself.
If a small quantity of this leaven is prepared a t the T h e vinous fermentation, as we have already said, is
beginning it will serve for preparing more, and by this the result of the decomponiti6n of sugar, the products
being alcohol and carbonic acid.
means i t may always be procured in such quantity as
may be needed. It may be kept for eight days in a cool .- These results may be easily established by dissolving
place without alteration. some sugar in four times its weight of water, or more,
The following may also be employed successfully :- according to the idea of the distiller, without, however,
using too great a quantity of water, for then the fer-
Common h o o e y
Ma1 t
. .. h kilogrammes.
3 kilogr. and 5 0 0 grammes.
menting mass will heat with difficulty, because i t will
Cream of tartar . 500 grammes. be too watery. When the liquid marks lo0 of the
Water . . 1 0 litres. saccharometer its temperature should be raised, as has
already been said, in proportion to the mass, that is to
Heat the water to 50° C., then add the cream of tar- say, be'tween 1 5 O and 30° C. Take 2& per cent. of dry
tar, honey, and malt.; stir the whole well together and snd fresh yeast, and dilute it with a small quantity of
leave it for some hours., As soon as the temperature has the liquid which is to be fermented; beat the mixture
fallen to 24O C. cover the leaven until the fermentation strongly with a small whip ; cover the vessel, and if the
is established. yeast is good, the fermentation will be established a t the
T h e following: urocess for the distillation of the juice end of a quarter or half of an hour a t most; if not we
of the beet, forV&hich a patent was issued in France in shall be compelled to add yeast until fermentation shalt
1838, may with some modifications be highly useful. be active and tumultuous. This preparation finished,
The process may be stated as follows, viz : The beet the leaven is poured into the fermenting vats, the mix-
juice, marking from 6 O to 7O of the areometer of Baum6 ture thoroughly stirred, and the vessel closed. The
(saccharometer), is introduced into the vats a t a tempe- temperature of the mass must be kept up, and under
rature of 25O C., to which are added, for a vat of 1 5 hec- these conditions the fermentation will not delay in es-
tolitreo :- tablishing itself, and will run through its various periods.
Sulphorie acid. at '660
Dried beer yeast .
.. 1 kilogramme 5 0 0 grammes.
2 kilogrammes 500 "
Let us suppose that this experiment is performed i n a
flask furnished with a bent tube, which is plunged into
A speeial preparation . 2

a cistern filled with water, in order to give issue to the

The special preparation is made as follows :- gas, and a t the same time prevent its dissipation in thk
Coarsely ground rye Boor 16 kilogrammes. air. With the apparatus so. arranged i t will be easy to
W h e a t bran . .
observe what passes.
Futter (withont salt) 1 kilogramme 5 0 0 grammes. Pimt stage.-The liquid is disturbed, its volume in-
S o f t soap ' . . 2 kilogrammea 5 0 0 "
Saltvetre . 1 kilogramme.
~ o i l L g.w.ater . 1 0 litres.
chnrine taste, and to have acquired one t h a t is more or
creases, and its temperature rises; for t h e h e a t applied less strong and warm, as well as a peculiar vinous odor.
t o t h e v a t to inaugurate t h e fermentation is not all t h a t From this point it loses t h e name of mwt to receive
will act ; t h e fermentation produces it spontaneously i n thnt of wine, whatsoever m a y be the character of t h e
proportion t o t h e rapidity of its development, t h a t is to materials t h a t have produced it.
say, in accordance w i t h t h e more or less prompt decom- T h e vinous fermentation having run through i t s dif-
position of the sugar, and, consequently, with t h e quan- ferent stages, if we have collected t h e whole of t h e
tity of carbonic acid formed. Certainly it is easy t o carbonic R C I ~gas evolved on t h e one hand, and, on t h e
comprehend that it is t o this heat, produced by t h e in- other, distilled the fermented must to extract t h e alco-
ternal movement i n t h e vat, t h a t is due t h e elevation, hol, leaving o u t of the calculation t h e foreign substances
or, a t least, t h e preservation of t h e temperature of t h e furnished by the ferment, we arrive at this result of our
mass i n fermentation. It is evident t h a t without this .experiment, viz., t h a t 1 0 0 parts of sugar will furnish
new heat t h e v a t would soon lose a part of i t s caloric, 51.455 parts of pure alcohol a n d 48.545 of carbonic acid.
a n d acquire t h e general temperature of the place wherein Now by establishing the quantity, in volumes, of t h e
t h e fermentation is conducted. It is, too, on this prin- elzments of sugar and of alcohol, me can easily account
ciple t h n t we raise t h e temperature of t h e place and of 'for this transformation of sugar into alcohol as indicated
t h e mass i n proportion as t h e quantity is small, and by Gay-Lussac :-
t h e must weak. Composition of sugar in volumes. Composition of alcohol in volumes.
T h e symptoms of fermentation then are : lst, increase .
o f vo7un1e : 2d, elevation of temperature ; Sd, formation
Vapor of carbon
. . .. ... 3 vols. Vapor of carbon . 2 vola
. . . 3 “ Hydrogen . . . . 3 "
a n d d i s c h k g e o f carbonic acid gas. Oxygen I&'' Oxygen . . . -
. 4 vol.
T h i s gas escapes from all points of t h e liquid i n innu- From which i t is seen t h a t alcohol differs from sugar
merable small bubbles, 'which rise t o t h e surface and only i n this, that it contains one volume less of t h e
break, bringing with t h e m particles of t h e ferment, a n d vnpor of carbon and one of oxygen, proportions which
produce, accordiug t o t h e nature of t h e materials acted are exactly those i n which these two bodies combine
on, a scum (or foam), more or less thick, called the cap. to form carbonic acid. Wine is only sugar, less a certain
Second stage.-The v a t attains its highest degree of quantity of oxygen and. carbon.
temperature, t h e fermentation is in t h e greatest activity, A s to t h e decomposed ferment, i t is deposited i n t h e
t h e gas escapes abundantly, and t h e cap thickens ; then form of white flocculi; but i t n o longer contains nitro-
t h e tumultuous movement subsides, t h e heat of t h e v a t gen a s one of i t s elements, and, as we do not find i t i n
decreases, a n d this l a s t resumes its original temperature. any of t h e products, we are ignorant pf what has become
Third stage.-Almost t h e whole of t h e sugnr being of it.
converted into alcohol a n d carbonic acid gas, t h e fermen- It mn,y often happen t h a t a vinous fermentation is
tation-is finished, t h e liquid acquires the temperature of entirely completed, although t h e saccharometre indicates
t h e place in which t h e fermentation is conducted, the one or more degrees, as i n the fermentation of common
cap, n o longer supported by t h e carbonic acid, falls t o molasses and of beet-juice.
t h e bottom of t h e vat, the liquid becomes clear, and T h i s indicates t h a t t h e
fermented liquid contains some salt of potash, o r other
should, if t h e operation has been well conducted, t h a t is substance, and t h a t the saccharometer. does not really
t o say, if the sugar is decomposed, be reduced to the indicate t h e quantity of sugar contained i n t h e liquid,
t e r m zero of t h e saccharometre. In this condition, i f t h e but only t h e specific gravity of this liquid.
liquid is examined, it will be found t o have lost its sac-
38 DISTILLATION OF ALCOHOL. turbid by a long stringy substance, which after a time
is precipitated, thus restoring t h e transparency of t h e
So many circumstances may influence t h e more or liquid. A t this stage all the alcohol it contained is de-
less prompt decomposition of t h e sugar, t h a t it is impos- composed, and in its place is found a quantity of acetic
sible t o indicate precisely t h e t i m e necessary for t h e acid which is proportional t o it; from which circum-
fermentation to r u n through all i t s stages. T h i s de-
composition is dependent, first, on t h e saccharine rich- stance i t is concluded t h a t t h e acid is formed at the
expense of t h e alcohol.
ness of t h e m u s t ; second, on its volume ; third, on t h e Although chemistry cannot as y e t explain i n a satis-
local temperature and t h a t of t h e mass t o be fermented ; factory manner how these reactions are effected, it is
fourth, on t h e energy of &e ferment and t h e quantity known, l s t , t h a t pure alcohol mixed with water never
employed ; i n fact on a number of unforeseen causes. acidifies when exposed to the a i r ; t h a t it is necessary
T h e phenomena which me have j u s t described are i n order to convert it into vinegar t h a t it should be i n
produced in a l l saccharine liquids which enter into a dontact with a ferment or some other nitrogenous sub-
state of fermentation, whatsoever be their origin. stance t h a t will fulfil t h e office of o n e ; 2d, t h a t t h e
I f we examine all t h e phenomena of fermentation as presence of air and a temperature of from 20" t o 35O
a whole, we arrive at a confirmation of t h e principle cent. are indispensable to the fermentation of liquids
long ago laid down by Laplace and Berthollet, v i z :
containiug alcohol. Hence we conclude t h a t t h e ferment
" That a n atom set i n motion by any force whnlsoever, may
is in this case a cnnse of decomposition i n the conver-
communicate its own motion to anothw atom whic7a may be sion of alcohol into acetic acid or vinegar.
in contact zoitri it. T h i s is a general law of dynamics From this statement i t may be understood how irn-
which embraces every case i n which t h e resistance portant it is to prevent t h e access of t h e air to vats
(zital force, afinity, electric force, fmce of co7zesion) during t h e course of t h e vinous fermentation, and to
which opposes a motion is sufficient t o arrest it." (LIE- avoid too high a temperature i n the place where these
BIG.) vats are situated, as well as in t h e must when set for
Accidents of Fermentation. fermentation. T h e same remark is to be made i n regard
to t h e use of the ferment; while a proper quantity
T h e vinous fermentation requires much precaution ; favors the development of the vinous fermentation, too
if it may be disturbed by many known causes, there are great a dose will excite t h e acetic fermentation.
others which it is sometimes impossible t o foresee or I n order to prevent every cause t h a t may favor t h e
explain. It is necessary, then, to bring t o this operation acidification of t h e vats, the greatest cleanliness should
t h e most absolute care. be observed in t h e distillery, and care taken to wash the
Acid Fermentation.--The most t o be avoided of all empty vats as well as all t h e utensils with lime-water,
t h e accidents of fermentation is, without doubt, the acid which neutralizes t h e acid. It is, i n fact, proven t h a t
. fermentation, which results i n t h e formation of acetic the smallest portion of acid is a leaven which will
acid. - T h i s is 'always t h e sequence of t h e vinous fer- accelerate t h e oxygenation of t h e alcohol.
mentation ; it takes place when t h e fermented liquid is T h e acid fermentrrtion may also be developed under
exposed to t h e air, under a temperature of from 20° to
35" cent. A portion of t h e oxygen of t h e a i r is absorbed, a number of exceptional circumstances. Great perturba-
tions of the atmosphere, stormy weather, thunder, the
and aids i n t h e formation of carbonic acid gas, t h e use of fetid or stagnant water, and t h e foul odors which
volume of which is equal t o t h a t of t h e oxygen which
h a s disappeared.
T h e liquid becomes heated, and b y degrees is rendered

exhale from t h e fermenting-rooms, are so many causes . phuric acid of 66O; 2d, by only using good fresh yeast
t h a t may induce the souring of t h e vats. (the cap); 3d, by adding to certain m u s t three or four
thousandths of tannin or one-half of one per cent. of sul-
Putrid FermenlaiiolL.-This is produced when the phuric mid.
decomposition of the liquid passes beyond t h e acetic Lactic Permentation.-This accident of fermentation
stage. T h e liquid then becomes viscous and turbid, results in t h e conversion of saccharine o r amylaceous
disengages ammonia and deposits a n earthy sediment.
T h e rest of t h e liquid is nothing more t h a n water, whose substances into lactic acid. It originates like the viscous
fermentation in certain albuminous or nitrogenous liquids,
fetid and repulsive odor infects all parts of t h e place the fermeutation of which progresses too slowly, either
where this fermentation is developed. in consequence of using a n altered ferment or i n too
VGcous Fermentation..-This is a spontaneous altera-
small quantity, or by the delay i n setting t h e vats t o
tion which sometimes takes place in white wines of
.. work.
inferior quality, i n common beer, beet-juice, and neneritlly T h e lactic may take place simultaneously with t h e
i n saccharine liquids, which have been kept too long
vinous fermentation, and even sometimes overcome it,
before being set t o ferment. It results in rendering these but most frequently it succeeds o r accompanies t h e
liquids thick and slimy, and the transformation of t h e viscous fermentation. I t is recognized by t h e odor and
sugar and starchy matters into a kind of gummy sub- the acrid and disagreeable taste which result from it.
stance. This accident may be prevented by t h e same care a n d
T h e peculiarity of this fermentation, when developed precautions indicated for the viscous fermentation.
actively, is to form i n t h e mass of the liquid mucila- Ei-olhiqg.-The evolution of carbonic acid always pro-
ginous flocks which disturb its transparency and disen- duces, during t h e fermentation of liquids, a great quan-
gage during t h e chemical reaction a small quantity of tity of foam, which frequently runs over the top of t h e
carbonic acid and hydrogen gases. T h e light and pnr-
--.vat3 on t o the floor of the apartment where i t m a y
tial foam which is formed a t t h e surface confirms this
discharge of gas, which, although small, is y e t sufficient occasion putrid exhalations. This accident may be
prevented by sprinkling the batch from ,time to time b y
t o be observed. means of a broom with a solution of soft soap (500
According to M. Payen this vitiation of fermentable grammes in 4 litres of water), or with a small quantity
liquids is attributable t o the alteration of t h e ceseine of very thick oil beaten up with water.
and other nitrogenous substances which they may con-
t a b . One quite serious cause also t o which this viscous
change may be attributed, is t h e much too feeble action Swea&Honse and Fermenting Vata.
of t h e leaven, which does not possess sufficient strength
After having spoken of the conditions, t h e phenomena
t o disorganize t h e saccharine principle entirely. and accidents of fermentation, it y e t remains for us to
It is t o be observed t h a t t h e viscous fermentation once say something i n regard to t h e fermenting-houses and
produced i n a must may be reproduced i n a n y other vats (vessels) destined for this operation.
saccharine liquid to which t h e altered must may be
Since t h e vinous or alcoholic fermentation may be
added ; i t fulfils i n this case the office of a ferment. produced during t h e whole year without regard to t h e
T h e viscous ferrnentation may be easily avoided : l s t , seasons, i t is necessary t o have a place specially devoted
by keeping t h e vats very clean, taking care to wash to it.
them with water acidulated with 5 per cent. of sul-
The apartments i n which this operation is conducted
. .
.I . . . . ,..
.. ..
. .
. . ~.
life of animals compelled to breathe i n a n atia&?hei.e . .~.: '.
:, .' <
. ? . :
' ' :

is called by some a ceZZar, and by others a shop, b u t the contaminated by its presence i n sufficient quantity.
proper term is sweathouse. We cannot recommend too .great precautions against..
T h e size of t h e sweat-house should be i . n. proportion the deleterious action of this gas. On entering the vats,
t o t h e importance of t h e distillery as well as t o the its presence m a y he readily detected by taking a lighted
number and capncity of t h e indispensable vats ; i t should candle i n t h e hand, and holding it near t h e bottom. T h e
receive as much as possible i t s light from t h e east or gas in consequence of i t s weight will occupy t h e lower
west, should have b u t little height of ceiling,- and be stratum of air; if t h e light becomes' dim, it longer
surrounded by thick walls i n order t o preserve its heat. safe to remain, and i t becomes necessary t o withdraw
T h e numb&! and size of t h e windows and doors should from the vessel at once, and gain free access to fresh air.
.. restricted to w h a t m a y be absolutely necessary, and
he I n order t o keep the air of t h e sweathouse healthy,
care should be taken t o c;t off all air currents. we should place several buckets filled with lime-water
A uniform temperature being one of the first condi- ' about the floor, to absorb t h e carbonic acid evolved;
tions of a good fermentation, a thermometer should be but frequently this precaution has been insufficient,
placed in t h e sweat-house to indicate t h e degree of heat. and workmen have been asphyxiated on entering t h e
I f t h e heat is n o t sufficiently high, it may be supplied building. Much risk in this matter m a y be obviated
by means of large stoves placed i n t h e middle of the by maklng a number of openings three or four inches
room. Distillers frequently have n o sweat-house, but square on a level with t h e floor, t o afford a means of
place their fermenting vats i n t h e distillery itself, so as escape to the' carbonic acid gas, which, being heavier
t o avail themselves of the h e a t of t h e distillery of other than atmospheric air, mill flow off a t these vents.
apparatus. T h i s method, which at first sight appears to If a person should meet with an accident from breath-
be very economical, is highly objectionable, because i t is ing carbonic acid, h e should at once be taken into t h e
impossible to regulate t h e fermentation properly. Sup- open air and caused t o breathe a small quantity of nm-
posing t h a t this h e ~ is t sufficient i n winter, it is incon- rnonia (hartshorn), or, better still, chlorine gas. These
testable t h a t it will be too great i n summer, a n d even remedies a r e often successful in cases of asphyxia from
sbmetimes i n t h e bright days of spring a n d autumn. carbonic acid, y e t it is better t o send for a physician at
T h e r e is a loss i n alcohol, which is converted into acid, once and i n all cases.
which is much greater t h a n t h e cost of t h e fuel neces- T h e greatest cleanliness should prevail i n t h e sweat-
s a r y for heating t h e sweat-house. house; the floor should be swept every day, and, if pos-
As has already been said there are evolved during the sible, well washed with a large quantity of water. It is
vinous fermentation, considerable quantities of carbonic proper t h a t i t should be paved with bricks o r tiles t h a t
acid gas. T h i s gas, t h e composition of which is well will resist t h e action of t h e organic acids. which form
known, is also one of t h e products of combustion, and of when t h e froth or fermented liquids (or destined for this
t h e respiration of men and animals. It is also a con- operation) a r e spilled on t h e floor.
stituent of many minerals, being most abundant in the Occasionally,the air of t h e sweat-house should be re-
n a t u r a l limestones, as chalk, etc. ; readily absorbed by moved, but withput varying too suddenly t h e temperature.
water, it reddens litmus paper slightly, t h e color being which is necessary for the success of the work.
restored by a gentle heat. T h e fermenting vats are generally made of oak or
It i s heavier t h a n atmospheric air, nearly double the pine encircled by thick iron bands ; their dimensions a n d
weight bulk for bulk, and may be poured from one vessel capacity vary according to the quantity a n d nature of t h e
t o another, e x t i n p i s h e s flame, and is destructive to tlle
viceable, may be used with advantage for the manufac-
mnrendtls t o be fermented. T h e y should be deeper than ture of alcohol. (Fig. l., PI. VI.)
This apparatus consists of a copper coil, the diameter
wide, and the bottom diameter should be some inches of which varies according to t h e size of the vat, placed
greater t h a n t h a t of t h e top, i n order t o present the at the bottom of the latter. T h i s coil is connected to a
least surface to the action of t h e air, and ccnsequently pipe with two branches furnished with stopcocks; one
diminish the chances of acidification. of these conducts steam and t h e other cold water, ac-
T h e solidity of the vats should be in proportion to cording n s the batch has need of being heated o r cooled.
their size, since the thickness of the wood has the ad- By this simple m e m s the operatiop is under the con-
vantage of preserving t h e heat and protecting t h e liquid trol of the distiller.
from variations in t h e temperature of the external air.
A thickness of 4 centimeters is sufficient for a vat of 25
o r 30 hectolitres, and 5 centimeters for a vat of 60 or 70
hectolitres. F o r vats of greater capacity, the thickness
should be increased in proportion.
T h e form of t h e vats is by n o means a matter of in- C H A P T E R 111.
difference. Circular vats, although occupying more
space t h a n those t h a t are square, are infinitely prefer-
able, because they are so much better adapted to pre-
serve the heat of their liquid contents. I t is moreover THEobject of the process of distillation is to separate
readily understood t h a t t h e angles of square vats will liquids from each other, which are converted into vapor
very much favor this loss of heat. at differedt temperatures, o r t o isolate a volatile liquid
I n order t o avoid cooling and t h e loss or acidification from a fised substance by converting i t into vapor by
of the alcohol, t h e fermenting vats ought to be herme- the aid of heat, and by means of its contact with a cold
tically closed by a cover of which two thirds may be body cause it t o resume i t s liquid form by being de-
raised at pleasure. prived of its heat, and t h u s t o be collected i n proper
J t is also a matter of t h e greatest importance to clean receivers. I t requires much care and .&ill.
t h e fermenting vats as soon as they are emptied, and There are many methods of applying heat in t h e -
rinse them out either with slightly acidulated water (1 process of distillation, and t o favor the ascent of vapor
litre of sulphuric acid at 60° in 20 litres of water) or according t o t h e liquid distilled, viz., t h e n o l d f i r e , the
with lime-water. T h e former is used when the liquid water bath, sand bath, and by steam, so t h a t the degree of
which is drawn from the vats has not been fermented heat aud its manner of application may be varied with
with sufficient energy, or when it contains a small pr+ the substance to be distilled. These operations will be
portion of sugar; the latter when t h e fermentation has treated of more particularly hereafter.
been tumultuous or slightly acid. F o r this purpose, the Distillation is effected i n apparatus, t h e form and
vats should be furnished with a tnp 5 centimetres from arrangement of which are appropriate t o the liquids or.
t h e bottom, for drawing off t h e liquid, and a bung in substances t o be treated. Everything the earth produces
t h e bottom-for cleaning out entirely the deposit formed may be its object and aim, but i t id chiefly for t h e distil-
during t h e fermentation. ler of spirits and the liquorist, for flowers, plants, fruits,
A n arrangement used in some distilleries under the seeds. roots, and in fact every substance t h a t contaiue
care of the author, and which has been found very ser- an aromatic, saccharine, or amylaceoua principle.
1. The boiler or still (Fig. 1,P1. I.) is made of tinned
copper, and enters the furnace; its size varies accord-
The object of the distiller of ardent spirits is to ing to its capacity. A t about three-fourths of its height
separate the alcoholic principle from any ,liquid that this piece is projected or bulged, and forms a border or
may have been -previously subjected to the vinous fer- flange which rests on the furnace. An opening having a
mentation. socket a, with a screw plug b, is placed on this projection,
T h e liquorist, on the contrary, only uses the procesa and serves for the introduction of liquid to replace that
for the p;rpose- of collecting, either by means of water which is evaporated, without arresting the -distillation.
o r alcohol, the perfume of aromatic substances; in a The opening of the boiler is strengthened externally
alcohol separately. .
word, he aromatizes liquids; h e rarely distils water or
DisiiZZing Apparatus.-The apparatus used for simple
by a circular flange c, of rolled copper to support the
water bath; i t has two handles d, to facilitate the hand-
ling. A round gmte (Fig. 2, P1. I.) of tinned copper
or continuous distillation of spirituous liquids is com-
perforated with small holes rests near the bottom, sup-
monly called a still. ported by many feet by two or three inches from the
The merit of a still consists in the harmonious arrange- bottom. This grate is formed of two pieces united by
ment of its parts, which will permit the liquid to be hinges, and is furnished with a handle a, to facilitate its
hehted with promptness, and to be vaporized and con- removal from the still.
densed with facility; and the apparatus will be as much 2. T h e water bath (Fig. 3, P1. I.) is a vessel of copper
better as it mill perform these three functions with the tinned inside only. It is supported by the still into
greatest economy of time and fuel. which i t enters. A t its mouth are also two flanges, a
The number and forms of distillatory apparntus are and 6, of .rolled copper which fit exactly, one with the
numerous and varied. A multitude of patents more or
less valuable have been issued for improvements or for still and the other with the head. The water bath is
also furnished with two handles, c, and a cover with a
novelties which exist only on paper or in the heads of handle (Fig. 4, PI. I.) which closes i t hermetically.
the would-be inventors. We shall only describe such This cover is only used when the water bath is used for
as are reallv valuable and in actual use in distilleries of making infusions.
good sttnd<ng. 3. The head or cap is of copper, tinned inside only.
The Sii,ipZe Apparatus is rarely employed for the di5
tillation of alcohol, because it is impossible to obtain It has the form of an inverted funnel. I t s two openings
are each finished with n flange of rolled copper a and 6.
pure products with i t in a sufficiently large quantity One fitting either the water bath or still and the other
and with sufficient economy to sustain the competition the goose-neck. A hole c, similar to that on the still,
of commerce. Its use is almost entirely confined to and for the same purpose, is made a t about two-thirds
distillers making brandy on the spot, and liquorists of the height of the cap.
aromatizing the spirits for compounding their cordials. 4. The gooseneck (Fig. 6, PI. I.) is a long copper tube
The following are the forms of simple stills, viz :- bent into a semicircle, and reinforced a t each end by a
Still with a goose-neck, flange a and by which serves to connect the still with
66 " moor's head, the coil or worm. T h e coupling (Fig. 7, P1. I.) is made
6' " column, of tin or copper with small flanges of copper or brass for
" of glass or retort. connecting the goose-neck with the worm when the
water bath is in use for distilling.
The still with a gooseneck consists of five principal
parts and five accessories.
and the fear of having them burn and attach themselves
5. T h e cooler o r worm (Fig. 8, P I . I.) is a long pipe to the sides, which sometimes happens when the contenta
of block tin o r tinned copper bent into a spiral a, the of the still are large.
branches b of which are supported by the perpendicular M. Soubeirm has invented t h e following very simple
strips c, of tin or copper, which are soldered to it. Tbe apparatus for t h e preparation of distilled waters by
upper extremity of the worm, which is connected with the steam :-
goose-neck by a flange d, has t h e form of a flattened A movable copper pipe a (Fig. 13, P1. I.), in the form
sphere e, and is called lentil. T h e whole is surrounded of a handle with a stopcock 6, serves t o conduct the
by a slack-tub f of copper, a t the bottam of which there steam from the still into the water-bath; a second curved
is a tap. T h e hot water of the cooler runs off by a level copper pipe c is connected with it, and descending with-
pipe 7~,which is placed at the top of this vessel. A long in, along the walls is bent inwards and opens near the
copper funnel (Fig. 9, P1. I.), extending a little above middle of the bottom of the water bath. A perforated
t h e top, and descending to the bottom of the slack-tub, diaphi-agm d, supported by several feet which sustain it
serves to keep u p t h e supply of cold water. It is called above the orifice of t h e steam-pipe, a n d furnished with
the cooling pipe. T h e beak (Fig. 10, P1. I.) is attacked two handles by which to introduce o r remove i k a t will,
t o t h e lower extremity of t h e worm to connect it with serves t o hold the plants or flowers which are t o be dis-
t h e receiver. (The receizer is t h e vessel which receives tilled. By this system we may replace t h e perforated
the distillate, that used by the liquorist is glass, copper, water-bath, and at the same time effect a distillation by
o r stoneware.) T h e cooler is firmly supported on a steam, since t h e substances are not in direct contact
mass of bricks or oaken trestles. with the water of t h e still.
T h e apparatus with t h e goose-neck is generally used T h e still with column, like the preceding, consists of
for the preparation or rectification of perfumed spirits. a still, a cap, goose-neck, and a cooler. T h e column a
T h e still with moor's. head is composed of pieces like (Fig. 14, P1. I.) is t h e only point of difference ; its height
the last, with the exception of the cap, in which it differs varies with the capacity of the apparatus. T h e extre-
completely. This cap (Fig. 11, P1. I.) is made of tin or mity, which rests o n t h e still, is closed by a fixed dia-
copper, and rests on the still or water bath. A long late- phragm b, pierced with a great number of holes; this
ral pipe or neck a, serves to conduct the vapors into the supports four o r five other diaphragms, c, fitted with
worm. An opening with a neck of copper b, closed by a handles, which rest one on the other, being each charged
screw plug c, of t h e same metal, is placed at the top of with a layer of plants or flowers.
t h e cnp; two flanges, d and e, cornplete the apparatus. A very important improvement has been added to
T h e moor's head is preferred for the distillation of the coZumn still by Egrot, a skilful manufacturer i n
volatile oils and aromatic waters, a s well as for Swiss Paris, which consists in placing between t h e still and
absinthe. the column a n intermediate piece which h e calls a sepa-
F o r the distillation of aromatic waters, t h e perfoaled rator. ( Vase extractif applipuk d Za dietiZCatwn.) By
w a t e r bnth (Fig. 12, PI. I.) is used with ndvantage. This his process are obtained separately, but not at the same
vessel is us-ed t o contain substances which it is desirable time, both t h e good and bad products without t h e latter -
t o subject to a higher degree of heat t h a n can be attained mixing with t h e former.
by t h e ordinary water bath. T h e perforated water bath Thus, if i n t h e ordinary apparatus we place a sepa-
is not plunged intq the boiling water, and t h e substances rub?. (so called because it rejects all t h e fixed and non-
which i t contains are subjected to the action of the steam 4
only, thus preventing contact with the walls of the still
Fig. 2.
distillable products); between t h e still and column for
flowers, it is certain, t h a t of t h e steam arising from the
still to pass through t h e flowers in the column, to ex-
h a u s t them of their aroma, a small quantity will con-
dense therein and carrying with i t the color and active
viscous parts of t h e plant (often very injurious to the
operation), which instead of falling as before into the still,
will now fall into t h e separator and be rejected from the
apparatus. .
It is these viscous colored products t h a t first fall into
t h e still, and, under t h e action of repeated distillation, Seotion of Extraotor.
sometimes for a n hour or two, are volatilized. They
give n taste of phlegm injurious to the flavor of the dis-
.- A. Flanges for fittiqg i t to the still and flower column.
B. Waste pipe. C. Stopcock. D. C u p into which t h e
tillate, or rather this turbid liquid attaches itself to the extremity of the waste pipe dips. E. Cylinder through
walls of the still, a n d detaches the t i n or burns the which t h e steam passes. F. Cap of t h e cylinder f o r
bottom. Finally, if a distiller or perfumer finds himself distributing the steam uniformly.
pressed with his work, as happens a t t h e period of the
flower harvest, h e will have the advantage with the ex- The retort still is of glass, and consists of three parts
tractor of not being compelled t o change t h e water in (Fig. 15, P1. I:), - T h e retort, a ; a connecting tube, a,
his still, thereby gaining much time ; since he may dis- which is enlarged i n the middle and open at both e n d s ;
t i l with t h e same liquid during t h e whole day, taking and a globe, c, which answers for a receiver. This
care only when he renews the charge to add a quantity very fragile apparritus i s rarely used. A copper t e t
of water equal to t h a t drawn off during t h e operation ; still, which is similar to the simple still, varying in size
while i n t h e present state of things, without this ex- from one to six litres, is generally substituted for it.
tractor, he is obliged to empty, rinse, a n d refill the The form of distilling apparatus has undergone much
still with cold water, and then wait until it has been change d u r i n g a century, especially i n regard to the cap.
raised to the boiling point after each operation. This piece, too, appears to be almost useless, and t h e
less of height i t has the better i t is; i t may, too, be re-
placed with advantage by a simple tube connecting t h e
still with the worm.
The use of t h e cap 'being to contain a certain quan-
tity of vapor, i t would be more simple to conduct i t a t
once into the worm, iowards which it is attracted by
the coolness of t h e condenser. T h i s remark is so true
.that all distillers of nlcohol haive suppressed the cap. .
Simple stills to which steam is to be applied as a means
of heating should receive it i n a double bottom, and not
Tbe Extractor. by an interior coil, as is done i n stills for rr continuous
operation, because by this arrangement the crubstances
to be treated may attach themselves to the surface of t h e
D. Upper boiler or still.
coil, and, by interfering with the transmission of heat E. Lower boiler or still.
to the liquid, retard the operation. F. Furnace for heating the two boilers D and E.
By the application of steam the water bath is super. G. Rectifying column.
seded. H. Cooler or duck-tub.
ct a. Tube for introducing the liquid to be distilled
Continued Apparatns. into the slack-tub dI:
This term is applied to a form of apparatus in which a' a'. Tube by which this liquid passes from the cooler
- -
the distillation progresses without intermission and with:
out interruption, and.which possesses the advantage of
E t o the wine-heater and condenser 23.
a'. A small gutter pierced with holes placed within
producing with great economy of time and fuel a large the wine-heater for distributing uniformly the mine
quantity of alcohol of infinitely higher degree than that passing through the tubes ' a a'.
obtained from the simple still. The wine is introduced 6 b. Tube through which the liquid to be distilled
in a constant stream, is deprived during its course of a11 leaves the wine-heater B to pass into the distilling
its alcohol, and passes off a t the other extremity in such column C.
a manner that i f the liquid subjected to distillation was b'. Tube and stopcock connecting the lower part of
not susceptible of befouling the apparatus, the operation the wine-heater with the tube b b, and serving to empty
might go on indefinitely. the wine-heater when the distillation is terminated.
c. Handle of a copper rod which traverses the tube
There are two forms of continuous apparatus, one
for liquids and the other for semifluid or pasty materials. a' a ' and the cooler bearing a t its lower extremity
a dasher, liy means of which the contents of the cooler
Derosne's Apparatus. may be agitated, and any deposit which may have
formed at the bottom of this piece, or may obstruct the
Among the continuous apparatus, one of the most re- different orifices of the apparatus, can be detached.
markable is, without contradiction, that of Cellier-Blu- d. Tube connecting the rectifier G with the coil in
menthal as improved by M. Derosne, whose name it the wine-heater B.
now bears. I t is in use in the larger portion of the e. Tube connecting the condensing coil of the wine-
distilleries of France. heater B with the coil of the cooler 8:
The following is a description (Figs. 1 and 2, P1.11.) :- f. Indicator of glass, marking the level of the liquid
A. Reservoir into which are raised the materials to in the upper plate of the rectifier G.
be distilled. A hogshead or a barrel of any size may f'. Indicator of glass, for detecting the engorgement
be substituted for the reservoir. or choking of the distilling column C.
A'. Bucket for regulating the flow of the liquid into JL. Stopcock for emptying the cooler 8.
the apparatus. j. Proof bottle or jar, for testing the distillate as it
B. Wine-heater and condenser. flows from the coil of the cooler.
C. Distilling column. This column is built in two
different modes, according to the uses for which it is
k. Opening closed by a plug and intended for removing -
any semifluid deposit collected in the cooler 8:
i'ntended. If for common distillation the subdivisions Z. Screw plug on the boiler D, through which if
are made of wire gauze (or cloth) ; if i t is intended more necessary liquor may be introduced when -the apparatus
especially for the rectification, or the production of spirits
of a high degree, the plates should be of solid sheet metal.
is used for rectification.
through a' a
' flows into and entirely fills the wine-heater
.'2 Screw plug on the boiler E for the same purpose. B, in which i t is distributed by the perforated gutter a".
m m. Cover of the wine-heater B in which are two From B the wine escapes by the tube b b to pour on
small open tubes for admitting air when necessary iuto to the upper plate of the distillinq column C ; from this
the wine-heater, and to indicate the formation of steam column i t descends into the first still D, and through'the
therein. The cover is fitted with a water-joint. cock t, which is open, i t passes into thestill 3.
n 7a2. Three stopcocks for returning the low wines
12 '
The wine is allowed to flow from p until thestill E is
from the coil in B to the plates of the rectifier 0: These filled to three-fourths of its height, as may be seen by
cocks correspond to different turns of the coil B. the indicator u ; the cock t is then closed, the still D is
o 0'. Cock and ball-float placed in the reservoir A. allowed to fill in the same manner when the o o c k p is
T h e float opens or closes the cock according to the height closed.
of the liquid in A1. The fire is now to. be started under the still E; the
p. Stopcock t o A' by means of which is regulated the fldnie, after acting on this, passes under the other still
quantity of liquid which should flow in a given time D, and thence into the chimney.
according to the briskness of the operation. The still E rroon begins t o boil; the steam which
q . Goose-neck connecting the two stills D and E. escapes from i t passes through the curved pipe (goose-
r. Glass indicator showing the level in the still D. neck) q p to escape a t the bottom of the still D. The
s 6'. Two coclrs connected with the indicator, to be liquid contained in this still D is also very soon set to
closed in case of its being broken. boiling, the steam rises into C, traversing the plates.
1. Stopcock and pipe connecting the two stills D and E. mounts into the rectifier G, and from this 1s conducted
u. Glass indicator showing the level i n E. by d into' the condensing coil of the wine-heater B ; the
v vl. Two csoks attached to the indicator u, which steam which reaches this coil, surrounded- by a cold
are to be closed i n case of its being broken. liquid, is entirely condensed. T h e condensed product
x. Stopcock for emptying the boiler E. fills the return pipe B B, and by the tube e (it is sup-
y Valve for admitting air to the boiler E if necessary. posed that the return cocks n n' n 2 .are all closed), it
There is a similar valve on the boiler D not shown in passes into the coil of the cooler from which i t is re-
the drawing. ceived in the test jar j.
B B. Horizontal pipe for returning the low wines When the brandy flows through j, and that part of
condensed in the coil B. This horizontal pipe connects the wine-heater B which is above G is too hot to bear
with a number of small vertical pipes, each of which the hand, we may consider the operation as started, and
corresponds to a turn of the coil in the condenser B. should open the cock p of the bucketA1 to allow a con-
T h e numbers from one to sixteen indicate all the tinuous flow of wine into the appara,tus.
flangeioints of the apparatus; they are brought together To Conduct the Operation.-The apparatus being
by screw bolts. under may, the contini~ousstream from p should be
- To Commence the Operation.-Before kindling the fire regulated according to the qu+ntity of liquid which can
under the still E, the different parts of the apparatus
which should contain i t must be filled with wine. For
be distilled in ali hour, and this depends on the size of -
the apparatus. As for o of A i t will not require a n y
this purpose, the reservoir A being full, we open the attention; the ball-float which is fixed t o the key of the
cock o, then the cock y of the regulator A'. T h e wine cock will cause i t to move, as the level of the liquid in
then flows through a a into the cooler 8; fills it, and'
56 DISTILLATION OF ALCOHOL. per depth t h e cock t is closed, and t h e boiler D suffered
to refill from the stream of wine which continues t o flow
A1 rises or falls, i n such a manner as t o close it before A1 from A'.
can overflow. This emptying causes no interruption to t h e distilling,
I f i t is desired t o obtain brandy at 560 centigrade the stills having kept up a constant supply of vapor.
(proof ~ i r i t )t ,h e three return cocks n n1 9z2 are ordina- The operation is therefore continuous
rily closeci; when, o n t h e contrary, a spirit of higher To Terminate the Operation.-When it is desired to
degree is wanted, t h e y .are opened. terminate t h e operation, t h a t is t o say, when there is no
I n the latter event all t h e products of a lower degree, more wine t o be distilled except w h a t remains i n t h e
which are collected i~ coil of B, return upon t h e plates different parts of t h e apparatus, and consequently A and
of the'rectifier G; t h a t only passes into t h e coil of H A' are empty, i t is necessary t o suspend t h e fire for a
which h a s continued i n the form of vapor to t h e extre- while t o e m p t y t h e stills D and E, supposing t h a t their
mity of t h e coil of B, and which is consequently of a contents a r e exhausted of alcohol, then to refill t h e
decided alcoholic strength. T h e product which :passes- stills with t h e contents of B by opening the cock b* ; a t
into j should be cold; ~f i t comes over warm, o r is ac- tlie same time H i s emptied by means of t h e cock h, and
companied by steam, i t will be a n indication t h a t the the contents passed into t h e stills D and E by t h e plug
fire under E is too active, if t h e flow from p is regulated Z and Z'. T h e pieces B a n d H being empty are now t o
according t o t h e quantity of wine to be distilled in an be filled with water, introduced from A a n d A'. To
hour. prevent this water from passing into t h e stills D and E
When t h e flow of mine from t h e cock p is properly by the tube b b, t h a t portion of i t between t h e joints 5
regulated i t should not be disturbed so long as t h e ope- and 6 is. detached; the open end a t 5 is closed by a plug,
ration lasts. T h e whole attention should be directed to nud to t h e end at 6 is adjusted a pipe for conveying off
t h e conduct of t h e fire, which should be increased or re- the waste water which flows off a t this point during t h e
duced according to t h e - j e t of brandy o r spirits which operation.
flows from t h e proof j a r j . I f this j e t is warm, it indi- T h e apparatus being thus prepared t h e h e a t is raised
cates too much activity of t h e fire ; i t is tlie same if the under t h e stills D and E, a n d the water is allowed to
strength is lowered, which is caused by too much watery flow from A' through p ; t h e water which now circulates
vapor t h a t cannot be condensed b y t h e quantity of cold in the two pieces B and H produces t h e same effect as
liquid t h a t passes into t h e apparatus, it is then necessary the wine, rectifying and condensing t h e vapors which
t o moderate t h e fire. enter the coil B. A t t h e end of half a n hour, and when
To Empty t7~eSt.ilk.-At certain periods i t is necessary the contents of t h e still E appear t o be sufficiently ex-
t o empty t h e stills D a n d E; this should be done with- hausted, i t is emptied ; and t h e contents of D transferred
o u t interrupting t h e distillation, and after being assured to E, the former being replenished by a n y wine t h a t m a y
t h a t t h e liquid is deprived of i t s alcohol. remain from t h e contents of other parts, B and B; of
W h e n t h e liquid appears to be sufficiently exhausted the apparatus. T h e distillation is started anew, a n d so
(which is ascertained by t h e test for spent Zipuor, a s will on until t h e whole stock of mine is disposed of.
be explained hereafter) the wastecock ,- of t h e lower If towards t h e end of t h e operation we do not wish
still is opened, and t h e spent liquor drawn off until what -
too great a quantity of weak brandy and low winee, t h e
remains i n t h e still is five or six inches deep. T h e cock flow of cold water should be increased, and t h e cock n'
x is then closed, a n d this still is refilled as before to and n2should be opened. T h e low wines are then com-
three-fourths of its height, from t h e liquor i n t h e upper
still D, by opening t h e cock t. W h e ~ filledl to t h e pro-
cover of the cylinder, when the coil will be exposed to
pelled to return to t h e rectifying column, and the opera- view, and may be reached by a swab or brush.
tion is closed when what passes through t h e test glass j I t is best to keep these coils B and ET as clean as
ceases to exhibit a n y appreciable strength. All parts of possible, because when these surfaces are covered with
t h e apparatus are now to be emptied. H i s emptied by a deposit t h e transmission of heat is interfered with,
h, and the deposit removed through the plug hole k. end the apparatus works irregularly.
B is emptied by 6, the return pipes by 0' 02;D is emptied To prevent deposits from collecting a t t h e bottom of
by t into E. and this last by x- i3, and a t length closing the mouth of the -tubea a,there
When the distillstion is stopped for four or five days is piaced in the midst of H a long bri~ssrod called an
only, the simpler plan will be t o leave the apparatus agitator, t h e upper end of which is bent into a handle,
charged, and extinguish the fire when the wine ceases to and which has attached at t h e lower extremity a small
flow fiom A. disk of leather with which the liquid a t the bottom of
To Cleanse the Apparatus.-The cleansing of the differ- ' H is stirred from time to time, so as to distribute the
ent parts of t h e apparatus is very important.
T h e distilling column is cleansed, when t h e plates are
deposit through - the mass to be carried forward by - the
cuiren t.
of wire gauze, by removing one after t h e other the Safeguad-When called on to distil wines t h a t are
plates which are within, and are attached to brass rods very rich in alcohol, Rs in the South of France and other
running from top t.o bottom. These plates are removed, warm countries, i t is proper to add to the apparatus of
washed, and scraped very easily. When the plates are Derosne a supplemented piece called a n evapomtor or
of sheet metal they are movable o r fixed ; when movable sctfqquard (Fig. 3, P1. 11.).
they may be removed and cleaned one by one as for the This piece is placed between B and E ; i t consists of
plates of wire cloth; when fixed they are cleaned by two concentric cylinders placed vertically, leaving a n
passing steam t h r o u g h t h e column. T h e steam is pro- annular space between them. Along and over the sur-
duced by heating water in the stills D and E. faces of these cylinders which are exposed to the air R
T h e piece G, i n which the rectifying plates are always small quantity of water is caused to trickle, which by
fixed, is t o be cleansed by steam as above. This cleans- its evaporation will remove a lwge portion of heat from
ing of the plates in O is both useful and necessnry, be- the alcoholic products as i t passes from. B, and before it
cause towards t h e end of the operation there accumu- reaches 8: Without this arrangement the alcoholic
lates in them a considerable quantity of essential oils, product would be too abundant i n such rich wines to be
resulting from t h e substances which have been distilled. condensed by the liquid itself.
These essential oils have a very offensive taste, and a T h e following is a description of the different parts of
very small quantity will suffice to spoil a large quantity the apparatus :-
of spirits. It is well then when t h e operation is closed 6 b. Inner cylinder of copper.
to pass through the whole apparatus a quantity of the c c. Outer cylinder of copper.
steam of water to remove these essential oils as much d d. Annular space which. receives the products from
as possible. . B. This space is divided by sundry partitions which
T h e cleaning of the outside of t h e coil in B is quite cause the liquid to come i n contact with every part of
easy; by removing t h e cover m m, this coil may be the surface b 6 and c c.
reached by a broom or brush. T h e washings are drawn. f f. Little gutter around t h e bottom of the safeguard
off by removing t h e plate which supports t h e cock b'.
T h e piece H is cleaned by taking off the movable
60 DISTILLATION OF ALCOHOL. When the distillation is very abundant, wheri the
degree of spirituosity diminishes very rapidly, and the
to collect the water.which has passed over the surfaces liquid is seen to rise in the indicator f' beyond its mid-
of the cylinder. dle point, we may conclude that there is too much watery .
a' a'. Extension pipe placed in the axis of the cylinder . vapor produced by E, and tbe fire must be checked by
- i n order to elongate n a' of Fig. 1,to make room for the closing the register of the furnace.
attachment of this piece. If the liquid in the indicator f becomes discolored i t
e. Tube by which the alcoholic liquid is conducted is necessary to reduce the fire a t once,unless we would
from the coil B into .the annular space d (2. see the liquid to be distilled pass into B, and come over
el. Tube by which the liquid reaches the coil H: through j,mixed with the product of distillation. These
x x. Circular gutter at the upper part of the safe- effects are ehsy to be understood ; t h e steam which is
guard from which water is caused to trickle over the generated in D and E, being too abundant and having
surface. too -much tension, interferes with the descent of the
It is well to cover the snrface c c and b b with cotton wine by the column C ; the wine accumulatea in the
cloths which should dip into the gutter x z,and which plates of this column, and rises successively into those
by their capillary attraction will convey to these sur- of the rectifier U,mixes with the low wines, colors them,
faces a sufficient quantity of water for the proper work- and risks passing i n t i the condensing coil of the wine-
ing of the apparatus. heater B, and thence into the coil of the cooler E. This
By the assistance of the supplemental apparatus the is what is announced by the indicator f and fl.
richest wines are perfectly exhausted of the alcohol they
If it happens, in consequence of insufficient attention,
may con tain. that there should be too great il disturbance in this way
0bseruatimm.-After t.his rapid survey of the general in the working of the apparatus, we may, in order to
course of the distillation, i n order to give a general idea establish the equilibri urn more promptly, increase the
of it, we now propose to go more intodetail; on certain sbream of wine from A', a t the same time that the fire
points wbich are important to the proper handling of is reduced; this will cause a more prompt condensation
the apparatus. of the vapors, but this expedient should be resorted to
All the success of continuous distillation by means of only in case of n serious accident.
this apparatus depends in principle upon the desired The distillate should always reach the test jar j cold ;
quantity of vapor which is produced in the stills D and if it comes over warm, it shows that the fire is too active.
E, being in proportion to the stream of wine that flows It is on the operation of the return cocks n n1 n2that
from A', is based the whole system of rectification by this appa-
When this proportion is not as it should be, certain ratus, which enables u s to procure even from the poorest
accidents occur during the course of t h e work which it materials spirits of the highest proof.
is our duty to make known. For a proper comprehension of the effect of these
As we have said above, when the stream of wine return cocks, it is necessary to.conceive that the products
which flows from A' is once fixed according to the quan- are richer in spirit as the part of the-coil in wbich the -
tity which i t is desired to distil in an hour, it should not condensation takes place is remote from d.
be touched any more, but the whole operation should be In fact, the vapor which passes into the coil by d is a
regulated by the fire. mixture of the vapors of water and alcohol in certain
The indicators f and f', applied one to the column G proportions ; the vcpor of-wateris more easily condensed
and the other to the column C, indicate with sufficient
accuracy what is going on within the apparatus.
coil, and is enriched more and more, because the more
t h a n the vapor of alcohol ; *ince, in order that the for- spirituous product is returned t o the upper plates; for
mer may he reduced to the form of water, i t is sufficient i t .may be seen t h a t the product from the cocks n' 72' are
to have the cooling liquid a little below 100° C., while emptied into a part of t h e rectifier above t h a t from t h e
t h e alcohol continues in a state of vapor until the t e n - cock ?a.
perature of t h e surrounding liquid is reduced to 40° C. T h e proof bottle j i s a n instrument through which the
It is understood, then, that when t h e vapor, n m i s t u r e distillate passes previous to being. received, in .vessels
of alcohol and water, passes into t h e condensing coil B destined t o hold it. I n t o this proof bottle is plunged a n
a portion of t h e watery vapor is condensed, and that alcoholmetre, which indicates at each moment of the
which passes further on is more highly charged with operation, t h e alcoholic.strength~(ordegree) of t h e liquid
alcohol. I n the next turn of the coil another portion of which flows from t h s coil 8. By inspecting this instru-
vapor of water is condensed, t h u s rendering t h e aeri- ment, the workman is guided i n his labor according to
form product still more alcoholic, and so on until by ad- 'the degree of strength required.
vancing towards e t h e vapor is so far cooled down that Cla-iqq Remarks in regard to the Apparatus of De
t h e vapor of alcohol is itself condensed. rosxe.-To prevent all leakage, the joints of this app*
W e observe by this t h a t the further i t advances in the ratus are'made by interposing between the two surfaces,
condensing coil, from d towards e, t h e stronger mill be a circular washer of cardboard smeared with some greasy
t h e alcoholic product which condenses therein. This substance o r . a mixture of red and whitelead ground i n
being taken for granted, since all t h e product t h a t con- oil, and brought *%ether with clasps o r bolts.
denses in the different turns of coil B pass into t h e hori- T h e various joints which are not made as above, hut
zontal return pipe B B , by means of the small vertical by fitting into a socket such as t h e fittings of t h e glass
tubes which correspond to them, we see that, if by open- indicators, kc.,' should be luted very carefullx:. T h i s
ing the return cock 71 we cause t o return into the recti- lute is prepared by mixing red lead with t h e - ordinary
fier Q a l l t h a t has been condensed in t h e first part of the white paint, which is whitelead well ground in a dry-
coil from d to n, we shall receive in the proof-bottle j a ing oil, so as t o form a paste having t h e consistency of
stronger product than we should have obtained if the glazier's putty. Bands o r strips of cloth greased with
three cocks had been closed, and t h e whole of t h e pro- this paste are used t o cover the joints.
d u c t had passed through the cooler 8. I f we open n' A good lute is made by mixing equal parts of wheat
we shall have a still stronger product, and by opening flour and Spanish whiting in fine powder with t h e white
n2 me shall only have what is condensed in the last turn of egg. Strips of cloth dlpped i n this mixture are t o be
of t h e coil of B, and consequently t h i will
~ be t h e strong- applied to t h e .joints as above. ' I
est spirit t h a t can be produced by t h e apparatus. I n setting t h e glass indicators, care mufit be t i k e n not
T h e office of the rectifier ff is also easy of compre- to close t h e orifices of t h e pipes, which connect them
hension. This rectifier is divided internally by plates with' the interior of t h e apparatus, which will happen if .
superposed one above t h e other, which each retain a the tubes are too long, for then. the, liquid cannot have
portion of t h e low wines which pass through the return access to the tubes, and t h e indicator will be useless.
pipe from the coil of B. T h e alcoholic vapor which T h e first product which flows from a new apparatus
rises from C plunges successively into each of these has a taste of copper and resin; this soon ceases. I f
plates, commencing a t the lower and passing on to the t h i s is not thrown away, it should be put aside to be
upper one. T h i s vapor is enriched, by plunging into the mixed wit11 t h e wine o r for rectification.
already strongly alcoholized liquid returned from the
64 DISTILLATION OF ALCOHOL. artificer has succeeded i n constructing a new apparatus
-which fulfils all t h e required conditions. Sitnplin'ty of
It is always.important to commence, as was indicated w e a n d management, richness in d e g ~ e efacility
, of sedting '
when describing t h e process for starting t h e , operation,. up a n d cleaning, economy of ficel; space, a n d trangmta-
by filling the wine-heater and cooler with the liquid to tion, and of moderate pice.
be distilled, before raising the fire under t h e stills, and T h e theory of this new apparatus is based on one of
sending steam through the different parts of t h e appa- the most simple principles, t h a t of t h e direct o r multi-
ratus, for if we commence by raising the steam and turn plied contact of vapor, under a feeble pressure, wit11 t h e
o n cold water, there is risk of crushing t h e apparatus wine to be distilled. By this means, acting on a small
under t h e weight of t h e atmospheric pressure i n conse- . quantity of mine, we obtain a rapid ebullition; and the
quence of t h e formation of a vacuum. separation of t h e alcohol is very promptly effected.
W h e n t h e operation is started, care must be taken not Producing i t s effects i n a small apace. and over a great
t o allow cold liquid to flow into t h e stills when t h e ebul- extent of surface, the apparatus exhibits t h e best condi-
lition h a s - commenced, for fear of a similar accident. tions for economizing fuel; on t h e other hand, the feeble
Care m u s t be taken during t h e first heating t o arrest pressure existing i n the column by reason of t h e small
t h e flow of wine into t h e stills, by closing t h e cock of number of plates of which i t is composed affords but
t h e regulating tub, until t h e wine-heater is too hot f ~ r little resistance to the passage of t h e alcoholic vapors,
t h e hand. When t h e liquid is heated to this point, we and the distillation is effected in a most simple and
m a y without hesitation allow it to %ow into t h e distil- easy manner.
ling column ; there is no longer a n y risk from the con- T h e apparatus i s not liable to t h e accidents which so
densation of t h e steam, and t h e operation may go cn frequently' occur in those with a high column. T h e
continuously. distiller charged with its management need not fear
I n starting t h e operation when t h e steam begins to irregularities i n t h e distillhtion i n spite of too active a
pass from t h e first still'into t h e second, by means of the heat when using the open fire, o r from too great a, flow
goose-neck, a loud noise is produced, sounding like the of steam when this agent is used.
blow of a, hammer in t h e second still. T h e noise is If there exists , a stumbling-block or hindrance to
occasioned by t h e instantaneous condensation of the distillation, i t is without contradiction when t h e appa-
steam' a s it passes from t h e first .still. into t h e cold or ratusprima, t h a t is t o say, when the wine subjected to
only tepid liquid i n the second, thus forming a kind of distillation comes over mixed with the alcohol, and
vacuum. - T h i s noise will continue until t h e liquid i n the flows from t h e pipe which should ordinarily only deliver
second still has acquired a sufficiently high temperature. the latter. . This inconvenience takes 'place i n a great
T h e steam produces a similar noise, only much feebler, number of apparatuses a t the least blast of t h e fire,or
as it passes over each division of tk :distilling column. under t h e intluence of a little too much wine. We are
compelled t h e n to arrest t h e operation to interrupt t h e
- Egrot's Hew Apparatus for Continuom Distillation. distilling, and for this purpose smother t h e fire, draw off
PLATE111. a part of t h e wine not exhausted, and rear&nge t h e
apparatus as before i n a proper state for working pro-
T h e difficulties t o he avoided and t h e care t o be o b perly. T h i s requires more or less time, which, if t h e
served, in order to obtain good results by means of the accident is repeated, occasions delays in t h e operation,
distilling apparatus used at t h e present time, have in- 5
duced M. Egrot t o seek t o improve this state of things.
After many efforts crowned w i t h success, this skilful

and lends to a disturbance of t h e general worki&s of a.

E. Goose-neck conducting t h e alcoholic vapor to t h e
rectifying coil of t h e wine-heater.
s M. Ezrot all these difficulties
I n t h e new n ~ n a r a t u of F. J a c k e t containing t h e rectifying coil, a n d acting
h a v e been obviated. I f there i s a n excess of heat pro- as wine-heater.
duced either by t h e open fire o r by steam, t h e distillate a. J a c k e t inclosing the cooling worm.
will be of lower degree than usual, but t h e apparatus does
1: E x i t of t h e cooling worm.
n o t prime; we can then, when this lowering of the J. Funnel to receive t h e wine and convey it t o t h e
strength is observed, at once re-establish t h e equilibrium, bottom of the wine-heater. I
disturbed for t h e moment, and consequently avoid all
K. Pipe to convey the wine from ,the wine-heater to
those annoyances and delays we have just pointed out. the first plate.
W i t h this apparatus may be distilled all wines and A? Pipes and cocks for returning t h e low wines into
fermented liquids derived from a n y source, and semifluid the rectifying column D.
materials when t h e apparatus is of sufficient size.
B. Regulating bucket.
The product obtained, whether as brandy or alcohol,
8.Ball float.
is peculiarly fine. T h e apparatus distilling from 10 to T. Regulating cock with a n index to guide t h e dis-
300 hectolitres m a y be heated either by steam o r open tiller.
fire; those which exceed these dimensions must be D: Pipe to convey t h e spirits to the proof bottle.
TC Proof bottle-improved pattern.
heated by steam. P. Pump.
A11 the pieces of this apparatus are of copper, the 2. Wine Vat.
flush-couplings of iron, the cocks a n d connecting-nuts To Wo7k $he Apparatus.-To put this apparatus in
and pipes of bronze. operation it is sufficient to fill t h e vat Z with wine or
De8cription of the Apparatus.-This new apparatus is other liquor t h a t is to be distilled, by means of t h e pump
composed of the following - -parts :- Y, then open the cock T,which permits t h e wine to
n - Copper st.ill.
EL S i ~ h o nfor t h e continuous exit of waste liquor. flow into t h e cooler G, t h e wine-heater F, and t h e dis-
c. ~ & t pipee for completely emptying t h e siill when tilling plates A, taking care t h a t t h e wine does not r u n
necessary. into t h e still a.
J. Opening for cleaning t h e boiler, closed by a plug. When t h e apparatus is to work over the naked fire,
e, f,g, 71. Brickwork of the furnace. the still a is filled with water* by introducing it through
i. Fireplace.
the plug d, and the fire started ; t h e water of t h e still
j .Grate. begins to boil, and t h e steam which it furnishes passes
through each of t h e distilling plates A, depriving their
k. Ash-pit. contents of its alcohol ; from this t h e alcoholic vapors
Z. Flue. Nofe-when steam is used-the furnace is
replaced by brickwork. pass into t h e rectifying column D, where t h e y deposit
A Distilling column composed of platea for continuous their impurities, then pass by t h e tube E into t h e recti-
distilling. fying coil contained i n t h e jacket F ; finally t h e alto-
B. Cap covering t h e last distilling plate and s u p
porting t h e rectifying column. * When the apparatos is heated by steam from a boiler, the pre-
Contion of commencing the distillation with water i r oonecessary;
. Rectifying column. the still may be filled with wine as the other parts of the apparatae.
the connecting pipes being fern in number are readily
holic vapor, after being more or less rectified in the coil fitted. , Its small size requires but little space, and
according to the will of the manager, passes into the consequently the cost of packing is relatively less, and
cooling coil contained in the jacket G, to pass out in a the expense of carriage trifling if to be moved to a dis-
liquid state a t I, and to be received in the proof bottle tance.
V , i n which there is an alcoholmeter to mark the 2. Renzarkafile omo om^ of Pml.-In consequence of
strength or degree of the brandy or alcohol as it comes its small dimensions, i t affords less surface and does not
over. give out as sheer loss the caloric previously absorbed by
The wine moves in the opposite direction. It is in- distillation. I t is a fact, that the larger the, apparatus,
troduced into the apparatus by opening the index cock the greater will be the expense of fuel necessarj. to work
T; the funnel J which receives i t conducts i t to the it. The economy of fuel lies too in the peculiar con-
bottom of the jacket ff, pushing forward the liquid con- struction of the plates. During the course of the distil-
tained in the jackets Gand F; i t leaves the upper part lation, the vapor being forcibly distributed, is brought in
of the wine-heater by the tube K, which directs i t to the direct contact with the circulating wine, which i t agitates
first distilling plate of A, when, after having circulated freely, from which results a forced ebullition, setting free
in the galleries, i t is ~ p r e a din succession over the plates all the alcohol contained in the liquid.
below, then falls into the boiler, whence i t escapes by 3. Facility of Use.-Being composed of only three or
the waste siphon b as spent liquor, completely exhausted five plates, according to the alcoholic richness of th'e
of alcohol. wine, the distillation is effected witbout pressure, conse-
T h e wine in traversing the interior galleries of which quently without disturbance, and without fear that the
the plates A are composed, comes i n contact with a great apparatus will prime, that is to say, the wine raised by
number of small pipes, which forcibly distribute the vapor an accumulation of steam or foam will not pass over
in the course of the distillation, and agitate the wine instead of the alcohol. This stumbling-block in most
without ceasing, thus causing the latter to be easily apparatuses is completely avoided in this; there never
freed from the alcohol i t contains; i t is also to this new being a sufficient quantity of wine in course of distill*
arrangement that the good quality and delicacy of the tion, and i t is too rapidly exhausted for foam to be formed
products obtained from this apparatus are due. and obstruct the channels.
This fact is easy of explanation if i t is remembered 4. Richness in Degree.-By reason of .the rectifying
that the wine to be completely exhausted does not ie- column placed on the distilling column, and the return
main in the apparatus longer than ten or fifteen minutes; of the low wines, the alcoholic degree may acquire a re-
it is subjected for a, very short time to the action of the markable strength, and the spirit come over at from 70
heat, and the empyreumatic oils and bad flavor can to 92 degrees, especially when wines are operated on.
neither be formed nor pass over with the distillate. Moreover, the alcoholic strength is under control and
T h e principal advantages of this apparatus are :- may be fixed a t the option of the distiller.
1. Facility of setting up-Economy of RenlouaZ and 5. Noderate Price.-A question of prime importance
T~an.spo~lation.-The small size and great simplicity is the cost, which is considerably reduced and the dif- .
of construction of which i t admits renders the setting ference is greatest for the apparatus of large dimensions.
up very easy. This difference in price naturally depends on the small-
The adjustment of the two principal pieces, the still ness of size which requires less material, without in any
and the condensing wine-heater, is very convenient, both degree affecting the solidity of the parts.
being placed vertically on rr foundation easily constructed;
6. SlmpZicity of Gleaming.-In order t h a t an apparatus child can work it so a s t o throw a very large and abund-
m a y be well suited for use, i t should be easy to clean. ant stream. I t is invnluable for industrial purposes, m
I n this, if of small dimensions, it is sufficient-to remove well as i n case of fire. #.
t h e three or five plates, and if of large dimensions, to T h e French manufacturer furnishes this apparatus of
open t h e manholes and wash o u t t h e interior thoroughly. twelve different sizes, the smallest of a capacity-of 800
I f this cleaning is repeated every two months, t h e appa- litres i n twenty-four hours, the largest 100,000 litres
r a t u s will be i n the best condition to furnish excellent in the same time.
products. T h e wine-heater has at its lower extremity
n screw plug, which facilitates t h e removal of a n y de- Belgian Appsratns. L
posit collected at the bottom. T h e still has also an
opening d through which it may b e washed o u t ; all the This apparatus, the arrangement of which is due t o
coils nre moiinted i n their jackets by joints, so t h a t in Ce!lier-Blurnenthal, is used i n t h e large alcohol facto-
t h e event of cleansing of these coils, as when i t is de- riek;.it presents the advantage of exhausting the liquor
sired to remove the tartrous crust whlch surrounds them promptly, of receivin,rr and discharging at the same time
a n d interferes with t h e action of t h e coolers, they may a given q u a n t i t . ~ of
, occupying but little space, a n d of
be removed from their jackets without having recourse being easily controlled. Unlike t h e apparatus of Derosne,
to t h e tinner and his solder. it has no return pipes; the alcoholic vapors i n passing
T h i s apparatus may be rendered complete b y t h e ad- over t h e plates a r e refined, and change more and more,
dition of t h e following pieces:- and pass into t h e proof bottle, marking 50° o r 60° on t h e
1. In some countries, and particularly i n Spain, where alcoholmeter.
v e r y rich wines are distilled, i t is common to obtain, at The following is a description of t h e apparatus, a s
t h e first distillation, spirits of a very high degree, exceed- shown i n Fig. 1. P1. IV.
ing 90°cent. I n this event i t is necessary to add a rectify- A. ~ i s t i l l T n
~ of copper, sheet o r cast iron, con-
ing-cap, which should surmount t h e rectifying column, sisting of eighteen sections, each containing a plate. (See
whlch, by its peculiar arrangement, refines and increases arrangement of these plates, Figs. 2 and 3, PI. IV.)
t h e strength of the spirits. B. Goose-neck conveying t h e alcoholic vapor into t h e
2. When wines o r other fermented liquors which are forwarding tub o r wine-heater.
intended for t h e still, are highly spirituous, i. e., exceed C CI. F ~ r w a r d i n gt u b o r wine-heater divided into two
t e n o r twelve per cent. of alcohol. it may become neces- parts, each inclosing a coil.
sary to use an additional plate, t o insure t h e complete D. Cooler also inclosing a coil, a n d condensing t h e
exhaustion of t h e waste liquor. vapors by t h e aid of cold water.
3. A pump is indispensable for raising the liquor into E. Stopcock for turning steam into t h e apparatus
t h e vat. T h e E u r e k a P u m p Company of New Pork, where i t escapes directly into the liquor.
under t h e management of a highly intelligent a n d ac- F. Discharge cock or level pipe for t h e spent liquor.
complished supermtendent, manufacture a pump, either G. Pipe to conduct the warm liquor from t h e upper
of iron o r bronze, which is peculiarly well adapted for part of t h e wine-tienter into the distilling column.
t h e use of the distiller. 8; Feed pipe, for delivering t h e cold liquor a t t h e
By t h e particular arrangement of t h e valves it can- bottom of the wine-heater.
n o t be obstructed even hy solid substances of much I. B e n t pipe, connecting t h e coils in t h e two divisions
p e s t e r size t h a n would be found i n a distiller's vats. A of the wine-heater.
A Belgian still, five meters high and twenty meters
J. Bent pipe, connecting t h e coil of the wine-heater in diameter, will distil from 800 to 1000 hectolitres of
with t h a t of t h e cooler. fermented liquor in twenty-four hours.
K Point of entrance for cold water into the cooler.
L. Point of exit for warm water from the cooler. Apparatus for Ditilling Pasty or Semitinid Xaterials.
M. Extremity of t h e coil from which t h e distillate is
received. The invention of this apparatus is also due t o Cellier-
To 8 e t going and Use 2he Be7gion Apparatus.-Let Blumenthal. W i t h i t n a y be distilled r a w potatoes,
the wine run through t h e feed pipe E until i t fills the nrtichokes, grain, &c. As may be seen, Figs. 4 and 5,
two divisions of t h e wine-heater, then by passing through PI. IV., i t differs but little, very little, from t h e preced-
t h e tube Cdescends into t h e distilling column, A. When ing, which, by the addition of a n agitator, can be used
t h e liquor has reached the top of the level pipe F, which for distilling pasty liquids, a n d replace this, of which t h e
is known by means of a glass indicator placed a t the following is a description :-
bottom of the apparatus, the cock of delivery is to he A. Distilling column, consisting of .twelve sections,
closed, and the cooler D filled with cold water; i t is each containing a plate.
necessary to leave open t h e cock of the level pipe Pwhile B. Forwarding tub, or wine-heater, for heating the
t h e wine is falling through the column, to allow the en- materials to be distilled, by means of the alcoholic vapor
cape of the air, which is pushed before the descending from t h e distilling column, this vessel inclosing a coil as
liquor. well as a n agitator, which is set in motion by gearing
When these arrangements are completed, close the qq' fixed on the 'shafts p and r.
level cock F,and open t h e steam cock E. T h i s cock is C. Cooler for water, inclosing a large coil.
in communication with a steam generator, by means of D. Pump for feeding t h e wine-heater.
e. Spherical foam arrester, containing a diaphragm on
a copper pipe; t h e steam is discharged directly into the
liquor, and sets i t to boiling; t h e plates are heated in which t h e foam is broken in t h e event of a n y sudden
succession, the alcoholic vapors traverse them, being increase of the heat.
charged more and more. and pass through t h e goose-neck .f. Goose-neck, conducting t h e alcoholic vapor into t h e
B, into the wine-heater CC', where they are partially coil of the' wine-heater.
condensed, then descend into t h e coil of t h e cooler D, g. Connecting pipe between t h e coil of t h e wine-heater'
where the condensation is finally completed. A s soon and i h e water-cooler.
as the spirit begins t o flow from t h e pipe M; turn on h. Discharge pipe for t h e distillate.
wine through t h e feed pipe, in a quantity proportional i. Proof bottle, covered by t h e gldss bell j, in which
is placed an alcoholmeter for testing t h e strength of the
to the capac~tyof the still, and open t h e cock F s o as to
permit t h e spent liquor to escape through the level pipe. spirit as i t flows from the still. -
T h e wine, after a sojourn in t h e mine-heater, becomes k. Funnel and pipe, to receive t h e materials from t h e
heated, circulates i n each of t h e plates in succession, pump D, and deliver them into the wine-heater.
falling from one to the other, and reaches t h e bottom of
I . Tube, for conveying t h e materials t o be distilled, -
t h e still completely exhausted, thence i t flows of itself, from the wine-heater into t h e still.
a n d continuously through t h e level pipe F. From this m. Steam pipe, for heating t h e apparatus.
point care must be taken to keep up a n equable tempe- ?a. Pipe to supply cold water to t h e alack tub C.
rature, i n order to maintain perfect regularity in the
progress of the distillation.
by its action on the liquid, it is more and more charged
o. Level pipe, for carrying off hot water from the with alcohol. After having traversed t h e column, the
cooler. vapor i s passed into t h e coil of t h e heater B, through
p. Vertical shaft of the agitator, of iron, for forcibly the goose-neck f, where i t gives off most of i t s heat to
stirring the materials in the wine-heater, to prevent them the material contained in the vat, and from this passes
from settling on t h e bottom of the vessel. into the cooling coil c, where it is condensed into a
qg'. Gearing, by which the motion of the\shaft T is liquid.
transmitted to t h e vertical shaft p. When t h e spirit begins to flow, t h e pump is again set
4 Crank, for communicating motion to the pump D, in motion, to maintain the supply of materials. T h e
and t h e agitation of t h e vat C. more solid parts are kept i n suspension i n t l e heating
t. Large screw plugs, for cleaning the plates of the vat, by means of the agitator p, and fall on the plates of
distilling columns. the still. T h e alcoholic vapors thin the mass more and
u. Pipes, for pouring the materials from one plate upon mbre, in proportion as i t passes to the lower plates/
t h e next, when the level rises above the level of these When t h e mass arrives a t the basin y, it is completely
pipes. eshausted, and discharges itself through t h e safety
v. Spherical caps for discharging the alcoholic vapors pipes z and .'
into t h e materials contained i n t h e plates.
x. Tubes, through which the steam passes from one Rectifying A p p a w h .
plate t o the other; these tubes may be screwed in for
convenience of moving a t will. There is scarcely any difference of form between this
y. Basin, for receivmg the exhausted materials. This and Derosne's still. Indeed, the latter will answer per-
piece i s so arranged t h a t t h e steam passes freely between fectly for rectifying, by suppressing the first boiler, re
i t and t h e walls of the column. placing t h e plates of wire cloth by solid plates. Never-
z. First plunging or safety pipe, for t h e discharge of theless, manufacturing and country distillers prefer a n
the exhausted materials. apparatus specially adapted to rectification.
. Second safety pipe, for discharging the exhausted The following is a description of the apparatus ex-
mass from t h e still. hibited i n Figs. 1 and 2, P1: V.
Mei7wd of Using the Apparalw.--The semifluid matters A. Still.
are transferred to the vat C, by means of the pump D, B. Column, containing - twenty . plates
- a, and twenty-
at t h e same time t h e agitator is set in motion. When four level pipes b.
t h e forwarding t u b (wine-heater) is full, the semifluid C and D. Small cap and pipe,
- - .to conduct t h e alcoholic
mass passes through the tube Z, spreads over the plates of vapors into the condenser.
distilling column A, and after passiug through t h e pipes E. Condenser, inclosing a horizontal coil c, which is
u, falls into the basin y, and thence into the bottom of the preceded b y the lenticular vessels d dl, each containing n
still. When this arrangement is complete, the steam is vertical partition.
turned on by t h e pipe m. This steam being d i ~ e c t that, E: Pipe, conducting the vapors into 'the cooler.
is to say, moist, there is very soon a sufficient quantity G. Cooler, containing a vertical coil.
of water produced by the condensartion, to prevent the H. External return pipe, serving to convey the con-
mass from being too thick. A s soon as the ebullition is densed vapors to the plates of the column (another re-
established, the alcoholic vapor pnsses successively into turn pipe is placed within the condenser, a n d communi-
each plate through the tubes with spherical caps v, and
e. Goose-neck, conducting the vapors from the recti-
cates with the external pipe, by means of the little fying cap to the coil of the forwarding vat.
tube f. Pipe -and cock for emptying the contents of the
I. Cock on the return pipe, by which i t may be ascer- wine-heater into the still a t the termination of the ope-
tained if the return of the condensed spirit goes on pro- ration.
perly. g. Return pipe.
J and K Pipe and cock, by which the water of the A. Pipe connecting the coil.
condenser may be emptied on the plates. i. Mouth of the cooling coil from which the spirits
L and dl. Cap and pipe, through which the water pass off.
passes from the cooler into the condenser. k. Funnel through which cold water is conveyed to
N . Level pipe, through which the hot water flows the bottom of the cooler.
from the condenser.
0.Waste cock to the cooler.
P,P'.Air holes.
. 2. Level pipe by which the hot water escapes from the
cooler; as i t is replaced by cold water from the funnel.
rn. Pipe and cock for conveying coldwater into the cap-
Q. Waste cock of the still. B. (The water passes first through a small funnel pierced
R. Glass indicator, to mark the level of the liquid in with holes which eurround the pipe e, and after passing
the still. through a spiral (mzaiZ), contained in the cap, passes off
S S1. Cocks of the indicator. at a temperature of about 60° through the level pipe n.)
Z! Gauge showing the pressure existing in the still. As a general thing in rum fiactorles, the wine-heater
U. Man-hole for cleaning out the still. is omitted; only the more intelligent planters use it.
l? Cock for filling
- the still with the low wines to be By this means they take advantage of a part of the heat
rectified. arising from the distillation, and by this, much hasten
The method of starting and using this still will be the heating of the liquid to be distilled.
explained under the head of rectification. The use and management of this apparatus are the
same as for the simple still. Care should be taken t o
Apparatw for Distilling Rum. keep up the supply of cold water to the cooler, in order
to prevent the r u m from passing over in the form of
The arrangement of this still is due to M. Egrot. Its vapor.
use and management are simple and easy, and i t is much A description of several other stills for special pro-
used in the French and English colonies and in Cuba. ducts and purposes w i l l be given in the body of the
The apparatus is made of tinned copper, and consists work.
of the following pieces, Fig. 3, Plate V. .
A. Still which is to be filled to two-thirds. Itlachines and Utaasils Necessery for a Distillery.
B. Rectifying cap through which the alcoholic vapors
pass, and where they lose a portion of their essential oils. The machines and utensils for preparing vegetable
C. Wine-heater, or forwarding vat, inclosing a coil substances for the vinous fermentation, or.neceusnry for
through which the vapors pass Into the cooler by the the distillation of alcohol, are of various kinds, according
pipe h. to the nature of the substances to be treated. We sh:ill
D. Cooler, containing a coil. (There is nothing pecu- rapidly passin review those that are in some measure
liar about this piece.) indispensable to the greater part of these prepara-
d. Waste pipe and cock to the still. tions.
e. Flue for conducting the vnpors from the vat to the
The Washer.-Is used for removing dirt, &c., from the stack of the chimney.
roots and tubers employed by the distiller. ' f. Mnn-hole through which lime is admitted for the
The Rasp.-The character of this instrument is of saturation of the sulphuric acid, and for removing the
ve j ' g r e a t importance in a distillery, for i t may cause a, , deposit, and washing the vat.
variation of a tifth i n the product. The machine should g. Cock placed 15 centimeters from the bottom of the
combine rapidity of motion with a perfect tritur* vat for drawing off the clear liquid only.
tion. h. Plug placed a t the bottom for ernpt$ng the vat
The Root Cuttev or Slicer.-This instrument is used- entirely.
for slicing roots which are to be treated by mjceration. Macerators.-The process of extracting the saccharine
A root cutter, by whatsoever power i t is driven, should principle from vegetable substances is effected by many
have a velocity of 130 or 150 revolutions a minute to arrangements of apparatus of more or less value. I n
do its work satisfactorily and well. speaking of the manufacture of alcohol from the beet,
The HydrauZic Press.-For extracting thin juice from we shall describe those processes only which appear to
the pulp of roots, or wine from the weared of the grape, be best adapted to the wants of the distillery.
cider from pumice, kc. ;i t has, by its superior properties, EZevalor.-This name is applied to a small iron cylin-
superseded almost all other means of obtaining pressure der shaped like a boiler, generally used in sugar facto-
among intelligent manufacturers. ries and refineries for raising the juice or syrup to the
The ~SfeamPress.-This press is but little used except different stories of the building, by means of steam
in large distilleries. I t is very expeditious, and consid- pressure.. The elevator replaces the pump very advan-
erably hastens the work, but i t is necessary that the tageously; a few minutes are sufficient for raising 10
sacks, which have been submitted to its action, should hectolitres to a height of 20 or 25 meters, and even
also be subjected to the 'action of the hydraulic press; more. Its use is a source of economy and expedition ;
for the pressure by steam is made almost instantaneously, we therefore employ it constantly, even in small coun-
and we can obtain by i t only 60 or 65 per cent. of juice try distilleries where steam is used.
from rasped beets.
The Vat for the Cbnversion of Starch into Sugar.-When
-The followinc - and
u is a description of this interesting
remarkably simple apparaius, with its accompanying
starchy materials are treated on a large scale, solid oaken tank, Fig. 3 and 4, PI. VI.
vats, Fig. 2, Pl. VI., are used from 8 to 10 centimeters A. E(evator.LCylinder of iron plate, having hemi-
thick, and of sufficient capacity to contain 125 llecto- spherical heads, a i d capable of bearing the saGe pres-
litres u p to the line a, a'. Vats with much thinner sure as the steam generator. It should be tested for the
walls may be used, but it is necessary to line them with same number of atmospheres.
sheet lead to obviate the carbonizing - effect of the sul- B. Tank for receiving the liquid to be raised.
phuric acid. b. Cock for opening communication between the ele-
6, b', b2. Lead pipe bent into a circle near the bottom v a t o r ~and tan'k B.
of the vat. T h e circular portion, bl, b2, is split a t short c. Cock for ascertaining when there is a sufficient
distances to allow the steam to escape into the liquid quant,ity of liquid in the elevator.
contents of the vat. This pipe is connected to a copper d. Steam cock.
steam pipe. f. Cock for the escape of air, to facilitate the entrance
07. Funnel through which the dissolved starch is added of the liquid.
in small quantities a t a time.
g. Three-way cock, b y which t h e liquid may be di- there being now space enough for t h e steam t o press
rected to different ~ l a c e s . properly on t h e liquid, the operation will go on properly.
h. Tube rising h-om the bottom of the elevator for Pumps.-Two kinds of pumps are used in distilleries ;
conveying the liquid t o the three-way cock in its ascent. one for liquids, when there is no elevator, and t h e other
i. Man-hole for repairs and cleaning. for semi-fluid materials.
To Use the Apparat,us.-First open the air cock f, to T h e former should be a forcing and suction pump,
allow t h e air to escape, then open t h e cock b, in order and should occupy but little space. T h e , Eureka pump
t h a t t h e liquid m a y flow into the elevator. When the made i n New York, besides combining-these pl'operties,
liquid rises to t h e level of t h e cock c, close t h e cocks f is cheap; and requires but little force to work it.
and b, t u r n t h e key of t h e three-way cock g towards the T h e second, called t h e movable tube pump, h a s the
pipe by which t h e liquid is to be raised, a n d open the advantage of having no piston, a n d not being liable to
steam cock d ; t h e steam will fill t h e vacant space and , . choke; i t raises pasty substances as well as hot or cold
liquids. There is in this pum no cause of derange-
press on t h e surface of t h e liquid. This will yield and
rise promptly 'by t h e inner tube 74 and pass t o its desti- g
ment, t h e only p a r t which m u s t e cared for is t h e piece
of leather t h a t is in t h e movable tube: all delays are
nation without leaving t h e smallest quantity in t h e ap-
paratus. T h e progress of the operation may be followed prevented by having e x t r a leathers in case of accident.
u p by placing t h e h a n d on t h e pipe through which the Pi7ters.-It frequently happens t h a t clear liquids have
liquid is passing. As soon as the heat becomes too great to be separated from deposits which have formed, o r
t o be borne, it is certain t h a t there is no more liquid in from substances held in suspension ; i t is necessary t h a t
t h e elevator. the distiIIer should have a, number of filters at hand.
Another method is sometimes adopted for using the They m a y be made of cloth stretched on frames; but
elevator, as follows : Open t h e three-way cock g upon those which appear to be most convenient consist of
a n y pipe, taking care t o close t h e cocks 6, c, and f ; open large baskets lined with woollen cloth. T h e liquid t o
t h e air cock d, i n order t h a t t h e steam may completely be filtered is poured into these lined baskets. T h e
expel t h e air from t h e vessel; this may be known liquid passes through -
- while t h e grosser matters are re-
when t h e cock b y which t h e air is escaping is too tained.-
h o t t o bear t h e h a n d ; at this moment close first the Besides 'the machines a n d utensils just described,
cock g, then d, t h e steam will condense a n d cause a there are m a n y others which are necessary to t h e dis-
vacuum ih t h e apparatus ; then, after two o r three min- tiller, and which it is only neceseary t o record by name.
utes, open the cock b o n l y ; t h e liquid is drawn rapidly They are, for t h e wine distillet, grape-pickers, peatles,
- and presses; for t h e grain distiller vats for s h p i n g , a n d
i n t o t h e elevator; at this stage close t h e cock b, turn
t h e k e y towards t h e pipe through which the liquid is to germinating-kiZns, mills ffor cnmhing or grinding grain,
be raised, and open t h e c k k d. vate with a double botlom, a n d boilers for starch, j h r ,
W h e n through inattention the elevntor is entirely &c.
filled with liquid, i t is imposiible to make it operate ; the Some utensils of daily use are indispensable, as wooden
steam, by t h e loud cZapping. produced by its condensit- rakes, &oveZs and skimmers, iron forks, sip7~omof tin, Z e d ,
tion, announces this accident, which is easy enough to or gutta percha, .spirit-pumps, wine-testers, tin p a n s and
remedy. F o r this purpose, open the cock b, when the measures, wooden buckets, faucets of variozcs sizes, large
steam presses the liquid back into t h e tank B, and, as soon funnels of tin a n d wood, deep wooden tubs, beaters, tup-
as a proper quautity has been drawn off, close the cock b; h e r s , &c.

We have already said that bodies have a tendency to

acquire an equilibrium of heat, and that the transfer
from one body to another is made by contact. The
greater the number of points of contact the more rapid
C H A P . T E R IV. will i t be effected.
It is, therefore, easy to conceive that in subjecting a
ON T H E APPLICATION OF HEAT TO DISTILLATION. liquid to the action of caloric in a still, i t will be heated
more rapidly in proportion to the number of points of
HEATis the principal agent of dist.illation. The contact presented to the source of heat and to the con-
general laws regulating its action on material substances ducting power of the material of which this vessel is
constitute an interesting study, for which the reader is made. For this reason a still should be broad and shal-
referred to any of the scientific boolrs on the subject.* low if it is destined to evaporate its contents rapidly.
I t is sufficient to say here that i t is capable of being Heat for practical purposes is derived from the corn-
transmitted by conduction through the substance of . bustion of various kinds of fuel. Much of the useful
bodies which are called good or bad conductors accord- effect to be derived from the combustion depends on
ing to the facility of the transit, and that it passes from the construction of the furnace where it is effected, and
one body to another either by contact or through the in which the heat is applied to the different bodies to
surrounding atmosphere by radiation. There is a ten- be heated.
dency among all bodies to acquire an equilibrium of heat The heat for reducing liquids to the form of vapor is
by giving it off, or by absorbing it, as the case may be. applied directly over the T e n or naked_fire, or indirectly,
By its power of penetration it overcomes the cohesive that is, by steam and the water or sand bath.
force which exists between the atoms of matter. By
its accumulation in the body of a substance these effects Heating by the Xaked Pire.
are shown by the dilatation, which progresses until the
solid becomes a liquid, and the liquid is finally converted Dist.illation over the open or naked fire consists in
into gas or'vapor. By the abstraction of heat contrary effecting the combustion directly underneath the still.
effects are produced.. This may be seen in the example This method of heating is most usually enlployed in
of water, which is so readily presented under the three operations on a small scale.
forms of ice, water, and steam, as increase or diminution The management of heat with the .open fire requires
of this imponderable force may determine. much skill on the part of the distiller, especially when
The following table will exhibit the boiling point of semi-liquid substa.nces are to be distilled-as the marc
different liquids in degrees of the centigrade thermo- of grapes, cherries, &c. The degree of heat is quite
meter :- difficult to fix and to be equably kept up, for, when a
Sulphorio ether
Pure alcohol . ...
350.5 Sympofsugar . . 1060
Water saturated with table salt
small addition of fuel is made to the fire, the heat may
pass all at once from the condition of being too low to
... 155c
Alcohol of 900 etmngtd 800.1 Water satnrated w i t h nitre 1140 that of being too high, and the distillate may contract
... .-. 810.1
6' 850 Oil of turpentine
' 6

850.8 Snlphnric acid 3050 an empyreumatic flavor.

‘I 450 as
Pure water .
. . 880.9
Linseed oil
. .. 3150
An unequal distribution of heat with the open fire
often presents the inconvenience of altering the product
* See particularly B o z , A Pmcticul Treatise o n Heat. Phila- more or less. The liquid dries, and burns the upper
delphia : H. C. Baird.
parts of the still, or, rather, some of the solid matters as i t is diminished the temperature necessary to cause
submitted to distillation attach themselves to the sides, ebullition is also diminished. I n a vacuum ebullition
and, by opposing an obstacle to the passage of the heat, is independent of the tempwature. It begins instantly,
favor its accumulation at 'such points; the product,
under such circumstances, will inevitably contract a ceases. -
and continues until the vacuum is filled, and then
burnt flavor. T h e heating of liquids, or materials to be.distilled, is
effected by several methods. When; without inconve- 8

Heating by Steam. nience, they can be mixed with water, the steam is ad-
mitted directly or by injection. This is used for semi-
T h e inconveniences which have just been pointed
out in the use of the naked fire disappear entirely where fluid substances, or for the distillation of substances in
stea~n heat is applied for purposes of distillation. There the large Belgian or column stills. But generally with
is, too, great advantage in its use. ' the simple or continuous stills, arranged by Derosne,
These advantages m a y be summed up as follows :- Egrot, etc., rectifying stills, etc., the liquids are heated
1. Economy of fuel-since it permits all the opera- by conduction from the steccm, that is to say, by causing a
current of steam to circulate in it through a tube usually
tions of the distiller to be conducted by the use of a arranged in a, coil. Or the steam may be admitted into
single furnace, when otherwise each one would require
a separate fire. a jacket (or envelope) surrounding the still, or into a
2. Economy of labor, and consequently greater fncility double bottom ; these last are used only by the spirit
of ~ e r s o n a su~ervision.
l distiller.

5 ; Perfect &ularity. in the temperature necessary for We would recommend that the greatest caution
the work. should be observed, in admitting steam into any appa-
4. And as a consequence of this regularity of tem- ratus, to open the steam-cocks slowly, so as to avoid too
perature a superiority in the quality of the product. great and sudden condensation in the pipes, which will
It is admitted t h a t most liquid bodies may be trans- occasion detonations and shocks which injure the joints
formed into vapor. This change is called in general of the pipe and cause leaks.
evaporations; i t is si7ewt when the vapors are formed at Those who are desirous of' acquainting themselves
the surface of the liquid without any movement therein. with the calculations for the force of steam boilers for
When the vapors escape tumultuously the phenomenon heating purposes, are referred to the catalogue of H. C .
is called ebuZ2ition or boiling. T h e latter only concerns Baird for several valuable books on the subject of the
steam-engine and its applications.
Ebullition, is the tumultuous evolution of steam which NoTE.-T~~nse of the water and sand-baths being confined t o
is formed in the body of a liquid and escapes in bubbles another branch of the art, the consideration of them is deferred nntil
at the surface. we treat of distilled waters, etc.
When any liquid contained in a vessel is submitted
to the action of heat, a certain time elapses before the
ebullition begins ; this time is nec-ssary for the- vapor
to acquire, by increase of temperature, a sufficient elas-
tic force to overcome the pressure of the atmosphere;
t h e boiling point depends on this pressure ;in proportion

Accidents of Distillation.
The following accidents may occur during the course
of an operation :-
C H A P T E R V. 1. Leaks i n t.he apparatus.
2. Insufficient exhaust.ion of the spent liquor.
SOME CONSIDERATIONS U P O N DISTILLATION A S APPLIED 3. Imwerfect condensation of the alcoholic vapors.
TO ALCOHOL. 4. irks.
A DISTILLING apparatus to be profitable should be so Leaks in t7te Apparatus.-When the joints of the appa-
constructed as to be able to heat the liquid rapidly, and ratus are not well made, or when the screw taps or bolts
are not tight enough, there will be an escape of alcoholic
to evaporate and condense it with facility. We may vapor, which will occasion more or less loss, arid may
now add, as a sequel to these principles, that i t is neces-
sary, lst, to heat at the same time, and equally, all be the cause of fire. The accident may be easily pre-
parts of the mass subjected to distillation ; 2d, to remove vented by being careful to apply between the joints a
a.ny obstacles that may interfere with the ascent of the cement of white and red lead mixed with oil, and to
alcoholic vapors ; 3d, to effect the condensation promptly examine the taps and bolts occasionally to see if they
in order to prevent a portion of these vapors from es- are tight enough.
caping in the gaseous state. Some loss of liquid or vapor may occur when there
- are cracks in the soldered joints necessary to the adjust-
I n order to obtain the first of these conditions it is
necessary, in the first place, that the mass of liquid ment of the coils, wine-heater, and cooler ; but in this
should be of little depth, and should present a large case the liquid which flows into the proof bottle will be
surface ; that the heating, whether by the naked fire or sensibly lowered in strength, and will a t once indicate
by steam, should be conducted with intelligence and what is going on in the apparatus.
care, so as to maintain -the stream of the distillate of Zxhazcstiaz of the Spent Liquor.-The.liquid
regular size, and in order to avoid shocks. which has been subjected to distillation, that is to say,
The ascent of the alcoholic vapors always goes on the residuum which results from this operation, is called
satisfactorily when the first condition is fulfilled, but spent liquor.
care must be taken in a continuma distillation not to The insufficient exhaustion of the spent Z i q z w r can only
turn the wine or fermented must into the apparatus occur when we distil too quickly the quantity of liquid
before i t has acquired a temperature of a t least 80° Cent., which should be distilled in a given 'time, or when the
for i f ' the wine be cold or only tepid the operation will apparatus used is defective. This last danger of loss
be interru~ted. will disappear by using the apparatus we have described.
The alcbholic vapors are always promptly condensed Testing the Spent Ligzuw.-We ascertain whether the
when the liquid contained in the cooler is sufficiently I liauid
- A
submitted to distillation contains any more alto-
cold, that is to say, does not exceed a temperature of I hol, as follows :-
We open the air-cock, placed on the top of the still,
18O; nevertheless the vapors should not come over in I containing the liquid to be examined ; a small quantity
such great abundance that the condensed liquid will be
warm. of vapor escapes, to which a lighted match is applied;
if it. takes fire it is evident that the spent liquor still
contains a certain quantity of alcohol.

If, however, there should be any doubt ,about this fire, and when a room or building is filled with this
test, i t may be better to use the following:- vapor the explosion which follows is truly terrific.
Connect the air-cock, by means of an India-rubber The same accident may occur from the escape of
tube, with a small cooler similar to that of a test-still; the ethereal vapors, which are produced a t the beginning
open the cock half way, and the vapor will be con- of a distillation, or during rectification.
densed into liquid within the coil. This product when All danger of fire is avoided by being careful not
collected is tested in two ways : first, by throwing a small to enter, with a candle, a place where distilling is carried
quantity on the top of the still, and applying a lighted on, or where spirits are stored, without using a lantern
match ; if it burns, the exhaustion is not complete ; -the use of Davy's safety lamp is to be preferred.
second, by plunging into the liquid an alcoholmeter; if it The lamps necessary for lighting the establishment
marks two or three degrees, i t is proof that the liquid should be inclosed by glass or mica, and finally, if it is
contain's more alcohol, and distillation must be conti- possible, to distil only during the day, the risk will dis-
nued until the liquid marks zero, then we may be cer- appear almost entirely.
tain that it is despoiled of its alcohol.
Imperfect Condensation of dh e AZcoblic Vapors.-T his
accident may happen when the liquid of the cooler is
not sufficiently cold, or rather when, in consequence of
a shock, there is disengaged so great a quantity of alco- CHAPTER VI.
holic vapor that a part will escape in a gaseous state,
while the other part flows into the proof bottle in the D I S T I L L A T I O N O F ALCOHOL.
form of a hot liquid.
Now that we have explained the theory of the gene- . - \
The first cause readily disappears by taking care that
the cooling liquid, as has already been said, does not rill principles of the distillation of Jcohol, it becomes
our province to set forth the rules for their practical
exceed 1 8 O in temperature, or by replacing the wine in
the cooler by water; in this case the wine passes directly application; for the connection between theory and -
into the wine heating condenser. The second takes practice is indispensable, and i t is vain to separate them.
place only when the fire or steam is pushed too ac- The operator who is not guided by theory is like a blind
tively. By regulating the heat this accident is pre- man who walks without seeing his way. Practice is
vented. action ; theory explains the why and wherefore it is
Fires.-A distillery should be so arranged as to avoid done; i t indicates the means to be employed to insure
all chances of conflagration. With this view the alco- success, as well as those to which we must have recourse
holic- products of the distillation ought to be received to surmount obstacles which might prevent its attain-
in reservoirs of iron, or tanks of oak lined with tinned ment.
copper, hermetically closed, and if possible in a separate We set up no claim, in order to arrive at the end we
place. The spirits that are rectified, or are ready for have i n view, to fixlimits to the progress of distillation.
consumption, ought also to be placed in a special store. We believe, on the contrary, that there is much yet to
be learned. We have made, since we have practised the
, Leaks of the apparatus, and the imperfect condensa- art, some interesting and valuable observations, founded
tion of the alcoholic vapors, may frequently become
the cause of fire, these vapors being exceedingly inflam- on science and work, which have proven .to us that the
mable. The smallest flame is sufficient to set them on actual state of our knowledge in regard to 'distillation
is far from being perfect. Moreover, every day brings vineyards, old or new, yield their choicest products.
new discoveries to enlarge the circIe of our knowledge ! That which especially distinguishes the French wines is
Be this as it may, we shall explain in simple terms all their bouquet, their delicate flavor, and that valuable
the operations which are practised in our day for the lightness which renders them inoffensive and superior
production of the different kinds of ardent spirits which to all foreign wines.
are fbund in the market. We shall add to these the In many parts of the world wines are made,%ofincon-
results of our own experience, which, we are persuaded, testable merit, but which, nevertheless, generally fatigue
ought to be taken under consideration. the organ of taste, and which impress on the nervous
s-ystem a state of excitability often dangerous ; some-
Spirits of Wine (Alcohol from Wine). times it is froin their extreme tartness; .sometimes a
The distillation of wines is one of the most fruitful flat and unsavory flavor, which is caused by an excess
sources of prosperity to France, and its development of sugar and the ropiness of the liquid ; and sonletimes
in the United States may yet lay the foundation for a from the harshness resulting from an excess of alcohol.
branch of trade-which will render great aid in restoring In Prance there are innumerable varieties which an-
to its originally prosperous condition a portion of our swer to all the fancies of the most capricious taste, OF a
beloved country, so lately prostrated by intestinal strife. good color, a generally irreproachable limpidity, strength,
The manufacture of all kinds of liquids, capable of fineness, mellowness, bouquet, delicate and light aroma,
yielding alcohol, being of necessity the province of the a n d a gracious perfume, which flatters, charms, and
distiller, we shall devote some space to the mode of pre- soothes t h e nerves, but rarely injures, except when
paring wine from grapes. The limits of this work do not abuse is mingled with their enjoyment.
permit us to enter into all the details of this interesting Vintage.-The name applied to the season of the grape
subject, and for more extensive information our readers harvest, and the various labors necessary to the manu-
are referred to special treatises, of which there are many. facture of wine.
: The vintage calls for the preparation of many details.
We should be careful to provide the number of puncheons
Wine. or hogsheads for which we may judge that we shall have
Among the fruits which contain the elements necessary need, to have them gauged and in good order, to make
for the vinous fermentation the grape occupies the first the necessary repairs to the press and vats, to have
rank. It has within itself the sugar, the water, and the ready wooden shovels, iron forks, tubs and buckets of
ferment in the most sditnble proportions. These sub- wood, funnels, panniers, and baskets.
star!ces are, however, variable according to the climate We ought to await the perfect maturity of the grapes
and changes of seasons ; nevertheless it is these, added before gathering, otherwise the wine will be sour, and
to a bouquet or peculiar aroma, which constitute that keep badly. The true period of this maturity'is when
valuable liquor, known as wine, and its-infinitevarieties. the berry begins to, soften and falls a t the slightest
France, situated almost in the centre of Europe,'is, touch, when the stem becomes brown, and the expressed
by its topographical position, and by the nature of its juice is sweet and sticky. The ripeness of the white
soil, the richest country in vines, and that in which they grape is rtcognized by the transparency of the berry,
best succeed. I n the plains and on the mountains, here its sweet taste, and by its brown spots.
in the sand, there among th.e rocks, and everywhere Grapes should be gathered as soon as possible after
the dew has disappeared, using for the purpose the scis-
WINE. 93
only contribute, by tbeir acidity, to increase that pro-
sors or shears. The knife jars the bunches, and causes duced by the grape in this condition.
the best berries to fall off. It is proper to handle them But, on the other hand, there are feeble and almost
with care, so as not to bruise them, and to transport insipid wines, such, for the most part, as come from hu-
them to the place where the wine is to be made without mid climates, in which the slightly acid taste of the
jolting them. stems relieves the natural flatness of this drink. It was
Crushing.-ln order t h a t i t may yield a vinous liquor so in Orleans, that, after having commenced to stem
i t is necessary that the grape should be crushed, t o the the grapes, they were forced to abandon it, because it was
end t h a t its proximate elements may be brought into observed that the grapes which were stripped from the
more intimate contact ; for there would not be any alco- sterns furnished a wine which very easily became ropy.
hol in the berry if left to itself; unless i t be torn it will It has been also observed that the stems of the grape
wither, dry up, and be decomposed without undergoing increase and regulate the fermentation of the must;
a regular and complete vinous fermentation. that they give to the cap a degree of permeability neces-
There are many ways of crushing the grape-each sary to the escape of the carbonic acid, in such a man-
country has its own. The following appears to us to be ner that the stems may be considered as an advanta-
the best :- geous ferment in all cases in which i t may be feared that
We use a square box, open a t the top, the bottom the fermentation will be slow or incomplete. They con-
pierced with holes; i t is placed on two pieces of wood, tain, too, an astringent principle which contributes to
which rest on the edges of the vat; within this box a the preservation of wines containing a small quantity of
vintager places himself, and tramples the fruit with his alcohol.
great sabots; the expressed juice flows into the v a t ; At all events stemming is but little practised, except
then, by a sliding side-gate, he causes the marc to fall in two-fifths of our wine-growing departments, or by
into the v a t ; this is thrown into another vessel, if the some large proprietors, who take the greatest pains to
must is to be fermented alone. The crushing goes on obtain wines of the best quality.
as described until the vat is full. Vcct&g.-The grapes, after being crushed, are to be
T h e crushing in the fermenting vat, directly, as is done turned into the v a t ; a vacant space of 20 or 25 centi-
i n some countries, is highly objectionable; a great meters is left, because of the increase of volume which
part of the berries not being mashed, it follows that the occurs in the mass in consequence of the heat developed
sugar and ferment contained in them, although floating during fermentation and the escape of carbonic acid gas.
in the liquid in full course of fermentation, will remain The vat is then covered, and fermentation suffered to .
untouched because still inclosed in their cells, and when go on.
the grapes are pressed these berries yield a juice which The vats for the vintage are of oak, and are round ;
will fernlent in the hogshead. they are brought together and strengthened by wooden
It is a question among wine makers whether it is hoops, but iron hoops are better, as they are more solid.
proper to stem the grapes, b u t all doubt ceases when it The contents vary from 20 to 25 hectoli tres; they should
is fairly examined. T h e stems containing, in fact, nei- be larger at the bottom than a t the top; they rest on
ther aroma nor saccharine matter, contribute nothing to trustles, and are furnished with n stopcock for rack-
the strengh or the bouquet of t h e wine. Then, if the ing. Vats of masonry are preferable for the proprietors
grape is not in a state of complete maturity, either from of large vineyards, especially when the wine is intended .
want of heat, or because the vintage has been hastened for distillation. They may be heated before ljeing filled.
by frosts, or from any cause whatsoever, the stems can
WINE. 95
properly that the cellar in which the wine is made should
The plastered lining of these vats has a sensible action have a constant temperature of 15" Cent., and of course
on the wine only the first year. that the fruits should be a t the same degree. This result is
ChemicaZ Cornposit& of Must.-The recently ex- attained by heating the cellars with stoves and allowing
~ r e s s e djuice of the grape is called must. I t is a sweet the fruit to remain uncrushed until i t has acquired the
liquor, agreeable to the taste, which contains no alcohol, temperature of the place. We can, too, praduce the
but only those elements which are proper for its deve- proper temperature by drawing off a portion of the must,
lopment and the formation of wine. and heating i t nearly to the boiling point and returning
I n order to explain the phenomena which take place it to the vat.
within the vat during the fermentation, it is necessary When the progress of the fermentation is not dimin-
to make known the composition of the must or juice of ished, it is unnecessary to stir or plunge the cap into the
the grape. We find in it cellulose, water, glucose or wine. I n any event, instead of sending naked men into
grape sugar, pectic acid, malic acid, tannin, vegetable the .vat (which is both nasty and dangerous, asphyxia
albumen, an azotized substance called albumen or glaia- often resulting from the carbonic acid gas generated
dine, and which appears to produce the ferment, an es- during the process), i t is better to depress the cap by a
sential oil, a violet-colored substance situated under the wooden plunger with a long handle.
skin of the grape, fatty matter, acid tartrates of potash, A majority of wine growers prefer the open vats; this
lime, and alumina, sulphate of lime, and chloride of was the method of our fathers. Although the loss which
sodium. Of all tlie substances which are found dis- takes place in open vats has been greatly over-estimated
solved or suspended in the must, the most important is (since Gay-Lussac has shown that i t does not exceed the
the glucose or grape sugar; the other substances are but half of one per cent. of a l ~ o h o l )it~ is better to cover
accessories. them. Indeed, in the open vats, if the atmosphere is
Fermentation.-The grapes having been disposed as dry and warm, the cap becomes dry and the air pene-
described above, the fermentation will in a few days have trates it; and if the fermentation is prolonged, acetic
established itself, the mass becomes heated, bubbles of acid will be formed, and when the cap is mixed with the
carbonic acid are disengaged so abundantly as to present mass by stirrintg, it mill communicate to the wine a dis-
the appearance of ebullition ; they raise the solid debris position to assume the acid fermentation. If the air is
of the fruit, and a thick scum consisting especially of cold and moist, the upper surface of the cap will absorb
altered ferment, in such a manner as to form by degrees
on the surface of the liquor a hemispherical crust which
water which will dilute the grapes, and cause the de-
velopment of the acid or putrid fermentation and incipi- .
.is called the cap. But very soon the effervescence ia ent mouldiness.
calmed down, and the cap subsides. The vat is now Fermentation in closed vats conbinea the following
stirred so as to mix all the materials and revive the fer- advantages. The interior t&mperature is maintained,
mentation. When the liquor ceases to effervesce, when and the must before beginning to ferment ripens. T h e
i t has acquired a vinous taste, and has become dear, it green fruit thus attains a degree of maturity similar to
is drawn off into hogsheads. It now bears the name of that which would have occurred on the vine if the sea-
wine. son had been favorable. The air has no influence, the
The fermentation is feeble when the temperature is evolution of carbonic acid is retarded, and the wine may
cold a t the season of the vintage ; heat being, as we be left for a longer time in contact with the marc with-'
know, one of the primary conditions of the vinous fer-
mentation, it is necessary in order that i t may go on
WINE. 97

out m y other inconvenience than the solution of the '' This unprofitable result may be obviated by correcting
elements of the stem. the imperfect composition of the must.. 1t
- is only necessary to add the amount of .sugar that is
bnprovement of Must.-When the season has been wanting and which nature has failed to produce.
cold or rainy, or the grape has been grown on moist c L I n order to determine the quantity of sugar to be
lands, the must contains too much water of vegetation,
and too little sugar. I n this case, in order that the fer- added to must derived from unripe grapes, the following
mentation may not be irregular, slow, and often incom- indication will suffice :-
L C In the South of France the grape ordinarily ripens
plete, and that the product which results may not be perfectly, and in this case i t is only necessary to manage
deficient in alcohol, i t is proper to restore the proportion
of the elements by diminishing the water by artificial the fermentation properly ; the wine will keep without
alteration, but in the north, even in a fbvorable season,
This operation not only restores the normal propor- this fruit never ripens completely. I have constantly
tions of the elements of the must, but facilitates the observed that, in the south, wine which has been well
fermented marks on the areometer some fractions of a
clarification of the mine if i t is not pushed too far. It degree below the speciGc gravity of water, while in the .
, must be remarked, however, that must which remains North of France, the new wines rarely allow the instru-
too long over the fire loses its fermenting properties. ment to descend to the same degree,
This phenomenon is to be attributed to the coagulation "Another important observation which may serve as
of a part of the albuminous, glutinous, and extractive a guide to the quantity of sugar which i t is proper to
molecules contained in the must. employ ecwh year, is to determine the degree of concen-
The most natural means and those most in accordance tration of the must, which varies with every gathering.
with the principles of w.ine-making,in order to counteract .
The areometer has often shown a difference of from two
the escess of water in the juice of grapes or other fruit, to four degrees of concentration in must resulting from
are to add some saccharine substance to the must; a t the the same vintage, as the maturity of the grape has been
same time t h a t we supply this defect in t h e work of more or less advanced ; the must from very ripe grapes
nature, correcting the imperfect composition of the must,
we supply to that liquid the quantity of sugar which weighs the most.
would have been developed if the season had been more "Thus, when we have once determined the specific
propitious : we do more; we produce a t will t h e must gravity of must derived from grapes which have at-
of the south or of the north. tained the greatest maturity, i t is sufficient to bring i t
"Generally," says Chaptal, "when the grape ripens, to this degree by the addition of sugar in seasons when
t h e sugar and vegeto-animal principle (ferment) exist in the ripening is less perfect.
" In 1817 the grapes of Touraine had not ripened ;
proper proportions to undergo a perfect and regular fer-
mentation, but when the season is moist o r cold, the the must of my vintage, which marked 11° in a good
season, was only a t g o ; I brought i t up to 11° by sdd-
sugar is deficient, the mucilage is in excess, and the
product of the fermentation is wanting in alcohol. In ing sugar. I covered the vat with boards and woollen
this case the small quantity of alcohol developed is not cloths, and allowed i t to ferment. The wine was found
sufficient to preserve the wine from spontaneous decom- to be very clear when drawn from the v a t ; it was
position, and on the return of warm weather a second almost as strong as t h a t from the south, while t h a t -
fermentation is set u p which decomposes the liquor and which hjd been vatted without the addition of sugar
converts it into viriegar. was flat and thick, as the thick red wines of the wiae-
7 0
WINE. 99
fore, affirm that a11 methods, the object of which is
growers constantly are. T h e latter sold for fifty francs to fix the period of racking in a general or .precise
the barrel. I refused eighty-four francs for mine, pre- manner, are necessarily fallac~ous. T h e only one that
ferring to keep i t for my table. The wine, as it was will furnish a sure guide consists in observing, during
drawn from the vat, was as clear as that made from the the fermentation, the progress of the decomposition of
same vineyard, and which had been four years in barrels, the saccharine principle, that is to say, the complete
and i t was much more generous and agreeable to the vinification of the liquor. T h e areometer may, under
taste. Twenty bawels of wine prepured tn this manner - certain circumstances, aid in determining the stage of
required $ftty kizograrnmes of sugar. fermentation in the must.
" As the grapes are crushed and the r a t filled, some
of the must is put in a boiler over the fire and heated
2Zcyressing.-The whole of the wine is not obtained
by the operation of drawing off; there remains a very
sufficiently to dissolve the sugar. W l ~ e ndissolved, the considerable quantity with the marc which forms the
solution is poured into the vat and the mass carefully cap, which sinks down as the wine is drawn off, until
stirred. This operation is to be repeated until all the it forms a single mass with the parts deposited a t the
sugar has been disposed of. When the operation is bottom of the vat. The marc is expressed by means of
finished the v a t is covered and the fermentation suffered a wi7zepress. This has various forms, which are more
to proceed." or less perfect.
T h e habit of sweetening must to improve wines is This expressed wine is frequently mixed with that
a t present general in Burgundy, Champagne, Orleans, drawn off without pressure; but this is wrong ; i t should
and many other wine-growing countries, only glucose is be kept Geparate, because it is harsher, less ripe, and
preferred as offering more analogy to the sugar of the more tart than the latter.
grape than cane sugar: Yet i t would be, in our opinion, ChemicaZ C m p o s i t w n of Wilze.-We shall omit the
more advisable t o use white refined cane or beet sugar details of racking, sizing, sul phuring, and' storing wines,
for table wines even of a low price, and to use glucose as well as some other operations in regard to this sub-
for common wines ; by this means we should avoid in- ject, as not being within the limits of a treatise like the
creasing in the wines the formation of amylic alcohol, present. We cannot speak of the distillation of wine
which the fermentation of the glucose of starch always without pausing a moment, as was done for must, to
produces in a variable quantity, and independently of consider its chemical composition, from which- i t differs
the alcohol resulting from the decomposition of the snc- but little.
charine matter. Wine contains a large proportion of water, a little
Drawing OH.(Racking.)-The quality of the wine de- undecomposed glucose, traces of soluble azotized matter
. pends in a great measure on this operation; but, all-im- or ferment, alcohol in variable proportions (from 7% to
portant as i t is, the wine-growers, even in our day, depend 24 per cent.), pectine and mucilage, some tannin, free
only on equivocal signs. They have imagined a number malic and tartaric acids ; n coloring matter, yellow in
of signs and circumstances by the assistance of which white wine, and red in the dark wines; acetic and
they pretend to ascertain the propitious moment; but a?tc;cnthic acids; an aromatic principle or bouquet, and
it is easy to understand that this period cannot be fixed, enantitic ether, a n essential oil of vinous odor; and,
because the phenomena vary in energy and duration finally, all the vegetable and mineral salts contained in -
according to climate and season, or, rather, according the must.
to the temperature a t the time of the vintage, and also
according to the quality of the must. We may, there-
Choice of Wines for Distillation.
The wines of Bordeaux contain, in addition, a sapid
principle called enanlhine, and the chamyagnes a n ap- In the choice of wines the distiller is principally de-
preciable quantity of carbonic acid gas, cided, first, by the alcoholic richness, and then bysthe
T h e numerous varieties of wines have very nearly quality of the product he can obtain.
the same composition, although the constituent elements T h e alcoholic richness of wines is easy t.o determine
are not always in the same relative proportions. These by means of the test-still of GAY-Lussac or Salleron -(see
substances pre-exist in the marc of the grape beside some determ.i?zntwnqf the stremgth of aZcoh9lic liquids). I t is
which are generated during the act of fermentation. sufficient to distil off one-third of the wine to be esa-
The alcohol, acetic and aenanthic acids, the bouquet, mined, and then add. to the distillate two volumes of
. enanthic-ether, and aenanthine, are the products of the
fermentation of the must. The alcohol is derived evi-
water, and plunge an alcoholmeter into the mixture.
This instrument, with the aid of a thermometer, will

-dently from the sugar. T h e acetic acid is formed a t ,the at once indicate the degree of spirituosity, or, in other
expense of the alcohol, and is almost always the result words, the alcoholic strength of the wine tested.
of a too active or too prolonged fermentation. The proportion of alcohol i n the difikrent kinds of
The ananthic acid analogous to the fat acids results wines varies very much ; i t depends on the nature of
from the oxidation of the fatty substances contained in the climate and s c h on which the-wines are.grown. The
the must; its action as an acid is but little appreciable strength-of wines may be deduced, as we have seen, from
to the taste, but it is observed i n proportion as i t is the proportion of alcohol which they contain, but their
transfbrmed into aenanthic ether by its reaction on the value, in reference to the quality of the product they will
alcohol ; this oenanthic ether is a sort of essential oil, yield,-is not so easily determined. This value depends
which appears to be the principle which communicateq on numerous circumstances which cannot be ascertained
not the bouquet peculitw. to . each locality, but t h a t cha- by the taste alone. In rreneral.wines that are rich in alco-
racteristic vinous odor more or less common to all hol have neither the &llowness nor the perfume, which
wines. As to the 6ouput of wine so much prized by characterize the light wines ; but, on the other hand, i t
gowrrnets, it is a substance which, by reason of the is certain that they contain lees malic acid. It is also to
minute proportion in each kind of wine, has hitherto be remarked that generous wines yield the best recti_fied
escaped all the researches of the chemist. spirits (trois six). The distillation of alcohol from wines
Wines are generous and strong in proportion to the (spirits, trois six), having for its object to procure a per-
amount of alcohol they contain. I t is tt!is principle to fectly pure product, that is to say, free from taate,
which they owe their intoxicating .properties. T h e tan- neither the bouquet, fineness, taste, nor the age of the
nin gives them roughness and the acetic a.nd malic acids, wines is indispensable to the success of the operation.
. and cream of tartar, their tartness. As the tartar is I n brandies, however, as we shall see hereafter, all these
deposited by degrees in the casks and bottles, i t may be qualities are to be sought for. Besides, in the choice of
well understood how wines improve by age. They lose, wines, we should be guided by the experience acquired
too, by keeping, a large proportion of their coloring mat- in regard to each particular locality. g h e y should be
ter, and acquire a tint which has received the name of examined simultaneously by the taste and the small
omwn peel. test-still referred to above; these will nok only make
known the quantity of alcohol, but will also throw some
light on the quality of the product.
the manufacture of Zipueurs, and for improving common
Distillation.-This operation is generally conducted in brandies; the great advance in price for many years,
the continuous apparatus, the use and management of has caused manufacturers to have recourse to the spirits
which we have described (apparatus of Derosne & Egrot). of beets and grain for these purposes.
By means of this method of distillation we obtain a t Fine or well-flavored trois-six should be perfectly
once the desired degree (86 or 88 degrees), we exhaust pure, without aroma, and besides should be absolutely
the liquid completely, and economize a large quantity of limpid. Badly flavored trois-six is detected by its empy-
fuel. I t is, however, possible to distill wines with the reurnatic taste, resulting from careless distillation, or the
simple apparatus; but, in this case, i t is necessary to $aver of tlte still, caused by too hurried a rectification,
redistil the product several times to procure the degree of or the taste of the marc, of the beet, or produced by a n
concentration required by the trade; this will neces- admixture of the spirit manufactured from these sub-
sarily lead to a great loss of time and considerable ex- stances.
penditure of fuel, without yielding a product equal in I n examining it, trois-six should never be tasted, unless
quality to that obtained by the continuous apparatus. i t is diluted least half its weight of water; this
is necessary to develop the aroma that may exist in the
Trois Six or Spirits of Wine (Rectified Spirits). spirit; besides it would be very difficult to taste it pure,
I n this trade these names are applied to the alcohol as the power of taste would be blunted by the strength of
of wine, marking 85 degrees Centigrade, or 33 degrees of the spirits. Yet there are some dealers who have no
Cartier. The denomination irois six is very old, and difficulty in tasting trois-six by dipping in the point of
constitutes with the following, viz.. 3z $, -2, +,
$,- i6i,+, the little fiuger and carrying it a t once to the mouth.
We may also, in order to recognize the odor of badly
3, and $, the ancient fractional denornlnataons w h ~ c hare
used in the South of France, a t the present day, t o de- flavored trois-six, pour a few drops into the palm of the
signate spirits of different degrees of proof, and which hand, and then after striking the hands together, let
correspond to 23, 24, 29, 30, 31, 32, 35, 37, and 41 de- them approach the nose.
grees of Cartier's areometer, the temperature being a t ten T h e engraving exhibits the general arrangement of a
degrees of the thermometer of Reaumur. These num- first class brandy distillery.
. bers are not arbitrary ;they indicate the weight, and not
the volume, as some theorists have contended, of the
Alcohol from Molasses.
quantity of water which i t is necessary to add to any Molasses is the uncrystallizablesyrup which is produced
spirituous liquor to bring it to proof (Preuve de abllande), during the manufacture of cane and beet sugar. It i s .
or 1 9 degrees Cartier (50 degrees Centigrade). . tlie residuum of the manufacture and refining.
Thus the three-fifths is spirits a t 291 degrees, which Molasses is a brown, viscous, and very dense liquid,
mixed in the proportion of three parts of spirits with marking generally from 4 1 to 45 degrees on Baumgs
two parts of water, will give five parts i n weight of areometer, knd rarely above. I t s color varies from a
brandy a t 19 degrees. clear yellow to almost black, according to its origin.
T h e trois-six is alcohol a t 33 degrees, of which, if Variety a n d Selection of il5oZas~ea.-The selection of
three parts are mixed with a n equal weight of water, molasses is a, matter of very great importance t o t h e .
will produce six parts of brandy of the same degree, or distiller, as much in respect to the quant.ity as the
1 9 degrees Cartier. quality of the alcohol it will yield. The best is that
T h e trois-six of wine is a t present used exclusively in

which is of a beautiful amber tint, without any burnt tories, it becomes necessary to remedy this inconvenience
taste, and in which are still fouud particles of crystnlliza- which would otherwise prove an obstacle to the regular
ble sugar. development of the fermentation, and consequently, the
~ r e q u e n t lwe
~ , confound the molasses of the refineries productio~~ of alcohol. The alkalies are neutralized by
with that from the colonies, from which influ and the addition of a slight excess of sulphuric acid. This
are made. The taste is of excellent quality, and some- is determined by the use of litmus, which reddens in-
times contains as much as 60 per cent. of sugar. stantaneously by contact with an acid.
T h e molasses from the refinery is made from (1) cane The exact quantity of acid to be used cannot be
sugar, or (2) beet sugnr. fixed, because the quantity of alkaline salts varies with
T h e first is to be preferred as containing much more the quality of the molasses. It may be stated as be-
sugar, but i t is scarce and always high priced in France. tween three amd four kilogrirmmes for each one hundred
T h e molasses from the refineries of beet sugnr, in its kilogrammes of molasses. The acid should be diluted
turn, should be preferred to that from the Wctories. It in seven or eight volumes of cold water to prevent
furnishes a larger quantity and better qnnlity of spirit altering the saccharine principle in the molasses.
than the last. T h e molasses from the beet sugar facto- When the mixture is prepared, i t is drawn into one
ries lacks that fresh, agreeable, and honey-hke taste or more vats according to the quantitz and / the fermen-
which characterizes the product of the cane factories tation is established by adding 250igrammes of good
and refineries. It retains a bitter and acrid taste de- fresh yeast, previously dissolved in a little tepid water,
to each 100 litres of must a t 7 O or So BaumB. After
rived from the root. I t is strongly alkaline, because of
the salts of potash which i t contains in considerable introdu~in the
~ yeast, the liquid is to be well rummaged
quantity, and has an unpleasant odor. Because of its for some mmutes, the v a t carefully covered and left for
bad taste, this molasses cannot be employed for any , the fermentation to proceed. I n a very .short time under
other purpose than distillation. the influence of the yeast and heat the fermentation
Fernentation.-The following is the process of fer- ' will begin to be apparent.; the surface of the liquid will
menting it, whatever be the kind of molasses selected. be covered by a light white scum which begins a t the
Dissolve the molasses in four or five times its weight of sides of the vat and gradually extends over the whole
water, or in seven or eight times its volume, at pleasure,' surface. This scum consists almost entirely of yeast;
of which a certain portion should be heated to 30° C., it is caused to disappear en tirely by throwing on the .
in order t h a t the rnisture may be complete; t h e cold surface of the liquid a little oil or grease, mixed with a,
water is then to be added so ns to reduce the temperature . small quantity of boiling water. I n the absence of grease
of the mass to 20° in summer, and 25O in winter. T h e s little soft soap dissolved as above will produce t h e
proportions indicated will yield a 1n ust, the density of sam'e effect.
which will vary from seven to eight degrees of Bium6's When the scum has disappeared we perceive lively
areotne ter. undulations of the surfuce of the liquid, a t the same
As the liquid is often strongly alkaline, especial-ly time that it exhales the very characteristic odor of car-
when operating with molasses from the beet sugnr f e byxic acid gas, a manifest sign of the conversion of the
. . ., saccharine principle into alcohol. To this tumultuous
* One hundred kilogrammes of molasses at 42 deprees, represent movement of the liquid succeeds another phase. As the
1 1 . 4 3 litrea by measure ; 100 litres of molasses of t h e same degree undulations become less active, and i n proportiog as t h e
will weigh 1 4 0 kilogrammes. :
fermentation diminishes, the evolution of carbonic acid
stead of water to dilute the molasses. This method,
becomes less abundant, it is remarked that the sweet
taste of the liquid also diminishes and inse&ibly dis- practised a t present in distilleries of molasses from beet
appears; then the vat acquires a very decided odor of sugar presents also the peculiar advantage of affording e
alcohol-a sign which indicates the termination of the more highly concentrated saline liquid from which to
fermentation. extract the potash i t contains. There results from i t a
When the operation has been conducted under favor- notable economy of labor, and especially of fuel for con-
able circumstances such as have been indicated above, the centrating the waste liquor.
vinous fermentation terminates usually a t the end of Since the waste liquor resulting from the direct distil-
thirty-six or forty-eight hours, and if i t is not completed lation of the wine of beet molasses usually marks from
within fifty-five or sixty hours or more, the result will be 3O to 4" of the areometer of BnumB; and when used
a very bad one. for n new fermentation we obtain after distillation waste
We know that the operation has progressed properly liquor marking from 7" to 8O, we would call attention
when the liquid only marks 0" or 1" on the areometer to the fact t h a t i n charging the vats w e ought not
of BaumB. to estimate a t its full value the degree of the waste
liquor used for diluting the molasses. I n other words,
When the alcoholic fermentation. is terminated, the
acids contained in the fermented liquid are neutralized if the charge of molasses for fermentation should be a t
by a slight excess of lime, which should be previously go, and the waste liquor used had marked 4O, we should
charge the vats a t 12", since there are 4" resulting from
mixed with a sufficient quantity of water. T h e object the waste liquor which count for nothing.
of this addition is not only to neutralize the acids which
exist in the wine, or are produced during the fermenta- Some chemists advise the fermentation of molasses a t
- tion, but also to afford a means of arresting or at least 12" or 14". This would in effect yield a more concen-
of retarding, and in a great degree diminishlng the pro- trated waste liquor, but experience has proven t h a t by
gress of the acetic fermentation which, as we know,,, . charging the vats a t so high a degree there will be too
much sugar lost in the waste liquor. For many years we
always takes place a t the expense of the alcohol. After' have seen that the use of malt and rye-flour in the fer-
saturation the vats are closely covered and allowed to
stand twelve or fourteen hours. During this period of mentation of molasses will produce an excellent effect.
repose the vinous liquid becomes clear, and the lime falls Fire hundred grammes of each are to be employed for
each hectolitre of the liquid to be fermented. It is cer-
to the bottom of the vats, combined with the acids
which i t has neutralized, when we m a y proceed to t h e tain that these substances perceptibly increase the fer-.
distillation by the continuous apparatus. mentation, and produce a greater quantity of alcohol.
Admitting that we have operated upon good molasses, The spirit of molasses has neither t h e taste nor the
and that we have directed and watched the fermentation odor of spirits of wine; it is sweeter, and when the
and distillation with the special knowledp which these distillation and rectification have been properly con-
operations require, we shall obtain ordinarily an average . ducted, i t may be considered as a type of alcohol in its
of 28 or 30 litres of pure alcohol from 100 kilogrammes purity, for i t has neither taste nor any peculiar aroma.
of molasses a t 42" (37 or 4 1 per cent.). I n this state i t is called fine spirits, and may be employed
The alcoholic result will be materially increased if we in the manufacture of liqueurs, for improving common
use for a new fermehtat.ion the clear waste liquor which brandies, and especially for refining .the t ~ o i 7 s, b (recti-
f i e d spirit) of Montpellier. T h e spirits of molasses
is derived from the previous distillation, by using it in-
Water . .
85 pnrts.
Sugar . 10 &I

occur usually in the market a t from 90 to 94 ' centesi-

mal degrees.
Ligneous fibre .
Albumen and other substances
.. 2.5 "
2.5 "

- . NOTE--In those districts o f France where the beet i s largely culti-

- vated for the manufacture of sugar, and the molasses is converted into
alcohol, the waste liquor is made a source of no inconsiderable profit The other substances not named are : malic and pec-
b? concentrating i t and incinerating the residuum, from which is oh- tic acids, an azotized substance, red, yellow, and brown
talned, for the use of t b e soap boiler, a caustic potash of superior - coloring matter, fatty matter, an aromatic principle, an
quality. In addition to the alcohol, 100 kilogrammes cf g o o d beet
molasses will yield 10 or 12 per cent. of commercial, or from 7 to 8 acrid essential oil, chlorophylle, osalate and phosphate
per cent. of refined potash.* of ammonia ; the silicate, sulphate, nitrate, and oxalate
of potash, the chlorides of potassium and sodium, sul-
Alcohol from Beets.
phur, silica, the oxides of iron and manganese. -
When the distiller does not cultivate the beets he
The mnnufircture of alcohol from beets, after having wishes to distil, that is to say, when he is obliged to
been for many years the object of a special industry, boy them, it is best to make a preliminary examination
has now a tendency to become entirely agricultural ; of them in order to be assured of their saccharidp rich-
in fact, for many years only three hundred f.~ ~ r m ehad rs ness, for this varies with the species of beet, the method
set up distilleries for beets, and this. year (1887) a t least of cultivation, and the nature of the soil in which they
double the number &ill be set in operationif alcohol are grown. Atmospheric influences also have their
still continues to rise in price. The advantages which effect.
this manufacture presenrs to the farmers are conside- The most certain test, that which will give the best
rable. Producing the raw material themselves, they result, is, without doubt, to fermeut the juice and distil
get i t a t a price to which the trade cannot aspire; they the wine resultin,p from the fermentation ; the propor-
extract the alcohol by macerotion -?t m i n i m u m y q t . tion of sugar which previously existed in the roots is
This work furnishes a residuum, whk' - A?- deduced from the quantity of alcohol obtained.
almost nothing, and which, whel? ). :.
fatten them visibly. On the othw ' - . 5-
.\; A very simple method of testing beets consists in cut-

ting from the middle of a number of them some thin

resulting from this food will, in ita*urn;lrnprom the --A
slices, which, after being carefully weighed in n small ' -

quality of the land already improved by the cultivation balance, are dried either in a Lot room, or on a mode-
of the beet. . rately-heated stove.
Pinally, the distillation of the beet being coaducted As soon as the drying is complete, which may be
a t a season when field work is interrupted, will afford known when the slices have become so hard and brittle
occupation for the laborers. that they break in the attempt to bend them, they are
From these considerations it follows that the indus- again carefully weighed ; the difference in weight repre-
trial distillation of the beet should give way to the agri- sents the quantity of water originally contained in the
cultural, and that, after awhile, will do so entirely. fresh beets. I t is indispensable, in order to have the
Chemical Analysis of the Beet.-The following is the drying perfect, that the slices should be subjected to .
average of many analyses made at different tlmes by , many successive weighings until they lose no more
intelligent and skilful &hemists:- :,.
* s e e Dmsauce: Tne H a n u f a c t u r e of Soap. 8vo. Philadelphia :
H. C. Baird.
Different Processes for Distilling Beets.
I n order to determine approximately the quantity of
sugm which the dried slices contain, we make the fol- The principal methods a t present used for obtaining
lowing calculation : Beets of a good variety, cultivated from beets are :-
- in n proper soil, and in a favorable season, would have
1 6 to 18 parts of dry matter for 100 parts of the fresh
1. By rasping and pressure.
2. By maceration.
root; we should subtract 7 or 8 parts for the foreign 3. By direct distillation of the beet, that is to say,
substances, and there will remain 9 or 11 parts repre- without rasping and without maceration.
senting the proportion of pure sugar, or, in other words, As to the method of boiling the beets, and then ex-
9 or 11 kilogrammes of sugar from 100 kilogrammes of tracting the saccharine juice by pressure, or subjecting
fresh beets, of which i t will be possible, when operating the pulp to fermentation, then - t o distillation, it is a t
on a large scale, to obtain from 4 to 7 kilogrammes of present almost entirely abandoned.
refined sugar, or from 7 to 11 litres of spirit, at 50° Cen- Each of the processes that we have just indicated
tigrade (proof), representing 33 to 5 litres of pure a h - receives in its turn different applications which we shall
hol, because the beets only yield about four-fifths of the examine in succession.
alcohol, and only one-half or two-thirds of the sugar The manufacture of alcohol, whatever be the process
they contain. adopted, requires many operations, viz., washing the
Another method of testing as simple as the preceding roots, rnspine or slicing them, extracting the sugar, fer-
but much more prompt, consists in ascertaining the mentation and distillation.
density of the juice of the beets examined, and is as
follows :- Distillation of Beet Spirit by Basping and Pressure.
Some beets are rasped -in an earthen pan, and the
pulp pressed in s cloth, the juice filtered through paper; This process is employed in the large industrial estab-
then plunge an areometer into the liquid, and the degree - lishments, and especially in the sugar factories, which
of density will indicate the saccharine value of the beets ' have been converted during the last four .years i n to dis-
with sufficient accuracy. This operation should be con-; tilleries. I t requires a large stock and numerous hands,
and, as a consequence, furnishes alcohol which costs a
ducted - quickly, and at a temperature below 15" Cent.. pretty high price. Therefore this process offers bnt lit- .-
In order to prevent the juice becoming thick and begin-
ning to ferment. tle chance of success in the future, although the alcohol
The yield of alcohol from beets is dependent on the produced by it is undoubtedly superior to that obtained
quantity of sugar they contain; i t increases with the by any other process.
density of the juice, but not in proportion to it, on The beets are washed, rasped, and pressed by suitable
- -~

account of the saline matters and vegetable albumen instruments. By this treat&ent are obtained from 80 to
which the roots contain in very variable proportions. 85 parts of juice for 100 of beets; but the quantity
Yet i t is ascertained, according to a number of experi- may be made up to 100 by allowing a small stream of
ments, that beets, when they are matured, will generally water to fall on the rasp; this will, at the same time,
yield 8 or 9 per cent. of sugar when their filtered (but facilitate the rasping.
not defecated) juice 'marks 6O on the areometer of Frequently, during the pressing, when the temper*
Baumq 9 or 10 per cent. when it marks 6a0, and 10 or ture is above 12O Cent., or when the beets are somewhat
11 per cent. when the density is To. damaged, t h e sacks which contain the pulp will become
rate the alkaline salts, and to give the liquid an acid re-
thick or slimy, and still retain after this operation action which will favor the conversion of the starchy
certain quantity of liquid, nowithstanding the force np- elements into sugar, and the transformation of the sugar
plied. This inconvenience may be avoided by ~ccasion- .
into glucose, which, as we know, requires no ferment to
ally plunging the sacks into water containing two or p d u c e t h e alcoholic fermentation. This transforma-
three one-thousandths of tannin in solution, or five per tion always precedes the conversion of saccharine matter
cent. of sulphuric acid a t 60 degrees. into a,lcohol and carbonic acid. Sulphuric acid also pre-
The extraction of the juice of beets, by rasping and - vents the development of the viscous fermentation,
pressure, demands the most constant attention to clean. otherwise so frequent in beet juice obtained by rasping.
liness ; for the sacks, hurdles, reservoirs, and other im- According to M. Dubrunfaut, the ofEce of the acids
plements may produce changes which will react with emploged in the fermentation of the beet is to destroy
very great rapidity upon must otherwise of good quality, the cells of that root, and to facilitate the extrac-
and cause serious damage. We should, therefore, every tion of the sugar; then to produce, by heat or cold,
day wash the reservoirs, presses, tables, &o., with lime- a sort of defecation which precipitates in a solid state.
water. The sacks are to be placed in a large rectangu- the various azotized substances, especially the glairy
lar box, hermetically closed, and into which is intro- ferment. Be this as it may, i t is certain that by the
duced a current of steam. When they have been sub- employment of the acid, if the beet juice is placed in
mitted to this operation they are rinsed in lime-water, the condition of a favorable temperature, i t will under-
or acidulated water (five litres of sulphuric acid, at 60 go a perfect and very regular alcoholic fermentation
degrees, to 100 litres of water). without the intervention of beer leaven, and that dl
The juice resulting from the rasp and press is then the sugar contained in the juice mill be converted into
brought together in a boiler, and heated by steam to a alcohol, under the influence of the natural ferment of
temperature of 26 or 28 degrees, then i t is conveyed by the root, transformed into a n- exclusively alcoholic fer-
a pump or elevator t o the fermenting vats. ment by the reactions of acids.
Although the beet contains s natural leaven, the fer-F The acid may be advantageously added a t different
mentation should, nevertheless, a t the start be developedc stages of the operation--on the rasp* by dissolving it i n
by means of beer yeast, in the proportion of 50 or 60 the water which flows on the drum of this machine dur-
ing the rasping of the beets, in the trough of the rasp with . ,
grammes to the hectolitre of juice. This yeast should
previously be carefully mixed with a small quantity of the pulp after it has passed the machine, or when moist
water or must, and the temperature of the apartment ening the sacks already pressed, when they are submit-
should be a t 18 or 20 degrees Cent. ted to the press rt second time. I n this addition the
It is indispensable, in order to regulate and hasten
the fermentation, to add to ihe liquid about two or two * The acidulation of the pulp o n the rasp, that i s to say, at the
and a half kilogrammes of concentrated sulphuic acid moment of its production, preserves i t rsdically from all change,
either by oxidation or otherwise. T h e pulp remains white, the juice
for 1000 litres, according to the richness of the must, is limpid o r colorless, the sacks a n d other ntensils are cleansed, and
and more particularly according to the quantity of for- will thos b e kept perfectly sweet even without washing. T h e cells o f
eign substances which i t may contain. This dose, how- the pulp not tom are d i s ~ o l v e d ,and, if we follow u p the work by
ever, ought never to exceed three kilogrammes ; for then moistening the pulp with pure water, and pressing a second time, as
is done everywhere, we shall obtain a new jnice rich in sugar, and at
the acid would p r o d ~ ~ caecontrary effect, that is to say, the same time remove from the pulp the small quantity of acid which
would hinder the development of the fermentation. it would have retained but for this method o f treating it.
The office of the sulphuric acid, in this case, is to satu- 8 -
dose of acid should be calculated upon the weight of the The fermentation of a vat, while yet in a state of
beets as juice, and even above, because the earth on the activity, may serve to produce a new fermentation in
roots, which may have escaped the washer, will neu. another vat without the addition of beer yeast; it is
tralize a portion of it. sufficient for this purpose to draw off one-half of the
I t is known that the quantity of acid is sufficient liquor into the second vat, and to fill the two vats with
when the pulp is colorless, and the slightly-colored juice fre& acidulated juice ; the fermentation is then de-
is quite clear. A rapid fermentation, that is to say, veloped and progresses without in ierruption, and may be
one which is effected after a delay of less than eighteen the means of a new fermentation. The reaction is in-
hours, with a foam that is white or grayish, light, easy to stantaneous, and takes place with great activity.
reduce by the aid of any fatty liquid, is also an evidence During the fermentation of beet juice there is pro-
of a proper quantity of acid. Blackish foam,.or one duced quite a large quantity of globular ferment which
that becomes so by exposure to the air, indicates the r e forms the cap, and which has properLies analogous to the
verse. yellat of beer, but is possessed of almost double its ferment-
It is easy to avoid irregularity in the dose by veri- ing power. This ferment is collected in the same msn-
fying the state of acidity of the juice, which ought to ner as that of beer, and may be applied to the same uses.
be, as was said above, from two to three kilogrammes of When the fermentation is terminated, which happens
sulphuric acid, at 66 degrees, for 1000 litres of juice, ac- generally 18 to 24 hours after the juice is introduced
cording to its density, and the nature of the beets from into the vat^, the wine is allowed to rest for some hours,
which it is obtained. The dose of acid in the juice is and then it is distilled i n the continuous still, and in the
ascertained with sufficient exactness by means of the alk* manner a h a d y indicated. I t is known that the fermenta-
line test solution, graduated test glass, and litmus. As a tion is at an end, and the wine ready for the still when
general thing two kilogrammes of sulphuric acid will it only marks O0 or lo on the areometer of BaumC, in-
be sufficient for a juice marking 1 0 3 degrees on the den- stead of 50 or 6O as a t the commencement.
simeter, or five degrees on the areometer of Baum6. There is formed during the fermentation of juice ob-
Hydrochloric acid may be used with advantage to r o tained by rasping and pressure a very great quantity of
place. sulphuric acid for the acidulation of the juice or foam which may overflow the vats and spread on the
pulp of the beet. floor of the sweat-house; this inconvenience is easily
This acid, which possesses a marked superiority os an prevented by the use of a solution of sofbsoap or grease,
agent for changing crystallizable into grape sugar, and as has already been said.
for the conversion of amylaceous eubstances into sugar, The deposit of the vats ought never to be used as s
enjoys also the same superiority as an agent .for the leaven for a succeeding operation; it only contains s
destruction of the cells of vegetables. Besides, hydro- spent ferment which will do more harm than good. It
chloric acid produces the development of the ferment may be understood from this how necessary it is to clean
and the alcoholic fermentation with a greater economy the vats with care after each operation, and according
of -. time and money. to the principles indicated above.
The proportion which the hydrochloric acid should The alcoholic result is dependent on the saccharine
bear to the dose of sulphuric acid is that of their chemi- richness of the beets, and the more or less advanced
cal equivalents; that is to say, about two kilogrammea state of the season. It varies between three and five
,of hydrochloric acid (commercial) for one kilogramme of litres af
.+ pure alcohol for 100 kilogrammes of fresh beets.
sulphuric acid at 60°.
impulse to the machine, and accelerate the cutting. I n
Distillation of the Beet by Xaceration. any event, it is indispensable that the root-cutter should
make from 120 to 150 revolutions per minute, in order
Maceration is an operation by the aid of which ia ex- that the roots m a y be properly cut.
tracted by means of water and spent liquor, all the sac. The knives of the cutter should be so arranged as to
charine principle contained in t.he beet.
--The object
- divide the beets into ribbons having a width of one cen-
of extracting the juice by maceration is

to suppress the rasp and press, which call for the expen. timeter to a thickness of one millimeter, and a variable
diture of much mechanical force, and carry with them length. These dimensions being rigorously observed, the
also too great a n encumbrance of expense and personnel. maceration will be perfect.
I t is best in order to save labor that the beets should
Then, too, we obtain by this process five or six times as
much residuum as by I-asping, which is a great advan. fall directly from the washer into the hopper of the root-
tage to the farmer; nevertheless, it must be acknow- cutter.
The beets being cut as described, are placed in a ma.-
ledged that the alcohol produced by maceration preserves
a little more of the taste peculiar to beet-spirit than that cerator of wood or iron and oduered with boiling water,
obtained from rasping and pressure. midulated in the proportion of two kilogrammes of
sulphuric acid at 66" to 1000 kilogrammen of roots.
There are many methods of applying this process, but This dose of acid should -be increased to five kilogrammes
we shall confine ourselves to those in general use. if the beets are damaged.
Maceration 6y Water.-This should by all means be After macerating for one hour the liquid is drawn off,
preferred as the industrial process, because it yields an and at once turned into a second vat charged with beets
alcohol having a less unpleasant odor than that o b cut in ribbons, where it remains still another hour; it
tained from maceration with spent liquor. is then drawn off into a third macerator charged as
less, this process may be resorted to by the farmer, if he
will restore to the residuum of the beets the salt or salts before, and after stauding the same length of time, it is
drawn off into the fermenting vat. This juice should
they have lost in the process. have acquired, during the three successive macerations
Maceration by water is effective either hot or cold. to which it has been subjected, a density which differs
T h e first method, although it furnishes a spirit of infe- but little from that obtained by the rasping Trocess.
rior flavor, presents the advantnge of yielding a much While the operation is going on i n the second mace-
greater quantity of sugar in a very much shorter time. rator, the first is charged anew with acidulated boiling
T h e heat, by bursting the vegetable cells of the beet, water, which also remains one hour, and is then turned
facilitates the escape of the saccharine matter, the place into the second macerator after its contents are drawn
of which is occupied by the water. It furnishes also a off into the third. Finally the beets are completely
residuum suitable for feeding cattle. The second is exhausted by a third charge of acidulated boiling water,
longer, but furnishes a residuum which is better suited which also remains one hour in the first macerator.
for feeding stock, while the alcohol is of better flavor; The pulp being exhausted, is removed and replaced
however i t may be, the hot process is in general use, and by fresh slices ; the first macerator is then charged with
we shall therefore commence by describing it.
Nacemtion hy Heat.-'.he beets are to be washed in a juice which has already passed through two macerators;
it stands one hour on this fresh pulp, and is ready for
special apparatus, and sliced by means of a root-cutter fermenting-.
moved by horse or steam power, or if the distillery is of
The starting differs, as we see, from the regular course
little importance, by the force of two men. I n the
last case a fly-wheel should be added to give a greater
of the operation, in this, that the first macerator receiveo
three charges of acidulated water a t the beginning, while
i t only receives one when the work is under way; the may occur during the course of the fermentation, either
two other charges are made with juices which alrea* from frothing or from the formation of acids, as well as
have a certain density, as they are the result of ex. those prescribed in regard to the cleansing of all the ves-
hausting two other macerators. In conclusion, each sels and utensils.
The fermentation having terminated, as is known
macerator, to be completely exhausted, must receive three
successive charges of liquid at intervals of one hour. when the must has acquired an agreeable vinous odor,
When the temperature of the air is not too cold, the and when all internal movement has ceased in the vat,
juice which results from the three maceratioos ought to the liquid ought to mark O0 or lo on the areometer of
Bsumk I n this condition it may be &stilled at 'once,
be set to ferment without the necessity of being reheated;
it is usually a t from 22O to 24O of the centigrade ther- but it is better to let it cool for twenty-four hours i n
mometer. order that it may attain the lowest possible temperature
as it is used for cooling the coil and condensing the
The fermentation is started a t first only by the as alcoholic vapors.
sistance of beer yeast in the proportion of 125 to 150 When the fermented juice is sufficiently cool the dis-
grammes to the hectolitre. This yeast, carefully dis tillation is at once commenced in one of the continuous
solved in advance in a sufficient quantity of water or
juice, is poured into the vat before introducing the stills described above. - T h e distillate usually marks
liquid, and in proportion as the latter is turned in, it is
from 45O to 55O : it must he rectified to deprive it of the
strongly stirred for some minutes in order to distribute disaeeeable odor it exhales at this feeble degree, and to
the ferment properly.. When the vat is full, that is, when obtam it in the concentrated form required in the market
(90° or 94O). -
the must rises to within 20 or 25 centimeters of the top, The quantity of alcohol obtained from the beet is, as
it is carefully covered, and the whole left to ferment in we have said, influenced by the amount of sugar it con-
a local temperature of from 18" to 20°.
Since, as was mid above, the beet contains a natural
tains, as well as the season in which the work is carried
on. I n general 1000 kilogrammes of beets of good
ferment, a vat which is fermenting will serve for devel- quality will produce, by the process just described, an
oping n new fermentation in another vat without the
use of any more beer yeast. For this purpose one-third or average of 35 litres of pure alcohol, or 37.78 litres of
spirit a t 94O. This method of maceration, if it is
one-half of the must in the vat, after fermentation has thought proper, may be conducted in every particular, .
commenced, is turned into a new vat and the two vata and
- -- without change with spent liquor---only substituting
are filled during the bourse of the day with fresh juice. this liquid for b o h g water.
The fermentation will then proceed without interrup New Method of Mmeration hy Heat.-We devised,
tion, developing itself and continuing its course to give
rise to new fermentations. some ten years ago, a system of maceration which is
Generally the fermentation of juice obtained by hot
very simple and convenient : exhausting the beet com-
maceratioo is completed in the space of twenty-four or pletely, and which permits-lst, the heating of the
thirty hours; i t sometimes happens that it is finished liquid in the macerators by steam; 2d, the almost
within eighteen hours. ioatantaneous emptying of the pulp contained in the
macerators. This new arrangeme& has been intro- -
I t is essential to observe the precautions we have duced into s number of farm distilleries in France and
pointed out in regard to preventing the accidents that
We shall now proceed to describe the apparatus and
be turned into any one of the maceratore a t the
the manner of using it. PI. VI., Figs. 5 and 6,represent the operator.
the front and end elevation of the macerators. h. Main discharge-pipe, fifty millimeters i n diameter,
1,2,3, cylindrical macerators of iron plate of suitable conducting wea.k juice to the elevator, to be transferred
- thickness, each having two perforated diaphragms
within-one fixed a t fifteen centimeters from the bottom
to the macerators. To this pipe are attached three
other curved pipes, each having a large funnel i.
by supports and nuts ;it serves to support the pulp, while of these funnels has witbin a grating which prevents the
it prevents i t from being drawn off with the juice ;it also pulp, which may be drawn off with the liquid, from ob-
facilitates the dripping of the juice. The other diaphragm structing the pipes, and is placed directly under the dis-
has two handles, and is used to press down the pulp and charge-cocks.
prevent it from rising and running over; it is supported by k. Main pipe, thirty-five millimeters in diameter, Onfor
three nuts (near the top of the macerator) which fit in conveying the strong - - juice to the fermenting vats.
three grooves in the edges of the diaphragm in such man- it are three funnels L.
ner that, by giving it one-twentieth of a revolution, it rn. Displacement-pipes, one end attached at n by coup-
prevents the pulp from rising. ling-plate and three bolts under the bottom of the mace-
a. Six bearings or boxes, of which each lower h d f is rators, the other end curved into the funnels 1.
fixed by means of four screws to six posts of oak; the 0. Pipe in the form of a semi-ellipse, having a t its

upper half is fastened down by two screws. I n these middle point a perpendicular pipe q, by which water is
boxes rest the trunnions which serve as points of support conveyed to t>e macerators. There is a cock a t the ex-
for the macerators, rendering it possible f o turn them tremity of each of these pipes.
over in either direction. The pivot on tbe left is solid, p. Another pipe, cufved and arranged i n the same
that on the right consists of a pipe working in a stuffing manner with cocks q', for conducting weak juice to effect
box, the outer part attached to the steamcock 4 and the the displacement of the concentrated juice.
inner attached to the macerator. The pipes o and p are in communication with reser-
b. Cocks by means of which steam is introduced into voirs or vats, situated above the place i n which the
~ -

the macerator from the main steam-pipe c', and the maceration is -carried on.
branch pipes c. E b r this purpose a plunging-pipe el is - o1 and pl. Connections with main pipes for water and
placed within the macerator, just above the bottom ; weak juice.
this pipe, being pierced with holea along its whole The maceration by means of the vessels just described
length, facilitates the admission of steam, and its distri- is started as follows :-
bution throughout the entire mass. This pipe is indi- First, 611 macerator No. 1with washed beets, cut i n
. cated by the dotted lines. dices of the size and thickness indicated (p. 117) in the
d. Posts of oak.
- --
preceding article. Then wet the mass with sulphuric
f. Pipe having a diameter of fifty millimeters, and acid, at 66 degrees, diluted i n twenty times its weight
communicating with the elevator. of cold water, i n the proportion of one and a half or two
three perpendicular tubes, of the sameOn this pipe
diameter, are .
curved kilogrammes of acid to 1000 kilogrammes of roots. The
a t the top in such a manner as to pour the hquid into dose of acid may even be increased to two and a half
the macerators. Towards the middle of these tubes are kilogrammes, according to the season and the condition
placed cocks g. to give passage to weak juice, water, or of the beets. When this is done, place the diaphragm
spent liquor. By means of these three cocks liquid may on the
beets, which should be packed carefully and with-

out crowding; then open the cock p. of the pipe o to ad- Generally we obtain one and a quarter or one and a
mit cold water on the beets until they are covered ; then half litres of strong juice for each kilogramme of beets,
turn on steam from the pipe c by cock b, opening it or from 1200 to 1500 litres for each 1000 kilogrammes
gradually and carefully, so as to prevent explosions if roots treated.
caused by the steam coming in contact with the The macerators Nos. 1and 2 should then receive each
cold water, and heat the macerator until the hand another charge of water, which must be heated and
cannot be borne on the upper part (60 or 65 degrees suffered to stand for the time indicated above, so that
Cent.). At this stage close the steam-cock 6, and per- after this maceration No. 1 is completely exhausted,
mit the mass to macerate during forty-five minutes. having received three charges of water. - No. 2, on the
When this time has elapsed, open the cock jto let the contrary, must receive another charge to be entirely ex-
j uice be conveyed to the elevator through' the funnel i hausted.
and the pipe A. As soon as the third maceration of vessel No. 1 is
When the liquid in macerator No. 1 has been entirely completed the exhausted pulp is to be emptied. For
drawn off, close the cock j, and open p of the pipe o, this purpose the macerator is to be tilted into a borizon-
in order to fill the vessel again with water; heat to the tal position by tackle or a crank ; then, with an iron
same degree as in the first charge, and also alhw it to fork, having two or three curved teeth, the pulp is t o
macerate during forty-five minutes. be drawn out into a hand-barrow, to be carried from
While the second maceration is going on in vessel No. the building. The exlrausted pulp being removed, the
1, macerator No. 2, which has been previously filled vessel is again filled with fresh 81-ices of beet, which are
with sliced -beets, should be cbrurged, by means of the sorinklei3 with acidulated water in the proportions and
elevator, with the juiceTrom the first operation, which, on kanner indicated.
leaving the elevator, passes by the pipe f and the cock The displacement of vessel No. 3 being terminated,
9 ; then heat to the same degree, by opening the steam- the juice which it contains is heated in its turn, as has
cock b, and leave it to macerate for forty-five minutes. been said, and, after a sufficient maceration, is trans-
When this operation is finished, draw off the resulting ferred to vessel No. 1, in which the slices have been r e
liquid into macerator No. 3, which has been filled with newed ; this juice is then di~placedand conveyed to the
acidulated beets in slices, and allow it to stand for a few fermenting vats by the same means employed for vessel
minutes; send, by means of the elevator, the product No. 3, i. e., by weak juice from the cock q'.
of the second maceration of vessel No. 1into the reser- Thus it is seen that by this method the beets are com-
voir of weak juice, and open the cock p.' of the pipep, , pletely exhnusted by three washings or successive mace-
rations and displacement. I n a regular operation it is
in order that the strong juice may be displaced. The always the juice from the second maceration which is
weak juice pouring into the top of the macerator natu-
rally presses on the liquid contained in it, and forces it poured over the fresh acidulated slices, and which is
to flow out by the pipe en and the funnel Z, to pass displaced by the third juice or that from the last wash-
through the pipe k into the fermenting vats. ing, to be sent to the fermenting vats. The last charge
The displacement of the strong juice should be ac- ia made with pure water or spent liquor, according to the
complished in thirty or thirty-five minutes. We know process adopGd by the distiller.
that it is complete when the liquid which flows into the In this method special attention is to be given to the
vats has the same density as the feeble juice, which was two distinct operations of maceration and displacement.
used to effect the displacement. The former is conducted at the will of the workman;

the latter should be made as gently as p~ssjble. are more or less injurious to the health, and are certainly
attain this last result, it is necessary that all other ope- cause of intense discomfort to those who escape other
rations should be conducted with promptness, which is injury. By the employment of swinging macerators,
easy enough, if use is made of the elevator, which adds these inconveniences disappear. It is sulcient to tilt
- greatly to the value of this method, by reason of the the vessels to an inclination of 45O for the workmen to
rapidity with which the transfers of liquid are made, empty and cleanse them in a few minutes.
that giving more time for the displacement to be com- 6. Finally, the regularity with which- all the opera,
-pleted. tions succeed each other, as well as tlie facility of exe-
The strong juice obtained by the process just described, cution.
has a proper degree of heat, and is therefore ready for A s to the pulp resulting from this operation, i t is most
immediate fermentation. This operation and the distil- excellent for cattle, as we may readily understand. The
lation present no peculiarities of management that have slices, when placed in the macerators, will receive weak
not been described for juice obtained by other processes juice, water, or spent liquor. These liquids, in conse-
The advantages resulting from this system are :- qllence of being heated with the beets, form regularly
1. The employment of steam for heating, which is throughout the mass, rt precipitate of various salts some
infinitely to be preferred for distilling and rectifying, to of which adheres to each bit of the root; then comes the
the open fire. displacement of the liquid, which, by reason of the slow-
2. The distribution of the steam in each of the mace- ness with which it is effected, also deposits on the surface
rators, which affords time for any method of maceration of the beets the vegetable albumen, coagulated by the
that may be preferred, and gives a degree of heat as high addition' of sulphuric acid. All the nutritious principles
as may be necessarv. . of the beet, except the sugar, are then preserved after
3. The possibiliiy of effecting displacement of the the maceration by this process.
strong juice in a given space of time at the pleasure of Zaceration ;the Cold fiocess.-T he beets, after being
the operator. washed, are divided into very thin slices by the root
4. T h e filtration of the liquid which is effected during cutter, and are placed in a wooden macerating vat, then
the displacement, and which admits of sending to the covered with water, acidulated with sulphuric acid at
fermenting vats a much clearer juice than that resulting 6G0, in the proportion of two or three kilogrammes of
from other methods of maceration; the juice ferments acid to 1000 kilogrammes of beets. After a macersr.
readily, without producing any great amount of foam, tion of two hours? the liquid is to be drawn off into a
and forms scarcely any deposit in the distilling apparatus, second vat contaming fresh material, when it again
and yields low wines which by rectification will furnish stands for two hours; drawn off again, it is turned into
alcohol at 94O of good quality. a third vat containing a similar charge, where i t stands
5. -The ease and celerity with which the macerators the same length of time. This juice has then, during
may be emptied and filled, being suspended on pivots the apace of six hours, passed successively through three.
that may be caused to swing or turn over easily. This macerators, and ought to have acquired a density almost
last advantage is very important ; i t dispenses with the equivalent *tothat of the juice obtained by the rasp and
use of the awkward fork tongs used by some, which is very press. This juice is then heated to 2Z0 or 24O C., and
heavy work, especially when the macerators are large, set to ferment as described for the hot process.
for then the workmen are compelled to descend into the As in the hot procees, each macerating vat receives
vessel, where they will be surrounded by vapors that three charges for the complete exhaustion of the slices,
one hand is gained on the other. The vat constructed
weak juice replacing water during a part of the opera- of wood or masonry, with an opening near the bottom,
tion, thus giving a juice of proper density for fermen- which has an inclination towards the opening, is placed
tation. so as to receive the spent liquor as it runs from the still,
after it has been filled with enough beet chips for a day's
- The cold maceration is effected much more promptly
when the beets are reduced to a pulp by the rasp, than work. The next morning the spent liquor is drawn
off to be poured over the manure pile, t.he value of which
when sliced, hut the cost of the mechanical force required
for the machinery is more expensive. it greatly enhances.
dlaceration of Beet Chips.*-Beets cut in slices by a If it is desired, to save the expense of fuel,-md to
root cutter, and dried on frames of wood or wire cloth -avoid
- the construction of a special furnace for heating the
in the open air, or in a drying room, are called heel chipa. water, it will be sufficient to construct a hot water tank
The object of thus drying the beets is to preserve and of sheet iron, with an interior coil through which the
furnish material for the distiller a t a11 seasons, so that spent liquor may pass before reaching the vats ;this will
he may continue his opera.tions after the utock of fresh heat the water, intended for the maceration, to a suffi-
beets has been exhausted, or when the advance of the cient degree. This cistern may, also, if necessary, have -
season does not permit him to employ them with profit; beneath it a small furnace in the event of boiling water
and further, it reduces the cost of transportation when being required. The fuel consumed by this extra fire
it may be desired to send them to a distant market. will be a trifle.
The maceration of beet chips is conducted as in the We have also remarked that there is an economy of
hot process, only it must be understood that it requires time for the maceration, and that one-half of the sul-
more water or spent liquor than the latter, because the phuric acid ordinarily used will be sufficient ; because
chips absorb five or six times their weight of liquid in the boiling water lacking those organic principles which
swelling to their original volume, and assume a condition are obnoxious to the fermentation, attacks the cells of
almost equivalent to fresh slices. the beet more promptly and more energetically.
The fermentation and distillation of juice obtained by If, from any cause, this process cannot be employed,
this process are managed exactly in the same manner as we should advise the adoption of the method of Leplny
that from other procesws described-sulphuric acid be- -the direct distillation of the beet in substance.
ing employed in the same proportion, allowing for the Maceration by S p t Liquor.--The value of this opersc
tion has been greatly over-estimated by some. It has,
loss of weight by drying. We should advise the use of
boiling water, as indicated above, especially when the however, its advantages when the supply of water, as in
farmer has an abundant supply, since it favors the divi- aome localities, is scant. It is sufficient to say, that
sion of the molecules of the root, and produces a better apent liquor is used instead of water in the different stages
' result than spent liquor. of the operations, until it has acquired such a density as
It may be objected that beet chips will be less nutri- to become profitable for the manufacture of potash.
tious for cattle. We would reply that what is lost on The macerating vats should be one meter deep, and one
meter in diameter, capable of containing about 400 kilo-
* No apology can b e reqnired for the use of this term, although it grammes of beets.
is ignored by the lexicographers. Ch+s are thin transverse slices of
fruits dried. Snits are slices cut longitudinally and dried.
words a s given above are in constant ase in the great valleyThe two
of Vir-
ginia, where all kinds o f fruits are dried for home consumption or
for d e . - Trans.
New slices of beets may be fermented in the same
Direct Distillation of Beets. I
liquor, and the juice will answer for three or four opera-
tions without the addition of fresh juice or yeast. I n
R o c e s s of LepZay.-This operation depends- fhct this juice may be used indefinitely or until the fer-
1. Upon the direct fermentation of the beets cut in ment begins to lose some of its active properties, which
pieces or strips without extracting the juice, and without is detected by the fermentation beginning to be pro-
- the addition of beer leaven, the slices being
circumstances to favor this reaction.
- -placed in longed ; the fermented juice should then be distilled and
replaced by fresh juice, fermented by' the usual process.
2. Upon the direct distillation of these strips by a When a t the beginning of the work there is not beet
current of steam passing through the mass without di- juice on hand, i t is obtained by maceration with hot
rect heat, and in euch manner that the pieces preserve acidulated water and fermented with beer leaven.
their form, and constitute a mass which may be fed The pieces of fermented beets are then withdrawn
directly to cattle. from the sacks and arranged for direct distillation i n a
The beets being properly washed, are c u t by means of n peculiar but very simple still, which consists of a cylin-
root cutter in pieces, having the form of ribbons some cen- drical column of wood or iron, somewhat similar to the
timeters long, two centimeters wide, and two or three mili- bone black filters of the sugar factories. This column
meters thick ;these pieces, when placed one above another, has a close cover with an opening connecting it with the
leave interstices for the passage of the steam which is coil which is cooled by cold water to condense the alco-
to act on them during the course of the distillation. hol. There are a number of movable perforated di-
When this operation is finished, the beets are put into aphragms arranged within the column to support the
sacks and placed in a vat having a double bottom, con- pieces of beet and prevent them from packing. Between
taining juice, which has already passed through a good the lower one and the bottom of the cylinder, is a vacant
alcoholic fermentation i n . such manner that they shall space intended to receive the water of condensation
be completely submerged, which is effected by means of ,which collects during the heating of the mass by the
a perforated cover, which keeps the sacks down while it steam injected into thls space by means of a cock placed
gives passage to the liquid and the carbonic acid disen- below it. The steam, after penetrating this species of
gaged during the fermentation- This begins instantane- double bottom, escapes through the interstices left be-
ously, and is usually completed a t the end of ten or tween the pieces of beet, heats them to the centre, dis-
twelve hours. All the sugar is then transformed into engaging the alcoholic vapors which rise into the layers
alcohol. It is, however, still retained in the substance of beets above, to operate upon them in the same man-
of the beet, having taken the place of the sugar. ner as the vapor of water has on those below, and to
The fermented slices hbve not altered in form ; the become more and more spirituous as they rise. With n
original volume of juice has not apparently changed. column three or four meters high, we can obtain alcohol
The sulphuric acid is poured into this juice in the pro- of 70 or even 80 degrees. The contents of the several
portion *oftwo or four kilograrnmes a t 66 degrees to 100 diaphragms are successively and completely exhausted
kilogrammes of beets in slices to aid in the conversion of their alcohol, and yield a cooked pulp which, says M.
of crystallizable sugar into fermentable sugar, and for Leplay, contains all the nutritious elements of the beet,
neutralizing the salts and other principles that may be even all the soluble salts, the sugar alone having disap-
injurious to the fermentation. The dose of acid depends peared. This pulp, which const~tutesnearly fifty per
on the nature of the beets, the soil where grown and the cent. of the weight of the beets, keeps without difficulty,
more or less thoroughness of the washing. n 9
ner he retains the value of the fbod consumed in ani-
amd is easily transported from the distillery to the mal products, that is to say, in fat cattle, milk, butter,
neighboring farms. There is no spent liquor to throw wool, &c., and he is assured, moreover, of a considerable
out of the establishment. quantity of manure for the improvement of the soil. It
is not so advantageous to feed to his stock the grain and
Rectified Beet Spirit.
potatoes destined for them without first submitting to a
Like all spirits obtained from roots, that from the beet, This food then yields a three-fold profit to the farmer. .
i t niatters not what process has been used for obtaining R e derives from the sale of the spirits the price of the
it, contains an essential oil which communicates to it raw material, with a profit from the manufacture. He
a peculiar harshness and indicating its origin, unless i t is then has the increase in cattle which are fed with t h e
carefully rectified according to the principles we shall residuum, and experience has proven that grain and
esplain further on. But, on the other hand, when freed potatoes which have furnished alcohol are almost as good
from this essential oil, beet spirit constitutes a l i q ~ ~ .i d food for stock as if given .without having been submitted
which is suitable for rep1acii;g spirits of wine entirely and to the distillatory process ; finally, he prod~icesa mass
without exception in all the uses to which the latter may of manure, which by increasing the following harvest of
be applied. grains destined for sale, equally adds to the profits of
Grain Spirit. the still, and leaves t h e land in a constant state of in-
T h e cereals have been long used in England, Belgium, creasing improvement. These truths are so well known
Holland, Prussia, in the whole of Germany and Ame- in countries where the operation of distilling is in the.
rica, for the manufacture of alcohol, known in the mar- hands of the farmers, that they would believe that in
ket as grain spirit. This trade, so useful to agriculture, giving up the business they would be renouncing their
and which has been forbidden by a royal decree in farms, and. that even in years of scarcity, governments
France for four pitrs, has unfortunately never received have refrained from prohibiting the distillation of grain,
t h a t extension among us of which i t is susceptible, for if from fear of interfering with the sources of the fbllow-
the farmers were fully alive to the advantageous results ing harvest-the more, because the grain which is dis-
which are to be derived from adding a distillery to their tilled is not lost as food for man, since i t is returned in
agricultural operations there would be no farm without the form of food of another kind, a8 meat, milk, butter,
one or more of stills. But blind and stupid routiue is cheese, kc.
ever blocking the progress of the wts, even those of Choice of Gmin.-The state of preservation in which
prime necessity, and in spit;;; of the efforts of enlightened .grain is found in the market should attract the special
men, w h o sacrifice their time, and often part of their attention of the distiller ; that which is heated yields
fortune, in propagating the results of scientific discov- much less alcohol, as its fermentation is much less easily
ery, i t requires ages to effect favorable changes. Mathieu effected.
de Bombasle is one of those who have sought with ardor Its specific gravity is the most certain indication of the
to encourage the distillation of grains and potatoes, quality of grain; therefore that- which vvill weigh the
which he, with reason, considers one of the '' Columns most for a given measure should have the preference,
of Agriculture." . whatever be the purpose for which it may be intended.
" There is not a farmer," says he, cCwhodoes not T h e cereals which are most commonly used for pur-
know that he should always cause a part of the crop to poses of distillation are barley, rye, and rice ; but wheat,
be consumed on his land by his cattle." I n this man-
132 DISTILLATION OF ALCOHOL. contains in itself various principles, the proportions of
which vary not only for each of them, but for them all
oats, buckwheat, and Indian corn are also employed according to climate, variety, soil, or other accidental
under some circumstances with advantage. causes. These principles are starch (amidon), which
Barley being the grain which is used exclusively for constitutes the greater part, gluten in vaiiable quantity,
the preparation of malt, because it germinates more
- readily, and develops a larger proportion of diastase,
should hold the first place. It should be selected with
albumen, mucilage, a small portion of saccharine matter,
and in some, phosphate of lime and other salts.
By a recent analysis the proportions of these proxi-
large fine grains of bright color, well filled, healthy, and mate principles may be stated as follows:-
firm, without any foreign substance, free from chaff, and
as fresh as possible.
Wheat, although of a11 the cereals that which has the
most body, and furnishes the greatest proportion of the
alcoholic principle, is but little used in distillation, be-
cause its market value is always above that of other
grains, and the alcoholic product is not always in propor-
tion to this. I n selecting wheat for the still, that should
be preferred which is farinaceous, compact, and heavy, W b e a ~ a v e r a g eof five
and very dry, without being blasted ; that in which the varieties - . . . 65.99
gluten is so abundant as to give a vitreous appearance Rye
. -. .. .. .. .. 65.65
to the fracture. --_
Oats . . .
Oats should be heavy, bright, long, and well filled. It Indian corn . .. . .
. .
is but little employed on account of its high price. Rice . . . . . . 89.15
Of all grains rice is the most proper for the use of the
distiller. Its proportion of alcohol is considerable, and Among these proximate principles it is the starch
the product has a very good flavor. It should be a which has the property of being convertible into sugar,
dull-white, slightly transparent, angular, elongated, wit h- and giving rise to the alcoholic fermentation and the
out odor, and of a fresh farinaceous taste. The East production of spirit. The gluten and vegetable albu-
Indies, Piedmont, and the United States furnish consid- men have the property of transforming starch into sac:
erable quantities to commerce. charine matter. This change is, however, better effected
Rye produces also a very considerable quantity of by means of sulphuric or hydrochloric acid, germinated
alcohol, in proportion to its cost, but it is inferior in barley (malt), and diastase.
taste to that resulting from rice, wheat, or barley. It should be remarked that those grains or seeds which
As for buckwheat and Indian corn, they are usually are richest in gluten always contain the largest propor-
sold a t aslow price, and the distiller may, under favor- , tion of azotized substances, and, in general, more fatty .
able circumstances, and iu some localities, employ them I
matters, inorganic salts, and cellulose, but less starch.
with advantage.
. Chemical Composition of Chain.-Grain (of cereals) is : As this last principle is that which furnishes the sac-
charine matter, that is to say, alcohol, preference should
composed of an envelope in the form of bran, and of a
portion which when reduced to a powder under the * T h e proportion of azotized substance has been d@uced,from the elemen-
mill takes the name of farina or flour. The flour of the tary a n a l p i e by multiplying the weight of the nitrogen obtained, by 6.5.
different kinds of grain of which we have just spoken,

be given, for purposes of distillation, to those seeds altered, according to the temperature, and becomes arid.
which contain i t in the greatest quantity. , This alteration, which is important in t h a t i t deprives
Dexfl-ine.-Starch which has been subjected to the diastase of its most remarkable property, takes place,
action of hot water, and which is entirely dissolved, has although slowly, even in dried sobstnnces. For this
- acquired new properties, and then constitutes a new
isomeric principle called dextkine.
reason i t is not proper to prepare malt too long in ad-
vance of the time for using it. I t is especially improper
The very feeble acids, aided by heat and diastase, to keep i t from one season to another.
have the property of converting starch into soluble dex- T h e action of pure diastase on starch or flour made
trine, and they produce this curious effect in a very sim- into a paste is most powerful. Fifty grarumes of dias-
ple manner. Dextrine is obtained by turning into a tase are sufficient to convert 100 kilogrammes of amy-
boiler, containing 100 or 200 litres of water, a t 25 or 30 laceous matter into dextrine and sugar; this transfor-
degrees, from five to ten parts of sprouted barley (malt.), mation is effected more or less completely, according as
raising the heat to 60 degrees; then add 50 kilogrammes the quantity of water employed and the degree of heat
of flour, stirring the mixture, which is kept at a tem- are more or less adapted to the operation.
perature of 70 degrees, for twenty Generally diastase is extracted from barley malt,
The liquid which does not contain more than two or three one-
which was opaque and viscous becomes as fluid i t s
water. The temperature is now rapidly raised to 100 thousandths ; a greater proportion is obtained when the
degrees; i t is then permitted to cool, the clear liquid germination has been regularly conducted in all the
drawn off, filtered, and evaporated to the consistency of grains, and when the gemmule or p b m u l e has not been
thick syrup. pushed too far i n its development- This last is very
On cooling the dextrine becomes a n opaque jelly, important to be observed, for when the germination has
which, when dried, is hard and brittle like gum Arabic. been too much prolonged, i t causes a n absolute loss by
Dextrine is transformed into glucose by the action of diminishing the amount of saccbarifiable principle. I t is
acids, or malt added in larger quantity. on this special reaction of diastase t h a t is founded the
Diastase. -This substance is a proximate principle art of manufacturing beer, syrup of dextrine, or des-
which is developed during the germination of cereals, trine.
potatoes, &c., and which has the remarkable property of The AZc07~oZic Product qf Grain.-As with all sub-
reacting on flour or starch so as to render all the starchy stances subjected to distillation, the amount of alcohol
particles very soluble, forming first ,z gummy substance . produced from grains will always be dependent on their
(dextrine), which is gradually transformed into glucose. nature, their state of preservation, and the manner id
It is a remarkable fact that diastase does not exist in which the various operations have been conducted-
grain before germination. This principle is produced in As a general rule, when the operation has been man-
proportion as vegetation is established, and its office is aged under favorable circumstances, the average result
' 2 -

to react on the starch so as to render it soluble, in order should be as follows, viz. :-

that it may contribute to the nutrition of the incipient 100 kilogrammes of wheat yield 32 litres of pure alcohol.
6 28 U 14
plant. I<
rye II
bnrlev 25 *I
I n its pure state diastase is white, solid, uncryst alliea- a6 II oats
8, 2% I6

ble, insoluble in alcohol, soluble in water and dilute LC II

buckwheat " 25' "
& I

Indian corn "

alcohol ; its aqueous solution is neutral, and without any I. II
25 "

decided taste; left to itself, it is more or less rapidly IL II rice " 36 ,.''
The result given above is apparently very different crushed without leaving a hard lump or when it is
from that obtained when the several grains ark taken by divided easily by the nail. When i t is in this copdition
measure, since they differ considerably in their specific the water is drawn off, care being taken that none of
gravities ; wheat, for example, weighs much more for a the grain is drawn off with it. T o prevent such an
- given measure than barley or oats. accident the vat is provided with a double bottom, or a
layer of straw is placed over the orifi,.e of the vent.
Preparatory Operations which are Necessary before Submitting The, operation of steeping requires the most careful
Grain to the Alcoholic Fermentation. attention, for if the grain is steeped for too long a time,
There are six preliminary operations which are indis- it will lose a portion of its saccharine matter.
pensable in order to fit grain for the process of ferments- Gemination.-Barley which has not been subjected
to germination .will not answer alone for making spiritu-
tion, viz: lst, Steeping; 2d, Germination (malting) ; ous liquors, but when converted into malt it can effect
Sd, Drying the Sprouted Grain; 4th, Grinding; 5th, the conversion of a large quantity of flour into saccha-
Nashing ; 6 th, 1n'fnsion. rine matter. I t is therefore important, to indicate pre-
We shall proceed to each operation in turn, taking
barley for an example. cisely the most advantageous method for preparing this
Steeping.-The object of this operation is to introduce malt, which plays so important a part in the distillation
into the grain a suscient quantity of water to deter- of grain.
mine the germination ; i t serves, too, to separate all the After drawing off the water which covered the grain
blasted or withered grains which float on the surface of as described above, it is allowed to drain for four or six
hours, and is then conveyed to the malt-house. This
the water, and also removes the various foreign sub-
stances which may be attached to the surface of the bar- apartment is situated usually on the ground floor, or,
ley. For this purpose the grain is allowed to macerate better still, in a cellar, in order that the temperature,
in river or well water for thirty or forty hours, accord- which should be regulated a t 12O C., may not be subject
ing to thetemperature of the atmosphere, the quality or to variations. It is always paved with tile or stone.
dryness of the grain, and the character of the water; in I n the malt-house the barley is arranged in cuuches or
other words, the barley is plaeed in a vat ofwood or a stone beds of 50 or 70 centimeters high until i t becomes sen-
sibly heated. This heat, which is favored in winter by
tank lined with hydraulic cement. A quantity of fresh covering the beds with sacking or blankets, is produced
and limpid water is poured on the grain, so that it may
be covered to the depth of ten or twelve centimeters ; by a commet~cementof vital movement in the grain,. '

the mass is left alone for the requisite period of time. and is generally manifest in from twelve to twenty-four
This water, during the high heat of summer, ought to hours after the couches have been prepared. A t this
be changed every four or six hours, in order to avoid the stage the grain gradually absorbs oxygen from the air,
e.stablishrnent of fermentation during the steeping; in and exhales carbonic acid st first slowly, but afterwards
order to avoid disturbing the grain, an opening is made with more rapidity. The temperature of the mass
in the lower portion of the vat, through which the water sensibly rises, and a t the end of a certain time it has
may be drawn off at mill, as fresh water is added above. attained a temperature exceeding that of the atmosphere
It is known that the grain is sufficiently steeped and by six or seven degrees; the barley which had become
softened when i t is swollen, and yields readily when dry on the surface then acquires so much moisture as
to wet the hand when thrust into i t ; it exhales a n
pressed between the fingers, when it may be completely
agreeable odor somewhat similar to that of apples ;
when this moisture is observed the grain is said to saccharification by giving to the gluten the property of
wea at.^ I t is not proper to permit the grain to become being more readily dissolved.
too warm, because it will sprout too rapidly, and the Drying the Malt.-We have shown how important it
- saccharine matter will be destroyed. It is proper, also,
to turn the grain over every s i r or eight hours, placing
is to arrest the germination promptly, for without this
precaution the saccharine matter which has been de-
t h a t which was on the top a t the bottom, and that in veloped by this operation in the grain a t the expense of
the middle on top of the pile,- taking care always to the starch, which is, as we have said, saccharified by
keep the floor very clean, to. prevent the formation of - the action of the diastase, will be destroyed, and the
mould and putrid odors. grain will pass rapidly to a state of putrefaction after
As soon as the germ appears, which happens when having run through the acid fermentation. These acci-
t h e barley sweats, and when a small white prominence dents, then, mnst be forestaJled by drying the grain by
is seen a t the end of each grain, which is soon sepa- a, gentle and well-regulated temperature in order to arrest
rated into t.hree little roots, which increase in length very the germination.
rapidly, the barley should be turned every three, four, The drying is effected in an apartment called a kih.
or five hours, according to the temperature, by which The grain is spread on the floor in beds of twenty or
this operation should be regulated. As the process thirty centimeters thick, then subjected to a temperature
proceeds the beds should be made thicker or thinner, so which, a t first, should not exceed thirty-five degrees ;
as to maintain a temperature of 1 5 O or 16O. When the but should be gradually increased to fifty-five or sixty
germ is long enough the grain ought to be turned twelve deqrees at-most, until the grain is almost entirely dried.
or fifteen times a day, according to the season. When This temperature is most favorable to producing a good
the germination has been checked, and the little roots quality of malt. I f too great a heat is employed a t
begin to dry, the thickness of the beds must be reduced the beginning while the grain is yet very moist from be-
so as not to exceed eight or ten centimeters; they must ing filled with water, the starch will espand, become
be stirred and changed frequently in order to prevent hydrated and form a stiff paste, and then acquire so
the rootlets from resuming their growth, to avoid mould- much hardness and cohesion as to be very difficult of so-
ing and to prevent the grain from sprouting, that is to lution. When the grain is almost dry, tbe heat may be
say, giving issue to the seminal leaves a t the extremity raised to 80 and even 100 degrees without risk, the ciias-
of the seed opposite the roots, for this would deprive tase being alterable a t this temperature only when water -
the barley of great part of the substance which yields is present. Nevertheless if the grain is dried a t a tern-
alcohol. perature sufficiently high to convert the sugar into cara-
It is difficult to indicate the exact period for the ger- mel, the diastase will be destroyed, there will be a loss
mination ; i t varies from eight to fifteen days, according of sugar, and the malt will have a less agreeable flavor.
t o the 'season. We know generally that the process is Barley sprouted and dried is called maZ8. When the
terminated when t h e rootlets have attained a length heat has not been sufficient to change the color it is pule
equal to about two-thirds of that of the grain. malt; when the heat has caused a decided color it is
Germination causes the production of the diastase browi malt.
which is necessary to transform the starch into glucose; When the malt is well dried, it is drawn from the
i t has then for its object to convert e small quantity of kiln and spread out to cool in a well-ventilated room
the fecula of the grain into sugar, at t.he same time that and stored in .piles. It may be preserved for a long
it predisposes the rest to a more complete and prompt time if protected from moisture. The freshest is how-
ever the best.
Various means are employed for kilu-drping ma1t ; Malt is known to be of good quality when the grain
plates of sheet iron or tiles perforated with small holes
is round and full of farina, the skin very thin, odor
are used, metallic cloth of iron or brass is also in use agreeable and taste saccharine, or better still, by the en-
- in some establishments, and is to be preferred to the
sheet iron or tiles. We would especially recommend ergy of its action on starch, 100 parts of which may be
dissolved by 5 parts of good malt in 400 parts of
the process by heated air. T h e method of heating by wnter, if the mixture is placed in a water-bath main-
gas jets, recently patented in Great Britain by Hade-
mu1 of Leeds, is as a combination of the various sys- tained a t a temperature between 65 and 80 degrees and
continually stirred. I n conclusion, pale dry malt is the
tems an improvement. Certainly if the results obtained heaviest and best for distillation.
by him are fairly stated, there is great profit both in the
improved quality of the product and economy of fuel. Grinding.-It is necessary that malt should be ground
The choice of fuel for kiln-drying malt according to to facilitate the action of the water on the farinaceous
the old method, is by no means a matter of indifference ; matter which, without this operation, would be pre-
if wood, for example, be used the grain will acquire the vented by the skin. Every grain should be crushed, but
taste of the smoke which will be transmitted to the beer not reduced to flour; for those which escape the action
of the mill, will be lost to the fermentation. It must
i n the fermenting vats, and consequently t~ the spirit
resulting therefrom. Coke either specially prepared or not be supposed, however, that malt reduced to a flour
that from the gas-works is the best, the next is wood cannot be fermented, i t is only crushed to, save labor,
charcoal. and because experience has shown that malt coarsely
ground will-yield all its fermentiscible principles.
When the malt is sufficiently dried and while i t is Fine grinding is preferable for raw grain, that is to
yet warm it is passed through a winnowing machine,
which will completely separate all the radicles, which say, for unmalted grain; and in fact this cannot be too
finely ground. Thus crude rye, wheat, buckwheat, rice,
are very brittle. There is no real loss from the separa- Indian corn, and barley ought to be ground in the same
tion of the radicles, as they contain neither diastase, manner as if intended for making bread. I n this con-
starch,. nor sugar. They yield by infusion a reddish
water of disagreeable taste, and if some time is allowed dition the material will be more promptly penetrated by
the water, and will thus facilitate the action of the dias-
to elapse before the separation, the radicles will, under
the influence of a lfttle moisture, resume their elasticity, tase on the starch, to effect its conversion into sugar.
which will render them di£€icult to break off from the I t is known that musty grain, whether unground or
grains. They are only fit for manure. in flour, appreciably loses its fermentiscible properties.
Barley converted into malt, loses about an average of To avoid this inconvenience djstillers should grind their
20 per cent. of its original weight, but this 20 per cent. grain as it is needed. It should also be observed that
is to be diminished by 12, for the water evaporated malt after being ground attracts more moisture from the
air than when whole. That which has been on hand
during the drying, therefore the real loss is 8 per cent.,
which may be stated as follows, viz :- for some time, or has absorbed moisture, ought to be
mashed with warmer wnter than freshly prepared malt.
Substances removed 'by t h e water during s t e e p i n g 1.5 Mashing.-The object of this operation is to wet and
Matters lost during the sprouting, &c. 35 soften, with a certain quantity of warm water, the sub-
Badides . . 3.0 stances of the crushed malt as well as the flour of the
- various grains that may be mixed with it; it prepares these
8.0 substances for receiving a larger quantity
1 of water at a
higher temperature, and appears too to prevent the agglu- greater than in summer. I n any event if the t e m p e r s
tination of the mass by the formation of lumps and ture should happen to fall to 40 or 45 degrees, it will be
balls which might prove an obstacle to the water pene- better to set the malt to ferment a t once rather than
- trating all parts of the mass.
The malt and grain either crushed or ground into
prolong the maceration, because there must be a loss of
a certain quantity of alcohol in consequence of t h e
flour are shot into R vat; warm water in the proportion of acidity which will infallibly be produced a t this low de-
a litre to the kilogramrne is turned on in small quantities gree. .*

a t a time, in such manner that the temperature shall not The temperature of 60 degrees is the most proper for
exceed 35 or 38 degrees. While the water is being poured this maceration, as being that a t which the saccharific-
in, a workman must stir the mass continually, beating i t tion is effected most rapidly. Not that i t cannot be effect-
in every 'direction so as to prevent the formation of lumps ed a t a lower temperature, a t 40 degrees for example, but
and cause every portion of the flour t o receive a thorough i t is then more tardy, and we are exposed to the risk of
wetting; after which the vat is to be closely covered and seeing the whole mass become acid if it is exposed for
permitted to rest for twenty or thirty minutes or more. some hours to this temperature, and this would be a n
We should observe during this operation to pour in irreparable loss. If, on the other hand, we exceed the
the water gradually and in small quantities a t a time temperature of 60 degrees, there will 'be no inconveni-
and not to raise the temperature higher than that indi- ence up to 68 or even 72 degrees ; but at 75 degrees mis-
cated above, for a greater heat 1\41 coagulate the albumen chief begins to be manifest, and above 75 degrees the fer-
of the grain, will cook the starch, and in a great measure mentation is exposed to serious injury; it will fail alto-
prevent the action which the gluten and diastase ought gether if the temperature is raised to the neighborhood
t o exercise on it, of 100 degrees. lt appears t h a t the gluten, which is, in
Infusion.-The object of the infusion is to cause the this operation, the vehicle of saccharification, only pos-
diastase of the grain to react on the starch, which has sesses this property when i t has not been exposed to
been thoroughly divided by the mashing, in order to too high a temperature. Heat contributes very much
convert i t into saccharine matter and to predispose it to its action and readers it much more intense; but the
t o ' a fermentation, which it would be impossible to un- maximum of utility of this heat is from 60 to 72 de-
dergo without it. grees.
This very important operation is effected by pouring T h e proportion of water also plays a remarkable part
boiling water into the vat until we have obtained a tern- during the maceration. T h e greater it is, the more
perature of 60 or 70 degrees Cent., while a workman prompt and complete will be the saccharification, all
stirs the mixture energetically for ten minutes a t least. other chcumstances being the same. Let us take a n
When the requisite degree of heat has been attained, the example: generally when we wish to treat 100 kilo-
vat is covered closely and allowed to macerate for four grammes of flour we mash with one bectolitre of water
hours. I t is proper during this time that the tempern- and add two and a half hectolitres of water for the m s
ture of the vat should not fall below 50 or 55 degrees, ceration. This then is completed is the space of four
and i t is even preferable t h a t it should be maintailled at hours ; but if the dose of water is doubled, that is, if we
60 degrees. use three hectolitres for mashing and four for the ma-
We would remark t h a t it is proper to employ a little ceration, the operation will be as perfect as the preced-
more heat for the maceration of a small vat than a large ing in the space of two or two hours and a half. So
one ;and also t h a t in winter the heat should be xl~uch muoh for the influence of water upon saccharification.
cause malted barley is the very essence of the distilla-
Now that we have set forth the principles of the ope- tien of grain and potatoes, not that this grain has pro-
rations to which the grain must be subjected before sub- perties which are peculiar to it, but because i t possesses
mitting i t to the alcoholic fermentat.ion, we shall pro- them in a much higher degree than any other.
- teed to occupy ourselves with this last. There are many methods of distilling grain. We
shall examine those which are most in use in the farm
Alcoholic Fermentation of Grain. and agricultural distilleries of Europe.
Method of D0rnhas7e.--~' Suppose," says he, in his valu-
When the operations which we have described above able Treatise on the Manufacture of Spirits from Grain
are completed, that is, when the maceration is finished, and Potatoes, "that it is desired to ferment 100 kilo-
the barley is submitted to the vinous fermentation ; for grammes of flour (80 kilogrammes of rye and 20 kilo-
this purpose, as i t cont.ainv a sufficient quantity of sac- grammes of malted barley), the fermenting vat should
charine matter, it suffices to mix it properly with cold cont.nin six or seven hectolitres, not counting the space
water so that the temperature may be at from 20 to 26 which ought to remain empty. The water must be
degrees, according to the volume of the mass opera.ted heated to the boiling point and maintained a t that de-
on. Liquid beer yeast is then added in the proportion of gree for some minutes; a portion is then to be cooled
. one litre of yeast to 100 kilogrammes of grain (or 250 down to 50 degrees for making the paste. For this pur-
grammes of dry yeast), the vat is then covered and the pose we use a vat which is much wider than deep, and
fermentation is soon established. which contains three or four hectolitres ;this is the mash
The mash ought to be cooled promptly in order to Zun. The flour is turned in and the water a t 50 degrees
prevent acidification during the operation. Never make is gradually added with continual stirring in such man-
a unless it can be set to ferment immediately. ner that the flour may be thoroughly moistened through-
The chemical analysis of a must thus obtained gives out, without the formation of lumps. We should con-
for its results : 1st. A saccharine ~ubstance,which con- tinue to add the same water until the temperature of
stitutes the most abundant portion of i t ; 2d. Starch, the mass is reduced to 31 or 33 degrees; the vat must
which it is easy to recognize by the blue color obtained then be covered and allowed to stand for half an hour.
with tincture of iodine; 3d. A combination of tahniq We should then take some of the water which is still
and gluten; 4th. Mucilage, which is precipitated in boiling, and pour it into the mash tun in small quanti-
flocks when the must is poured into alcohol. The pro- ties at a time, stirring the mass continually so that no
portion of gluten is inconsiderable, and that of the starch part of the flour m a y be exposed to too great an excess
varies according to the more or less perfect character of of heat until the mass has attained about 62 degrees.
the mashing. The vat must then be covered and allowed to rest for
As n general thing where the various operations have two hours. It may be permitted to rest even three or
been well managed, the fermentation progresses with four hours if the mass is large, or if the temperature of
perfect regularity and lavts from two to three days; but the apartment in which the operation is conducted be
i t is only twenty-four hours.after i t is finished that we .sufficient to prevent the heat from diminishing too
proceed to the distillation in a continued apparatus for rapidly. At the end of this time the vat shouid be un-
pasty materials. covered and the liquid stirred so as to cool it as rapidly
We have taken barley for our illustration in a11 the as possible. A method which has been very successful
preparations and arrangements we have described, be- 10
in accomplishing this cooling, consists in filling a copper .

or tin flask of a capacity of 25 or 30 litres and having a to the bottom of the vat ; the liquid is almost clear and
long neck, with cold water, which is plunged ' into the slightly acid. and there is generally found on the surface
l i q ~ ~ and
i d gentiy moved about therein. When the water a whitish pellicle. This is the proper condition in whicb
becomes warm i t is changed and the operation continued to subject it to the action of the still.
until the liquid has acqulred the proper degree of tem- ''I have advised that the mashing should be per-
perature. This degree ought to be calculated so that formed in a separate vessel; nevertheless i t is the com-
when the mass is conveyed to the fermenting vat and mon usage of distillers to make the mash in the fer-
enough cold water is added to fill the vat to the desired menting vat directly. I prefer the former method,
point, the liquid shall have the proper temperature for because it is easier to cool the mass in a large vat of
adding the yeast. As soon as the mass is sufficiently little depth than in the fermenting vat, which is much
deeper than broad. Besides, in transferring the mass to
cooled i t is transferred to the fermenting vat and the the fermenting vat, which is cold, i t will lose two or
last of the cold water added; i t should then have the
proper temperature for adding the yeast, as has been three degrees, which is so much time gained in the cool-
ing, and it is very important that this should be accom-
explained before. This varies from 20 to 25 degrees
according to the season, the size of the vats, the na- plished as promptly as possible. By making the mash
ture of the grain used, &c. By the assistance of the in the fermenting vat, it is necessary to add a very much
thermometer we shall soon ascertain the proper degree greater quantity of cold water to reduce the mass to the
for each distillery and every circumstance that may re- degree of heat proper for adding the yeast, and we have
quire attention. I f the yeast is added when too hot, in consequence a very weak wine.
the fermentation will take place promptly, will be very ''I have indicated 62O Cent. as the most fi~vorabletem-
active, and the liquid will become acid on the second or perature for making the mash. I t is in fact that which is
third day:- If, on the contrary, the yeast is added too best under the greatest variety of circumstances, and we
cold, i t will be easily discovered, because the fermenta- shall'never fail in a fermentation from having made the
tion will-take place slowly and will have but little ac- mash a t this degree ;nevertheless, there are circumstances
tivity ; then too, the acid fermentation will commence be- in which we obtain a greater quantity of spirits by making
the mash some degrees above or below 62". These cir-
fbre the vinous fermentation has sufficiently advanced.
cumstances are so numerous t h a t it is impossible to give
A s a general rule, when the 'yeast has been properly precise rules for each. We should always be governed
added and in sufficient quantity, the fermentation has
already begun two hours after the addition of the yeast, by experience, with the thermometer in hand that it may
and in twelve hours is very active, and so continues direct us. We may say, however, that, in general, the
until the third day. Thus a vat which has been set to mash should be much warmer in winter than in sum-
' f e r m e ~ ton Monday, will present during the whole of mer; for small vats than large, and as much warmer as
Tuesday an active fermentation with an elevated foam the proportion of malt is increased."
and very ~ t r o n godor; if a lighted candle is plunged This process, by reason of its simplicity, like that
into the empty part of the vat i t will be very promptly spoken of by us before, may be practised in farm distil-
extinguished. On being tasted, the liquid should still leries of the least importance ; both require but little
hand labor, rr, small number of vessels, and consequently
be sweetish without a n y acidity. On Wednesday, the- not much capital.
foam will have very much diminished, and the liquid be
Anotlzer French Bethod.-Suppose thnt we intend to
no longer sweet but vinous, although not yet acid. On operate on one hundred kilogrammes of g&n :-
Thursday the foam will have completely fallen and settled
fermentation a liquor which still contains ferm,entable
According to Dubrunfaut, the grain being mised in matters which have escaped in the previous op'xation.
the proportion of 80 parts of rye and 20 of malt, is re- This course may be continued through many suc:cessive
duced to coarse flour? then deposited with two or three operations, three, four, or even five ; and we may ob-
- kilogrammes of chaff,* in a fermenting vat of a capacity
of 1 2 hectolitres. These materials are then moistened
tain by this means as much as 60 litres of proof spirit
from a metrical quintal of grain, a result which cannot
with three hectolitres of water at about 43O, and then be obtained by any other process. We should cease to
made into a mash with four hectolitres of cold and boil- use the clear portion of the spent liquor, when, after
ing water, mixed in such proportions that when the many operations, it h a s become so acid as to injure rather
mashing is completed, the mixture shall have a tempe- than support the vinous fermentation.
rature of 62" or 68O. The vat is then covered and left to "If we operate with a smaller proportion of water,
itself fdr three or four hours; after this time has elapsed, we cannot follow the same course, or a t least it cannot
the vat is to be filled to within six or eight inches of be pnshed so far, because in that case the fermentation,
the top with cold and hot water, mixed in such pro- requiring three or four days instead of thirty hours,
portions that the whole mass shall have a temperature yields a strongly acid spent liquor."
of about 25O. It is set to ferment with a litre of good This m e t.hod, like those spoken of before, necessit ates
liquid beer yeast. the distillation of pasty or semifluid materials, which,
After a few hours, the fermentation commences, and as we know, always furnish an alcoholic product of in-
runs through all of its stages in the space of about thirty ferior quali-ty; first, on account of certain principles con-
hours. It is then in a proper state to go into the still. tained in the envelope of the grain; second, because
b C If the grain is of good quality and the operation the mash, when distilled over the open fire, readily at-
properly conducted, the'result ought to be from 45 to 50 taches itself to the bottom of the still, burns and gives
litres of proof spirit (50° centesimal) . to the product a burnt or empyreumatic flavor which
Many distillers only obtain from 30 to 35 litres by detracts very much from its value. These objections
this process. There are many circumstances which may disappear when steam is used, or, better still, with the
concur in causing this result; the principal and most following, known as the :-
influential is the proportion of water employed ; instead Old BzgZish Nethod--Which consists in treating the
of using about 11 hectolitres of water to 100 kilo- grain in a vat with a double bottom, so as to make a n
grammes, they only employ about six. extract just as is done in the manufacture of beer.
" I n a continuous operation the spent liquor (or swill), T h e grain, consisting of malt and raw rye, being mixed
which is drawn from the still, ought to be stored in and crushed as for mashing by the French process, a
hogsheads or in a cistern constrncted for the purpose. layer of short straw, about two centimeters deep, say
There the solid matter is deposited, and the clear liquor about ten kilogrammes, is arranged on the false bottom
floats above. This liquor may be profitably employed of the vat; o n it are placed about 200 kilogrammes of the
in succeeding operations to dilute the mash. I t is found crushed and mixed grain.
t h a t this practice has the advantage ~f bringing to the Then, by a lateral pipe communicating with the V*
cant space between the two bottoms, 200 litres of water
* Some distillers attribute to chaff properties somewhat analogous at 35O or 40° Cent. are turned on, while one or two men
to those of malt; that is to say, in giring lightness to the materials.
Indeed, M. Dubrnnfant bas ascertained that if it has not the pro- stir the mass rigorously with a beater fbr eight or ten
perty of saccharifying the starch when made into a paste, i t at least minutes. The mass is then left to itself for about a
renders it more fluid and more readily attacked by saccharifying agents.
lation of grain, except that in all cases they malt their
quarter or half an hour, in order that i t may be well grain esactly as is done by the brewer:
saturated with water. This operation is identical mi th If we desire to utilize this process to the best advsn-
and has the same result as the steeping, which precedes tage, i t will be well to increase the proportion of water
- the mashing in the last method descrcbed, the only dif-
ference being in the apparatus used.
in making the wort, or at least to dilute the wort with
cold water, so as to increase the quantity of water to ten
Immediately after this steeping, the workmen resume or twelve times the weight of the grain. The particular .
their beaters, and recommence the stirring, while a new advantages resulting from this procedure are as follows :-
supply of boiling water, 800 litres, is turned on by the 1. The fermentation is more complete and more rapid,
lttteral pipe. This stirring is kept up about a quarter of and consequently less acid. 2. The boiling spent liquor,
an hour, then it is left to stand about an hour. A t the as i t leaves the still,, may serve for a new steeping and
end of this time any grain which may have been flont- mashing (instead of water), which mill without doubt
ing on the surface ought to have fallen to the bottom of result in a maximum production of alcohol from sa.given
the vat, and the whole be covered by a stratum of tole- quantity of my vegetable substance.
rably clear liquid. A cock, which communicates with The spirit obtained by this method is much purer
the space between the two bottoms, is now opened, and than that resulting from the distillation of a pasty mash,
as the upper or false bottom, by its conical perforations has an agreeable flavor, and may be distilled from the
and layer of str%w,forms a species of filter, all the liquid continuous apparatus of Derosne or Egrot, but requires
(wort) runs off and is conveyed t o the fermenting vats. a greater -number of vats, more hand labor, and larger
The first extract being completed, 600 litres of boiling capital.
water are turned in by the lateral pipe, and the mass is English Process (new) .-The process a t present in use
again stirred for fifteen. minutes; the mass allowed to in England, where the business of distilling has been
stand an hour, the wort is drawn off, as before, and set greatly estended since the great advance in the price of
t o ferment. The grain which remains on the fdse bot- spirits, may be summed up as follows :-
tom, after these two operations, is sufficiently exhausted
of fermentable matters which have been borne off by Winter Barley,
Pale Malt; ;
. 80 parte.
10 '"
the water in saccharine form. Oats, . '

10 ‘'
This operation, which is a true mashing when well
understood and properly managed, proves to a demon- The barley is coarsely ground, and the malt prepared
stration the effect of this mashing on t h e gmin ; it proves, with the utmost care. The mixture is s ~ i r r e din a me-
as we have said, that it is a true saccharification. chanical vat (mash tun), with such a quantity of water
The liquid which we have obtained, and which has that the fermented must shall contain about six per cent.
been conveyed to the fermenting vats, is leavened when of pure alcohol by meiLsure (say 600 litres of water to
the temperature has fallen sufficiently, say to 20° or 30° 100 kilogrammes of the farinaceous material treated).
Cent., according t o the capacity of the vat ; and we thus The must drawn from the mash tun is cooled in very
obtain a liquid free from deposit, which may be sub- large backs or shallow vats of iron, or, better still, by
jected to distillation in any kind of apparatus. circulating in the copper tubes of .z cooler surrounded by
I f it is found that the grain remaining on the double cold water. This last means avoids the changes which
bottom is not sufficiently exhausted, it may be submitted sometimes result from contact with the atmosphere, and
to the operation a third time. yields a profit to the distiller, by saving heat; since the
T h e Germans follow the same method for the distil-

water warmed by this particular arrangement may be there are some who finish in 18 or 20 hours. . This is
transferred to the boiler which furnishes water to the certainly not for the best, because the product is mani-
mash tub. festly diminished by it. This practice is followed
- When the temperature of the must has attained the
proper degree (IS0 or 20°), i t is set to ferment in im-
because of the heavy tax levied on the mash tuns (one
franc to the hectolitre for each 24 hours).
mense vats containing from 180,000 to 200,000 litres, by The new law of 1852 increases this t a x to one and a
adding five or six litres of fluid yeast, or two and a half half francs, imposing an additional impost_onthose who
to three kilogrmnmes of dry yeast to the 100 kilo- complete the mashing and fermentation in less than 24
grammes of material employed ; the fermentation is de- hours, consequently there are no longer any distillers
veloped very slowly at first, then progressively, and is who finish the fermentation in less that 24 hours, which
finished'at the end of four or five days. is really a useful and beneficial result of the last change
When the operation has been conducted under favor- in the Belgian law.
able conditions, the result is about 28 litres of pure Almost all of the changes which have been made in
alcohol (29* litres at 95 per cent.) to 100 kilogrammes the old Dutch process, and which legislators and work-
of the farinaceous substances employed. men have commonly called improvements, have had the
Generally the English distillatory apparatus is of effect, or at least for their object, to reduce the taxes by
colossal dimensions; there are many which distil 5000 either accelerating the operations of mashing and fer-
gallons (22,700 litres) per hour, or 120,000 gallons mentation, or reducing the capacity of all the vessels
(340,800 litres) in twenty-four hours. The superiority of and apparatus on which taxes were laid. From this it
the English proof spirit is due entirely to the use of such will be easy to comprehend how most of the products of
stills ; the greatep. the axpacity of 2h.e nppamtus, the better the Belgian distilleries in general, and of the farm stills
t7he pzu;tZity o f the proczuct. We are well convinced of the especially, had diminished in quantity and lost in qua-
truth of this proposition, and indicate the reasons there-
for in the various circumstances of the process of recti- 6
lity before the aw of 1852, which has in some measure
improved this eplorable state of things.
I n fact, prior to 1852, most of the Belgian distillers
I t is to be remarked that in England, as in France, conducted their work as follows : They had reduced
it has been observed that broken barley allows the filtra- the quantity of mixed flours used to from 11 to 12 kilo-
tion of the must, and oats favor i t ; while, on the other grammes to the hectolitre in the mash tun, mixing with
hand, the flour of rye hinders it, and compels us to de- water a t 50° or 60° Cent., after which they added enough
cant the liquid after a sufficient rest. boiling water to fill the vat to about three-fifths of its ca-
BeZgian P/.ocess.-Since Holland was separated from pacity, and stirred constantly until the mixture was as
Belgium, the legislation of the latter country, on the perfect as possible. When this second addition of water
subject of distilleries, has entirely changed the processes was well mixed i n , the vat was covered and allowed to
in use up to that time, and created a system used in no rest for half an hour ; frequently, a t the end of twenty
other country of Europe. minutes, the mixture was stirred anew in order to cool
Thus, says M. Lmambre, while, before the Belgian it, and the cooling was hastened by the addition of
law of July 18, 1833, it usually required 36 or 40 hours cold water, or cold spent liquor, resulting from a pre-
to complete the operation of mashing and fermentation ; vious operation, to lower the temperature and the den-
since this date, the greater number of distillers in Bel- sity to the required degree. It was then set to ferment
gium complete the operation in 22 or 24 hours, and at a temperature so high that the first two periods of the

transformation might be accomplished in 16 or 18 hours mixed with rye principally, and in exceptional cases with
a t most. Now, from what has been said on the subject wheat, more or less damaged, and with a small quantity
of mashing the grain and the alcoholic fermentation, i t is of oats.
evident that the snccharification of the starch could only Some distillers also employ crude barley, especially
take place very imperfectly and partially. This has that from northern Europe, which is very heavy and
been fully demonstrated i n many Belgian distilleries by co1d;'"ut these are an exception. Most commonly
examining the spent liquor, which, prlor to the new law, from 24 to 30 parts of malt by weight. are mixea with
still contamed an appreciable q u a n t ~ t yof starchy matter 76 or 70 parts of rye, which is ground very fine; this
in the form of paste. mixed flour, into which sometimes 8 or 1 2 per cent. of
Then by conducting the fermentation at too high a oats enter as a component part, is turned into the mash
temperature, as was and is still generally done in Bel- tun in the proportion of 11 or 14 kilogrammes to the
gium, the acetic fermentation is soon developed, and hectolitre of the vat, the capacity of which varies from
converts a portion of the alcohol into vinegar, which 10 to 30 hectolitres. Before placing the flour in the vat,
causes not only a material loss in quantity, but also in the which we suppose to be of the capacity of 10 hectolitres,
quality of the product. there are tnrned in 30 or 36 litres of cold water and about
I n fact, as may be ascertained by means of special 270 litres of boiling water; then all the flour is poured
rectifications, the fermented materials yield a product in a t once, say 120 or 130 kilogrammes ; the mixture is
which is less pure and agreeable to the taste in proportion then vigorously stirred by an implement similar to that
to their acidity. But a number of the larger Belean used by the brewer.
distillers, being aware of the consequences of accelerating When the stirring is finished, that is to say, when
the work too much, do not exceed the limits fixed by there are no more traces of flour, and the mixture is
the rules of the art, and, consequently, obtain far more homogeneous (which requires generally 20 or 25 minutes),
satisfactory results than the farm distillers. Thus, while about a hectolitre of boiling water is added while t h e
most of the latter obtain only 44 or 46 litres of proof mass is actively stirred, in order to distribute the heat as
gin (50°) from 100 kilogrnmmes of grain, the majority promptly as possible. So soon as the mixture is perfect
of the large distillers, who understand their business and the vat is covered to effect t h e fusion, as the Belgians
have not too great a n interest in hastening their opera- say, and i t is left to rest for about half an hour; after
tions and overloading their vats with work, usually ob- this period of rest, the mass is stirred up for a rnornent
tain from 54 to 56 litres, which. is, moreover; as a to put in suspension the solid substances which have
general rule, of better quality than that produced from fallen to the bottom of the vat, and when the mixture
t h e small distilleries in which the whole operation was has been effected, which is in two or three minutes, the
affected in 18 hours. vat is re-covered and left to macerate anew for half or
New Process Lknerazzy Used in Belgium-I shall now
proceed to describe the process in general use in the * The brown barleys of Sweden and Norway, which weigh 66 or
68 kilogrammes t o the hectolitre, are highly valued by the large Bel-
large Belgian distilleries, where they employ the continu- gian and Dutch distillers who work this grain ungerminated, with from
ous apparatus operated by steam. They sprout their one-third t o one-half of rye and one-fourth of ,malt prepared.from t h e
barley as perfectly as possible, pushing i t almost to the barley of the country. As the distillers say, this barley i s cold, that
same degree as for the white bear of Louvnin ; then dry i s to say, its fermentation i s neither s o tumultuous nor s o prompt as
that of rye and of oats, but the product which i t yields is quite satis-
i t in common kilns, taking care to manage the tempera- ..
factory, and the gin o f good quality.
ture so as not to discolor the malt. This barley malt is

three-quarters of an hour; after this the mass is cooled so hard as to become as tumultuous as a liquid in active
ebullition, as happens with those distillers who use 14
a little by stirring it vigorously, then diluted with cold or 15 kilogrammes of flour to the hectolitre of water, it
water, if at the beginning of n series of operations, or is well, by any means whatever, to moderate the action,
with cold spent liquor clarified by rest, if the work is
- already commenced. In either event i t is so arranged
that the diluted mixture shall be at 27O or 30° C.,accord-
but it would be better, as has already been said, to cob1
the mass by means of cold water circulating in an inte-
rior coil, as is generally done in England, or, better still,
ing to 'the season, the size of the vat, and the temper* by means of a double jacket. This last means is pre-
ture of the apartment. When the vats are of the ferable for those distilleries where the natural grain is
capacity of 15 or 20 hectolitres, as is most usual in Bel- I fermented, that is, without separating the solid parts
gium, and if, moreover, the cellar is well selected, that I
which render the washing of the fermenting vats very
is, well sheltered from sudden change of temperature, it
is cooled, usually, to 28O in summer, from 30° to 32O in
I difficult if they contain coils. Moreover, these interior
I coils render it very difficult to mix the flour thoroughly
spring, and 32" to 34O i n winter. I with the water when this operation is performed in the
It should be observed, too, that more grain is used in fermenting vats, as is still generally the case.
winter than in summer. I n the latter season most Bel- l
When the fermentation does not appear to be suffi-
gian distillers who do not use mash tuns with a double ciently active the mixture is stirred for an instant, by
jacket, and only use 11 or 18 kilogramnles of the mixed raising the solid matters from the bottom and plunging
fiour to each hectolitre of the capacity of the mash tun,
in winter increase this proportion to 14 and 15 kilo- the cap into the fluid, that is to say, the solids which
float on the surface; the vat is then covered until the
grammes. fermentation ceases entirely.
When the mixture is .cooled and diluted as much A great number of the Belgian distillers infer that
as the capacity of the vat will allow, i t is ordinarily the fermentation is sufficiently advanced when the cap
filled to within one-fifteenth or one-twentieth of the
top nearly, or so as not to have the vat overflow has subsided for a couple of hours, but there are others
who, less impatient and more enlightened, prefer to pay
during the fermentation. The mixture being cooled and a little more into the public treasury and walt until they
diluted to the point desired, the ferment, previously dis- no longer hear any sounds on applying the ear to the
solved in a little worts or tepid water, is added in the wall of the vat. Better still, and this sign more easily
proportion of 160 or 200 grammes of yeast, in paste, to determines with exactness the end of the fermentation,
the hectolitre of the material of the operation. The fer- they remove the scum and other substances that float
ment is well stirred into the mass, the vat covered, and on the surface of the liquid, and when no more, or very
the mass left to ferment quietly until it has reached the little foam is formed, that is to say, when bubbles of gas
maximwm of effervescence,. which happens generally are no longer disengaged in appreciable quantity, they
twelve or thirteen hours after the yeast is added. If at proceed immediately to the distillation ; they empty the
this time the fermentation is found to be too active, the
cover is slightly raised, so as to cool the mass a little at fermenting vat into a lower vat, and begin a t once to
the surface, and thus render the action less tumultuous; transfer the worts to the wine-heater, or forwarding vat
when it is used, as is generally the case in all large
but it would be preferable not to be under the necessity
of having recourse to this expedient to which the Belgian distilleries,
Belgian distillers, both great and small, are too much ad- As to the method of conducting the distillation in
dicted. Nevertheless, when the fermentation is pressed
and the liquid drawn off to serve for a new snccharifictl
Belgium, it varies, of course, with the apparatus used as tion, or for diluting the saccharine solution in the fer-
e v e r y ~ h e r e ~ e l sbut
e , there is no peculiarity about it re- menting vats.
quiring speclal mention here. Some distillers avoided the inconvenience of the de-
- ClTLemicaZ Process.-T he saccharification of grains by
replacing malted barley by sulphuric, muriatic, or other .
posit of the sulphate of lime by using muriatic (hydro-
chloric) acid instead of the sulphuric, taking double the
acids, was, for some years, practised in France. This quantity, which, by saturation with lime, formed a solu-
process, which produces an excellent spirit of very fine ble compound (chloride of calcium) which no
flavor, is not adapted to agricultural distillers, because precipitate.
of the necessity of saturating the residuum with lime, When ground &in was used the dose of acid was
which, instead of producing a marc suitable for feeding increased one-third, and the time of steeping reduced
cattle, is only fit to be cast on the rranure pile. Besides, one-half, that is to say, to twelve hours.
the decree of November 10, 1857, forbids the use of this T h e saccharification of grain by means of acids is
process in France. We will, however, give a sketch of much less easily effected than that of flour, because the
the process which was employed in large manufacturing acid liquid finds much difficulty in penetrating the starch
distilleries. cells. I t was on this account that it was necessary to
The barley or ungraund rye was set to steep twenty- continue the action of' steam for a longer time than was
four hours in advance in twice its weight of water, con- necessary for the saccharification of grain i n the form
taining 2 per cent. of sulyhuric acid at 66O. A t the end of flour. *

of this time the grain thus softened was crushed by

being passed between two cylinders; it was t.hen con- Alcohol from Rice.
veyed to a special vat where, the saccharification was Rice, like all other seeds, is saccharified by means of
effected by the assistance of a jet of steam kept up for malted barley, and may be treated by the same methods;
twelve to sixteen hours, until it was ascertained by but the saccharification is much more complete when,
means of- the iodine test* that the saccharification was like other cereals, its starch has been converted into a
more or less complete. paste. The following is the process usually followed,
This operation completed the acid was saturated by the viz :-
addition of chalk (carbonate of lime), and the liquid 500 kilogrammes of rice, reduced to flour, are mixed
suffered to rest for ten or twelve hours; to hasten the with 50 hectolitres of hot water, a t the temperature of
precipitation and the cooling, the saccharified material 60° or 65O, in a vat having a double bottom, perforated
was drawn off into a very broad but shallow back (v-at) with holes; this mixing, which may be effected by hand
situated below the saccharifying or steeping vat. The or a mechanical stirrer operated by steam or other
precipitation accomplished, the clear liquid was drawn off power, being complete, the mass is heated to 70° by
into the fermenting vats to be diluted with cold water steam. This temperature must be kept up, but not es-
so that it should contain about ten per cent. of the grain, ceeded, for half an hour. After this delay, the temper*
and the temperature was lowered to 22O or 24O C. in ture is reduced to 50° by the addition of cold water, 8nd
order that i t might be leavened (yeasted) in a satis- 12.5 kilogrammes of ground malt, which are distributed
factory manner. carefully and uniformly, so as to produce a.complete
The deposit of sulyhate of lime was washed a num- mixture. The vat is then covered and suffered to stand
ber of times with five or six times its volume of water

for two hours in order that t h e saccharification may be contain most, just after being harvested. The best pot*
accomplished. toes, that is, those which contain the most starch, and
T h e clear liquid is then drawn off into the ferment- which, consequently, are most mealy when cooked, yield
ing vats, and the -temperature reduced to 22O or 24O also the most alcohol. Those which nrediseased, sprouted,
with cold, and the yeast added in the usual way. or damaged, yield only a small quantity, and that holds
This method in which'if a large quantity of water is in solution a principle having a bitter and disagreeable
used, produces the most alcohol, and possesses, too, the flavor. Winter is the best season for distilling potatoes,
additional advantage of the greatest simplicity. that is, from the beginning of October, when they are .
harvested, to the latter part of March, when they begin
to sprout.
Alcohol from Potatoes. Potatoes will not bear extremes of temperature. They!y& of the Ebtnto.-Independently of the water should be stored in cellars or store-rooms protected from
it contains, the potato consists mainly of starch and a the vicissitudes of the weather, and should only be
fibrous substance which is very similar to starch. taken out as needed for use. It is, however, not irn-
100 kilogrammes yield as a n average :- portant to reject those which may be frozen, since i t is
D r y Starch
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 169 kilogrammes.
only the water of vegetation which is attacked; the starch
and parenchyma may be separated from it. It suffices
Water of Vegetation . . . . .- 75 44
to place the potatoes in cold water until they have ac-
quired sufficient firmness to be subjected to the action of
100 the rasp.
T h e parenchyma and water in their turn contain Testing the QzcaZity of Potatoes.-To ascertain the ex-
various substances, viz : cellular tissue, pectose, pectin, act quantity of starch which is contained in any given
albumen and nitrogenous matter, sugar, resin, essential variety of potato, we first remove carefully with n brush
oil, fatty matter, citrate of potash, phosphates of potash d l the earth adhering to the-surface. T h e tuber is then
and lime, silica, alumina, oxides of iron and manganese. cut in very thin slices, which are spread evenly and side .
Sekction of Potatoes.-On account of their size, some by side on a plate, care being taken to avoid overlap-
potatoes are to be preferred for the manufacture of alco- ping; they are then dried either in a current of heated
hol or starch, and for fattening cattle, while others, on air, or in a stove heated to 40° or 50°. I t is known
account of their flavor, are employed as food for man. that they are perfectly dry when, after repeated weigh-
T h e varieties are multiplying daily, and each locality i n g ~a t intervals of three or four minutes, the slices are
has its own. T h e qualities of soil and the peculiar found to lose no more weight. T h e slices are then
methods of culture are infinitely varied, and this vegeta- hard and brittle. Deduct nine per cent. of the original
ble is undergoing so many modifications that, before a weight for the parenchyma, and the remainder will in-
great while, it mill be almost impossible to recognize dicate the quantity of starch.
its original characteristics. I n making this test it is not a matter of indiffererne
T h e starch, however, is the portion which i t is irnport- whether the tuber is cut near the middle or a t the out-
ant to consider in this connection. Its quantity varies side, because the starch is not distributed equally through-
much in different species of the potato, &cordink to the out all parts of the root. It is found in greater proportion
nature of the soil in which it has grown, the temperature near the outside than towards the middle. This in large
of the season, their state of preservation, &c. &c. They 11
pottttoes is sometimes almost transparent., and contains a great number of holes ten or twelve centimeters wide,
little more than water and tissue. and fifteen centimeters long, to give passage to the
Potatoes may also be tested by reducing them to a steam. They should not be round to avoid the accident
- pulp on a small tin rasp and extracting the starch,
which is then dried, and the weight indicates the value
of being closed by the tubers fitting into them.
To facilitate the operation, the hogshead should have
of the root. an opening near the bottom, closing by a door, through
which the potatoes are to be drawn out when cooked,
Processes for Distilling Potatoes. without displacing the hogshead. If the locality will
There are three methods of preparing potatoes, pre- permit, the potatoes should fall directly from this open-
vious to, subjecting them to alcoholic fermentation : ing into the hopper of the crushing mill.
1. By cooking. I t commonly happens that there is some escape of
2. By rasping. steam below the hogshead where the chime rests on the
3. By the saccharification of the starch p e e n or dry. masonry ; this is easily stopped by a lute made' of clay
These methods have but one end-to saccharify the and horse dung. The hogshead must not be completely
starch, either by means of malted barley or of acids. filled, as the potatoes swell considerably in the course of
the operation.
Distillation of Cooked Potatoes. Reducing to Pulp-As soon as the potatoes are suffi-
ciently cooked they are placed in the hopper of the
This method consists*of five distinct operations :- crushing machine, to be reduced to a homogeneous pulp.
1. Cooking the potatoes. This machine conimonly consists of two cylinders of
2. Reducing them to 'pulp. oak, which by their friction crush the potatoes and se-
3, ~Mashing,or saccharifying by means of malt. duce them to the condition of paste.
4. The alcoholic fermentation. M ' i n g or &ccharijiyiwg bg Malted Barley.- When
5. T h e distillation. the potatoes have been reduced to a pnste, the mashing
Each of these operations mill be described in order is a t once conducted almost in the same manner as for
ahd as rapidly as possible. grain. Taking 1000 kilogrammes, for example, the pro-
Cooking.-T he potatoes, after having been well washed, cess is as follows :-
should be cooked by steam in a cylmdrical vessel. A The paste is arranged in a vat of the capacity of 35
hogshead properly arranged will answer. The apparatus or 40 hectolitres, to which are added 70 kilogrammes of
described by Dombasle appears to be perfectly adapted broken malt, and such a quantity of hot and cold
- to this purpose. It consists of an iron boiler set in water as to bring the temperature of the mass to 36O or
masonry, the upper surface of which is well covered 42O Cent., in order that the steeping of the malt may be
with good mortar, and rises with a gentle inclination properly accomplished. Care must be taken to stir the
above and from the edge of the boiler. Upon this ma- paste and malt with a fork as the water is gradually
sonry is a hogshead mith the upper head removed (or a poured into the vat, and hermetically close the vat as
special vat mpde of stout oak staves), the bottom of soon as the stirring is finished. After a rest of half an
which should have a diameter eight or ten centimeters hour boiling water is added until the whole has acquired
greater than the boiler, in order that the hogshead may a temperature of 60" Cent., and the mass is left t o . ma-
stand firmly on the masonry. T h e bottom of the hogs- cerate three or four hours.
head, which should be of thick mood, is perforated mith . Fermentation.-When the 9nashing is completed the
fermenting vat. I n the mean time, 500 litres of boiling
misture is increased by alternate doses of cold and boil- water are turned on to the pulp-it is stirred anew-the
ing water until the quantity is made up to 32 or 35 liquid drawn off as before, and turned in the fermenting
hectolitres, according to the size of the vat, and in such
- n manner as to establish the proper temperature (24O or
2G0 Cent.). This point reached, two and a half or three
vat with the first.
Finally, the potatoes are entirely exhausted of fer:
mentable principles, and a t the same time a proper
litres of good liquid beer yeast, or two kilogrammes of temperature is given the liquid to be fermented, by the
dry leaven are added. The fermentation is soon under addition of a third charge of cold ivater, which, after
way, and follows the same course as that for grain. being stirred and drawn off as before, is added to the
DistiZZutwn.-Potatoes, by reason of the pasty nature product of the two previous operations.
of the material resulting from this method of cooking, T h e liquid resulting from the three operations just
should be distilled in the apparatus discussed on pages 73 described is set to ferment by means of liquid beer yeast
and following (in Figs. 4 and 5, P1. IV.), or in some in the same proportion and manner as for the must of
simple apparatus worked over the naked fire; the latter grais, or by 2% or 3 kilograrnmes of dry leaven to the
is best adapted for agricultural establishments. 1000 kilogrammes of potatoes.
1000 kilogrammes of potatoes treated as above with By this process is obtained quite a large quantity of
70 kilogrammes of malt will yield a11 average of 160 residuum (marc), which is excellent as food for cattle ;
litres of spirit (or 74 litres of pure alcohol) at 46O having there is no pasty material to distil, the must is quite
an unpleasant odor. clear, and a quantity of spirit drawn off is superior to
that produced by the preceding process. It has, too, a
Distillation of Potatoes by Rasping and Xaceration. better flavor and odor.
E~np7oymentof the Residzturn fi-om the Distillation of
The object of this process is on the one hand to avoid Potatoes.--The residuum resulting from the two processes
the expense of cooking the potatoes, and on the other just described by reason of its pasty nature constitutes
the manual labor indispensably necessary, in separating an admirable article of food for cattle, but which, how-
the starch. The process is as follows :- ever, after prolonged use may prove too lasative. This
1000 lcilogrammes of potatoes reduced to a pulp by inconvenience may be avoided, or remedied, by giving
means of the rasping machibe are placed in a vat of 22 to the animals a n addition of ground Indian corn, peas,
to 25 Eectolitres, and with a double bottom, on which or beans, or, better still, oil cake, &c.
are spread evenly 25 or 30 kilogrammes of short straw.
I n this position the pulp is allowed to drain for about
half an hour to deprive it of a portion of its water of Distillation of Potatoes by Sacchaifying the Starch.
vegetation, which is drawn off from time to time by a Potato starch is a pulverulent substance without taste
cock placed between the two bottoms. After this delay and odor, which drains off with the water of ~egetation,
1000 or 1200 litres of' boiling water are added gradually, and which is separated from the tubers by means of many
and then 70 kilogrammes of malt previously steeped, operations, the principal of which are the rasping of the
while two men stir the whole vigorously. tubers and the separation of the starch from the paren-
After a maceration of three or four hours the clear chyma when the potatoes have been washed and reduced
liquid is drawn off by the cock under the false bottom, to a fine pulp by means of a rasp; this pulp is placedbn a
and the mass suffered to drain ten or fifteen minutes. sieve of hair, or metallic cloth. The pulp. is well rubbed
T h e liquid so drawn off is conveyed immediately to the
steam through the pipe c, which is connected with the
between the hands to mix it with a stream of water which generator.
Bows on to the middle of the sieve and carries off all of The vat being prepared, 2000 kilogrammes of dry
the starch set free by tearing the fibrous tissue of the cells starch are taken and mixed in quantities of 100 kilo-
which make up the substance of the root. The liquid grammes in a tub with 100 litres of water, the starch
flows through the sieve in a state of limpidity. When mixture is then poured into the funnel d,in small quan-
all the starch has been exhausted from the pulp, the tities of 15 or 20 litres at a time, the ebullition of the
waste material is thrown aside and a new supply of pulp mass being kept up until the whole 2000 kilogramrnes
placed on the sieve, and so on. The starch is obtained having been turned in, and the decomposition is com-
suspended in the water, and after n little while falls to plete, which happens about an hour after the last addi-
the bottom of the vessel; this deposit is then mixed tion of starch.
with fresh water and allowed to deposit two or three The starch in this operation passes first into a pasty
times successively, changing water each time; it is laid state, then becomes fluid, and is converted into gum or
up to drain on cloths, and if it is desired to preserve it, dextrine, and is then transformed into glucose in the
the mass is dried in the open air, or i n a drying r a m . form of syrup. I t is ascertained that the starch is en-
I n modern starch factories manual labor is reduced to tirely saccharified, and that the mass contains no more
a minimum by the use of a continuous apparatus in gum by taking n little of the liquid in a champagne glass,
which the washing and rasping of the tubers as well as mixing with 3 or 4 parts of alcohol (90°); if the llquid
the washing of the pulp on the sieve is effected by ma- contains any gum, it will be precipitated in white flocks;
chinery.* They easily treat 160 hectolitres of tubers if there is no gum present, it is an evidence that the
in ten or twelve hours, and obtain 16 or 1 7 per cent. of saccharification is complete. A few drops of tincture of
dry starch. The exhausted pulp retaining 2 or 3 per iodine poured into the cold mixture without producing
cent. of starch, which cannot be removed by the most a violet tint indicates that the operation is completed.
energetic washing, is used as food for cattle. The steam is now cut off, and we proceed to the sepa-
Green starch, that drained but not dried, and dry ration of the sulphuric acid from the saccharine prin-
starch, must, in order to produce alcohol, be first con- ciple, by saturating the liquid with chalk or Spanish
verted into sugar by the process of saccharification either whiting (carbonate of lime). For 40 kilogrammes of
by the assistance of malt or sulphuric acid. sulphuric acid we use 45 or 50 kilogrammes of carbon-
SacchariJication by Su@hu~icAcid-T he following is ate of lime mixed to the consistency of cream with a
the process by which starch is snccharified on a large little water, and thrown into the vat in small quantities
scale for the manufacture of alcohol :- at a time. A t each addition of the carbonate of lime
To perform .this operation a special vat called a sac- through the man-hole f, a strong effervescence is pro-
charifier is used; a description has been given before, as duced by escape of the carbonic acid gas, which may
well as a drawing. (Fig. 2, P1. VI.) I t is filled to about throw the liquid out of the vat if the additions are not
two-thirds with acidulated water (6000 litres of water carefully made.
with 40 kilogram.mes of sulphuric acid at 6G0). The It is ascertained that the saturation is complete by
temperature of this water is then raised to 100° C. by the cessation of the effervescence, and more accurately
still by means of litmus paper, which is no longer red-
* For a particular description of the very ingenious machine used dened by contact with the liquid. When the operation
in this manufacture the reader is referred to ~Muspratt's Practical
Chemistry, vol. ii. pp. 953 et seq.-Trans.

I elements of the water, and that consequently -the sugar

is finished the liquid is allowed to stand twelve hours in was formed by a combination of dextrine and water.
the same vat or another, then the clear part is drawn 1 Chemical analysis demonstrates, in fact, that glucose
off into the fermenting vats. The deposit left in the differs from starch and dextrine only in this, that i t
- vat is sulphate of lime (gypsum), a substance of little
contains a little more oxygen and hydrogen than these
last, and exactly in the proportions in which these two
A more highly acidulated liquid will render the sac- I
elements exist in water. The composition of these three
charification more prompt ; but, on the other hand, it
will be necessary to increase the dose of carbonate of i substances may be represented thus :-
Starch and Doxtrine. Glncose.
lime, which may injure the solution and prevent its I Carbon . . 43.81 36.80
clarifying. The dose indicated (two per cent. of acid) I Water, or its elements . 56.19
has been recognized for a long time as that which pro-
duces the best results. 100. 100.
The arrangement of the flue e which conducts the From which i t is seen that glucose only differs from
vapors from the vat into the chimney (stack) prevents starch and dextrine by containing 7.01 parts of water,
the disagreeable emanations which result from the pro- or its elements.
cess of saccharificntion. The essential oil of starch con- T h e saccharification cf the starch of different grains
condensed with the water flows into a vessel arranged by sulphuric acid is effected in the same manner as
to receive it. During the operation the vat should be described for potato starch. The use of hydrochloric
covered so as to direct the vapors into the flue, and pre- acid presents the advantage of producing on one hand
vent their condensing on the walls and ceiling and run- quite a pure alcohol, and on the other a resi'duum
ning down in dirty streaks. which when neutralized by soda, may serve tb a certain
T h e pressure of steam proper for the operation of
saccharitication should be two or three atmospheres, I extent :rs food for cattle.
Sacchn~~fication by NaZ8.-T his operation, the only
because the more active the ebullition the more quiclr?y one used a t present, is conducted almost in the same
will the starch be converted into the saccharine prm- I manner as the preceding; only the sulphuric acid is re-
ciple. It is unnecessary to stir the liquid, as the steam placed by malt. Chemists have ascertained that malted
agitates i t quite enough for the success of the opera- - barley, like all other seeds in a state of germination,
tion. contains a pecnliar principle soluble in water, neutral,
. During the saccharification of starch by sulphuric and not crystallizable, which they call diasfwe.
acid there is neither absorption nor evolution of gas ; the The following is the process for saccharifying 500
atmosphere produces no effect whatever; the sulphuric kilogramrnes of dry, or 750 kilogrammes of green starch
acid is unaltered ; finally, 100 parts of dry starch pro- by nialt.
duce f 10 parts of dry sugar. I n the factories are ob- The starch is mixed in a vat of 30 hectolitres with
tained from 100 parts of dry, or 150 parts of moist 1000 litres of cold water, taking care to agitate the whole
starch, 150 parts of syrup of 30° representing 100 parts continually to maintain the starch in a state of sus-
of solid sugar. pension and prevent i t from precipitating.
To explain these remarkable results, M. Theodore de There are added gradually 1700 litres of boiling water.
Saussure thought t h a t under the influence of the acid The mass a t first thickens and is converted into a paste ;
- which destroyed the starch cells and set the dextrine but in proportion as the boiling water is poured in, its
free, the latter appropriated to itself a portion of the
milky appearance disappears to give place to a most re- Remarks on Spirits from Qrain and Potatoes.
markable transparency. At this moment, 75 or 80
kilogrammes of malt, reduced to flour, to favor still The spirits produced by these substances possess a~
more its action on the starchy solution, are added, as odor and taste called jcuseZ, due to peculiar oils of
- is done in the saccharification of grain. The whole
is stirred vigorously for ten minutes, then the vat is
nauseous odor, analogous to the essential oil of wine o r .
oenanthic ether. These substances are produced during
closely covered and allowed to stand three or four hours ; the fermentation of the must. T-hey exist already
during this time the diastase contained in the malt acts formed in fermented liquors, since they distil with the
upon the starch, and transforms i t completely into alcoholic vapor when the mixture is simply heated.
saccharine matter. The spirit which is manufactured from syrup or starch
The Fermentation.-The saccharine liquid obtained by prepared by means of sulphuric acid is perfectly free
either process of saccharification just described, may be from essential oil. This last, then, is produced by the
transferred to the fermenting vats without being filtered ; alteration of the albumen, or some other nitrogenous
then a certain quantity of water (cold or hot, as may be principle of the potato, which takes place during the
necessary) is added, so that the temperature may be s t fermentation.
22" or 24O Cent., and the solution shall mark 7O by the The essential oil of grain spirit is composed in great
areometer of BaumB. These arrangements completed, part of a non-etherizable fat acid, which in composition
1 litre of good fresh yeast, or 500 grarnmes of dry yeast approachep oenanthic acid, but which nevertheless differs
to the 1000 litres will be sufficient to start the fermen- from it in some of its properties. The oil of potato .
tation, which progresses very regularly, and is usually spirit, which was first noticed by Scheele, is analogous
termiRated in 36 hours. . to ether. It is excessively acrid, and its vapor provokes
DistilZation.-The fermentation being finished, the coughing and even vomiting.
liquor is allowed to rest 24 hours, then the distillation It should be observed that spirit produced from flour of
is proceeded with in a continuous apparatus. grains, from which the bran has been separated by bolt-
The. alcoholic result is in proportion to the more or ing, has a far purer taste and odor than that resulting
less perfect saccharification of the starch. But gene- from flour which has not been subjected to this opera-
rally, 100 kilogrnmmes of the latter will produce 35 or tion ; becnuse it has been known for a long time that it
40 litres of pure alcohol, or from 40 to 45 litres of is the envelope of the grain that contains the peculiar .
spirit at 95O. essential oil which causes the bad flavor of this spirit.
The product will be sensibly increased if the spent Potato spirit extracted directly, that is, without sub-
liquor be used in succeeding fermentations, as is practised sequent rectification, often acts in a most deleterious
with grain and molasses. manner on the animal economy, either because it con-
The spirit from starch is very fine and of excellent tains some acid or volatile principle, or because it con-
flavor. It may be used for all purposes to which the tains solanine and prussic acid, as a great many chemists
trois-six of Montpellier is usually applied ; but its great- have stated.
est merit is that of improving the letter; in fact, if two
parts of the trois-six of Montpellier be mixed with one Alcohol from Sorghum, or Chinese Sugar-cane.
part of fine starch spirit, the product will be preferable T h e sorghum, or Chinese sugar-cane (HoZccus sncchct-
to the pure Montpellier, because it will have acquired mtus), a plant cultivated in the northern %parts
of China,
an extraordinary delicacy. was, sent, about the year 1850, to the Geographical

Society by M. de Montigny, the French consul a t Shsng- Sorghum should be planted according to the varying
hai. This s0ciet.y introduced the seed into France, and circumstances of the season and the climate. I n France
aided by the indefatigable zeal of the society of acclimatiza- it should be manifestly later than in Algeria. I n the
tion, encouraged a serious examination of its properties. latter country the seed time is from April to June. I n .
The seeds from this package were, in the first place, es- France the seeding should commence as soon as there
perimented on by one of the most eminent members of the ceases to be any expectation of frost.
comn~issiona t Toulon, and since then many others have T h e cultivation of sorghum is easy and not attended
ardently turned their attention to the cultivation of this with any considerable expense. It is only necessary
plant. We then saw it spread over the whole South of that the soil, without being met, should continue some-
France, in Bordelais, Champagne, Sologne, and even to what moist during the earlier period of its development.
the viciiiity of Paris, where it excited the greatest It is proper to shelter the young plants from a too-great
emulation among the most distinguished agriculturists. heat of the sun, which may be accomplished by sowing
A t present the cultivation of sorghum is extending itself some other plant of more rapid growth, between the
more and more, especially in Algeria. T h a t country is rows. The hills should be about 60 centimeters apart
most favorable for its culture, especially in the plains of each way."
Matidja; for a moist heat is necessary for this species of It does not appear to require very heavy manuring,
plants. guano seems to suit best. Frequent ploughings are
About the same time that Montigny gave this im- indispensable to its rapid growth. Throwing the earth
portant bequest to France and its colonies, Leonard up to the plants also favors their development. When
Wray discovered in Africa, among the Zulu Caffi-es, i t has attained its maximum of growth, sorghum is a
. many other varieties of sorghum, cultivated for their slender plant, rising three or four meters, and even more
sugar and confounded by the public under the name of on rich land, in straight thin stalks, with flexible and
Imp7zee, and even by some mistaken for the Chinese drooping leaves ; its appearance is quite like Indian corn,
variety. Wray had an experienced eye to the part
but i t is more beautiful. I t forms generally a cluster
Imphee might take in the agriculture of tropical coua- composed of five or six stalks, terminated by a conical
tries, and fie made persevering researches into the subject panicle covered with flowers, green a t first, then passing
in the English Antilles and a t the Cape of Good Hope. through the various tints of the violet to a deep purple
Such is the history of sorghum ; doubtless many varie- a t maturity.
ties are confounded under the same name ; cultivation Sorghum is harvested when the seed is perfectly ripe ;
on a large scale only can decide which is the best. Not- that is to say, when it. is of a decidedly chestnut color.
withstanding this inevitable confusion, great results have The plants are cut with a bilZ, then conveyed to t h e
and will continue to be obtained. barn or factory, where they are to be consumed. The
Sorghum grows promptly ; five months in fact are suffi- leaves are stripped off and the tops removed.
cient for its complete growth all along the shores of the It has been ascertained that not more than two or
Mediterranean. We can only hope for a single crop in three stalks should be left in a hill; if there are more,
one year, but we cannot expect the bountiful production the stalks will be slender and will contain relatively less
of the tropics in our climate; yet even in its less favored juice, and will be rejected by the distiller.
position sorghum offers the promise of more sugar and
alcohol to our factories, and more forage to the farmer, * American farmers hare found that a greater width between the
rows is preferable, as giving room for the use of the plough as well
than is afforded in the same time by the beet crop. as affording space for a larger growth of cane.--TransZntor.
fluence of the surrounding temperature alone. After
When the cane is left standing beyond a certain time this fermentation has run its course, and is entirely ter-
there will be serious loss, because towards the end of minated, the liquor is distilled.
November there is developed in the interior of the cane The method of working, whicl requires a considerable
- the larva of an insect, which feeds on i t at the expense
of the saccharine matter. It is also known that sor-
outlay at the start, and which demands the use of many
horses or of steam-power, cannot be adopted in small

ghum, when cut and allowed to stand in stalks for some agricultural distilleries. It has, besides, the objection
days befbre i t is used, loses a portion of its juice, and of only producing the average of 3.75 or 4 litres of alco-
that the sugar begins to ferment. It is important then hol to the 100 kilogrammes of cane.
to avoid these sources of loss, to harvest the cane as There is another method which consists in pressing
soon as i t matures, and use i t immediately. the canes as above, and then macerating in water the
The $roduct of the sorghum consists in the juice bagasse which still contains a considerable quantity of
abundantly contained in the pith of the stalks, but the saccharine matter; then, when the fermentation is fin-
richness in sugar diminishes in the joints as we approach ished, uniting the liquid resulting from the maceration
the top of the stalk, where the tissues more recently of the bagasse to that from the mill and distilling, the
developed are more watery. This juice stands between two in the usual way.
that of the true sugar-cane, lacking the aroma, and that Some colonists in Algeria content themselves with
of the beet in lacking its disagreeable odor. It therefore crushing- .the stalks of sorghum, and macerating the
produces alcohol devoid of taste when carefully rectified. whole with cold water, without. the addition of any fer-
I t has also been observed that the juice of sorghum con- ment whatever, in a hogshead standing on end, in open
tains a natural ferment, which may serve in case of sheds exposed to all the viscissitudes of the weather.
necessity to start the fe=mentation and transform the Some persons operate after the method of M. Leplay
saccharine matter into alcohol. or M. Pluchard, i. .re., by direct distillation of the sorghum.
The saccharine richness of sorghum juice has been Our opinion is sufficientlyset forth in the article on the
the object of a number of analyses, from which it has subject of the distillation of the beet, and we may dis-
been determined that this richness varies from ten to pense with any further reference to it here. It may be
twenty per cent. well understood that the spirit obtained by either pro-
The earliest method in use for obtaining alcohol from cess is of inferior quality.
sorghum is that of M. Count David de Beauregard, But of all methods used for the distillation of sorghum,
President of the Agricultural Society a t Toulon. It the process of maceration by heat is without contradic-
consists in subjecting the cane, stripped of their leaves, tion the best. It is, moreover, that which we have em-
to the powerful action of a rolling mill, consisting of ployed at Settimello (Italy), and a t the large distillery
three cast-iron cylinders placed horizontally, as is done of Amor-el-Ain, near Blidah (Algeria). It is managed
with the true cane in America. The method requires a as follows, viz :-
great motive power on account of the necessity of bring- The stalks of sorghum, stripped of l e a v e ~and the
ing the cylinders very close together to prevent the loss tops, are cut in short pieces by means of a sorghum
of juice. By this means only one hectolitre of juice to cutter. It consists of an iron cylinder armed with eight
the horse power is obtained in one hour. or ten steel blades arranged obliquely in connection with
This juice or syrup is set to ferment, without being a pair of feed rollers, one of which is plain and the
heated, by the addition of a small quantity of dry yeast other grooved, so that the stalks are pressed forward as
(about 50 granirnes to the hectolitre), and under the in-
i froth is white and light, and does not require the use of
any fatty substance to cause it to fall.
they are cut. When a sufficiency of material is pre- After a rest of 24 hours, the fermented juice or wine
pared, the cut stalks are placed in a nlacerator, No. 1, of sorghum is subjected to distillation in the apparatus
then covered with boiling water, or cold water, which is of Egrot., Derosne, or some other, and yields an ave- .
heated to SO0 by means of a jet of steam. After au i
rage of five litres of alcohol at 95O to 100 kilogrammes
hour of maceration, this liquid is drawn off in a macem- of the sorghum cane.
tor, No. 2, where i t rem:tins one hour. The system of maceration by steam which we de-
The operator should introduce into the second mace- --
scribed in the article on Beet Spirit, may be applied as
ration one part of sulpl~uricacid [at 66O], to the thousand, I
well to the treatment of sorghum.
diluted with twenty times its weight of water. The Towards the close of the season, it sometimes hap-
liquid islnow drawn off into a macerator, No. 3, where pens that the sorghum juice contains so great a q~lantity
it stands one hour. This last maceration completes the of acetic acid produced by changes within the stalks, and
saturation of the liquid with the saccharine juice. even lactic acid, that i t becomes necessary to saturate the
When the routine of work is well established, the juice with lime to obtain a successful fermentation. It
juice drawn from the second maceration is always used is not important, however, to have this saturation too
for macerating fresh cane, during which it is more freely perfect, indeed i t is better to preserve a slight acid re-
charged with saccharine matter. When drawn off from I action, lest too great a degree of alkalinity may inter-
the cane the liquor is allowed to cool, so that i t may fere with' the success of the fermentation. The juice
reach the fermenting vat at a proper temperature. The I so saturated should only be employed after being drawn
second charge is made with the weak liquor, resulting off clear and separated from the deposit resulting from
from a third maceration ;. and the third charge is always the saturation.
made with pure boiling wnter (or heated, as has been The distillation of the sorghum left standing and
described). cut as required is not profitable after the month of
. . On leaving the macerators, the concentrated juice, as January [in France.] After this time the cane dies, is
it reaches the fermenting vat, should have a temperatp~re heated, ferments, or is destroyed by larvae, as has already
of 2 O W or 25O at most, and should mark an average den- been said, which devour all the pith, and with it the
sity of 6" by the areometer of Baum6. Under these sugar, and leaves absolutely nothing more than the ex-
conditions, the first operation of maceration furnishes ternal envelope.
the liquor in which to dissolve the liquid leaven neces- Apparatus of X. B. ViaZe.-Now that we have de-
sary to start the fermentation according to the capacity scribed the various methods in use for obtaining alco-
of the fermenting vat. The proportion used is 25 litres hol from sorghum, we think it will not be amiss to speak'
of fluid yeast, or 120 grammes of dry to the hectolitre of an apparatus mhich is readily set up in agricultural
of juice. This is cdled the " bottom of t7~etub."':' When , establishments, and which is used for the extraction of
this bottom is in full fermentation, which commonly hap- the saccharine juices contained in sorghum, beets, arti-
pens one hour after its preparation, the vat is filled suc- i chokes, etc. etc. .
cessively with the liquid resulting from new macerations. I The following is a description of this apparatus. (See
The fermentation always, progresses regularly, and is Fig. 7, P1. VT.)
finished without violence ; i t is completely, terminated A. Tubular pan for concentrating the syrups.
in 18 or 20 hours, and rarely extends to 24 hours. The 10

* Footing.-Trans.

price of alcohol. July 30, 1857 trois six was worth 118,
B. Chimney. and beet molasses 26 francs per 100 kilogrammes. Then
C. Apparatus for boiling the sorghum cane or other we find the value 26 francs per 1000 kilogrammes of
substance. cane with 200 kilogrammes of forage over. The hectare
- D. Stopcock for drawing off the juice.
E. Furnace.
yielding upwards of 50,000 kilogrammes of cane will
produce 1500 francs to the farmer. The cost of extracting.
The furnace is so constructed that the smoke on leav- the syrup from the sorghum may be estimated a t a max-
ing the boiling apparatus traverses the tubular pan A, imum of 5 francs for 1000 kilogrammes of stalks, which
and returning by the two sides finds its way to the chim- will cause a deduction of 250 francs to the hectare;
ney. It is easy to understand the economy of this there will remain then 1250 francs, which is a heavy
arrangement in utilizing the waste heat. yield as compared with other crops, while over and
The manner of extracting syrups by this method is above the syrup, each hectare produces 30,000 kilo-
as follows: The stalks of sorghum stripped of leaves are grammes of forage.
cut up by means of a stalk-cutter, and as cut, are placed If i t is desired to f i t these syrups for table use, it is
in the boiling apparatus, care being taken to place a necessary to saturate them with Spanish whiting and
wicker-work hurdle on each layer of 1 5 or 20 centime- clarify them with animal charcoal.
ters. When the apparatus is filled with cut sorghum, The syrup of beets is extracted as follows:-
it is filled with water enough to cover the cane, then fcr The beets cut in thin slices by means of a root-cutter
each 100 litres of water in the apparatus are added 200 are cast, 'as they are cut, into a copper containing 200
gramrnes of sulphuric acid. It is then boiled for twenty litres of water and one kilogramme of common salt.
minutes; the syrup is now drawn off by the cock, the When these slices have been macerated for about ten
bagasse being a t the same time pressed by the screw minutes, they are withdrawn from the copper and
fixed above the boiler. The juice is then poured into dripped, and are then thrown into the boiler c in layers
the tubular pan to be evaporated to the proper degree of of about 25 centimeters, being careful to lay a wicker
concentration (20° or 25O is generally enough). hurdle on each layer. When the apparatus is full, the
The boiler is then emptied of bagasse by the assist- block which serves as a part of the press is put in place,
ance of a fork, and a second operation begins. and the whole carefully covered with a moistened cloth ;
Syrups prepared in this way are only fit for distillac the fire is then kindled under the boiler, into which have
tion, and may be bought by the distiller at the same previously been poured 40 litres of water; this is quite
price as molasses from the beet. sufficient water to furnish by ebullition, enough steam
The following is the method adopted by M. V i d e for to cook the slices of beet. When these are cooked
ascertaining the true value of such syrups and thereby the discharge cock is opened, and the press applied;
fising the price. the juice drawn off ought to weigh four - o r five de-
We know, says he, that molasses is sold a t 40°, and grees by the areometer of Baurn6 according to the rich-
by the 100 kilogrammes. Let us suppose a cask of sor- ness of the beets. This juice is then turned a t once
ghum syrup contains 160 kilogrammes a t 25O; this is into the tubular pan A to be concentrated to a syrup,
the product of 1000 kilogrammes of cane; we will mul- marking 22 or 25 degrees of the areometer of Baum6.
tiply 160 by 35, which will give 4000; divide 4000 by I n this form it may be put in hogsheads and preserved
40, and we find the true quantity of merchantable mo- during the winter.
lasses 100 kilogrammes; this is sold according to the

The succeeding operations are conducted in, the same

way, with this difference, that by refilling the boiler with
water there are left forty litres of juice, marking four or
- five degrees.
The salt water in t h e copper used for macerating the
fresh slices of beets may answer for four or five mace-
rations, and need only be renewed when i t marks 4 or 5
degrees; when i t may be used in the boiler in place of
the 40 litres of water. A t the end of the day's work,
this, as well as all the juice marking 4 or 5 degrees,
should be concentrated to a syrup with the exception of
forty litres of water, which may be left in the boiler
to recommence the operation next morning.
By this process, according to &I. Vide, 1000 kilo-
grnmmes of wine yield 130 or 140 litres of syrup a t 25 of the Mediterranean.
degrees, according to the nature of the beets, and 600 The root of the asphodel forms a cluster of fusiform
kilogrammes of pulp. tubercles, brown on the outside, white within, as large
This process of V i d e renders i t possible for small as the thumb,.and eight or ten centimeters long; stands
farmers to make the pulp themselves according to their by aualogy between the root of the turnip and the
necessities, and enables them to forward the juice with dahlia. \

facility to t h e distiller in a proper state of concentra- No attempts have been made to cultivate the aspho-
tion. They avoid, too, the transportation of the beets del, because i t requires two or khree years for its vege-
to the distillery, and the return of the pulp to the farm, tation, and manufacturers content themselves as if work-
at a season of the year when such transportation is ing a sort of mine without troubling themselves about
always difficult. its reproduction. An analysis of the root shows that it
The Jerusalem artichoke is treated in the same man- contains the following :-
ner as the beet. 68.84 parts.
T h e apparatus of M. Viale is readily set up on a farm, Water,
Ash, . 0.75 "
occupies but little space, and may be operated by any Fatty substances, soluble in ether, 2.20 "
farm hand. I t is so simple as to require few repairs, Substances transformable into grape sugar, by &hi!
and is of quite a moderate cost. action of ferment, or acid,
Yectine, -
Albumen coagulable by heat, .
Alcohol from the Asphodel. Cellulose,
Loss, -
T h e asphodel, comnionly called in France the king's
rod, is a beautiful plant growing in the South of Europe,
the tuberous roots of which are reproduced abundantly,
according to climate, every two or three years. Its The large proportion of principles susceptible of b e i g
stalk, which rises to the height of about one meter, is transformed into alcohol (27.55 parts in loo), found by
materials to ferment without the addition of any leaven;
M. Mar& in this analysis, excites the suspicion that he this method is objectionable, because the fermentation is
operated on selected tubers collected under favorable developed too slowly, and as a consecuence, notwith-
circumstances, because, as we shall see hereafter, we do standing what certain persons may say, the result is by
not in practice obtain such favorable results. no means profitable.
It should be remarked that the roots of the asphodel By the second process, the roots are also washed before
do not furnish alcohol in abundance, except during the being subjected to the action of a rasp similar to that
season of flowering, which is in April, May, and June. which is employed for reducing beets to a pulp. When
Before and after this period the quantity of alcohol di- this pulp has been submitted to the action of a press
minishes, and finally is reduced to nothing. (hydraulic or other), the juice, after being heated to
The distillation of the asphodel, originating at a time 20° or 24O, is poured into a fermenting vat, then 250
when wines and spirits were very dear, appears to have grammes of dry yeast for each hectolitre of liquid are
no future. Although it produces alcohol a t a very mode- added, and the fermentation is very well established.
rate price, since the roots are collected on uncultivated When this is completed, the liquor is distilled, and
land, where their spontaneous growth enables them to yields an average of 4% or 5 litres of alcohol at 96" to
be sold for the cost of collecting (1 2 to 1 3 francs for 100 100 kilogrammes of roots.
kilogrammes), it is evident that it cannot contend in an By the third process, the roots, after being washed
abundant season with the mines of the south. The dis- and reduced to n pulp, as above, are placed in a saccha-
agreeable odor of asphodel spirit, which it is difficult to rifying vat with two or three per cent. of sulphuric, or
remove, even partially, will always interfere with its five or six per cent. of hydrochloric (muriatic) acid, and
sale, except when the price of other spirits is very high. fifty or sixty per cent. of water. In this state s jet of
We shall nevertheless examine the different processes steam is turned into the vat so as to produce ebullition,
used for the extraction of alcohol from the roots of the which is maintained for seven or eight hours. When
asphodel; the saccharificntion is completed, the juice is saturated
IDthe Jimt process, the roots are washed to remove the with carbonate of lime, and, after a sufficient rest, the
earth adhering to them, then crushed in an oil-mill, or by clear liquor is drawn off to be fermented, by the addi-
some special machine, so as to reduce them to the condi- tion of enough water to reduce the temperature to 20°
tion of pulp. After this operation, the pulp is thrown into or 24O.
common vats, where it is covered with water and stirred, By this process 150 or 200 grammes of dry yeast are
then set to ferment by adding 200 grammes of dry yeast sufficient to obtain a very good fermentation, and the
to 100 kilogrammes of the roots. result leaves nothing to be desired, since it yields from
After the fermentation, the clear liquor is drawn off six to seven litres of pure alcohol to 100 kilogrammes
and distilled in any kind of apparatus. The amount of of the root, the taste of which, although sufficiently
alcohol obtained b y this method is usually from 33 to 4 marked, is far superior to that obtained by the preced-
litres at 96O to 100 kilogrammes of the root; but it ing methods.
would be much greater if the material *itself were dis- Finally, as the result of practical observation, it is
tilled in the vat in which it was fermented, by means of found that all the processes applied to the distillation of
a special arrangement adapted to the use of a jet of the beet are adapted to the distillation of the roots of
steam. the asphodel, particularly that of the hot maceration
In Algeria there are some distillers who allow the with the use of sulphuric or some other acid.

Alcoholizable Snbstances of the Firat Class.

Alcohol from Figs. Cm-rots,turnips, parsnips, artichokes,pumpki~zs, the whole
- Generally this spirit is obtained from common dried
figs. T h e fruit is reduced to a pulp by crushing or
family of squashes and melons, cornstalks. Among fruits :
apr.icots, cherries, peaches, gooseberries, w7Lz'te currants, r a q -
grinding, and covered with water, and left to ferment. berries, st~awberries,mulberries, ezderberries, dates, &c.,
When this is completed the liquid is drawn off, and the may all produce alcohol by some one of the processes
marc subjected to the action of a press; the resulting already described. It is only necessary to adopt t h a t
juice is then added to the fermented liquor and the which has been recommended for analogous substances
whole distilled. in the course of this work. Seeds and nuts of many
The operation may be conducted as was done by the plants, as well as roots, and even some leaves, as well
author in Algiers. T h e fruit was covered with water as milk of cows and other animals, and honey, have
without being crushed, and, after a proper fermentation, been used to produce alcohol in some of its forms.
which is started spontaneously, was distilled, both the
liquid and fruit, by means of a steam jet. By this Alcoholizable Snbstances of the Second Class.
process the yield is ordinarily from 48 to 52 litres of
brandy at 50°, having quite an agreeable odor and taste. Peas, beans, bntils, and various farinaceous seeds,
chestrmts, 'horsec7testnuts (buckje) ,acorns, &c., are saccha-
rified like grain or starch, either by the assistance of
Alcohol from Various Substances (Vegetable and Others). malt or sulphuric acid, and in the same manner as we
. . have described under the proper head.
We have already examined among vegetables, those The root of the Chinese yanz (Dioscorea batatas) will
most usually e~nployedfor the product.ion of alcohol or yield seven per cent. of pure alcohol if distilled by t h e
spirits, vhether on account of their richness in sugar, process recommended for the common potato.
the facility of extracting it, or on account of the low Lichens, dahZia, and madder are also capable of yield-
price of its production; but i t still remains for us to ing a notable quantity of acohol. The manufacture of
speak of a number of vegetable and other substances alcohol from the last is, in the garancine factories, made
which may, under certain circumstances, present some a source of considerable profit by utilizing much material
advantages to the manufacturer. that has hitherto been suffered to go to waste, on ac-
All vegetable substances are susceptible of producing count of the manufacturers being ignorant of the great
alcohol, becauee most of them contain sugar, starch, gum, source of profit they were daily and hourly throwing
pectine, inuline, and cellulose, and these elements may away.
be easily transformed, by the aid of an acid or some Cellulose.-This name is applied to the cellular por-
other saccharifying agent, into uncrystallizable sugar, tion of the wood of vegetables. The parts of plants
either solid or liquid. in which cellulose is found most nearly approaching
Alcoholizable substances are divided into two classes : purity, are, besides those of very young growth, the pith,
the first comprises those which contain sugar or glucose, the down, the succulent mass or Jles-h of f r u i d and mots,
already formed by nature; the second comprises those that are rapidly developed, and very light woody tissues.
which must be-subjected to some artificial operation for I t is almost pure in old linen, cotton, the-pith of the elder,
developing and obtaining the saccharine principle. and iu white paper.
as above, it should be boiled for ten hours, care being
- Cellulose plays an important part in the growth of taken to replenish the water as it evaporates. The dex-
all vegetables, because it constitutes the foundation of trine then changes completely into sugar, which may be
all the organs. It is no less useful in the economic arts
- and manufactures, since it constitutes the useful sub-
obtained perfectly pure and white.
From one hundred parts of dry rags, according to M.

stance of wood and vegetable fibre, as cotton, hemp, &c., Braconnet, we can obtain 115 parts of white sugar. This
and other filamentous substances, which are converted conversion of lignin into gum and sugar is not difficult
by man into thread, cloth, &c. of explanation, since we know that cellulose is isomeric
I n 1819,-M. Braconnet discovered the means of con- with dextrine and starch. I t is none the less truly
verting cellulose into grape sugar or glucose, by the marvellous when we thus see that a simple derangement
action of sulphuric acid. In less than a quarter of an in the elementary principles of a substance is sufficient
hour he converted ligneous matter into cZext&ze; then to effect an entire change in its properties. A11 ligneous
this was very soon transformed into sugar, under the substances, as different kinds of wood, bark, straw, &c.,
influence of the same acid, diluted with water, and like rags, are capable of producing sugar. It was not
brought to a state of ebullition. altogether a witticism when a learned professor ex-
The following is the process as described by him, viz: claimed, that in the present state of the science, a block
He takes six parts of hemp or linen ,cloth well washed of wood becomes a loaf of sugar in the hands of the
and cut into small pieces, on which are poured eight chemist. *

parts of concentrated sulphuric acid, a small quantity at Alcohol from wood was the subject of a communica-
a time. The mass is constantly stirred in order that tion to the Academy of Sciences at its session October
the cloth may imbibe the acid equally, and at the same 23, 1854. M. Pelouze presented a s m d l sample on the
time escape as much as possible the risk of heating. part of one of his pupils, M. Arnould. He describes the
The ligneous matter assumes a brown color, and hecomes process used by him as follows, vie:-
at first a very hard and compact mass ; but in less than '' Under existing circumstances, when the manufac-
twenty minutes it is converted into a brown paste, pitch- ture of alcohol has been so largely developed that it has
like and viscous, which is completely soluble in cold turned many primary substances, particularly the cereals,
water. Enough water to effect its complete solution is from their legitimate and most useful application, I have
then poured on this paste; after which, the acid liquor thought it a matter of some interest to present to the
is saturated with chalk. It is filtered to separate the Academy some researches into a, new method of pro-
sulphate of lime; evaporated by a gentle heat, and to ducing alcohol, although these researches are not yet
separate any traces of lime still remaining in the solu- complete.
tion a small quantity of oxalic acid is added. I t is fil- Encouraged by the experiments of M. Braconnet, pub-
tered %gain,a n d the gummy substance is precipitated by lished thirty-five years ago, and by the more recent pub-
the addition of rectified alcohol. The precipitated gum lications of M. Payen, I have undertaken to produce .
is re-dissolved in water; on evaporating the solution to substances analogous to starch, sugar, and alcohol, from
dryness, a pale yellow translucent substance is obtained, vegetable fibre, and especially from wood.
which has a brilliant conchoidal fracture; this is &a;- My first efforts have completely answered my expec-
trine. tations. I have succeeded with certain fibres in render:
If i t is desired to transform the ligneous matter into ing soluble 97 per cent. of the substance used, and for
sugzr, inste?d of saturating the gummy paste with lime
certain varieties of woods I have succeeded in rendering mainly from the cereals, which constitute the principal
soluble from 75 to 80 per cent. of the wood employed, article of food to all peoples. This new application of
and have then converted the sugar into alcohol. wood will restore to a product so abundant, and the pre-
- The following is a brief summary of the process of
preparing alcohol from white wood :-
servation of which, in so many respects, is so important, a
part of its value, a t a time when it is almost driven from
The wood, in the form of coarse sawdust, is dried a t use by the applications of iron and coal."
100° so as to drive off the water i t contains, which is Doubtless all these speculations of M. Arnould are
often more than half its weight. When cold and in a very beautiful, but are they not illusions so common
suitable vessel, concentrated sulphuric acid is poured on with inventors ! It is not everything to produce alcohol,
i t with great care, and in small quantities at a time; it must be produced a t such a price as to yield a profit
the acid is poured on very slowly to prevent the matter from which the distiller should be remunerated for his
from being heated. The acid is mixed with the wood labor; and although fully recognizing the merit of those
as i t is poured in, then the mixture is allowed to rest for 'men of science who consecrate their lives to opening
twelve hours; after which it is stirred carefully until up new processes, we practical distillers hold ourselves
the mass, which is at first almost. dry, becomes fluid in reserve. Let us leave to philosophers the care of
enough to pour. T h e liquid, diluted with water, is then making scientific discoveries ; let us apply ourselves to
heated to ebullition ; t.he acid is neutralized by chalk, and introducing them into practice only when we are fully
t h e liquor, after filtration, is subjected to fermentation, satisfied. of their practicability, or where experience
- has
and then the alcohol is distilled off by the ordinary pro- assured u s of success.
cesses. Madder.-We copy from the i ~ t e r e s t i n gwork of M.
I n this experiment thk quantity of sulphuric acid em- Paul d7Aspremont the following details, which include
ployed might have been equal to, while it might not have some notice of the factory of Messrs. Julian fils e t cie,
been less than 110 per cent. of t h e weight of the dry at Sorgues (Vaucluse).
wood used. This factory turns out every day 1200 kilogrammes
From researches in progress, I am led to believe that of JEowers of rnaddel; and 2500 kilogrammes of garan-
the quantity of acid may be considerably reduced ; but cine. M. Julian, the father, discovered the flowers of
even now with the proportions indicated above, alcohol madder in 1852, &d he was one of the first, in 1847,
may be economically manufactured from materials as distil the washings of madder for the purpose of obtain-
cheap as wood, sulphuric acid, and chalk. ing alcohol. A t present, when this factory is in full
I hope t h a t the Academy will excuse my having pre- operation, i t produces as much as 800 litres of spirit at
sented a work not yet completed, on account of its im- 87O in one day, which indicates a consumption of 8000
portaace as a matter of public utility. I n fact, the or 9000 kilogrammes of the powdered root. T h e wash
nation has at its disposal a new and almost inexhaustible (or waste waters) do not yield more than two per cent.
source of food, since from wood, dextrine, sugar, and a h - 1000 kilogrammes of powdered madder yield 70 or 75
- hoZ can be produced so economically. Governments will litres of alcohol a t 85O-
see that famines, so painful to all, become more and The preparation of the roots to render them fit for the
more rare, if not impossible, since wood will contribute use of the dyer is not very complicated. As the farmers
doubly to the general supply of food a t first directly, and or their brokers bring in their products, they are spread
then by yielding - products which haxe been drawn out in extensive sheds. As all purchases are for cash, it
The flowers of madder is debarrassed by the washing
follows that the factories should be possessed of a large and pressure of all the mucilaginous substances which
capital. I t is not possible for me to ascertain the exact the roots contain; the proportion varies according to
figures ; but I infer from the amount of the entire pro- the nature of the soil on which it has grown. Cal-
duct, which is not far from thirty-five or forty millions
- of kilogrammes for Vaucluse and the neighborhood, that
during the course of the season, the manufacturers disburse
careous soils produce purer madders of more lively color.
These are better adapted for making the flower.
The waters which have been used for washing the
twelve or thirteen millions of francs. I do not speak powder, as well as t h a t from the press, are collected to-
of the large quantities which come from Naples and the gether in vats, where they are fermented by the ordinary
Levant, and which are imported into Vaucluse to be processes.* The first runnings which were obtained by
manufactured. Without exaggeration, we may well esti- this method, in 1847, sold for eighteen francs per hect*
mate the floating capital necessary to carry on the madder litre, a t 80°. This alcohol had a horrible empyreulnatic
factories of this department a t fifteen or sixteen millions. taste; but since that time a Pole, M. Pongoski, has dis-
T h e first operation to which the root is subjected is covered a means of rectifying madder spirit so that it
that of drying. It is placed in a drying-room heated to sells at the same price as beet spirit, and is used for the
about 50°, where it remains 48 hours. M. Julian uses, same purposes.
- -
every day, 130 bales of 85 kilogrammes each. Garancine is the third product obtained from madder
T h e second operation comprises scraping, winnowing, root. First, the powder is: washed and pressed, as if in-
and grinding. T h e roots are first freed from the earth tended to- produce the flower. The washings are used
which adheres to them; they are then passed through for making alcol~ol. After this operation the powder is
the winnowing machine, and are thrown under vertical placed in vats and covered with water, acidulated with
grinding stones, which reduce +,he roots to powder. from 25 to 40 per cent. of sulphuric or muriatic acid. It
This product bears the name of powder of madder or is boiled for a n hour and a half. The liquor drawn off,
ground madder. It is used to dye red on cottons, and is not distilled, unless alcohol is at a very high price.
other common materials. The powder contains all the The powder is placed in other vats, where i.t is washed
mucila~inoussubstances and saccharine elements of the with cold water. The acid which still remains is neu- -
root, which tends to enfeeble its tinctorial power. It, tralized by soda; the second washing lasts twenty-four
therefore, yields much less coloring matter than the hours. It is then left t o drain, and when dried and
flowers of madder, which is much more concentrated. ground, the garancine is packed in casks. This pre-
T h e powder sells for 80 francs for the common and 92 paration is used in printing calicoes.
francs for thepaZus per 100 kilogrammes. The discovery made, in 1857, by M. Pongoski has
The flowers of madder was discovered in 1852, by M. given a great value to madder spirit. M. Santel, of
Julian (the father). T h e product is used to dye in light Sorgues, tested the process, which is as simple as it is
tints. - T h e following method is used for preparing it : The ingenious. The process consists in passing a jet of
ground madder is placed i n a box, and six times its
volume of water is poured on it. It is then filtered
through a woollen cloth, pressed, dried, ground to pow- * In the establishment of Arthur & Hinshaw, at Edinburgh, the
fermentation is spontaneous or artificial. Leaven does not appear .
der, and the fGower packed in barrels. I n tbis state it to hasten or modify the operation.-Translator,
is put on the market. T h e price is from 160 to 200
francs for 100 kilogrammes.
time, beet spirit was worth 68 francs. The difference
alcoholic vapor into a distilling column charged with between backings (JEegmes) and rectified trois-six is
charcoal in coarse powder. This charcoal absorbs the always from 20 to 22 francs. The rectification .which
empyreumatic oils contained in the spirit, and alcohol is costs eight or ten francs is always reckoned a t fifteen or
thus obtained of good flavor, or rather without any sort sixteen francs by the seller. The pipe of six hectolitres
of flavor. costs twent-y-fourfrancs ; it is reckoned a t the rate of six
T h e c o d used by M. Sautel is prepared from willow, francs to tde hectolitre. ' The sales are made a t 90°, as is
poplar, or birch. The wood is inclosed in retorts and done with the alcohol of the beet. Backings, as well as
distilled. It requires 600 or 700 kilogrammes of green rectified trois-six, are stored in stone cisterns.
wood to make 100 kilogrammes of charcoal. The cost The production of the department of Vaucluse is,
of production is 20 francs. With 100 kilogrammes 5 according to M. Sautel, from 1800 to 2000 pipes per
hectoJitres of alcohol are rectified. The coal loses 10 annum. This is small when compared with the alcohol
per cent. of its value every time it is used. It may be formerly produced from the wines 6f the South of France,
revived by reheating it in the retort. The cost is almost which is estimated a t 120,000 pipes.
nothing. At present, not more than 25,000 or 30,000 pipes are *

It is obvious from these figures that the process of made from wine. I n .the north, the amount produced is
Pongoski is but little dearer than the common process, not exactly known, because the beet is som6times con-
and that, it may be applied to t h e rectification of beet verted into alcohol, and sometimes into sugar. Last
spirit. The attempt has already been made a t Lille and year the north produced 190,000,000 kilogrammes of
with success. M. Pongoski also applied his discovery sugar, and 130,000 pipes of a.lcoho1. The 2000 pipes
to the rectification of pyroligneous acid ; he thus avoided wh~chare produced from madder do not then make much
many successive disfillations and obtained an article impression on the market.
of good flavor at the first jet. Madder spirit rectified, according to the process of
His distilling apparatus is like any other; only he Pongoski, is sold as alcohol of good flavor, and for the
adds a second column, in which he effects the absorp same purposes. A t the rate of 68 francs, the 12,000
tion of the essential oils. I t is proper to state that a bectolitres so produced, are worth more than 800,
little more pressure is necessary, T h e apparatus of 35. 000 francs, which, before the discovery of M. Julian,
Sautel mas constructed a t Sorgues. I t yields 150 litres, at was suffered every year to flow into the sea. Our grati-
95O, per hour. This is a little too strong, and is subject tude is therefore due to M. Julian for his happy idea,
to some loss in transportation; but it may be reduced to and the more so, since the manufacturers of madder
90° by the addition of water. reduce the price of their product by the value of the
M. Sautel made alcohol of 100° by a process pecu- alcohol obtained from the waste washings. It is in this
liar to himself', and sold i t for three francs the litre. By way that each new discovery tends to lower prices, and
the'use of charcoal, he made ether of good flavor a t the improve the condition of the consumer.
first operation. His factory is in operation only eight
or nine months of the year. T h e unpleasantness be-
tween the states of North America has very much re- General Observations on the Different g i n d a of AlcohoI.
duced the demand for fiowers of madder. From what has been said about the different varieties
On the day of my visit, M. Santel paid 48 francs for of alcohol, me dram the following conclusions :-
backings, a t 86O, without the barrel. In Paris, at that 13
stances accompanying them. It is frequently necessary
1. That the processes used for distillation are always t o make a second rectificntion to have the purification
the same. perfect.
2. That they only differ in the methods adopted for Before entering into the details of rectification, and
preparing the materials for fermentation. in order to have a better comprehension of this opera-
3. That all substances, whether vegetable or not, tion, i t is proper to be acquainted with the substances
which contain sugar, glucose, or any principle that may which mar the purity of the alcohol, and the different
be converted into either, are susceptible of passing causes that exercise an influence on its quality. Among
through the alcoholic fermentation. these, the\ essential oils and acids occupy the first rank ;
4. That, to obtain this result, it is sufficientto set free then comes the action of heat. Indeed, the products of
the saccharine matter by rasping, pressure, maceration, rectification are of different natures. The first, that is,
and saccharification. those which flow at first, contain highly volatile, ethereal
5. That this saccharine matter must be diluted, when principles, in greater or less quantities, according to
necessary, with a sufficient quantity of water, to cause the perfection of the fermentation; they have a suffo- -
the liquid to mark five or six degrees on the areometer cating and disagreeable odor, due to the presence of a
of BaumB. certain quantity of azdehyde, and usually have a light
6. And that, in conclusion, alcohol should be extracted yellow color. The second are generally purer and
only from those substances which, by their moderate without color, and are endowed with a sweeter and
price, or the facility of their production, will enable more pleasant flavor ; i t is from such products that
i t to compete with spirits of wine, or the trois-six of the well-flavored (bon g d t ) trois-six is obtained. The
Montpelliei; either in price or quality. third are much less pure; they contain an appreciable
quantity of amyZic akohoZ; that is to say, alcohol mixed
with n great quantity of essential oil ; their odor is strong
and disagreeable. Finally, the last products consist only
of essential oils, almost pure and of a repulsive odor.
C H A P T E R VII, Essential Oils.-We have already said that alcohol is
the result of the decomposition of the saccharine prin-
RECTIFICATION. ciple, which takes place during the vinous or alcoholic
fermentation. We should add, that from whatever sub-
THE object of rectification is to increase the spiritu- stance obtained, it is, chemically speaking, identically
mity or standard of alcoholic liquids, which have already the same. This truth is incontrovertible ; but i t is im-
been distilled, and a t the same time remove those sub- possible to doubt that if all alcohols have the same
stances which give them n bad flavor. This operation chemical properties, their tastes and odors are as various
is bas& on the difference of volatility between these as the substances from which they are obtnined. I t may
substan- and alcohol. be remarked that the various raw materials are distin-
The spirits obtained by the various processes which guished by the peculiar aroma and distinct shades of fla'vor
we have demribed do not always possess that purity in the alcohols which they produce. It is by this means
which is required in trade, although they may be of the that we recognize a t once not only the alcohoi from cher-
proper alcoholic standard ; it is important, therefore, to ries, beets, or molasses, together with that from the grape ;
rectify them in order to remove the peculiar and dis- but we find a decided difference between the brandies
agreeable flavor derived from the various foreign sub-
that i t no longer has the flavor of Cognac ; the essential
of Languedoc, Cognac, and Montpellier, &c., although oils have not then been volatilized, and the agreeable
all these brandies are produced from the fermented juice bouquet which constituted the real merit of this brandy
of the grape. has disappeared.
Now, to understand the solution of the problem which Potato spirit may afford another example. Carefully
we have in hand, it mill be sufficient to recall the fact rectified, it yields a considerable quantity of essential
that plants, roots, flowers, fruits, &c., owe their perfumes oil, which may be burned in a lamp, and a single drop
to the presence of an essential oil, soluble for the most of which is sufficient to communicate to many litres of
part in alcohol, and that this essential oil varies in its good brandy that nauseous flavor and harsh taste so
perfume not only for each particular substance, but even recognizable in ill rectified spirits made from amylaceous
in the same plant according to soil and season. substances. It is the same with brandy made from the
T h e essential oils, SO vaiious in their perfume, affect marc of grape (pomace).
t h e organs of taste as well as those of smell; the taste of The most conclusive example that we can give of the
the rose is readily distinguished from that of the orange presence of essential oils in non-rectified brandy, and that
flower. Therefore, since these oils exert such a decided the quantity which is vaporized is in proportion to the
action on the senses, and as they differ in each substance, temperature necessary to the vaporization of the alcohol,
it is evident t h a t to obtain a spirit free from peculiar according as the latter approaches a state of purity, is
flavor, it is necessary to deprive it of the essential oil the nebulous tint of the feints (low wines) ; for the
which it may hold in solution. We shall describe more wealrer the alcohol the more nearly must the tempera-
particularly the peculiar characters of the essential oils, ture necessary to vaporize i t approach t h a t of boiling
when we come to treat of aromatic waters and spirits. water; then the essential oil, finding a temperature
They are volatilized at a heat not exceeding 100 degrees, better adapted to its vaporization, will pass over into
and often much below, although they do not begin to the receiver in greater quantity.
boil until heated to 130 or 150 degrees ; they are also We have said that essential oil is very soluble in alco-
very soluble in alcohol, and but little so in water. hol, and but little so in water; i t follows, then, that the
After what has been said, if we recollect the prin- ~ e a l r e rthe alcohol the less essential oil will it dissolve ;
ciples of distillation, it will be easy to separate the this occasions the nebulous appearance of the feints ; for
alcohol from this essential oil, because it requires a higher the great quantity of essential oils and the feeble strength
temperature to volatilize it than to drive off the alcohol of the alcohol they contain, both concur in leaving the
i n t h e form of vapor; and i t is ascertained that the essential oil in a state of suspension. If a proof of this
more nearly alcohol approaches a state of purity, the fact is desired, i t is only necessary to add a few drops of
more readily i t is separated from the essential oil, be- any essential oil to a rectified alcohol ; the oil dissolves a t
cause a heat of 78 degrees is sufficient for the vaporiza- once; if then a large quantity of water is added to this
tion of the former. This principle established, we can aromatized alcohol, its solvent power being gfeatly di-
easily preserve in a n alcohol the perfume mhich is minished, the mixture will become clouded ; thls is what
agreeable to the consumers, or extract that which is happens when cologne, essence of lemon, or fine absinthe
disagreeable. is mixed with water.
If we desire to test the presence of essential oils in It has been attempted by an infinite number of methods
non-rectified brandies, it will be sufficient to take Cognac to remove or destroy the bad flavor which the essential -
brandy, for example, and rectify it with the necessary oil? give to alcohol, and a number of chemical agents
care ; if this spirit is diluted with water, it will be found
gence is the only means of destroying the odor of alco-
have been employed for attaining this result; but up to hols in a satisfactory manner.
the present time none of these agents have fulfilled the Acids.-The essential oils, by the agreeable or repulsive
object in view, and most of them communicate to dco- odor which they diffuse, are not alone in contributing to
- 1101 properties peculiar to themselves which are more in-
jurious than useful. Frequently they only mask for a
the good or bad quality of alcohol. The presence of
certain acids may also play an important part, although
longer or shorter time the odor which i t is desired to a secondary one, in giving a sharp and biting taste
remove, and which will reappear with more force than which will affect the consumer unpleasantly. This fact
ever. was established conclusively by Parmentier. The troops
The alkalies, lime, soda, and potassa, act only to a had complained for a long time that detestable brandy
slight degree on the essential oils, for to convert them was issued to them; no other could be had, and the sol-
into soap it is requisite that they should be resinified by diers murmured. Parmentier was consulted ; he exam-
the action of oxygen, which cannot take place in the ined the brandy and found the taste horrible; in seeking
condition in which they are found with alcohol. I n the the cause, which could not escape his sagacity, he recog-
rectification of alcohol, the use of muriates, silicates, bo- nized the presence of an acid. He at once saturated it
rax, alumina, tannin, charcoal, plaster, magnesia, and with ammonia, and the brandy became palatable.
clay, produces imperfect results-- -
All fermented liquids contain acids of different kinds
The action of some acids upon the essential oils is, it and in variable proportions, according as the acids are
is true, very energetic, but it is necessary that these the result of the fermentation, or are the product of
acids should be concentrated ; for example, sulphuric the fermentable materials. Thus, all grape wines will
acid resinifies and carbonizes them; hydrochloric acid furnish tartaric acid, and sometimes carbonic and acetic
dissolves them ; nitric acid also dissolves them and con- acids; cider, Perry, the wines of cherries and gooseber-
verts them into a substance very nearly approaching the . ries, yield mnlic acid; the wines of molasses, beete,
resinous state, if it is diluted with water in proper pro- grains, potatoes, etc., generally yield acetic acid, al-
portions; if i t is concentrated i t causes them to burst though these substances do not contain i t ; this acid is
into flame. It is necessary, then, that on the one hand formed spontaneously during the vinous fermentation,
the acid should be concentrated, and on the other, the and i t may also be the result of a fermentation more or
essential oil should be brought in contact with i t i n a less acidified. These last wines may also contain lactic
state of purity. But what can be expected of these acid as the product of a vicious fermentation.
reagents when they are dissolved in a great quantity of Like the essential oils, the acids require for their va-
water and the essential oil itself is in a state of minute porization a higher temperature than is necessary for
division ? water; the result is, that whenever it is desirable to pre-
Chlorine and the chlorides mnsk the odor of essential serse the aroma of a spirit, the acids are also retained,
oils for a time, but do not remove it, and the liquids and vice versa.
which have been treated by them, when exposed for The presence of acids in liquids which it is desired
some time to the air, or when kept in store casks not to subject to rectification, and particularly acetic acid,
only resume their original odor, but it i s increased by facilitates their combination with alcohol, and gives
the emanations of chlorine, which render them unfit for rise to different ethereal principles endowed with very
the manufacture of brandy and liquors. great volatility. These principles, as soon as the liquids
It is proper to conclude, then, from what has just been
said, that rectification conducted with care and intelli-

are heated, pass off, a t first, in a gaseous state, next pose instead of lime, but the latter is much cheaper, and
they mingle with the first products and bring along with answers exactly the same purpose.
them a certain quantity of essential oil, especially in When the liquid has been properly neutralized, as'-
- potato and beet spirit. We see then that acetic acid
not only destroys a portion of the alcohol during the
shown by the use of litmus paper, the rectification is
proceeded with, without drawing off the clear liquor, as
vinous fermentation, but that also, by its presence in the the lime does not interfere with the distillation.
spirits, it proves very injurious to the .quantity of the The separation of products resulting from the rectifi-
mass unless i t is saturated by an dlmli, especially lime. cation, is the first condition of the qualityof the spirits.
Action of Heat. -The excessive action of heat on This operation requires great skill in tasting, and much
liquids which are subjected to distillation by the open care, for the products which pass over a t the beginning,
fire has'been known for a long time, and its influence and a t the end of the rectification, are strongly sapid
on the flavor of the spirits has been well understood and odorous, while those which pass over durlng the
by distillers. Indeed, these liquids contain mucilagi- middle of the operation, are more or less free from
nous substances which attach themselves to the bottom taste and smell. M. Ch. Derosne was the first to point
or sides of the boiler which receive the heat directly out this important fact, and for a long time it was con-
and are decomposed, thus producing acetic acid and an sidered a great secret by the rectifiers.
acrid empyrenmatic oil; so the peculiar taste of the It would be very difficult to indicate the moment
still is generally known by the name of empyreuma; when the liquid should be separated, that is to say, when
independently of this taste the heat when pushed ac- the pure product should be collected ; this is regulated
tively causes the essential oils to pass over. We may by the nature of the spirits rectified ; some may be pure
well conceive that rectilication should be employed to twenty or thirty minutes after they have attained the
deprive the alcohol of the products of this decomposi- desired degree, and some others run pure only an hour or
tion, for the prevention of which the process of distilling hour and a half', sometimes even more, after they have
by the water bath and by steam has been adopted. attained the required degree. It is necessary to taste the
. Now that we know the causes which produce the product frequently, taking care to dilute i t with water,
offensive flavor, i t becomes our duty to indicate the means, or to pour a few drops into the hands, and after striking
by the aid of which, we may diminish or remove it. the hands together quickly to see if, by the odor, the
These means resolve themselves into the saturation of alcohol is accepinble or not ; these two means may be
the acids, and separating the producl (fractionnement clee applied simultaneously. The separation is, as we have
produits). seen, a delicate operation, requiring a certain amount of
T h e saturation of the acids is effected by caustic lime, skill.
in the proportion of fifty grammes to the hectolitre of
spirits to be rectified, having first mixed i t with a suffi- Xanagement and progress of Bectification.
cient quantity of water to make i t of the consistency of Rectificat.ion by means of the apparatus described a t
cream. This proportion of lime is not absolute. I t may page 75, Figs. I 9nd 2, PI. V., is conducted as follows :-
be increased or diminished as the liquid is more or less The still A is filled four-fifths full with spirit, of less
acid ; nevertheless this is about the quantity that has than 50°. The condenser E and the cooler (;3 are filled
succeeded best in our hands in the rectification of nlco- with water ; then the cocks I and V are examined to see
hol from beets. that they are closed. Everything being thus arranged, -
Soda and potash may be employed for the same pur- *

steam is turned on carefully, so as to heat the liquid of the apparatus of Derosne, and we m a y be excused
gradually, in order that the operation may be slow, but from repeating it.
continuous. The alcoholic vapor soon rises above the Care should be taken during the progress of the recti-
- first plates a of the first section of the column B B B,
and passes entirely through the latter, and by way of
fication to keep up a constant supply of fresh water in
the cooler, so that the liquor may always flow quite cold,
without, however, reducing the temperature so low as to
the cap C and the pipe D into the condenser E. Imme- interrupt the operation, which will certainly happen if
diately on reaching the Zentila, ddl, thisvapor is condensed,
and returned upon the upper plates of the column B the cap of the cooler is not kept moderately warm;
through the return pipes f and f' and g and gl,where because, in that case, the cold water, by reason of its
it is volatilized and constantly recharged with alcohol, weight being greater than the warm water, will immedi-
to be ag&n recondensed until the water in the conden- ately pass through the latter into the condenser, and will
ser is sufficiently heated to permit the lighter alcoholic then rapidly condense the alcoholic vapors, which, instead
vapor to pass into the convolutions of the horizontal of passing into the cooler, will return to the column by
coil c c c without being reduced to the liquid form. the return pipes.
As soon as the water in the condenser E is sufficiently The operation is complete when the liquor which flows
warm, the vapor passes by the pipe P i n t o the cooler Q, through the proof vessel marks not more than 3 O or 4 O ;
where it is converted into a liquid as it comes over. but it is better to suspend the operation as soon as the
This is the point a t which the closest attention should be heavy phlegm (backings or feints) indicates lo0, because
paid to the heating, because i t may happen that the va- the product which then passes over is highly charged
por, by heating too abundantly, may not be entirely con- with essential oils, and is not worth the time spent in
densed, and may pass off in a gaseous state, or may flow saving it. Moreover, this last product, by reason of its
off as hot liquid. nature, adheres strongly to the surface of the plates and
The first product of the distillation always contains the coils, and renders the cleaning much more difficult.
the ethei-eal principles which are generally the least The apparatus should be cleansed as soon as the ope-
abundant ; that which follows is more or less pure; then ration is finished, so as to take advantage of the Lot
follows, in due course, well-flavored alcohol; and last, water in the condenser. For this purpose the stopcock
the product containing the essential oils, which, in some Q is opened to draw off the water contained in the
substances, are quite abundant. Each product should boiler A ; then the cock J of the pipe K is opened to
be separated and set aside, so that those which are most empty the hot water from the condenser on to the plates,
to remove the essential oils which remain in them. The
contaminated with impurities shall not be mixed with
those which are least so. It must be remarked that well- condenser and boiler being empty, the cocks J and Q are
flavored alcohol can be obtained only when the strength closed, and the. plate U is removed ; then by means of
is kept between 9 2 O and 9 6 O . a pipe, the water in the cooler (7 is entirely emptied
Generally, the liquid must be heated for two or three into the boiler A, so that the steam coil m a y be covered
hours before the first flow of the rectification, because to the depth of 18 or 20 centimeters. When this has
the distillation is effected within the apparatus, and by been done, the screw plate U i s returned to its place and
means of the return pipes which return the heavier por- secured, and a strong heat applied. Ebullition soon be-
tions to the twenty plates of the column to be purified gins, and the steam which escapes from the boiler in
great abundance, carries with it all the essential oils ad- -
and recharged anew. The importance of this return of
the spirits has been sufficiently demonstrated in speaking hering to the different parts of the apparatus. After
The last products of the rectification, that is to say,
fifteen or twenty minutes, when i t is perceived that the the feints or backings should, on account of the large
steam no longer has any taste, the heat is cut off, and quantity of essential oil they contain, be made the object
the apparatus left to cool gradually, in order to avoid of a special rectification. The alcohol obtained from them,
cracking the soldered joints by cooling too quickly. it matters not what care has been taken with the opera,-
The application of steam as a means of heating in tion, still retains a very unpleasant odor, of which it
rectification is without contradiction the best of all, but can only be deprived by many rectifications:
if the operation is conducted over the open fire, care , We have often been asked what is the proportion of
must be taken not to allow the naked bottom of the still well-flavored alcohol that can be obtained from nsuccessful
to be exposed to the fire when the waste liquor is drawn rectification. This question is very difficult to be answered.
off from?the boiler ; it must never be entirely emptied, but The proportion is very variable ; it is dependent on the
must remain covered by at least ten centimeters of liquid, nature of the liquor to be rectified, on the method of
The bad-flavored spirits resulting from rectificatiolz extracting the saccharine matter, and on the manner of
may be rectified anew by adding to them nearly an equal distilling, The quantity of well-flavored alcohol ob-
quantity of water, so that they may be a t 40 or 50 de- tained will be in inverse proportion to the quantity of
grees Cent.; this addition of water is indispensable to essential oils contained -in the liquor.
set the essential oils free, and it is for this reason that The loss by rectification is usually estimated at five
we said above that alcohol should never be rectified at a per cent. of. pure alcohol.
higher degree than 50". It must be observed that the capacity of the rectifying
This method may a t first glance appear to be contrary apparatus has a very great influence on the production
to the principles we have laid down, in saying that the of troissix of good flavor (&on go&). Small apparatuses
more nearly alcohol approaches a state of purity the mill not furnish the salve quantity in proportion ; they
more readily it is deprived of its essential oils and acids, , are always more difficult to manage, and the stream of
in view of the low temperature a t which it is vaporized. Bow has not the regularity which characterizes the large
But i t must also be observed that alcohol, having a strong apparatus. It is certain that the more extensive the ap-
affinity for essential oils, when it is concentrated, dis- paratus the better will be the quality and the larger the
solves them in large proportions, and forms with them quantity of the trois-six obtained.
an intimate union.
It is in this manner that the aromatic spirits and es- Purification of (Backings) PKegm (Spirits of bad. taste, from Beets,
sences, of which me shall speak hereafter, which con- Potatoes, Gram, &c.). By EX. Orthn.
tain a large quantity of different essential oils, pass over The first process is founded on the oxidation of the
by distillation entirely without change of character, 'substances infecting the alcohol, by means of hypochlor-
while; if they be diluted with two or three times their ous acid, which renders the offending substance highly
volume of water before being rectified, the alcohol, which volatile, and facilitates its separation fkom the alcohol by
has greaker affinity for the water than it has for the es- distillation.
sential oils, will separate from the latter to unite with For ten hectolitres of alcohol, l s t , dissolve one kilo-
the water, and the essential oils will be set free. The gramme of chlorate of potash in a sufficient quantity of
liquid, then, which resillts from this rectification will be boiling water, and add this solution to the alcohol, stir-
almost entirely free from the essential oils which will be ring it thoroughly; 2d, three and a half kilogrammes -
found in the boiler of the rectifying apparatus, collected of commercial hydrochloric acid are added and well
together on the surface of the fluid contained therein.
mixture of alcohol and water, obtained by distilling fer-
mixed. After digesting 24 houfs, during which it is mented liquids, and which contains in addition certain
occasionally stirred, it is distilled in the usual may; foreign substances that are peculiar to these liquids, such
managing the fire so that the alcoholic vapors shall be as acetic, and hydrocyanic acids, a volatile oil, and espe-
at a higher temperature than 45O Cent., when they cinlly a coloring matter which i t extracts from the casks
reach the cooler. The product is purified alcohol. The 1 in which it is stored.
dose varies with the amount of impurities contained in 1 The distillation of brandies, unlike that of alcohol (or
the alcohol. spirits heretofore described), is so conducted as to pre-
In the second process, for ten hectolitres of badly serve in the spirits the aroma which distinguishes them,
flavored alcohol, - dissolve 1.6 kilogramme of bichro- and which constitutes their peculiar merit. This operac
mate of otash in five litres of hot water ; this solution tion should be effected on the principles hitherto set
is mixetf with the alcohol, which has been previously . forth, and by means of the apparatus of Derosne or
diluted with four hectolitres of water ; after being well Egrot, or by a simple apparatus, as is done in many
stirred, 1.9 kilogramme of sulphuric acid at 660j diluted places; but in the last case the product must be redis-
with 1.3 kilogramme of water, is added. They are mixed , tilled, in order that it may have the proper degree of
by prolonged stirring. After being digested for several alcoholic strength.
days, and the liquid from being yellow has changed
to green, five hectolitres of water are added, and it is Brandies from Wine.
distilled in some good apparatus. The separated pro- The quality of brandies is dependent on many cir-
duct of this rectification is purified alcohol. The pro- cumstances, especially the maturity of the grapes, the
portion mill be diminished on account of the removal of perfection of the expressed juice; the care given to
the infecting substances. ' managing the vinification; on the conduct of the distilla-
The bichromate of potash, under the influence of the tion of the wine, which should be observed carefully to
sulphuric acid, parts with one-half of its oxygen, and prevent the extractive matter from being burnt during
producesi the sesquioxide of chromium; the free and the operation ;on the intimate union of the volatile prin-
nascent oxygen unites with the amylic alcohol, pro- ciples with the alcohol during the distillation ; on the
ducing valerlanic acid, which is much less volatile than aroma of the wine which has been more or less retained
alcohol, and does not pass over during the rectification. in the product of distillation, &c. &c.
The quality of brandies depends,, too, on the age of
the wines; on their variet-y and state -of preservation ;
for all wines are not equally suited to the manufacture
. ,
of good brandies. Old wines yield a much better article
CHAPTER VIII. than the new. The product of sweet wines is excellent.
Spoiled (turned) wines produce brandy of very in-
DISTILLATION OF BRANDIES. I ferior quality, White wines are preferable to red wines
for distillation, because, as a general rule, they yield
SPIRXT, the density of which varies between 40° and better brandy than the latter. This results from their not
60°, is generally called brandy (eau de vie) ; but this having been vatted on the skins .and stalks of the grape.
name is most usually applied to the product of the dis- They contain a much smaller proportion of the essen- -
tillation of wine, although we do say (in France) grain
brandy, cider brandy, &c. Brandy is, therefore, only a

t i d oils which are found in the husk of the seed, and are Champagne, canton of Blanzac, 1 6 kilometers from
which dissolve in the must under the influence of the AngoulGme ; the country of Cognac ; that of Jarnac
alcohol generated during the fermentation. on the right bank of Charente, 1 2 kilometers from
Cognac ; Rouillac, 22 kilometers northwest of Angou-
- It is remarked that, as a general rule, the wines
which produce the best brandies ; those of Oharentes, 16me, and 20 kilometers northeast of Cognac ; Aigre,
for example, are more or less inferior as table wines, 21 kilometers from Ruffec. A11 the brandies of this
and are quite difficult of preservation. They are called department, and those of some cantons of Charente-h-
Pins cle Chaudid~e. ferieure are known to the trade as. Cognacs, and parti-
Wines that have the taste of the soil communicate it cipate more or less in the qualities of those we have
to the brandy extracted from them. This is the reason cited. Generally all of these brandies are noted for a
that the wines of Seyssel and Dauphin6 yield a brandy purity of flavor and delicacy of perfume which is af-
having the odor and flavor of the Florentine iris, while tempted to be imitated in vain.
those of Saint Peray yield a brandy with the odor of Champagne brandies are divided into two sorts, or
violets, and we observe the taste of brimstone in the two different qualities; the first is known asJine C7~arn-
wines of C6te-Retie, that of slate in the wines of Mo. pcrgne, and the second as country brandy (des bois) ; the
srlle, that of amber in the wines of Holstein, &c. latter not so highly prized.
When brandy has just been made it is colorless. If it Next to the Cognacs, the brandies of SaintJean-
is immediately bottled, as is done with Kirchenwasser, d'AngeZy are most highly esteemed. Their softness and
i t will never acquire any color; but as i t is usual to purity of taste often cause them to be confounded with
preserve i t in oak hogsheads, i t attacks and dissolves a the former,
certain quantity of coloring and extractive matter from The brandies of. Chareute-Inferieure are known un-
the wood, and then acquires a reddish-yellow tint. der the name of Cbgnacs of Saintonge and of Aunia.
Brandy should be very clear, very white when new; They have much less reputation and quality than those
a light amber tint if three or four years old, arid very of Charente, because of n certain taste of the soil which
yellow if it is very old. It ought to be agreeable to the is peculiar to them, and because of their wanting in
taste, 'or at least should be free from empyreumatic and delicacy. T h e brandies of Xurge^res, iNauzt5, and BmheZZe
foreign flavors. are different varieties from this department, T h e first
Brandies are greatly improved by age. They lose a are most esteemed.
little of their alcohol when kept in barrels; but their The brandies of the two Charentes, as made, weigh
elements combine more intimately ; they lose the slight usually from 60" to 68O, but they are delivered to the
taste of the still, which the most carefully prepared trade only at from 58O to 60° ; the medium, aged and old
brandies retain for some time, and they become a t last brandies are put on the market at from 49O to 59O (Cen-
more oily and more potable. tesimal). All of them are put up i n very neat and
Brandies are easily preserved, as temperature exercises well-hooped barrels. The cash (barriques) contain from
no influence on their quality. T o prevent evaporation, 300 to 350 litres ; the vessels of less capacity are called
they should be carefully sealed; for i t costs a good quarters.
deal to keep brandies, especially when they are new. The brandies of Marrnande are manufactured in the
T4e brandies most esteemed are those of the depart- department of Lot-et-Garonne. Although quite fine,
they have a n earthy taste, which reduces them to the
ment of Charente ; and the cantons which yield the best
rank of common brandies.
expense, together with the profit which an advantageous
Among the common brandies, those of Armagnac hold sale will produce. In this calculation he should take
. the first place ; they are distinguished by a taste of the into consideration the value he would receive, if his
soil, which is quite pleasant and improves very much
- by age. They are manufactured in the departments of
Gers, of Upper and Lower Pyrenees, as well as in the
money had been put at interest. It is rare that five
years in succession pass without there being a scarcity
of brandy which causes the prices to advance consider-
Eastern Pyrenees ; they are sent to market gauged at ably, thus giving the dealer who has a stock on hand a
50°, in tolerably well-constructed tierces of very thick profit far above his expenses and the interest on his
wood, which contain 400 litres or more. money.
The brandies of Montpellier are the most common
. and lea;& sought after. They have a very feeble bou- (Marc Brandy) Brandy from the Grape Pomace (Marc de raisin).
quet, and but little delicacy. They are put on the mnr-
ket in casks ; their alcoholic strength varies from 50 to All vinegrowing countries produce marc brandy.
60 degrees. Lnnguedoc, especially, furnishes it in great quantity,
There are few vine-growing countries that do not pro- converted into spirit of mine, or trois-six, which is di-
duce brandy. The departments which produce the luted or reduced to make the marc brandy. Burgundy,
most, after those already named, are, Ardhhe, Aude, Champagne, and Lorraine distil a good deal, and the
Bouches-du-Rhone, Dordogne, Gard, Haute-Garonne, production of these countries is always insufficient for
Herault, Landes, Loir-et-Cher, Loire-Infdrieure, &c. their own-consumption.
T h e name of proof is given to the different degrees The marc of the grape, notwithstanding the care that
of potable brandies ; thus, the preuve de HoZZande:+or- may be taken in pressing it, always contains a certain
responds to 19 degrees Cartier, or to 50° centesimal. A quantity of wine, and consequently alcohol. I n the
liquor of this degree, when agitated in a glass vid, south there remains in the marc a certain portion of
produces small bubbles, which will remain for a while; sugar that has escaped the vinous fermentation, which is
this happens neither for a higher nor a lower degree of always incomplGte, and of which the most energetic
strength. pressure cannot deprive it. This sugar, being decom-
The brandy trade is subject to great vicissitudes, on posed, will still further increase the volume of spirits.
which the price of the commodity depends. These Usually the process for 'obtaining marc brandy is
vicissitudes induce very uncertain speculations, which very objectionable ;the following is the method pursued
may result in heavy profit or as serious loss to the ope- in vine-growing countries :-
rator. It is also subject to the chances caused by a good The marc, on leaving the press, is borne to a deep pit
or bad wine crop. These circumstances will soon be dug in the earth; sometimes plastered with clay, in
learned by a tradesman who follows his business.with which i t is packed and pressed as it is brought. When
any skill. His prudence will teach him to lay in his the pit is full, it is covered with straw, vine leaves,
stock during those years when brandies are at a mode- and twigs, over which is thrown a thick bed of earth
rate price ;but as brandy in store is the occasion of much to prevent contact with the air. The whole is left to
expense, it is necessary to know how to calculate this ferment for about six weeks.
When it is thought that the fermentation is com-
* Brandy is now regarded o f g o o d quality and proper standard pleted, they commence to distil the marc. For this
when, after being violently shaken in a vial n o t quite full, it makes 8 purpose the boiler of a simple still, having a grating on .
bead, that i s t o say, forms a circle of small bubbles which arrange them- .
selves against the inner-wall of the vessel on the surface of tbe liqnid.
This is what i s called preuz9e de Boltunde, or Dutch Standard.
divided the product into three parts; the first consti-
the bottom, is filled to about three-fourths with the marc, tuting all the spirits drawn off u p to the period when I
then a sufficient quantity of water is poured in to pre- ascertained that the admixture of a small quantity of
water caused i t to become a little milky ; I changed the
- vent the marc from burning in the still. I t is then
closed by luting, and heat applied. The first product of receiver, and that which came over, until it became
necessary to increase the heat sufficiently to cause the
this operation is very weak, and must be rectified or re-
distilled to produce potable brandy a t 50 degrees. liquor to Bow in a continuous thread, constituted my
T h e marc, thus submitted to a sort of dry ferment* second product. After having continued the heat in or-
tion, evolves an amount of heat sufficient to decompose der to draw off all the alcohol contained i n the liquor, I
i t promptly, and cause i t partly to putrefy if care is not obtained for my third product only a thick milky liquid.
taken to,be assured from time to time whether the fer- "I took the first product, and after repeated distilla-
mentation is completed. tions with gentle heat, I obtained a n alcohol almost free
A preferable method, which is adopted by some pro- from the odor of marc brandy. I conceived the hope,
prietors, consists of mixing the marc in a vat with tepid that on repeating the rectification I might obtain a
water a t 25 to 30 degrees, to cause a new fermentation spirit absolutely free from this bad taste, but I tried in
from which is drawn a light wine called p i p e t t e , and vain through three other operations ; my alcohol has not
which is distilled separately. T h e marc is then distilled the most agreeable flavor, and I think i t altogether irn-
with a small quantity of water. possible to free i t from a principle so tenacious.
T h e better process for distilling the marc,in our opinion, " I redistilled the second product many times with a

consists in fermenting i t with a small q u a n t i t . ~

of tepid gentle heat, so as to draw off one nearly three-fburths of
water in a hermetically closed vat, then to draw off the a tolerably pure alcohol, and the rest highly charged with
liquid and use i t to fill the still, the steam from which oil. Finally, on rectifying the third product, I obtained
might be utilized for distilling the marc in a cylindrical one-third of alcohol like the foregoing ; I then added the
apparatus of very simple construction. By this means last fourth of the second product to the remaining two-
would be obtained a t the first jet a bramdy at from 50 to thirds, thus highly charged with oil. I n subjecting this
55 degrees free from empyreuma, and infinitely superior to a new distillation the first portion obtained was
t o that obtained by any other process now in use. scarcely troubled on being mixed with water, an evident
Brandy from the marc has a very disagreeable odor, sign that i t contained very little oil. T h e second, which
and always retains a n acid and penetrating taste which I permitted to run so long as it was limpid, contained a ,
i t is very difficult to remove. This insupportable taste much greater quantity of oil, the presence of which was
is due to the preseuce of an essential oil, which, accord- easily detected by pouring the spirit into water, when it
ing to M. Aubergier, exists already formed in the skin was immediately clouded. Here I changed the receiver
of the grape, and which is not developed in the course and continued the distillation, but at the end of the ope-
of and by the distillation, as has hitherto been thought. ration I only obtained a milky liquor, having on its
This chemist, on rectifying some marc brandy in a water surface a thin stratum of oil, notwithstanding, this last
bath, with a very gentle heat at the beginnine of the product was a t twenty-three degrees by the areometer of
operation, and regulated so as to obtain a spirlt a t 36 Baum6.
degrees Cartier, perceived t h a t t h e first portion of alc* Finally, on re-uniting this last product to the second
hol was partly free from the acid principle which strongly and adding enough water to reduce the mixture to fifteen .
impregnated the brandy he rectified. degrees of Baum6, the liquor became at once very
" I undertook," said he, '' to repeat the operation, and
" I obtained nearly 32 grammes of this oil from 150
opaque, and was, a quarter of an hour afterwards, co- litres of brandy.
vered with quite a considerable quantity of oil, which I " Its aromatic odor sui generis caused me to think that
collected with the greatest care. I t appears to me that it was not, like empyreumntic oil, the product of distil-
this oil is entirely volatile, since after more than ten dis- lation, as has been believed up to the present time, but
tillations it has not left the least trace of its presence in rather a volatile oil peculiar to the grape, and which
the residuum remaining in the water bath. I may also must have its place in'one of its parts.
remark, that this residuum having been subjected to very I then distilled all of the parts of the grape one
violent ebullition, was impregnated with neither the after the other and separately.
taste nor odor which characterize marc brandy. " The seeds diluted mith alcohol yielded quite a trans-
'' This oily principle has all the properties of the essen- parent liquor, having the very agreeable flavor of the
tial oils f its peculiar aroma, the acrid and insupportable almond. This same almond flavor is also reproduced by
taste which is also peculiar, prevents its being confbunded s distillation of grape seed mith simple water. It is
with any of its kind, and authorizes me to give it the not, then, the seed which imparts to marc brandy the
name of voZatiZe oil of the grape. The following are its unpleasant flavor which characterizes it.. The stems,
chemical properties :- when distilled, only produce a very slightly alcoholic
" 1. It is very limpid and without color a t the mo- liquor.
ment of its separation from the alcohol ; but light causes "But the skin or envelope of the grape, when sepa-
it in a short time to assume a light lemon tint. rated from the seed and the berry, and alone subjected
"2. Its odor is penetrating, its taste is very acrid to fermentation and distillation, yields a brandy alto-
and insupportable ; both the odor and taste are peculiar gether like that from the marc. Therefore, I repeat,
to it. the disagreeable taste of those brandies does not come
'' 3. It is very fluid. from an empyreumatic oil which is the product of dis-
'<4. It burns with a blue flame, diffusing in the air tillation; it is not due to acetic ether; nor yet,-is it the
the odor of marc brandy. effect of an oil contained in the seed, as has been pub-
" 5, When subjected to distillation the first portions lished for many years. Its true cause is a volatile oily
which are volatilized preserve the aroma, but the pro- substance, contained only in the skin of the grape, hav-
duct acquires an empyreumatic odor, which causes me ing a taste and odor so acrid and penetrating that a
to suspect that i t may contain a small quantity of fixed single drop is sufficient to infect ten litres of the best
oil derived from the seed. The liquor contained in the brandy, and hence, I conclude that the brandies of Cog-
retort very soon acquires st lemon color which deepens nac and Andaye are superior to others,' because they
during the operation, and leaves a very light but incon- alone are obtained from the distillation of white wine,
siderable carbonized residuum, which induces me to be- which, not being fermented on the grape, is not charged
lieve that this volatile oil is somewhat less light than with this oil, which is the product of the skin alone."
others. M. Aubergier has also made many very interesting
" 6. It dissolves in one thousand parts of water, im- experiments in regard to the vinification and purification
parting to it both its odor and taste. of brandies from wine and marc. He draws the follow-
"7 . It dissolves sulphur when in a state of ebullition, ing conclusions from his experiments :- z
and deposits it when cold. 1. There exists a volatile oil of the grape.
'' 8. Binally i t forms soaps with the alkalies. 2. This oil exists .._only in the envelope of the grape.
agent which does not yield so great a degree of heat, the
3. It is this oil, improperly called empyreurnatic, that steam of water, for example, which does not exceed a
infects the marc brandies. .temperature of 100°, it is to be presumed that this heat
4. On fermenting the must, separate from the pulp, being sufficient to vaporize the alcohol which is volatilized
the, skin, and the seeds, in hogsheads having no other at 78", cannot develop either the empyreumatic or peculiar
opening than that necessary for the escape of the car- oils of M. Aubergier, or tke acetic ether of Mr. Higgins.
bonic acid, a wine will be obtained, the distillation of M. Villard then determined to heat the substances to
which will yield the largest results in brandy of the best be distilled by driving through them a current of steam,
quality. which, by rapidly penetrating the strata of marc, as it
5. Two kinds of brandy may be obtained from this were molecule by molecule, might disengage the alcohol
same marc. That obtained by mashing will be equal in without permitting, at the same time, the formation of
quality to the wine brandy, and the other will be no essential oils or acetic ether.
worse than ordinary marc brandy. He has succeeded, not that he pretends to have entirely
6. If magnesia is macerated with marc brandy from removed the taste which is peculiar to marc brandy, but
which a greater portion of the essential oil has been his productions have neither the coppery taete, the green-
already removed, it will be completely purified. ish tint, nor the flavor of still, which is so remarkable i n

r Distilling Apparatus of X.Villard, of Lyons.

M. Villard, of Lyons, has two kinds of apparatus
others, and which constitute a great part, if not the whole
of the disagreeable flavor that affects this kind of spirits.
~ o u b t l e &the
, idea of continuous distillation by Bteam
is not new, for many manufacturers employed
specially intended for distilling the marc of grapes and
other solid or semi-fluid substances which contain alco- it; for a long time i t has been public property. But
inventors, whose principal object was the manufacture
hol. These apparatus will yield products far superior of trois-six, only occupied themselves with producing, by
to those obtained from the common still. Indeed, until a continuous process, steam more or less saturated with
the invention of M. Villard became lrnown, s peculiar alcohol, which, on leaving their receiver, was directed
coppery taste, and a greenish tint, were the inseparable into the apparatus where the separation of the vapors
characteristics of marc brandy. This disagreeable flavor mas effected by the aid of coolers, more or less ingeni-
might have been called the taste of the still. Some ous, but always metallic.
savants, among others M. Aubergier, attributed this to In 1847, M. Villard conceived the altogether novel
an empyreumatic oil, or to a volatile oil, derived especially idea of bringing into service, as a condenser, the sub-
from the skin of the grape. These hypotheses were stance under treatment.
powerless to explain the coppery taste and the greenish Alcohol is vaporized a t 7g0, and water only at 100°.
tint which indicated the presence of copper. The ex- If under the ordinary pressure of the atmosphere we
periments made by Mr. Higgins, of Jamaica, upon mo- direct into the bottom of the mass, a current of steam
lasses, which, when heated by the common methods, which very readily unites with alcohol, it is clear that
gives this empyreumatic taste, persuaded M. Villard that the mass, when heated to 7B0, mill disengage its alcohol
it was due to the solution of copper in the acetic ether, alone, until it has attained 100°. When this maximum
which, according to this chemist, is produced by the distil- temperature is reached, it will evolve the steam of
lation of substances brought too directly in contact with water mixed with the alcohol that has not been driven -
a brisk fire, having a heat of 400" or 500". If the
off_at a lower temperature, either because of its more
vaporization of alcohol can be effected by means of an
and condenser, i t is absolutely necessary, in order to its
intimate union with the particles of the material under realization, to resort to its rational and methodical ar-
treatment, or because the temperature has been raised rangement by packing regularly, and forcing it against
too rapidly for it to escape.
- I t is proper, then, to heat the mass containing alcohol
rapidly up to 7g0, by the assistance of any medium
the walls of the containing vessel. It is in this that the
new invention, first conceived by M. Villard in 1847, con-
sists, and of which his apparatuses of the present day are
which may serve as a vehicle for the alcohol in quantity, at bottom a new but very much improved application.
may unite with it readily, and which may be separated The peculiar advantages presented by the apparatus
from it without difficulty ; then to retard the elevation of M. Villard will be so apparent to the educated and
of the temperature to 100°, as much as possible, or to practical distiller, that we consider it scarcely worth
reduce it below that degree, if i t should be unintentiou- while to ga into any lengthy discussion of the subject,
ally reached. We may, however, remark that, in theory, his apparatus
If the steam is driven into the more or less cold mass, rests on three essential principles :-
the problem will be solved, and all the distillable sL-----
~irit 1. Uniformity of pressure (one atmosphere).
will find its way into the coil, if the following precau- 2. A progressive difference in the specific gravity of
tions are taken, viz. :- the alcoholic vapors ; alcohol being lighter than phlegm,
1, T o effect the elevation of temperature slowly, pro- phlegm lighter than water ; the vapor of water being
gressively, and regularly, by making the refrigerant more heavier than the vapor of the other two pushing them
compact and compelling the heat to penetrate it, layer before it.
by lay<er,or rather, atom by atom, which will enable the 3. The difference between the degrees of heat neces-
substance most easily vaporizable to escape first. sary to the evaporation of alcohol and water.
2. T o maintain the temperature below 100 degrees The application of these principles leads to a distilla-
by an equally cold obstacle, which must be heated by it. tion by analysis, in which the substance treated plays
The marc of the grape is well adapted to perform this the of condenser.
office. A cold material, finely divided and penetrable, it The atmaratuses used by M. Villard are of two kinds.
may be compelled to take any desirable form or density. The firs; Lonsists,

Why m a y it not then serve for a purifyer and condenser 1. Of a steam generator of any convenient form.
as well as metallic substances? It is only necessary to 2. Of three distillatory vessels having movable covers
arrange it in closely packed layers, to heat it slowly, to facilitate the charge and discharge. They are con-
and to press it somewhat against the vessel containing nected by pipes furnished with stopcocks, to convey the
it so as to increase the adhesion and force the steam to vapor a t will from the upper part of one to the lower
follow a regular course of which the operator may be part of another.
certain; for two bodies of different densities, like metal 3. Of a cooling coil connected with an alcoholic pipe,
and marc, are never as completely united a t their points which is common- to the three vessels. (See Fig. 2,
of contact as two bodies of the same nature and the
same density, and an agent thrust between them by any
impelling force will support itself upon that which affords Des&ption of Apparatus (Fig. 2, P1. VI1.):-
the strongest resistance to force a passage through the 1. Distillatory vessels.for receiving the solia materials.
other, and find a way of escape. 2. Pipes of communication between the vessels, from .
It is, therefore, evident that if the idea is adopted of the topcof one to the bottom of the other.
employing the marc, or other solid substance, as a purifier
From the explanation just given, we may readily con-
3. Covers of the entire breadth of the vessels, and clude that there is much economy in this method of dis-
closed by screw clamps. tillation, since the phlegm, which in the common.appa-
- 4. Cocks attached to the pipes 2, and serving to direct
the alcoholic vapor a t will into the cooling coil, when
ratus, unprovided with a metallic rectifier, constitutes
about one-half of the whole product, is thus distilled with-
a t the commercial standard, or into the bottom of the out loss of time or fuel.
next vessel, if in the state of phlegm or low wines. The charging and discharging is managed very readily.
5. Alcohol pipe. This pipe, common to the distil- The second apparatus, which was constructed more
latory vessels, serves for conveying the spirituous vapors particularly with a view to the distillation of beets, de-
to the cooling coil. pends on the same principles; the condensalion, of fie
6. Discharge cocks f o r the distillatory vessels, for aZcohoZic vapors
- by the mate?-iaZto be treated. The means
drawing off the water resulting from condensation. only differ.
7. Alcooghe, or analyzing cylinder, the object of Instead of three vessels communicating with one an-
which is to prevent foreign substances from passing into other as in the former, the latter consists of a single
the coil with the spirits. column, but so arringed tha.t the charge is continually
8. Blake stand or coil cooler. made at the top and the discharge at the bottom, without
9. Cooling coil or worm. causing the least interruption to the distillation.
10. Steam generator (a tubular boiler). The pr0duct.i~ of a constant alcoholic degree, and, as
11. Steam box. we have said, the flow from the coil is. uninterrupted.
12. Safety valve.
13. Steam pipe, co~veyingthe steam from the boiler P1. VII.)
The following is a description
- of the apparatus. (Fig, 1,
to the distilling vessels. This steam is delivered into a 1. Distilling column.
box common to three other pipes, which conveys it to 2. Steam chamber.
each of the vessels. - 4 . Hurdles or baskets containing the marc, beets, or
14. Steam pipes connecting the secondary box with other solid matter.
each vessel. 5. Toothed rack for assisting in the removal of the
15. Carriage on which the apparatus is moved from hurdles.
place to place. 6. Feed pump for the steaa boiler.
The material to be distilled being methodically ar- 7. Steam boiler.
ranged in each vessel, in one or more layers of greater 9. Alcoog&nefor the same purpose as the correspond-
or less thickness according to its character, is heated by ing piece in the first apparatus.
steam from the boiler. The steam, by its ascensional 10. Flake stand and coil.
motion,. removes all the alcohol i t contains. 11. Carriage for transporting the apparatus.
The condensation and return of vapors, occurring as This apparatus presents decided advantages over the
the parts of the mass are penetrated, the more highly other, whenever large quantities of material are to be
spirituous vapor, being the most volatile, will be the heated.
first to escape into the cooling coil. Both are portable when of small dimensions (the
This method of distillation, then, is divided into two 1
illustrations are for the portable apparatus: modific*
stages- In the first all the good brandy, that is, the com- I
tions which a stationary apparatus would require will
mercial article, is obtained. I n the second the phlegm is
distilled through fresh materials, which condense it afresh,
but a t t h e same time it serves for heating the mass. I naturally
= suggest themselves), and at the present time

are fully sanctioned by experience ; a number of them Rough apples, that are bitter and harsh to the taste,
being in operation both in France and in other countries. yield a very dense, highly-colored juice, which ferments
Moreover, the numerous infringers of his patents, for n long time, and which produces a generous cider,
- which M. Villard has sued to conviction and damages
during the last few years, are the best evidence of the
susceptible of long preservation.
The early apples produce quite a pleasant, clear cider,
value of his apparatus. but of poor color and but slightly spirituous, and which
The price varies from 3000 to 20,000 francs, and the can hardly be preserved for a year.
minimum of production is never less than 5 hectolitres Finally, late apples of good varieties yield a generous
of s p i h of 50° or 55O Cent. cider, which may be kept a long time.
Although more especially intended for the distillation The fruit is harvested, says M. Girardin, in September,
of solid materials ; both of the apparatuses of M, Villard October, or November, according to its time of ripening,
may, with some slight modifications be adapted to the whether early, medium, or late. It is left in a pile for
distillation of liquids. a certain time, to finish ripening, and in order that it
may furnish a, more saccharine must. -The apples are
Cider Brandy. Apple Brandy. then crushed.
Cider is the fermented juice of apples, and is in some This operation is effected sometimes by means of a
countries a very common drink. vertical stone wheel moving in n circular trough by the
The manufacture of cider is as easy and more prompt power of -ahorse ; and sometimes by a small mill com-
than that of wine. Its quality is influenced by many posed of grooved cast-iron cylinders, surmounted by a
circumstances, of which the principal are : the variety, hopper. The pulp is submitted to the press three
the ripeness and crushing of the fruit, the fermentation several times, between layers of straw, or, better still,
of the must, &c. between sheets of hair-cloth. The juice from the first
The varieties of apples are very numerous, but it is pressure is what is called strong ckler; that from the -
not a matter of any importance to particularize them two last constitutes smallcider, It is very weak, because
further than to say that, for the manufacture of cider, the pulp has been twice mixed with a certain proportion
they may be divided into three classes. of water.
1. Acid (or sour) apples. The juice of apples consists of much water, a small
2. Sweet apples. quantity of sugar, a natural ferment, vegetable albumen,
3. Rough apples. a peculiar coloring matter, traces of pectic acid, gallic
These classes are further subdivided into : acid, the malates of potash and lime, a considerable pro-
1. Early apples. portion of mucilage, and free malic acid. When the
2. Late apples. seeds are crushed they communicate to the must a
Acid apples yield much clear juice, of little specific bitter principle and a little essential oil.
gravity, producing a cider without strength, of not The juice is poured into hogsheads with a large bung
very pleasant taste, and always liable to become turbid, having n capacity of 600 or 700 litres, where i t very
or as they say in Normandy, to kill itself. soon sets up the alcoholic fermentation, which continues
Sweet apples produce but little juice without the ad- for two or three months. When i t is finished, the clear
dition of water; furnish a clear and pleasant cider, so cider may be used as a drink. But if a more agreeable
long as it is sweet, but which becomes bitter and but cider is wanted, it should be drawn off into a clean .
little alcoholic when the fermentation is advanced. . vessel, one month after being expressed, and this should
Portable Apparatus for Continuous Distilling.
be continued month after month until it is finished.
For effervescing cider, it is left in the hogsheads only a The portable apparatus for continuous distillation is
altogether a recent invention of M. Egrot., yet i t is d-
- month when the clear liquid is drawn off and bottled.
Usually cider made in summer is potable for four to ready introduced on many farms in France and other
countries. Simple, light, and yielding products of good
six months ; that made-in autumn for six to ten months,
and that made during the winter, from ten to twenty quality, i t appears to be well adapted for use, particularly
months. The best ciders cannot be kept in good con- on small or medium-sized farms.' It should be highly
dition more than three or four years. prized in Normandy for distilling cider, and in the South
The districts in which cider brandy is more particu- for wine. It is sufficient to set up the apparatus near
larly manufactured are Normandy, first; then Picardy the shed in which the liquor to be distilled is stored, and
and Brittany. The distillation is conducted by the same then to pump the liquor through pipes of sufficient
methods and apparatus as for wines. length into it.
As with the alcoholic richness of wine and other drinks, This apparatus is no more than the stationary system
so does that of cider vary according to the season, the of the same inventor, so modified as to render it capable
ripeness and variety of fruit, &c. I t is by no means un- of being worked on a carriage, and thus become portable.
usual to obtain nine per cent. of pure alcohol from some M. Egrot affirms that i t adds the facility of transporta-
ciders, while there are others which yield only four or tion to the advantages presented by large distilleries,
four and a half per cent. since the distillation is promptly accomplished, and the
Ordinarily from seven to eight litres of pure alcohol exhaustion of the liquor is complete. It yields at the
are obtained from one hectolitre of old cider, or about first jet, brandy a t 50 degrees, and rectified alcohol at
fifteen litres of brandy at 50°. But these results may 90 degrees. Besides, i t is set up very easily so that i t
be greatly increased if the fermentation is conducted on may be p u t in operatioa immediately on its arrival a t a -

the principles we have set forth, and a certain propor- place. Finally, i t greatly economizes fuel. There is
tion of water added to the juice, so that i t shall not no necessity for enumerating the advantages which
mark higher t.han six degrees by BnumB's areometer ; small proprietors would derive from the use of a ma-
the fermentation will then be more active and more chine of this kind, which may serve many crops and can
complete. be transported from one farm to another in time or as
Cider brandy has a strong and disagreeable odor, due wanted. M. Egrot constructs portable distilleries of
partly to the presence of malic acid, which may be re- different sizes. The smallest, treating 30 hectolitres in
moved by rectification, but which consumers prefer. twenty-four hours, may be drawn by a single horse. The
Thus, in Lower Normandy, where the manufacture of larger apparatus requires for its transportation on a good
applesand pear brandies is still in its primitive state, the road one horse, but two horses are always sufficient, even
spirit they obtain is not at all comparable to that obtained where the roads are in bad conbition.
from wines, yet the Normans prefer it to the latter, and To enable the reader to understand more fully the
so strong is the power of habit, that they select that as
the best which has the most decidedly empyreulnatic the jake. Thus prodacing a poisonous cornpound of alcohol with
essential and empyreumatic oils, nauseous beyond measure, and
flavor.* fraught with disease and death to those who are s o unfortunate a s t o
have acquired a fancy for a drink so abominable. It is called pug,
* In many portions of the United States, particularly in the eaat- or pzdp 6ra?zdy.-T~a?zsIat0r.
ern counties of Virginia ,and the middle portions of North Carolina, % 15
distillers ferment and distil the pulp of the apple without expressing

arrangement of the machine, we offer the accompanying J . Pipe and cocks for the return of the spirits to the
illustration and description, rectifier.
E Z. Funnel and pipe to receive the wine and con-
. Fig. 3. vey it to the bottom of the cooler.
A B. Suction and force pumps to feed the reeervoir D,
C. Pipe to. convey the wine from the pump to the
reservoir D.
D. Reservoir or tank surmounting the apparatus and
to receive the wine.
F. Supporters for the reservoir.
d. Level pipe to the reservoir.
The distilling is conducted as follows :-
The liquor to be dist.illed, let it be wine, is raised to
the upper tank D by means of the pump B attached to
the frame of the carriage; the regulating cock of t h e
pipe E is opened, and all the parts of the apparatus are
filled except the boiler L, which has been previously
filled with water.
The regulating cock is then closed, and the fire lit
under the boiler. The steam which rises, passes first
over the first plate H,where it takes u p a certain quan-
tity of the vapor of alcohol ; by traversing the second
plate Xi it is enriched by a second dose of alcohol ;
finally, it is saturated in the third compartment. This
ing column =
vapor, highly charged with alcohol, reaches the rectify-
where it is freed from n greater portion
of its water and its essential oils ; thence it is conveyed
by .the goose-neck I into the coil of the cooler Q; the
upper portion of which acts as a rectifier. The alcoholic
vapors which have found their way mixed with the
steam into the cooler, return to the rectifying column by
the pipe J , The vapors which are not condensed in the
upper part of the cooler are condensed as they descend
and escape in the form of brandy or alcohol as the re-
. turn cocks may be closed or open.
L. Copper boiler surrounded by a sheet iron furnace. A t this moment the regulating cock is opened. The
M, R: Distilling plates.
Rectifying column.
I. Goose-neck for conducting the alcoholic vapor from
liquor contained in the reservoir entering a t the bottom
of the cooler, raises the wine already heated by contact
with the worm, and causes it to flow into the pipe which
the rectifying column to the wine-heater G. leads to the upper section of the still; there it is subjected
G. Cooler and wine-heater combined.
litv, which i t renders stronger and better, as is well un-
to the action of the steam rising from the boiler, which derstood by wine dealers ; frequently, small retailers
deprives i t of a portion of its alcohol ; i t loses the balance even sell pure perry iLs white wine.
- of its alcohol in traversing the two other sections; it
finally falls into the boiler as spent liquor, and by its ebul-
lition furnishes more steam for continuing the distill*
Pear brandy is obtained in the same way as cider
brandy, and possesses the same characteristics. The nl-
coholic results, as in a11 other drinks, cannot be positively
tion, and so on. The exhausted liquor escapes from the estimated, this depends on the -good or bad quality of
boiler in a continuous stream through a waste pipe in the pears, whether they are carefully handled or not,
form of a siphon. the temperature, &c. Nevertheless, we may say t h a t it
To terminate the operation, water is pumped into the is quite common to obtain 15 or 18 per cent. of brandy
upper reservoir, This water forces before it all the wine at 50 degrees from perry.
which the apparatus contains, and when the proof bottle
no longer indicates the presence of alcohol all the stop- Brandy from Beer.
cocks are closed, thc fire is extinguished, and the ma- . Beer is produced by the fermentation of barley and a
chine left in this condition until the work is resumed, decoction of hops; like all other fermented liquors, it
or if this is to be postponed for a long time, or the ma- contains more or less alcohol, and will yield a brandy of
chine has to be removed to some other place, i t will be pretty fair -quality when i t is itself of a good quality,
necessary t o empty i t - entirely of water.* and when the distillation is effected by steam, but which
still preserves a peculiar odor and taste due to the liops.
Pear Brandy. Generally the quality is bad, as only spoiled beer is
Perry is a drink prepared from pears just as cider is distilled; good potable beer will always command s
from apples, and between which, too, there is much higher price than the brandy it will yield. The distil-
analogy. The action of perry on the nervous system is lation too is always conducted over the naked fire, and
thought to be injurious. It is less nutritious and more proper precautions are not taken to prevent the slimy
irritating than cider. I t is very heady when old, and and mucilr~ginouaelements of t h e beer from being burned
promptly intoxicates those who are addicted to its habi- to the still, which, by adding a detestable empyreun~atic
tual use. flavor to the acid taste of the spoiled beer, must cause
Pears yield nearly fifty per cent. more juice than ap- the product to be bad.
ples, and the juice is far more saccharine; perry, also, When beer is distilled the operation should be con-
contains more alcohol than cider. Perry of the best ducted in the same manner as for wine:
quality is very like the white wines of Anjou, Sologne, There are many other fermented liquors which will
and Gaxinais. When bottled, after being well prepared, yield alcohol by distillation, as IhydromeZ, &c., but the in-
it becomes en ti rely wiue-like. W h e n i t is effervescent, ferior quality of the spirit produced, and the expense
it often resembles the light wines of Champagne. .It is attending the use of many of these substances have
well suited for mixing with white wines of inferior qua- induced distillers t o pass them by for those in more
general use, and the profit from which is less proble-
* There is an apple and cider mill manufactured by Messrs. H. matical.
M. Smith & Co., of Richmond, Va., which rednces the apples to a
very fine pulp in a very short time, and delivers them directly into a Rum.
frame or slatted box, over which is placed a screw to act as a press. The names r2cm and ta$a are applied to a spirit obt.ained.
Those who have tested this machine by its practical application speak
of it in the highest terms. I c may be driven by hand or horse from the distillation of a fermented liquor prepared from
New leather tanned and rasped . 2 kilogrammes.
the molasses of sugar cane. This spirit is of excellent
quality, and is very much sought after when it is old.
Oak bark crushed .
.. 500 grammes.
15 LL

Rum comes to us from America, principally from the

Antilles ; Martinique and Guadnloupe furnish it in large
New tar
Molasses spirit . . . 15
100 litres,

quantities of verj- good quality. Infuse the whole for fifteen days, then draw off the
True Jamaica rum was formerly made from the juice clear liquid and complete the color with caramel.
of the violet cane, which gave i t a peculiar aroma, and Another method consists in infusing the other ingre-
ta& was the product of the distillation of molasses; dients in a @mallquantity of the -spirits, and using the
now both of these liquors are obtained from the distil- tar in a different manner. It is as follows :-
lation af molasses, only the article sold as rum is the shavings of tanned leather , 4 kilogrammes.
spirit of molasses carefully prepared, while that sold as
tafia has less perfume and is of inferior quality. Orangepeel
Black truffles , 1
. 20 grammes.

Rum is shipped from the colonies in iron-bound oak

barrels containing 225 or 425 litres : its alcoholic
Alcohol from molasses at 85O 10 litres.
Digest a t least fifteen days before using this prepara,
strength is commonly from 51 to 55 degrees Centigrade. tion, and only add enough of i t to the rum to perfume
I t is much used in Prance and England, where it is con- it properly, then introduce into the cask destined to con-
sidered as a preservative against cholera, tain the rum the smoke from a wisp of straw impreg-
This distillation of rum like all the operablons accom- nated with tar ;now close the bung in order to allow the
panying it, is conducted in the same way as that fbr the vapor time to condense on the surface of the cask, then
distillation of alcohol from molasses, only by preference fill i t with the prepared rum. This, when old, acquires
rt special apparatus (see page 76) is used in order to
a flavor very analogous to that of Jamaica. It is well
retain in the rum the characteristic taste which causes to add a small quantity of caramel to give the usual
it to be .so highly prized by gourmets. The first product amber tint.
is never of sufficient degree ; it is necessary, then, t o re- Prunes are used even during the fermentation ;they
distil it. are steeped in hot water, and after being crushed, are
Like all other spirits, rum when it is first distilled thrown into the fermenting vat. The proportions are
is white and transparent; in order to give it the yel- very variable, but generally 10 kilogrammes of prunes
lowish amber tint by which it is known in the trade are added for every 100 kilogrammes of molasses : that
and to increase the peculiar taste usually met with in of the hot water is also indefinite.
it, variable proportions of prunes, shavings of leather, By reason of the facility with which rum may be
cloves, tar, etc., are infused in a part of the liquor: the mixed with spirit of wine, it is rarely met with unless
desired color is generally completed by the addition of so mixed, especially in the hands of a dealer. This
the necessary quantity of caramel. The proportions of ' fraud is difficult of detection; there are a few dealers
the ingredients just named constitute what are called in in spirits who can detect it, and they are frequently
the rum factories sauces. They differ in different fac- deceived.
tories, and from this results the various kinds of rum,
which connoisseurs esteem more or less for their peculiar Kirschenwasser or Kirsch. (Cherry Brandy.)
bouquet. The following is the recipe for one of these
sauces :- In Germany, the spirit distilled from the fermented . .
juice of a variety of wild cherry, is called Kirschenww-
the whole, marc and liquid, into the Turk's-head still,
ser (cherry water), which is contracted into Ri?-sch. A- and distil over a naked fire. This process, as me see,
great quantity is produced in the Black Forest,, froln is very defective, and can only result in a product of
which the best kirsch of Germany and Switzerland . very bad taste, and is highly injurious to the animal
comes. economy ; because, on one hand, the cherries, being left
I n France, the distillation of kirsch is confined almost to ferment in vats, or hogsheads usually on end, open at
exclusively to Franche-Comt6, that is, to a small portion the top, and but seldom, or imperfectly covered, become
of the departments of Haute-Saone, Vosges, and Donbs. acid, and often mouldy on the top. On the other hand,
The centre of this trade is at Fougerolles (Hau te-Saone), the distillation of a semi-fluid substance over a naked
where there are many commission agencies of import- fire, produces an empyreumatic flavor, which the crushed
ance, both French and foreign. seeds are intended to conceal, however, without entire
The cherries generally employed for making leirsch success.
are a species of wild cherry, the fruit of which is very The best process - for obtaining kirsch of good quality
black when thoroughly ripe, and with a long red stem, is the following :-
and a very large seed in proportion to the fruit. They The cherries, when ripe, are plucked singly by hand,
are collected in July and August. If possible, a fLir only the ripest being gathered; in this state they only
day is selected ; because it is well understood tha.t kirsch are taken that will separate easily from the stems, which
from cherries gathered in bright weather is far better are left attached to the tree. Those that are rotten or
than that obtained from fruit gathered during a damp damaged should be rejected. As soon as a sufficient
spell. quantity of fruit is gathered to justify operations to
Generally, the method of manufacturing kirsch is be commenced, it is crushed by the hands, or a wooden
very objectionable. When the cherries are ripe enough rubber, on a wicker basket or trough, supported by a
to be readily plucked by hand, one by one, as is indis- frame resting on a tub. The juice falls into the vessel,
pensable to avoid unripe fruit, the peasants thrash the while the skins and seeds remain in the basket. The
trees with long poles, while the children @her the seeds, being separated from the skins, are thrown into
fruit ss i t falls and throw i t into open hogsheads. One may the liquid, and the whole transferred to a fermenting
well see that in this mass there will be some cherries in- vat; i t is carefully covered, and permitted to ferment in
sufficiently ripe, and some that are rotten ; yet there is some place having the proper temperature. T h e must
no separation, and the whole are mashed together, either commonly marks six or seven degrees Baum6, and the
with the hands or a small wooden block on a wicker fermentation, which lasts about four or five days, is
strainer, resting on two pieces of timber, placed on the effected without artificial ferment. When the fermenta-
top of the fermenting vats, which receive the expressed tion is finished, the clear liquid is drawn off and .dis-
juice; they then pound the marc with a view to tilled, with all the necessary precautions, by the aid of
crushing the seeds, and throw it into the expressed. steam.
juice, in order that, during the vinous fermentation, it A11 spirits from nut fruits, may be prepared in the
may impart the agreeable taste which is characteristic same manner, especially that from prunes, which pos-
of kirsch, and which causes it to be so much sought sesses much analogy to kirsch, and is often confounded
after. with it.
When the fermentation is finished, which requires Well prepared kirsch has a peculiar flavor, which is
from fifteen to thirty days, according to the capacity of not empyreumatic, but which is derived from the seeds;
the vats and the temperature of the weather, they throw
Seeds of apricots
Seeds of cherries
. 3 kilogrammes.
. .., 150
it is not acrid; the odor is due to t h e presence of n
small quantity of hydrocyanic (prussic) acid, contained Dried peach leaves
Myrrh .
. . 625 grammes.
in the cherry stones. For a long time, i t was thought
that the stones ought to be broken, t o produce in kirsch
Good flavored ~lcah& a t 850. 62 litres. 66

its characteristic odor and taste; but i t has been ascer- Bruise the seeds and digest the whole together in a
tained that this is altogether superfluous, and that the water bath in a simple still for 24 hours; at the mo-
seeds communicate to kirsch identically the same per- ment of beginning the distillation, add 30 litrea of water,
fume, whether broken or not. lute on the top, light the fire,.and draw off 60 litres of a
The alcoholic product from 100 kilogrammes of cher- good product, to which should be added 40 .litres of
ries is usually seven or eight litres of kirsch a t 51° or 55O, water to reduce it to 50°, and thus form 100 litres of
or about fsom three and six-tenths litres to four and four- fhctitious kirsch. By adding 15 grammea of sugar to
tenths litres of pure alcohol. the litre, the taste will be softened and the sharpness of
The larger proportion of kirsch made in Franche- the liquor destroyed. The peach leaves may be replaced
Comt6, is sent to market very soon after its distillation ; by 315 grammes o r t h e dried flowers.
it is then at 53O C. When intended to be kept, i t is put Since the advance in the price of spirits, a great many
up jn glass vessels, demijohns, bottles, or flasks, etc. kirsch distillers mix alcohol from the beet or gram
During the first year, the vessels are closed with some with the cherry wine. The mixture being perfect, the
substance that will permit a slight evaporation, by which alcohol takes up the excess of perfume, which would
the acrid principles are volatilized, and a very pleasant have remained in the liquor, and, in consequence of its
liquor is left in the vessel, which is now closely corked addition, the quantity of kirsch is greatly increased.
to be kept, Qin. Geneva.
When glass vessels are lacking, it is put up in small
casks or kegs made of ash, which have the advantage of . Gin is nothing but grain spirit aromatized with juni-
not imparting any color to their liquid contents. I n the per berries. It is not the result of the distillation of
country they are in the habit of placing kirsch, during these berries crushed and fermented with water. This
the first year, in rooms where a gentle temperature spirit, then, is prepared in the same manner as whiskey,
favors evaporation. We may remark, in passing, that and the only object of adding the juniper is to cover
colored kirsch is seldom made, it being more highly the unpleasant taste which usually characterizes this
prized when limpid and transparent. Age, as for all liquor. The proportion of berries used is extremely
other spirits, greatly improves its quality. variable; it depends on the nature of the spirits and
Frequently, kirsch is met with in the market mixed the wishes of the distiller; but, as a general rule, one
with pure brandy, or alcohol from apricot seeds, reduced kilogramme of berries is sufficient for the proper aroma-
t o 51°;- sometimes alcohol, reduced and perfumed with tization of one hectolitre of whiskey.
the essence of bitter almonds, is added to i t ; but all The juniper berries, coarsely ground or simply crushed,
these frauds. produce a kirsch of inferior quality, which are added to the product which is about to be distilled,
is easily recognized by the taste. or placed in a sack and suspended in the still, or, what
There is, however, a preparation which imitates kirsch is better yet, on a receiver arranged for the purpose,
so perfectly, that when mixed with the latter, it is very through which all the alcoholic vapors rising from the
difficult of recognition. It is as follows :- still are compelled to paes.
Digest these ingredients for at least twelve hours in
Holland enjoys a large trade in the esportation of its a water bath, add 45 litres of water when ready to dis-
gin. Its home consumption, which is considerable, con- til, close the apparatus, and distil off 95 litres of per-
sists of a gin at 45 to 4 9 centesinlal degrees. ,The large fumed spirit. Continue the operation until all the
- factories of this product are at Scheidam (Schnaps).
This town contains more than two hundred gin distilleries.
In Sweden and Norway, a sort of gin is prepared by
phlegm is drawn off, and set i t aside for another ope-
The green color is given by the following process :-
simply digesting the juniper berries for some days in
spirits at 50 or 55 degrees. This process is very objec-
Small absinthe, dried aud picked .
Hyssop (tops and flowers), .
.1 kilogr.
1 "
tionable, because i t comm'unicates to the liquor a very
disagreeable sharpness. I t is preferable to employ the
Lemon balm, dried and. picked . .500 "
Perfumed spirits, from the preceding operation, 4 0 litres.
process depcribed hereafter, which consists in distilling Divide or cut up the small absinthe, reduce the hyssop
the berries after sufficient maceration with alcohol at 85 and balm to a powder i n s mortar, put the whole into
or 90 degrees, and to reduce the product of the opera- a water-bath with the perfumed spirits, lute imme-
tion to 49 degrees. diately, then heat gently. so as to produce a very mode-
The gin, which is consumed in the North of France
and Belgium, is often nothing more than whislrey from rate and gradual heat, and, so soon as the hand cannot
be placed on the cap, withdraw the fire quickly from *
rye and barley, or rather from potatoes and barley, and
the taste which characterizes it is that of grain. This beneath the apparatus, in order to prevent the liquid
gin has an odor which is by no means agreeable, and far from being distilled. Allow i t to cool entirely before
from being delicate, yet i t is very much preferred b y withdrawing the still from the water-bath, then pass the
those who like this kind of spirits. colored liquor through a hair cloth to drain the plants;
add this product to the 55 litres of perfumed spirits that
are reserved, and reduce to 74 degrees by adding five
litres of water, which will bring the quantity up to 100
Absinthe of Xontpellier.
, Large absinthe dried . . 2& kilogrammes.
SWISSabsinthe a t the present time constitutes the Green anise
Florentine fennel
. 6 Lt

, 4
object of considerable trade and a special man uf'acture. Coriander . 1

Portarlier, Montpellier, and Lyons, are cities in which

i t is manufactured in very great quantities. We shall
Angelica seed
Alcohol at 85O .
. .. 6'
500 grammes.
95 litres.'
describe- the article as produced in each locality, as-
suming that the quantity of Swiss absinthe to be made Distil as in the preceding case. The color is made
is one hectolitre. also in the same way with the following ingredients :
Dried hyssop, (herb and flowers), 750 grammes.
Absinthe of Portarlier. Dried balm of Mol.davia . . 750 &<

Larger absinthe, dried and ground, 2 kilogrs., 500 grms. Sma.11 absinthe .. .- . 1 kilogr:
Green anise
Alcohol at 8g0
... 5 "
5 "
95 litres.

Absinthe of Lyons. Balm

. . 3 kilogrammes.
. Large absinthe,. dried
. 3 kilogrammes.
Less absinthe
Hyssop . .
6 bL
Green anise . 5%
- Fennel
Angelica seed
.. ..4 -

500 grammes.
Treat as the last.

Alcohol at 85O .
96 litres. Absinthe of Himes. (For 600 Litres.)
Great absinthe .
22& kilogrammes.
Dried and selected lemon balm .
1 kilogramme.
Green anise
Fennel . 22%
Small absinthe dried. 1
. Coriander . &L
Hyssop tops and flowers dried
Dried veronica
500 gmmmes.
500 L& Roots of the blaLk alder
.. : 2%
14 &C
Angelica root 14
Alcohol at 85O 570 litres.
Absinthe of Fongerollea. (For 600 Litres.)
Green anise ... .45 kilogrammes.
Water .
Treat as above.
300 "

Fennel .25

. bL @b ion-ng.
Larger absinthe
Alcohol at 85O
. . 16
570 litres.
Less absinthe
Hyssop .
5 kilogrammes.
Balm 1%
Digest for a t least twelve hours with the alcohol in s
Veronica . 29 dd

proper apparatus. add the water at the time of distil-

ling, draw off 570 litres. of perfumed spirits. When Mint .
Treat as before.
. 24 Lb

this quantity has been obtained continue the distillation

until dl the phlegm has been distilled off and set aside It is always optional to diminish or increase the
for another operation. quantities of the ingredients in the foregoing recipes
according to the taste of the manufacturer, or the price
Coloring. of the irticle he wishes to produce ; but this fact must
erno or; balm . .. . . 4% kilogrammes.
Hyssop .
Lesser absinthe . 4
3% LL
be borne in.mind, that it is only age that will give to
absinthe that softness so much prized by consumers.
Veronica . - 4 LL' Remmks.-The greatest pains should be taken in the
selectidn of the materials, especially the plants intended
Treat as for that first described and reduce the mixed for the coloring; these should be very green and dry,
spirits to 74O by the addition of enough water to bring and free from black and mouldy leaves. The seeds
the quantity up to 600 litres. should be powdered in a mortar, and the great absinthe
Absinthe of Bescmcon; (For 600 Litre.)
picked over and ground.

T h e distillation of absinthe should be effected in a.
Great absinthe .. , 24. kilogrammes.

Green anise , 30 6L Turk's-head still, in a water-bath, or, what i g better, by
Fenpel 40 LL d a m , in order that the essential oils may rise with
Coriander . . . - 4 bL mdre facility, especially towards the close of the oper*
Alcoho.1 at 85O

570 litres.
300 *L
tion ; because the phlegm is .another opera-
I :

To be treated as above.
anise, a t the same time adding something to the flavor; ,
tion, in which it is most useful, by adding to the per- the hyssop fulfils the same end, while i t yields a beauti-
fume through the large proportiom of essential oils it ful green color, which the balm increases still more.
con tains. Finally, the lesser absinthe, by its slightly yellowish
T h e coloring is of the highest importance. The tinge, modifies the excessive brilliancy of the green color,
plants are finely divided, or reduced to powder, and while its slight bitterness and aroma, added to those of
covered with perfumed spirits ; then heated gently, in . the great absinthe, impart to this liquor the character-
order to extract the chlorophylle o r coloring principle. istics peculiar to a well-made product.
After cooling, the colored spirit is drawn off clear, and the Absinthe is considered as being of good quality when,
plants are drained. They may still, after this operation, on being diluted with water, i t becomes white, and ex-
serve for coloring a smaller quantity of absinthe. They hibits the colors of the opal, which is due to the essential
are then subjected to distillation, to collect and save the oils from the seeds, and the resinous and coloring mat-
snlall quantity of alcohol still adhering to them. ters of the plants, which, under these circunistances,
I n the large factories, the extract of absinthe is are set at liberty, and form, with water, the milky com-
colored in tinned copper vessels, con taining about tmen ty pound so highly prized. In this state, i t should be
hectolitres-they are called colorers. These vessels, pleasant, agreeable, odorous, and sweetish. Sharpness
hermetically closed, are heated to 60 degrees by means and tastelessness are always signs of a recent 'manufac-
of steam. ture.
T h e coloring^ may be made in the cold way, but the Absinthes of inferior quality are often met with in the
operation requires many days, and a large quantity of market. Some are manufactured without distillation,
plants, which considerably increase the acridity of ab- essences being used to replace the seeds and plants;
sinthe. some are distilled with trois-six from beets, &c., which
When the coloring and perfumed spirit, held in re- leaves much t o be desired in flavor; some are prepared
serve, have been mixed, the alcoholic strength is tested with old or damaged materials, while, finally, there
and reduced to 74O, although absinthe is never sold are others which, after the distillation have had added
above 72O; but, by rest and time, there is always some to them aromatic resins, such as be'nzoin, guaiacum, &c.,
loss which must be provided against. in order to increase the opalescence.
T h e green color of absinthe becomes yellowish by gge,
and then has a dead-leaf tinge. T h e green tint may White Absinthe.
be preserved by adding, after the mixture, fifteen
grammes of aZzcrn, dissolved in a glass of water; but Oreater absinthe, selected .. 2 : kilogrs., 750 grms.
1 kilogr, 125 &'
consumers generally prefer the yellow tint. By age, Less absinthe .

absinthe improves in quality, by losing its sharp and Hyssop flowers . 1

" 100 "
empyreumatic taste, which is communicated by the dis- Veronica . 550 grammes
Genepi . 550 "
til lation and coloring. Roman. chamomile . 226 "-
I t is to be remarked that i t is not the great variety
of substances introduced into the manufacture that con-
Green anise . 5
.. 5 kilogrs., 250 grms.
" 250
Fennel 'L

stitutes the great merit of absinthe, but rather the ra- Coriander . . 1 kiiogr.
tional combination of a small number having peculikr Angelica seeds . . 550 grms.
virtues : thus, the anise serves to produce the whiteness ; Alcohol at 85O . . 96 litres.
the fennel corrects the piquant and sugary taste of the 16
the colorer, or to the store-room, or to draw the finished
Conduit the maceration and distilling in the same liquor from the colorer, and deliver i t in the store-room.
way as for green absinthe; then rectify the product, P.Pipe for drawing off the colored product.
and reduce to 74O. 0.Force or delivery pipe.
The abuse of absinthe, even diluted with water, is P, Three-way cock, which directs liquids a t pleasure
- most deleterious to the animal economy. Taken pure, it
occasions serious disorders of the stomach and brain. I t
into the still or the colorer.
P I . Pipe delivering the liquid into the colorer.
is not to the alcohol alone that these injurious effects P I 1 . Pipe to convey the liquor into th'e still.
are to be attributed, but more especially to the large R. Cock and pipe for delivering the manufactured
quantity of essential oils of anise and fennel which it product into the store-room.
contains. S. Funnel and pipe to convey the distilled product to
1 the tank.
Apparatne for Xanafacturing Absinthe and Perfnmed Spirits. T. Main steam-pipe connected with steam boiler.
Steam-cock for the kettle of the still.
This apparatus, P1. VIII., consists of the following T? Steam-cock for the colorer.
parts :- Banagernent of the Apparatus.-The principal advan-
A. Kettle inclosed in a wooden jacket, acting as a tages of this apparatus are its great simplicity and the
water bath inclosing another kettJe, which contains the small number of pieces constituting it. One pump, by
alcohol and herbs to be distilled. its multiplicity of uses, is sufficient for three different
B. Top or cover of the boiler (still). transfers of liquid.
C. Opening closed by a plug for charging the still. 1. I t fills the boiler of the still A with alcohol and
C1. Opening like the above for discharging the plants water.
after distillation. 2. It fills the colorer F with the distilled product
D. Cap of the still fastened on by a circular collar, which flows into the tank by the funnel and pipe S.
and terminating in a neck which conducts the alcoholic 3. I t draws the liquid from the colorer & to send it
vapors to the cooling coil. to the store cisterns by the pipe R.
E. .Cooler with its coil. The apparatus is set in operation as follows :-
El, Discharge pipe of the condensing coil. Having filled the tank L with water and alcohol in
E: Colorer, furnished like the still, with plugs through - the proper proportions, and having placed in the boiler
which to fill and empty it. of the still t.hrough the upper opening the plants neces-
G. Pump firmly fastened to the wall by the collars G1. aary to the manufacture of the absinthe, the cock PP1
Piston rod. is opened, and the pump set to work; the boiler A is
I. Eccentric for driving the pump. immediately filled from the contents of the tank L.
J . Pulley on which a band runs to connect with the When the tank is empty, the motion of the pump is
power. stopped and the cock P is closed. The steam is turned
K Bearings for pulley shaft. on by opening the cock and the product soon begins to
L. Tank, or well of metal, sunk in the floor. flow from the lower extremity of the condensing coil,
M. Suction pipe, falls into S, and again fills the tank L; but now it is
P.Suction pipe connected with colorer. spirits perfumed by the plants that were placed in the
N. Three-way cock, attached to the suction pipe to stilt The liquid is white, and possesses already a great .
draw any liquid from the tank to deliver it in the still, in
1. To require that all liquor distillers who manusacture
part of the properties peculiar to the liquor. I t must absinthe, or any other spirituous liquors, should have
now be colored. For this operation the pump performs some knowledge of chemistry and botany, should be of
its second office, by drawing up the liquid and sending good character, and be possessed of .organs of taste and
- it to the colorer F, which has been previously packed
with the coloring plants in quantity proportioned to the
smell accurate enough to be of use in estimating the
quality of the materials passing through their hands.
perfumed spirit to be poured over them. The perfumed 2. That a certificate or diploma as a distiller should
spirit is drawn from the tank L. by the pump, and is be conferred on him only after his having proved, by a
t-ransferred through the cock P a n d the pipe P1into the satisfactory official examination, that he is possessed of
colorer. Finally, after this operation, which finishes the a competent knowledge of the theoretical principles of
manufacture of absinthe, the pump fulfils its third office the trade he wishes to pursue.
by drawing the colored product contained in F through 3. Finally, that he should serve for at least one year
the pipe N1, and- transfers it through cock and pipe R as an apprentice, in order that he may, on entering into
into the tanks or barrels .intended for its reception. the business, add also practical knowledge to the theoreti-
cal which he should possess. By following this plan, we
Causes of the Pernicious Effects of Absinthe. would have good and true distillers. While a t the pre-
This so-called Swiss absinthe has attracted public at- sent time a large proportion of the young men, who set
tention for some time, and much credit is due to the up in this business, have very little knowledge, they
writers of many scientific and medical essays, for indi- very often leave trades having little or no connection with
cating with so much persevering energy the abuses of distilling, and at the end of a few months' rtpprentice-
this product, a horrible curse which is killing the youth ship, sometimes under a man more ignorant than them-
of our colleges, decimating the army, and will cause the selves, they present themselves as master workmen a t
fatal debasement of the rising generation. the distillery or the brewery. Why, then, should it be
I n order to increase the sale of t.his truly horrible cause for astonishment if badly manufactured products
beverage, the idea has been invented of mixing i t with of distillation enter into our daily consumption?
syrups of gum, so called, and which most generally do We cannot close this article without giving some sd-
not contain a particle of gum, and which, on account of vice on the distillation of absinthe.
the vile method of the manufacture, only bring in their The plants should be picked over, as only the tops are
train an increase of the evil. distilled, and the flow phlegm should never be pushed to
Of course these evils are not to be attributed to first- the end of the distillation. It may be objected that the
class houses, who only sell for coi~sumptionperfectly liquor will be less penetrating, and will have less bou-
distilled absinthes that are free from all adulterations. quet; we answer, so much the better for the consumer.
We have no intention, by what has just been said, to They may rejoin that the price will be much higher:
advise the use of this liquor, however well i t may be we reply, what is the difference? it will sell all the
made, but to set forth the fact that, in many localities, better for that. *

sufficient care is not taken in the selection of the plants, We cannot omit to recommend the use of calarnus
and in conducting the distillation. This results from n~onzaticug,and angelica root in the .proportion of 125
the fact that most persons who undertake this work are gramlnes to the hundred litres of the product, with balm,
ignorant of tbe first principles of distillation. So much hyssop, and the small absinthe for the coloring, which
is this the case, that, if allowed to express an opinion on should always be made hot.
so serious a question, we should advise the authorities-
the proportion of alcohol contained in a mixture of
But why are absin thes so bad in Paris ? I t is because pure water and spirit, and describe some of the instru-
the greater proportion of absinthes sold are not distilled, ments necessary to the solution of this problem.
but made from essences, which, as is well known are
- highly charged with empyreumatic essential oils. Now,
if the proportion of these essences is too great., as is
almost always the case, they are not completely dis-
Thermometers are philosophical instruments made use
of to determine the temperature of the atmosphere and
solved, and the absinthe so manufactured, after being of different substances with which they may be brought
swallowed, leaves an acrid taste, and a lasting and pain- in contact. These instruments are graduated glass
ful sense of heat and discomfort in the mouth, throat. tubes hermetically closed, which contain a certain quan-
stomach, and even in the urinary organs in persons whd tity of mercury or alcohol. The construction of the
use i t habituallv. thermometer depends on the property common to all
In conclkion, absinthe, as a medicine, like most other substances by which they expand under the influence of
plants, has some useful properties ; but as a favorite and heat, and contract under the influence of cold.
daily drink it has its dangers and becomes very often The thermometers used i n France are Reaztmur'a and
fatal. But it is certain that if this liquor was always the Centigrade. The latter is the official thermometer,
of good quality and properly prepared, it would not play and is coming more and more into use. I n Germany,
such sad havoc, and would spare many useful men to England, and the United States Fah.renheit7athermometer
the country. is used.
I n order to compare two thermometers one with the
other, it is necessary to have two fixed and invariable
points of reference ; the temperature of melting ice has
been chosen for one, that of water in a state of ebulli-
CHAPTER X. tion a t the level of the sea for the other; - --
these two terms are the same everywhere, and are easily
SPIRITUO~S liquors, known in commerce as brandy, The three thermometers named have not the same
whiskey, spirits, etc., as we have already said, are mix- divisions, but 'are as follows :-
tures of alcohol and water in variable proportions. Their Reaumur, the freezing of water 0°, boiling water 80° . ,

. marketable value generally depends on the actual quan- Centigrade, LC LC 00,

O .
CC 100°
tity of alcohol which each of them contains. Fahrenheit, CC Cc 32O, cc cc 212"
. AZwhoZometry is the determination of the alcoholic
strength of spirituous liquors, that is to say, the valuation I n Russia, the thermometer of DeZisle is used; the
of the proportions of water and pure alcohol that a mix- scale is the reverse of the above; the boiling point of
ture of these two liquids may contain. This is effected by water is zero, and the freezing point is marked 150°.
the combined use of a thermometer and an areometer. As Mercurial thermometers cannot be constructed to in-
for the valuation of the proportion of pure alcohol con- dicate a temperature, above 350°, beesuse that liquid
tained in a wine, or any liquid whatever, it is made by boils a t this temperature, nor below 34O below zero, be-
the assistance of small test stills. Before examining the cause when so near its freezing point its rates of ex-
latter, we shall first explain the method of determining pansion and contraction are irregular. *' -

T h e distiller has frequent use for the thermometer in

the various operations we have described. When the
instrument is to be used, i t is sufficientto suspend i t for a
while in the air or the liquid the temperature of which is converting tAe Degrees of the Centigrade Therrnontete~to
- to be tested. T h e fluid in the instrument will soon stand
at a fixed point, thus indicating on the scale attached the
Degrees of' that of Reaumur, and vice-versa.

temperature sought for. It is proper to remark that

mercury acquires the temperature of a liquid much
more readily than that of air, so that it is necessary
to wait a longer time when testing the temperature of
the atmosphere than is required for liquids. Mercurial
thermomdters are t o be preferred to those filled with
alcohol on account of their greater accuracy and the
promptness with which they react under changes of
As each may have his own fancy as to the thermome-
ter he may prefer to use, we have thought i t advisable
to subjoin the following tables, showing the relations be-
tween those in use among d i a r e n t people in various
for converting Degrees of Centigrade Themnometer to
Uegrees of Pahrenheit.

for converting Degrees of the Fahrenheit m e m o m e t e r to
Degrees of Centigrade.

Hydrometer, Alcoholometer, Areometer.

The areometer is an instrument whose construction
depends on the philosophical principle that any body
floating in a liquid displaces a volume of that liquid
equal in weight to its own, from which it appears, on
applying this principle to the instrument in question,
it will sink deeper in a liquid of little specific gravity,
and not so deep in a denser liquid or one of greater
specific gravity. -
There are two inst.ruments al3ke in conformation, but
differing only in the character of the liquids to which
they are applicable, and bearing special names, i n d i c s ~
tive of the special liquids for the testing of which
they are intended : one used for liquids heavier than
pure water, as concentrated acids, saline solutions,
syrups, must, either natural or artificial, &c., called
acidimeter saccizarorneter, &c. ; the other, .*hich is em-
ployed for ascertaining the density of liquids lighter
than wa.ter, as wines, spirits, alcohols, ethers; &c., is
called aZcoholometer, &c. A single areometer, with a .

stem long enough, might answer for d l cases; but the Centeaimsl Alcoholometer of Gay Lnsssc.
inconvenxence iuseparable from too long a stem, more Gay Lussac, in 1824, invented a n instrument resem-
than counterbalances its advantages. T h e areometers bling the ordinary areometer in form, to which he gave
in general use, consist of a graduated glass tube, with the name centesimaZ alcoholom eter. When this instru-
an elongated bulb, containing a weight a t the inferior ment is plunged into a spirituous liquid, a t the tempera-
extremity ; they are, however, sometimes made of metal. ture of fifteen degrees, i t a t once indicates the strength;
I t must be observed that the degrees given by the that is, the real volume of pure alcohol which i t contains.
areometer are only-true when the liquid under examina- His scale is divided into 100 parts or degrees, of which
tion is a t the same temperature as the instrument when each represents a hundredth of anhydrous alcohol. T h e
it was graduated. mark zero (0°) corresponds to pure water, and t h a t for
One other point to he observed, is that the trce level 100° to absolute alcohol. The instrument is graduated
which is to be considered, is the ideal extension of the at a temperature of 15O in spirits supposed to be of the
surface of the liquid under esamination, and not the same temperature ; if, for example, the alcoholometer of
point marked on the stem by the summit of the curve Gay Lussac sinks to the division 50°, i t indicates that
caused by the capillarity of the stem of the instrunlent. the strength of the spirit is fifty hundredths; i n other
The areometer of Baurn6 is generall.7- the only one words, that it consists of equal volumes of pure alcohol
used for liquids heavier than water. We shall speak and water. In a liquor in which it floats a t 90°, i t will
of i t more fully under the subject of syrups, and may indicate a strength of ninety hundredths. The degrees
dispense with any further notice of i t here. of the alcoholometer indicating, as they do, the hun-
The densimeter is designed to replace the areometer of dredths of alcohol, are called centesimaZ degrees.
B a u d ; i t is the only one sanctioned by the adminstra- Thus, according to the principles on which the cente-
tion of the assize for use in sugnr refineries and distil- simal alcoholometer is graduated, the strength of a spiri-
leries. This instrument, placed In n liquid, indicates its tuous liquid is the numberbf hundredths (in volume)
density; that is to say, its weight In kilogrammes for a of pure alcohol which this liquid contains a t 15O Centi-
litre of the liquid. grade; from which it follows, that the real quantity of
For example : for a liquid, the density of which mill alcohol contained in ;t liquor, can always be ascertained
be double that of water, the weight of the litre being readily and immediately, by multiplying the number
two kilogrammes, one kilogramme of this liquid would which expresses the volume of the liquid by the number
only occupy the volume of half a litre; consequently, indicating its strength ; which is seen by the greater or
the indication by the densimeter would be 2. less immersion of the instrument in the liquor. Let us
The difference between the indications by the densi- suppose, for example, a cask of 345 litrea of brandy, the
meter in saccharine liquids and syrups, will be propor- strength of which is 58 centesimal degrees, at the tem-
. tional to the quantity per cent. in sugar or saccharine perature of ljO Centigrade, that is to say, 58 per cent.
matter contained in the syrup, and as many kilogrammes of pure alcohol.
of sugar should be counted in the hundred kilogrammes
of syrup as there are degrees above 100.
The following result : 345
58 -
There are a number of alcoholometers ; those of Baum6,
of Cartier, and of Gay Lussac, are the principal. The
last is the simplest, in some respects, and will be more
particularly described.
The areometer of Cartier being still used in some cities
will indicate that the cask contains 200.10 litres of pure in the south and middle of France, we have thought it
alcohol. -
best to exhibit its relation to the centesimal dcoholome-
If the fipirituous liquor should not be at the tempera- ter, in connection with the tables indicating the true
ture of 15O Centigrade, it should be brought to this alcoholic strength of liquids.
- degree by heating it with the hand, or cooling i t by
placing the test glass in cold water; but it will be always
more convenient in practice, to use the annexed table
for ascertaining the actual strength of liquors a t any given
Explanation of the Use of the Table Indicating the Actual Strength
of Spirituous Liquors at any Given Temperature.
The centesimal alcoholometer, on which is based the
collection of taxes, was graduated, as we have said, at
the temperature of 15" Centigrade (12" Reaumer, 59"
Fahrenheit). If the exueriment be conducted a t a
higher temperature, the density of the liquid being di-
minished by expansion, the alcoholometer will sink
deeper, and will indicate a greater degree of streng!h
than a t the legal temperature of 15". The oppos~te
will happen if the experi.ment be tried a t a lower de-
gree ; it- is, therefore, important, in the event that we
cannot select or regulate the temperature. that we should
be able to ascertlain the true &oholic'degree of spiri-
tuous liquors to serve as a basis, either for the collec-
tion of duties, or to govern commercial transactions.
The following table supplies the means. It consists of
two parts. T h e first indicates what are called degrees of
mZd; that is, those which are below 15", and the second
the degrees of hazt, or those which are kbove 15" up to
the temperature 30° of the Centigrade thermometer.
The first column indicates the degree marked on the
centesimal alcoholometer when plunged in to a spirituous
liquor, the following columns indicate its true degree
for the temperature at the head of each column. Thus
when the alcoholometer sinks to 4g0, and the thermome-
ter plunged into the same liquid indicates a temperature
of So, we see that t h e true degree is 51.6. The same
degree, if we make the experiment at st temperature of
24O with the same thermometer, would be only 45.6.
TABLE6ldicaling the Actual Stre~~gtk
of Spiriluous Liquors.




mmm+r( ,-I+COO ooooo m m c n m m w ~ r - r - b

b *&
r -+
r -&
~ -LD
- <
d.ded&w o j o A c j c 6 +&cd&cd
ouamuaua u a w w w w w v w P w w& &b
- S &fA- &
TABLEindicalit~gIhe Actual Strenglh of Spirituous Liquors. u



- 1
' 19

T A Rindicating the Actual Slrength of Spirituous Liquors.
v f - w ~ ~ 0 4 m - o + mw r - - w m o ~ ~ ~ m w + rm
-r-m~-w w w i a w w w w w w m . ~ q ; a a m mm a a = m o
Conzparison o- f the Degrees of Baumd's Hydrometer with the real
- Speci$c Gravities.
1, For liquids heavier than water.
Degree Specific ' Degree Specific Degree Specific
Degrees 'Speciflc
! I
Degrees Specific

1.118 32
zravity. gravity lgravit y gravity.

1 1.007 17 1.126 33
2 1.013 18 1.134 34
3 1.020 19 1.143 35
4 1.027 20 1.152 36
5 1.034 21 1.160 37
6 1.041 22 1.169 38
7 1.045 23 1.178 39
8 1.056 24 1.188 40
9 1.063 25 1.206
1.197 41
10 1.070 26
11 1.078 27 1.216 43
12 1.085 28 1.225 44
13 1.094 29 1.235 '45
14 1.101 30 1.245 46
15 1.109 31 1.256 47

2. Banml's Hydrometer for liquids lighter than water.

Degrees Speciflc
/gravity. 11 Degrees Specific
II ~ e g r e e sSpecidr
gravity. I- -gravity.
Degrees Specific Degrees Specific

43 0.816
44 0.811
CL4sit may be interesting to some, t h e translator has 45 0.807
46 0.802
t a k e n the liberty of adding t h e following tables from 47 0.798
Fomnes' Chemistry, which institute acomparmon between 48 0.794
49 0.789
t h e specific gravity of different liquids both heavier a n d
lighter than water, and a third which indicates t h e t r u e
alcoholic streng+ of a spirituous liquor as indicated by
its specific gravity.] I I I ., I ..

These two t-able3 are on the authority of M. Francaenr ; they are taken from
the HandwcYrterbuch der Chenaie of Liebig and Poggendorf. Baumgs hydro-
meter is very commonly nsed on the Continent, especially for liquids heavier
than water. For lighter liqnids the hydrometer of Cartier is often employed
in France. Cartier's degrees differ bat little from those of Baum6.
In the United Kingdom, Twaddell's hydrometer is a good deal nsed for dense
liquids. This instrument is so graduated that +e real sp. gr. can be deduced'
by an extremely simple method from the degree of the hydrometer, namely,
by moltiplying the latter by 5 and adding 1000; t h e sum is the sp. gr.,
water being 1000. Thus 10" Twaddell indicates a sp. gr. of 1050, or 1.05 ;
90° Twaddell, 1450, or 1.45.-Ebwnes' Chemistry. -%

ture opposite the alcoholic degree, as obtained by the
o f t7ze proportion b y weight of absolute o r real AZcohoZ i n 100
hydrometer, and a t once read off the true strength of
p a r t s o f s p i r i t s of'dzyerent .specific gravities. (Fownes.) the liquor,
Let us suppose a brandy the apparent strength of
- Sp. gr. at 60
(1.595 C.)
of real
(15O.5 C.)
3p. gr. at 60° Percent
of real
(15O.5 C.)
ip. gr. at 6U0 Percent
of real
3p. gr. at 60
(15O.5 C.)
-- -
of real
which by the alcoholometer is 48 degrees, a t a tempera-
ture of five degre-esabove zero : what is its real strength ?
0.5 0.8533 78 The sliding scale is moved so that the fifth degree shall
0.8508 79
correspond with the 4 8th division of the fixed scale, and
3 0.8459 81 on seeking out the 15th degree, as fixed by the law, we
4 0.8434 82 shall see that the real strength of the brandy is 513 de-
5 0.8408 83
6 0.8382 S4 grees. If, on the contrary, the temperature be a t 20
77 0.8357 85 degrees, i t will be necessary to lower the scale until the
8 0.8331 86
9 0.8305 87 20th degree corresponds to the 48th division, and on
10 0.8279 88 again seeking the 15th degree, the scale indicates the -
11 0.8254 S9
12 0.8238 90 real strength to be 46 degrees,
13 0.8199 91
14 0.8172 92' Experimental Stills.
15 0.8145 93
16 0.8118 94 Areometers only indicate accurately the alcoholic
17 0.8089 95
18 0.8061 96 strength of liquids submitted to them, when these
19 0.8031 97 liquids contain alcohol and water only; because, in all
20 0.8001 98
21 0.7969 99 other cases, the substances dissolved in fermented or
0.7938 100 other liquors affect their density.
24 The best method of ascertaining the proportion of
25 alcohol contained in a wine, or other spirituous liquor, is
to distil a portion of it, note the volume of weak alcohol
ilcoholometric Scale of M.Strope. obtained, find its degree by the alcoholometer, and then
calculate the quantity of absolute alcohol which it rep-
M. Strope, an optician a t Orleans, has invented a resents. Descrozilles invented a small still for this
very convenient and portable little instrument, which assay, which Gay Lussac, and, more recently, M. Duval,
is intended for correcting the apparent degrees indicated hare improved.
by the alcoholometer when the temperature is above or
below 15 degrees Centigrade. This instrument, which &say Still of Qay L w a c .
M. Strop6 has called the aZcoho7om.etric sca7e, fully re- This apparatus, Fig. 8, P1. VI., consists of a small
places the table which was formerly used to indicate the
alcoholic strength of liquids. T h e nlcoholometric scale copper still A, with a cap B, having on one side, a t its
consists of a wooden rod, with s sliding scale, on which upper part, an opening C which communicates with the
the degrees of spirituosity are placed on the two sides tube D, which is bent into a spiral, and fixed in the -
right and left, and the degrees of temperature are marked copper refrigerator E. \
on the sliding scale. When i t is desired to ascertain the To this still are added two graduated proof glasses.
strength of any spirits, i t is only necessary t o slide the The larger B' has 300 divisions, which represent 150
scale so as to bring the degree indicating the tempera- millilitres. The second G is also divided in to millilitres,
spirituous liquors, whatever be their nature or the quan-
and has 180 divisions, of which 100 represent 50 mil- tity of foreign substances they may contain in solution.
lili tres, I t should be used when the alcoholometer of Gay Lussac
When this still is to be used, the wine is first poured is in default; that is to say, when examining the stan-
into the larger proof glass up to the division 300. This dard of wines, saccharine liquors, beer, cider; varnish,
is introduced into the still, the refrigerator attached, and &c.; in a word, all liquors, into the composition of which
the still set in an iron cylinder perforated a t the top, salts, sugar, gums, and coloring substances enter, and
which fills the place of a furnace; the whole is heated which modify or falsify the indications of the ordinary
by a, spirit lamp J. alcoholometer.
The small proof glass is placed under the refrigerator The use of the still consists in separating from the
to collect the alcoholic product. During the distillation liquid all the foreign substances it may contain, by iso-
care must'be taken to keep the water in the refrigerator lating a mixture of water and alcohol, susceptible of
cold, and continually to spriukle the cloth which sur- being tested by the nlcoholometer.
rounds the tube of the cap. The distillation is arrested T h e accuracy, simplicity, and small volume of this
instrument render it exceedingly convenient for prac- -
when precisely one-third of the wine used has been col-
lected in the proof glass; thnt is to say, when the liquid tical use. a

has risen to division 100. -The alcoholic richness of this This apparatus, which consists of the following pieces,
product is then ascertained by the centesimal alcoholo- is packed i n n small box. See Fig. 9, P1. VI.
meter of Gay Lussac, and, on dividing the number which 1. A spirit lamp.A.
represents it, by three, we find the alcoholic strength of 2. A glass globe B, which answers to the boiler of the
the wine employed. Let us suppose, for example, that, still.
by the process just described, we h a r e obtained 100 3. Coil contained in the refrigerator C, which is sup-
parts of alcohol a t 24.5 of the centesimal alcoholometer ported by three copper rods.
a t the temperature of 15O, we shall conclude that the T h e coil is connected with the boiler by means of an
alcoholic richness of the wine is- India-rubber tube D, terminated by the stopper E,
which fits.the neck of the globe .B.
4. Proof jar E, on which are marked three divisions.
One, a, for measuring the wine intended for distillation ;
T h a t is to say, thnt it contains 8.166 parts of absolute the two others, marked 3 and 9, are for measuring the
or perfectly pure alcohol. - liquid collected under the coil.
Since this method of examination immediatelv deter- 5. An areometer G, the divisions of which corres- .
mines the quantity of absolute alcohol contained in h pond to those of the alcoholometer of Gay Lussac.
given s ~ m p l eof wine, i t will be easy to ascertain, what 6. A small thermometer H.
will be the contents of a spirit of any strength whatever. 7. A small glass tube J, which is used as a pipette.
The instrument is used as follows : viz. The globe B is
Asasg Still of X. J. 'Galleron. placed over the lamp A, the liquid under examination
This'new alcoholometer has been adopted by the ad- is measured in the proof glass E: by the assistance of -
ministration of the assize and of the octroi, at Paris, for the pipette J, the surface is adjusted accurately to the
determining t h e t a x on liquors. mark a.
This apparatus, constructed after t h e manner- of a
still, is intended to measure the alcoholic strength of
T h e contents of the proof glass are poured into the I t sometimes happens in distilling a liquor in which
globe, the stopper E firmly fixed i n its place; and the the alcoholic fermentation was incomplete, that so great
refrigerator C filled with cold water, to put the appara- a quantity of foam rises in the globe -23 that a portion

- tus in operation. It only remains to place the proof

under the worm and light the lamp.
T h e wine soon begins to boil, the vapor enters the coil
of the liquor contained in i t passed over unchanged with
the distillate. This inconvenience is avoided, or pre-
vented by pouring two or three drops of oil into the
where it condenses and flows into the proof glass. globe a t the beginning of the operation.
The first portion of the liquid collected is highly con- When we have collected in the proof glass enough of
centrated alcohol, that following is less concentrated, the liquor to be assured that we have all the alcohol
and the proportion of alcohol gradually diminishes, contained in the wine, the lamp is extinguished and
until at last only pure water flows from the coil. The water is poured into the proof glass until i t is filled ex-
operation may then be suspended and the lamp extin- actly to the level of the mark a. I n order to perform
guished. But how is it to be known t h a t all of the this operation with ease and precision, we make use of
alcohol has been distilled and that there is no more in the pipette 4 which lets the water fall drop by drop.
t h e globe? T h e means are easy enough. Where an The mixture is well shake11 and the alcoholometer and -
ordinary wine is tested it is certain beforehand that its thermometer are simultttneously plunged into i t (the
alcohol does not exceed 13 or 15 per cent. ; if, then, one- groove in the side of the proof glass is intended to re-
third of the liquid poured into the globe, that is, 33 ceive the thermometer mi thout its interfering with the
per cent. of its contents, be drawn off, we may be motion of the alcoholometer).
assured that not only all of the alcohol, but an equal I t is well to moisten the stem of the alcoholometer
volume of water, has been distilled off and collected in slightly in order that i t may float freely in the liquid.
the proof glass; if the liquid in question is highly T h ~ smay be accomplished with the greatest ease by
spirituous as Madeira wine for exanlple, or a sweet passing the stem between the lips.
liquor which may contain 20 or 25 per cent. of alcohol, T h e indications of the two instruments are noted and
it is evident t h a t if only one-third of its volume is the real strength of t h e liquid is sought for in the table
drawn off there will be great danger of not obtaining all accompanying the instrument.
the alcohol which it contains, and of leaving a portion I n the absence of this table, that which we have
of it still in the globe. It is therefore necessary to ex- given on page 256 and following (explained on page'
tend the distillatlon so as to draw off one-half instead of 254) will answer the purpose. The result is exactly
one-third. the same.
I n conclusion, common wines (vins ordkaires), beer, ExampZe.-The alcoholometer indicates 10 degrees and
cider, and all liquors the alcoholic strength of which the thermometer 29 degrees. We find by the table that
does nGt exceed 12 or 15 per cent. should be distilled to the liquor only weighs '7.5.
one-third. Heady wines, like those of Cette, Madeira, And another example.-The alcoholometer marks 18
etc., sweet liquors, and in fine, all liquors in which the degrees and the thermometer 11degrees. We find by the
alcohol varies from 15 to 25 per cent. should be distilled degrees designated that the liquor weighs 19 degrees.
to one-half. I t is hardly necessary to say that all T h e alcoholometer which accompanies the Salleron .
liquors, the strength of which is not known approximar still is only graduated for 25 or 30 degrees ;it might he
tively, should be distilled to one-half, in order thereby supposed that it could be used only for measuring such
to avoid all chance of error. liquors as do not exceed an alcoholic. richness of 25
to which the spirit is to be reduced from the'degree as
or 30 per cent., but this is an error. If the precaution shown in the first column.
is taken to dilute the spirit under examination with a The third column indicates the number of litres of
known proportion of water, the most highly spirituous water that must be added to the hectolitre of spirit or
liquors ma.y be operated on. In fact, if we measure the brandy whose degree is indicated in the first column, to
- liquor i n the proof glass to the mark B or 9, and then
fill to the mark a with pure water, the strength of the
reduce it to the degree as given in the second column.
When it is desired, for example, to reduce 100 litres
liquor will have been diminished one-half or two-thirds, of spirit at 90° to make a spirit at 4g0, we seek in the .
The indications of the dcoholometer mu1t.iplied by two column headed degree to be reduced for the number 90,
or three will then give the actual strength. look down the next column for the number 49, and we
find opposite to it in the third column the number 88
litres and 6 decilitres, which indicates the quantity of
mater to be added ; that is to say, with 100 litres of
spirit at 90°, we ought to produce 188.6 litres of spirit
at 4g0, if the contraction which takes place in the mix- .
C H A P T E R XI.. ..
ture did not cause a loss of about 4 per cent.
REDUCTION O F SPIRITUOUS LIQUORS. IMPROVING. IN- It is now easy to find the volume of water which it
CREASING THE STRENGTH OR R A I S I N G THE PROOF. is necessary to add to any given quantity of spirit of a
known strength to reduce it to an inferior degree, i t being
Reduction. suEcient to search in the table for the quantity of water
THEweakening of a spirituous liquor by mixing it necessary to dilute 100 litres of this spirit, and multiply
with water or another spirit of less strength is called in the number indicating this volume by that of the spirit
the trade reduction or wntiring. and divide the product by 100.
We indicate in a table of reduction which is appended, 22cantple.-It is required to convert a pipe of spirits
the number of litres and decilitres of mater that i t is at 85O, the quantity being 632 litres, into brandy a t
necessary to add to a hectolitre of spirit or brandy of 46O. The table indicates that it requires 89.1 litres of
any known degree to dilute it, that is, to transform it water to reduce 100 litres of spirit at 85O to spirit a t
into another spirituous liquor, also of a known degree, 46O. Multiply 632 by 89.1, a n d we obtain the product, '
but weaker. 563.112, which being divided by 100 gives 563.1 litres
Throughout this table me suppose that the two liquids for the quantity of water to be added to the amount of
(water and alcohol) have the temperature of 1 5 O . If spirits given.
the spirit is not at this temperature, the strength should Secmzd .&ampZe.-It is required to reduce 40 litres of
be estimated a t this degree by means of the table of brandy at 5S0 to brandy a t 4g0. The table indicates
true alcoholic strength given above. As the rate of ex- for 100 litres of spirit, 1 9 litres of water; multiply 40
by 19 gives 760, which divided by 100 gives 7.6 litres
pansion for water between O0 and 30° is much less than
that of alcohol, it will not materially affect the result if as the quantity of water to be added to the brandy. ..
no account is taken of its temperature. When it is proposed to obtain from a spirit of known
The first column of the table consists of the number strength, n certain measure of another spirit of inferior
which indicates the degree of the spirit to be' reduced. degree, the quantity of spirit necessary to be employed
The second column commencing a t 3S0, and always in- is found by rnzcltipzying ithe givelt meashicre by t7~enumber
creasing as we descend, by u n ~ t y ,indicates the degree 18
When the quantity of the stronger spirit is the un-
indicating the degwe of the wea&er spirit and d i z i d e the 1 known quantity, the operation is just the reverse of the
product by the num6er ipzdicating Ue degree of the stronger preceding, as, for example, if it is required to produce a
or given spirit. spirit a t 47O from 2180 litres of brandy a t 3G0, by means
&ample.-Given spirit a t 85O from which it is re- of spirit at 86O. The necessary volume of the last will
- quired to make 340 litres a t 4g0. According to the rule, be ascertained by multiplying 4180 by 11(the difkrence
between 47 and 36), and dividing the product by 39
multiply 340, the given quantity of spirits, by 49, the
degree to be produced, and we have 16660, which di- (the difference between 86 and 47), which mill give for .
vided by 85 gives 196 litres, which is the quantity of a quotient 614, representing the number of litres of
spirit a t 85O necessary for producing 340 litres of brandy spirit at 86O sought for. This is ~ a i s i n gthe proof, and
at 4g0. Now we ascertain that the quantity of water is the reverse of the preceding operation.
to be added to 100 litres of this spirit, by consulting the
table for reducing, to dilute it to 4g0, is 77.6 litres, and
on multiplying this by 196, and dividing by 100, we
- 151.9 litres for the quantity of water necessary
ior the operation.
Skcond ExampZe.-Given a spirit a t 90°, it is required
to produce from it 250 litres a t 46O, multiply 250 by 46,
and we have 11500; divide by 90, and we get 127.
litres. It requires, then, 127 litres of spirit a t 90° to
produce 250 litres a t 46G; seek in the table for reducing
spirits for the quantity of water necessary to reduce
100 litres of this spirit to 4 6 3 and proceed as in the
last case.
Sometimes a liquor is reduced by the addition of a
spirit of inferior strength; but as these liquids when
mixed do not exhibit anything like as great an amount
of contraction as when they are mixed with water, we
can obtain a result which is quite accurate enough for
all practical purposes by considering this contracGon as
nothing. The question of reducing, then, becomes very
simple, and is a matter of average.
'&ample.-Let us suppose that we have 615 litres of
spirit a t 86O which is to be reduced to 47O by means of
brandy at 36O. What quantity of the weaker spirit will
be required ? Multiply 615 by 39, which is the differ-
ence between 86 and 47, and divide the product 23955
by 11, which is the difference between 47 and 36, and
the quotient 2180 will represent the number of litres of
brandy a t 36O required for the operation.
- L.
- k
0 a
5- 5- sa
a .
- L.

e 0'
z -
2 2
m ES

P w
-- --
9 0-
cz ZiZ ZBZ gJx

lit. d e ~
lit. dec.
lit. dec.
fron lit. dec.
lit. dec
12 2
10 0

lit. dec
lit. dec
470 430
to lit. dec.
9 5
7 0
3 3 70 62( 36 59c 45 2 LL
78 LL
20 6 46 11 2 LL
45 46
41 7 LL
9 " 22
16 52 LL
17 LL 66
58 17 47 8 7 46
34 6' 38 4 LL
38 LL
15 3 48' 6 4
73.1 17 61< 62 2 LL
35 2 CL
19 86
12 9 49 4 2
68 7 LL 58 0 66 32 1 10 5 50 2 1
64 5 65 6 LL 54 0 LL 29 2 56C 48 5 8 3
60 5 63 3 LL 50 3 Lb 26 4 ' 6
44 7 G 1
56 6 59 3 LL
46 7. LL 23 7 LL
41 1 40
52 9 55 4 LL 43 2 66 21 2 LL
37 6 19
49 4 51 6 LL 39 9 bL 18 7 LC
34 3
46 1 48 1 LL
36 8 LL 16 3 - LL
31 1
42 9 447 SL
33 8 LL 14 0 (6
28 1
39 8 41 4 66
30 9 CL 11 8 LC
25 2
36 8 38 3 aL 28 1 CL 96 LL
22 4
34 0 35 3 16 25 4 LL
76 66
19 8
31 3 32 5 LL 22 9 LL 56 LL
17 2
28 6 29 7 LL 20 4 LC 37 LC
14 8
26 1 27 1 LL
18 0 LC 18 LL
12 4
23 7 24 5 LL
15 7 LL 10 2
21 3 22 1 LL 13 5 58C LL
19 0 19 7 LC 11 4 LL LC 59
16 8 17 4 LL 93 LL LL
14 7 15 2 LL
73 ," LL
12 7 13 1. 6L 54 LL

-107 11 0 CL 35 LL
55c 45 8
88 90 LL
17 LL LC
42 0
69 71 LL 6L
38 5
5 1 52 60C 69 4 LL 35 0
33 34 6'
55 3 LL LC
31 8
16 17 LL 53. 4 LL LL
28 7
47 7 LL LL
25 7
70 4 64 9 LL 442 LL LL 22 9
66 0 60 7 LL 40 8 LL LC
20 2
61 9 57 6 LL
37 5 LC LL
17 6
57 9 52 8 LL
34 5 LL LL
15 1
54 1 49 1 LL 31 5 LL 12 7
50 5 45 6 LL 28 6 (6 LL
10 3
47 1 42 3 LL 25 9 LL LL
43 8 39 1 LL 23 3 LL LL
40 6 36 0 LL 20 8 39
. 37 G 33 1 LL 18 3 55c CL
34 6 30 3 LL 16 0
31 8 27 6 LL 13 7 LL 54 43 1
29 2 25 0 LL 11 6 LL L.
39 4
26 6 22 5 &I 95 LL 35 9
24 1 20 0 LL 74 LL LL
32 5
21 7 17 7 6L 55 LL 29 3
19 4
17 1
15 5
13 3
LL -
15 0 11 2
12 8 92 59c 56 7
10 9 72 6'
52 7
89 53 6L 48 8
exh3iling the acLuaZ vaZzce of spzpz~iCs
at 85 degrees centesimaz
(330 Cadier) reduced to aZZ degrees of proof found i n the market.
Raising the Proof of Brandy. -
The augmentation of the strength or degree of a 410 430 45c 47c 500 510 580
or or or or or or or
spirituous liquor, by means of another spirituous liquor,
- is known, in the trade, as ra&ing the proof (~emontage).
We have already given an example of this operation in
-- - -
- -
fr fr. fr. fr. fr. fr. fr.
speaking of the reduction of one liquor by means of 16.9: 17.8: 18.6' 19.4 20.61 21.1C 23.9:
17.4! 18.3: 19.14 20.0 21.2: 21.7C 24.6f
another; *nevertheless, we think i t better to present 17.9: 18.8: 19.6' 20-61 21.8( 22.3c 25.3:
another example, in order to explain more fully the 18.4: 19.3: 20.21 21.1: 22.4 22.9C 26.0:
18.9( 19.8. 20.7: 21.6' 23.0: 23.50 26.7(
manner of conducting the operation. 19.31 20.34 21.2( 22.21 23.6: 24.10 27.3E
We will suppose that a cask, containing 420 litres of 19.8t 29.8! 21.7: 22.7' 24.21 21.70 28.0t
brandy a t 46 degrees, i s to have its standard of proof 20.3' 21.3: 22.32 28.3: 24.8( 25.30 28.74
20 8: 21.W 22.8! 23.81 25.31 25.90 29.42
raised to 49 degrees by the addition of spirit a t 85 de- 21.31 22-31 23.31 24.4: 25.9: 26.60 30.11
grees. 21.Z 22.8'; 23.91 24.9: 26.5t 27.10 30.79
We take the-difference between 4 3 and 46, and mul- 22.2i
23.3€ 24.U 25-54 27.15 27-70 31.41
23-85 24.9t 26.0; 27.74 28.30 32.15
tiply this difference by the number of litres ( 4 2 0 3= ~ 23.24 24.3: 25.41 26.64 28.32 28.90 32 84
1260); divide the product by 36, the difference between 23.74 24.8: 26.02 27.2( 28.91 29.50 33.52
85 and 49, and we have 36 for the number of litres of 24.2C
26.5: 27.7: 29.5C 30.10 34.20
27.0E 28.3C 30.09 30.70 34.88
spirit a t 8 5 9 to be added to 420 litres of brandy a t 46O 25.16 26.41 23.61 Z8.8t 30.68 31.30 35.56
to raise the proof to 4g0.. The operation yields 455 25.65 26.92 28.14 29.41 31.26 31.90 36.25
26.13 27.42 28.67 29.96 31.55 32.50 36.93
liItres. . .
26-61 27.93 29.20 30.55 32.44 33.10 37.61
27.0.9 28.44 29.72 31.07 33.03 33.70 38.29
[Rule.-Multiply the number representing the quantity of 27.57 28.94 30.25 31.62 33-62 34.30 38.97
spirits t o b e raised by the difference between its degree and 28.06 29.45 30.78 32.11 34.20 34.90 39.66
that of the new compound; divide this product by the differ 28.54 29.95 31.31 32.73 34.79 35.50 40.34
ence between the degree of the stronger spirit and that of the 29.02 30.46 31-84 33.28 35.38 36.10 41-02
new compound; the quotient will indicate the quantity of 29.50 30.97 32.37 33.93 35.97 36.70 41.70
29.98 31.47 32.90 34.39 36.56 37.30 42.38
strong spirit necessary t o increase the standard or proof of the 30.47 31.98 33.43 34.94 37.14 37.90 43.87
weaker liquor.]-- Bans. 30.95 32.48 13.96 55.49 37.73 36.50 B.75
3 1 -43 32.99 $4.49 56.05 38.32 59.10 M.43
31.91 33.50 15.01 $6.60 38.91 39.70 a5.11
32.39 34.00 15.54 37.15 39.50 k0.30 a5.79
32.88 34.5 1 16.07 57.70 80.08 W.90 16.48
33.36 35.01 16-60 1S.26 P0.67 k1.50 a7.16
33.84 32.52 17.13 18.81 61.26 C2.10 k7.84
34.32 36.03 17-66 19.36 $1.65 12.70 k8.52
14.80 36.53 18.19 19.92 L2.44 L3.30 19.20
$5.29 37.04 18.72 L0.47 13.02 L3.90 L9.89
$5-77 37.54 19.25 L1.02 63.61 14.50 50.57
$6.25 38.05 19-78 L1.58 M.20 15.10 i1.25
16.73 38.56 L0.30 12.13 u.79 L5.70 i1.93
17.21 39.06 L0.83 L2.68 15.38 16.30 i2.61
17.70 39.57 L1.36 13.23 $5.96 C6.90 i3.30
$8.18 10.07 L1.89 L3.73 L6.55 L7.50 53.98
- - as the spirits have been mixed with Zow wines prepared
d "

for the purpose, or with some other preparation. The
mixing (or cutting) with pure water always produces a
170 170.) 180 180s 190# 200 219 brandy which is harsh and biting, without perfume or

fr. fr.
h r t ~ e r . h r u e r , :artier
- fr



The following are the different methods of preparing
80 38.66 40.58 42.42 44.34 46.18 47.14 50.02 54.66 conimon brandies :-
81 39.14 41.09 42.95 44.89 46.76 47.73 50.64 55.34
82 39.62 41.59 43-45 45.45 47.33 48.32 51.27 56.02 Pirsst Process.-This consists in reducing the spirit to
83 40.11 42.10 44.01 46.00 47.91 48.90 51.89
the requisite degree, and adding to the mixture 3 litres
84 40.59 42.60 44.54 46.55 48.48 49.49
53.14 58.07
of cane mo7asses for each hectolitre of brandy. The molas-
S5 41.07 43.11 45.07 47.11 49.06 50.08
86 41.55 43.62 45.59 47.66 49.64 50.67 53.76 58.75 ses should be previously well mixed in the water intended
87 42.03 44.12 46.12 48.21 50.21 51.26 54.39 59.43
for the cutting, with a sufficient quantity of good cara-
88 42.52 44.63 46.65 48.76 50.79 51.84 55.01
89 43.00 45.13 47.18 49.32 61.36 52.43 55.64 60.79 mel to produce a golden yellow tint. When the mixing
90 43.48 45.64 47.71 49.87 51.94 53.02 56.26 6i.48 is finished, two centilitres of volatile alcati (aqua ammo-
91 43.96 46.15 48.24 50.42 52.52 53.61 56.88 62.16
nia) is to be added, and the whole vigorously stirred
92 44.44 46.65 48.77 50.98 53.09 54.20 57.51
93 44.93 47.16 49.30 51.53 53.67 54.78 58.1'3 63.53 with a rummaging stick.
94 45.41 47.66; 49.83 52.08 54.24 55.37 58.76 64.21 Second Process.-In this process the molasses is re-
95 45.89 48.17 50.36 52.64 54.82 55.96 59.38 64.89 placed by an equal quantity of syrup of rahins, and pro-
96 46.37 48.68 50.88 53.19 55.40 56.55 60.00 65.57
97 46.85 49.18 51.41 53.74 55.97 51-14 60.63 66.25 ceed as above.
98 47.34 49.69 61.94 54.29 56.55 57.72 61.25 66.94 Third Process.-This is the same as the last, except
47.82 50.19 52.41 54.85 57.12 58.31 G1.88 67.62
. 99 that, in addition to the sgrzcp of m i & n s , two per cent. of
100 48.30 50.70 53.0C 55.40 57.70 58-90 62.50 68.3C common rum are added to the brandy.
- - -
Receipts for Aging Brandies and Other Spirits ; for Improving them, Imitation of Brandies.
and for Imitating the Aroma and Flavor of Different Growths.
A - o c e i for bnilatirrg the Braqzdy of
Everybody knows that the best distilled new brandies each hectolitre of trois-six, reduced, is added the.follow-
always retain a sharpness, which causes them to be recog- ing mixture :- -
nized a t once, and that they are so much better as they
become older. It is known, too, that they equally pre- Infusion of walnut bulls . 1 litre.
serve the taste of the soil, or the peculiar flavor which Infusion of the hulls of bitter almonds . 2 litres.
distinguishes the wines from which they were obtained, Syrup of raisins - 3 LL

and that to correct this sharpness, to age, and to imitate These quantities may be increased or diminished, ac-
the amma of different growth's, certain precautions are cording t o the quality of the brandy wanted, and the
to be used. We shall indicate below, those which are character of the infusion and syrups employed.
most certain of success. Another Process for Imitating the Brandy of Armagnac.
Cutting or Xkdmg Common Bran- (Coupage). -To obtain 100 litres of this imitation, at 49 degrees,
take :- .
I n the brandy trade, they generally employ the spirits
(trois-six) of Montpellier, of beet, molasses, or grain, for
the manufacture of common brandies, which are then
labelled brandy of iWontpeUier7 Armagnac, &c., according
* Alcohol at 85O (well flavored) . . 54 litres.
Alcohol of good flavor, at .85O 56 litres. Rum of good quality . .
2 ''
Common rum . 2 Syrup of raisins 3 "
. .
Water 40 " Infusion of green walnut hulls 2 "
Syrup of raisins at 3 6 O. 2 c' Infusion of the shells of bitter almonds.
. 2 "

- 500 grammes. Catechu in powder , 15 grammes.

.. .
Dried liquorice root
Black tea 60 6L
Balsam of Tolu 6 66

Cream ef tartar (bitartrate of potash) 2 ic Pure water ' 27 litres.

Boracic acid . 1 gramine. Product . i00~'l'i
Bruise the liquorice root, and boil i t with half the Dissolve the catechu and balsam of Toln toget her in a
water intended for the reduction, in order to extract all litre of alcohol at 85O, and p o w this solution into the
its sacchpt-ine principles ; then infuse the tea separately, 53 litres of alcohol before adding the water; mix all the
in a hermetically closed vessel, with ten litres of boiling liquids together, rummage thoroughly, and then color
water, then dissolve the cream- of tartar and boracic with caramel of the best quality.
acid in two litres of hot water. When all of these pre- Remark-The quality of the water and caramel in
parations have become cold, pass the infusions of tea the manufacture of these brandies is of the highest
and liquorice root through a hair cloth, and mix the importance, and they should have bestowed on them the
whole together with the alcohol, rum, syrup of raisins, most scrupulous attention. We shall, in the second part
and enough pure water to make up 100 litres. Color of this book, point out the inconvenience which results
the mixture with a sufficient quantity of good caramel. from using these liquids if they are spoiled or badly
Met7tod of Imih ting the Brandy of X'intmge.-T he fol- prepared. Rain water is to be preferred,
lowing is the process for 100 litres of trois-six reduced The object of using the syrup of raisins or molasses
to 50 degrees, to which, at the time of the reduction, have and liquorice root is to soften and impart a smoothness
been added three per cent. of syrup of raisins, at 36O to the brandy ; the addition of the rum, infusion of the
Baum6 :- hulls of bitter almonds, of the ten, catechu, and balsam
Infuse five grammes of powdered Florentine iris root of Tolu is to impart bouquet, delicacy, and aroma. The
for fifteen days, in two litres of rum, with the rind. of infusion of walnut hulls gives the flavor of age,'the cream
two sweet oranges; five grammes of the best Mexican of tartar and boracic make a bead on brandy' at 45O ; -
vanilla, and five grammes of angelica seed ; then, at the the liquorice root also has the same property.
time of the reduction, make separate infusions in a In the reduction of trois-six i n which much water
litre of boiling water, of 30 grammes of imperial tea, is employed, the syrup of raisins, by reason of the tartar
and 30 grammes of the flowers of the linden; then the it contains, has the add i tional advantage of precipitating
three infusions (rum, tea, and linden flowers), pressed all the lime and its various salts that may be held in
and filtered, are to be added to the 100 litres of brandy solution.
rummaged thoroughly, and colored, if necessary. It is indispensable to use the volatile alkali in the pro-
Method of Imitating Cognac Brandy.-Of all brandies, portion of 2 centilitres (about 20 grammes) to the hecto-
Cognac is the most difficult to imitate, and among the litre when the brandy is sharp, or when it contains an
numerous preparations used for attaining this end, we acid; and, in any event, whatever be the nature of the .
have seen very few which so nearly approach success as brandy, this small quantity of the alkali can do no pos-
the following :-
290 DISTILLATION OF ALCOHOL. Old rum , . 2 litrcs.
Old kirsch . 1.75
sible injury either to the quality of the spirits or to the Infusion of green walnut hulls
Syrup of raisins .
. .
. 75 centilitres.
2 1it.res.
health of the consumer.
Another 'Method of Imita&g Cognac Brandy.-'The fol- Low K n e s prepared for reducing Spirits. -In Angou-
- lowing receipt is used by one of the largest houses in the
spirit trade in Paris :-
mois, Saintonge, and Aunis, the dealers in spirits are i n
the habit of reducing their brandies with low wines pre-
Rum of good' quality . -. - 2 litres. pared especially for giving them age; this custom is a n
Liquorice root . 500 grarnmes. excellent one, and we cal~notrecommend i t too highly.
Roman chamomile . . . 125 61
The following is the method of proceeding :-
. .-
Vanilla . 10 A certain quantity of rain water is collected and al-
Brown sugar 1 kilogramme.
Good flavored alcohol at 8Z0 . 6s litres. lowed to stand for several days in order that i t may de-
Rain water from the cistern . . 80 posit all the foreign substances that m a y have been s u s -
pended in it. After a sufficient rest, the clear portion
Product 100 litres at 58O.
is drawn off and stowed in pipes or barrels where 10 or
Bruise the liquorice root and boil i t in a portion of 1 2 per cent. of brandy a t 5s0 or spirit a t 85O is added
the water intended for the mixture, then make hot in- to preserve it. When this water so prepared has heen
fusions (separately) of the chamomile and vanilla each, kept for six or eight months in the casks it has acquired
in a hermetically closed vessel. When cold pass :dl indisputable merit for the softness and qualities of age i t
these infusions through a cloth filter, add t h e m to the communicates to brandies. There are some dealers who
trois-six and the remainder of the water in which the consider that the low wines, when three or four years
sugar has in the mean time been dissolved. old, are quite equal in value to new Cognacs.
There is still another method of preparing the low
Improving Brandies. wines intended for reducing spirits which, independently
Generally the genuine new brandies of Montpellier, of the smoothness and age, impart a perfume to those
Armagnac, Cognac, and other districts, are in1proved in brandies which lack it. It is as follows :-
quality by adding to them 15 grammes of suesr candy, An empty barrel of any size is set on end ; we intro-
or 3 centilitres of the syrup of raisins to the lltre, which duce illto i t about ten kilogrammes to the hectolitre --
removes their sharpness and renders them smoother and of' its capacity, of the chips, shavings and sawdust of
more agreeable. the white m k , which are left from the manufacture
Independently of this addition of sugsr, the aroma of the barrels for Cognac brandy. T h e cask is then
and flavor of the brandies of Armagnac m;~ybe con- filled with water to disgorge the wood. After ~ i oxr
siderably augmented by the addition of a htre of the eight dajs' infusion, this water, which is not used, i s
infusion of green walnut hulls and a litre of the infu- drawn off, and the cask is filled with rain-water, t o
sion of the hulls of bitter almonds, or in the absence of which has been added a tenth of spirit or brandy.
these two infusions, of two litres of rum to each hecto- This water by age improves in color and quality;
l.itre of brandy. mixed with brandies in proper proportions, it gives
The flavor, &hearoma, and the age of the brandies of them a n excellent bouquet. .
Coenac, Saint Jean d7Angely, Saintonge, etc., may also Extract or . Essence of Ci3gnac.-The. spirits of diffe-
be increased by t h e addition of various substances. T h e rent countries and of various kinde, previously softened .
following is n receipt for one hectolitre of brandy :-
I t appears that i t is during the dist.illation, and under -
by the adclit.ion of. sugar-candy or the syrup of raisins, the influence of heat, that brandy acquires the inimitable
harmonize very well with the preparation of which the flavor and aroma which constitute. its merit, and which
following is the receipt for a hectolitre of spirits :- are so highly appreciated. In fact, during this opera-
- Sassafras wood
Balsam of Tolu
.. 10 grammes.
10 " tion, reactions take place between the acids just men-
tioned and the alcohol, which produce the peculiar .
Catechu .
Essence of bitter almonds
-. - . 100
" ethers which give to Cognac its flavor and perfume.
Vanilla . 5 "
It is a fact worthy of note, that the brandy obtained
Well flavored nicohoi, at 850 1 litre. i n consequence of the addition of a spirit foreign to the
wine, in limited proportions, cannot be distinguished
Triturate the vanilla in 125 gramrnes of brown sugar. . from the brandy resulting from the natural wine by itself;
Macerate the whole for eight days, shaking frequently that is to say, without this addition. Finally, brandy
and thoroughly; then, after a rest of twenty-four hours, resulting from this new method defies all methods of
draw off the clear portion, and pour this extract investigation. We may suspect the mixture, and even
the spirit to be improved, taking care to rummage the know of its existence, but we.cannot fi~rnishthe proof;
mixture well so as to incorporate the elements tho- neither the most skilful and practised taste, nor the
roughly. persevering researches of the most skilful and learned
Improvement of Different S.pirits. . chemists, have been able to detect it. A M . Payen him-
self acknowledged some time since that, in the actual
Rum, kirsch, gin, absinthe Swiss or any other spirit, state of the science, the discovery of this mixture pre-
when newly made, always possesses, like spirits in general, sented insurmountable obstacles.
n harshness and very disagreeable pungency ; this imper- Now this question may be raised. AIthough the ad- .
fection-may be corrbcted by adding to them 15 grammes dition of a determinate quantity of alcohol to the wine
of white sugar or sugar-candy to the litre of spirits. does not change the characteristic properties of the

XUew Xethod of Distilling Wines Practised in the Charentes.

brandy, does i t not constitute a fraud or an alteration,
and should i t not be so considered? This question has
For some years a number of distillers in Charentes been warmly discussed by the proprietors of large vine-
introduced into their mines (as is done in distilling yards in Charentes, various dealers, and many eminent -
kirsch) spirits of wine, beet, rice, sorghum, &c., before chemists. Messrs. Darnpierre, Barral, Payen, and Ssn-
submitting them to distillation, in order to produce a son, have taken a very large and active part in the dis-
greater quantity of Cognac brandy. cussion. The last, among others, recently.presented s
The increase of the product, by a reasonable addit.ion paper on the subject to the Academy of Sciences and
of foreign spirit to the wine distilled, is quite important, the Central Agrici~lturalSociety, well worthy the .at-
since it may, according to the season, double the quan- tention of those distinguished associations, in which he
tity produced by the distillation of the wine, without the concludes that, in a scientific point of view, we may
addition of any alcohol. consider this process for manufacturing brandies both
T h e object of this addition of spirit is to increase the rational and lawful, since i t consists in the augmenta- .
profit by utilizing the superabundance or excess of or- tion of the alcoholic richness of the wines of the country,.
ganic acids which exists in the wine, and the greater and consequently their productiveness.
portion of which is lost by the old method, since it is Without pronouncing a decided opinion on the matter ,

found in the spent wash in quite considerable quantity.


under discussion, we think that we may be permitted to

say that it is always right and proper for producers and
dealers, who sell these mixed brandies, to be careful that
- their composition and origin are made known, and that
they should not be sold as pure Cognacs. T o act on PART TI.
any other principle, would be a culpable offence which
the honest trade should condemn, and which should ' DISTILLATION O F PERFUMED WATERS, LIQUEURS,
bring the offender under the notice of the correctional ESSEXCES, ETC.
police, because the seller has deceived the huger as to the
lrature of his merchalzdise.
THEancients were acquainted with, and made great
use of liqueurs, which, a t first, were used as medicines,
or nu corroborants. - Afterwards. they were found ca-
pable of stimulating the appetite, and assisting diges-
tion. These liqueurs had for their basissimplythe must
of the grape or wine, which was aromatized according
to the peculiar properties attributed to each of the
liq uenrs.
Hippocrates, the father of medicine, was the inventor
of the first aromatic liqueur, the use of which has spread
to almost all nations, and which has always borne the
name Hippocras. It was, a t first, composed of wine,
cinnamon, and honey; but, in the course of time, i t was
improved, particularly by Alexis, of Peidmont. This
mixture, so much vaunted by our ancient romancists,
was, for a long time, very fashionable; i t was served on
all great occasions of feasting. Louis XIV. mas very -
fond of it; the city of Paris presented him, every year,
with a certain number of bottles of it, and his cooks set
themselves up as rivals of the distillers of the capital
in the manufacture. There mere still some remains of .
this ancient custom in the reign of Louis XV.
Pliny, Galien, and Dioscorides soon followed the ex-
ample of Hippocrates ; they employed wines in which
they digested hyssop, absinthe, calamus, &c. &c. The
Romance of Floremond alludes to them under the gene- .
r d name of '' wine of he~bs,"and it is spoken of in the
tenth, eleventh, and twelfth centuries. A11 that remains
cc For the preservation of the general health, you shall
of these is the wine of absinthe, which is called, in Italy,
Verrnut, and is an escellent stomachic. According to take the corroborants of the noble parts, as for the
Pliny, the wines, to which were added the juices of cer- ha&, the laearl, the Ziver, the slomach, the Zunga, the
tain fruits, were known to the Gauls, and they were in kidneys, the spZeen, or others, and you shall not have
- the habit of introducing into their new wines the buds
and berries of the mastich, in order to render them more
need for a great mass to appropriate to each ; but it will
be enough to select that which mill possess the greatest
pleasant to the taste. Pliny also says, that wines con- virtue ; as for-theHEART, you shall trtkeaafim and mace;
taining absinthe prevent sea-sickness. He makes men- for the BRAIN, m m c and prepared vitriol; for the -EVES
tion of the games celebrated at the capitol, where, among and HEAD, lavender, snge, and rosemaw; for the LIVER,
other prizes, they gave to the conqueror a drink mixed cockZe6ur and aperient roots; for the KIDNEYS, lapis ne-
with absinthe, as a fountain of health. p7triticus; for the SPLEEN, tamarinds; for the TESTES,
Arnault de Villeneuve and Raymond Sulle invented jigs and orchis mascuZa ;for the vems, angelica ;for the
the first known liqueur based on alcohol-they called it LUNGS, Ziguorice, argiZZaceous ec:rth.
enu diuine et admira&l(divine and admirable water) ; "For the simpzest medicaments are the best, and the
this was simply brandy mixed with sugar; i t was then great number or crowding of remedies into a body never
considered as n medicine, and for many centuries i t was produces either a good or laudable effect, and nature
so regarded. Much later, the enu divine was perfumed acts more promptly on the reception of a few than a t
with the lemon, the rose, and orange flowers. The con- the importunity of many, which rather produce a sur-
vent of Saint Sacrement, rue Saint Louis, au Mnrrtis, in charge and hindrance."
Paris, had, in 1760, the reputation of preparing eau Brandy (eas-de-vie), employed a t the beginning of the
divine in superior style, producing i t of extreme delicacy thirteenth century as a medicine, passed insensibly to
of flavor. the table, and soon became the favorite of the people.
About the year 1520, Theophrastus Paracelsus, pro- Then the Italians more than any other people set them-
selves to making it agreeable to the palate. They dis-
fessor of chemistry a t Basle, invented many liqueurs,
which he called the grand arcanurn, great and small cir- covered the means of giving i t a higher value for the use
culation, and, among others, the famous ezixirproprietatis. of the wealthy classes. They called these new drinks
Brouat, a physician, in 1636, conceived the idea of ex- liqmri, and they exported them to foreign countries.
tracting the essential oils from drugs by means of brandy, The French first adopted the use of them in 1532 a t -
with the intention of compounding liqueurs which were the time of the marriage of Henry II., then Duke of
menerally administered as cordial draughts. The follow- Orleans, to Catherine de Medicis. This court attracted
P into France a great number of Italians, who brought
mg quotations from Brouat himself, on the subject of aro-
matic liqueurs, and, more particularly, the brandy of the along with them the delicate dishes used in their own
ancients, are very curious, and the energy of his style is country, and gave instruction as to the methods of pre-
odd enough to justify the belief that our readers mill paring them. They were the first who manufactul-ed
not be displeased a t finding i t presented to them, and sold fine liqueurs in Paris. The earliest among
Cc Would you then adorn this heaven (brandy) with all-
these was rossoli, in which the rose furnished the pre-
ponderating perfume. The precise etymology of this
powerful stars ? Extract from it tinctures and essences
of all things that are fitting for the general preservation word rossoZi cannot be given ; it very soon, however, -
became general as applied to all cordials or ratafis. It
of a long life, or rather for the special cure of every

may be derived from the plant ros 607k (Drose~.a~ o t u n -

difo7ih), which among others enters into the composition
of this liqueur. The rossoli called p o p l o was highly
esteemed during the reigns of Henry 111. and Henry IV.
- The ratafins of cherries and violets, as well as m a n y
other liqueurs, were intended for the purpose of reviving
the old age of the king, Louis XIV.
Finally, towards the beginning of the last century, As has been seen in the first part of this. book, dis-
while the distillers of Montpellier were exercising them- tillation is a chemical operation, the object of which is,
selves in compounding the liqueur called eau d'o~ to separate with the assistance of heat the lighter or
(water of gold), in allusion to the potable gold of the more soluble parts of any substa.nce by converting them
ancient chemists, the Americans prod uced the celebrated into vapor, and &henby the application of some colder
mtnfim from Ced~at,which they called cre^rne des bar- body, removing the heat which was the means of pro-
bades, Dalmatia introduced its marasquin d e zara, Am- ducing the vapor, condensing them so as to collect them
sterdam-its curqao, while Bourdeaux acquired a world- in a liquid. form. The operation requires much care
wide reputation for its anisette. Garus, a physician, and skill.
gave us the elixir which bears his name, Colladon of The business of the brewing dGtiZZer, or the manufac-
Geneva his eaw cordia7e, and Bouillerot invented huib turer of alcohol, consists in separating the spirituous
de Venus. parts from any liquid whatsoever, that has been previ-
Since liqueurs are so much varied, the diversity of ously subjected to the vinous or alcoholic fermentation.
names called for by the public has greatly increased in The liquorist, on the other hand, never distils except
our day; so that the distillers have multiplied them on for the purpose of obtaining the perfume of aromatic
every side. Those of Paris, Villette, Lyons, Bordeaux, substances, either by means of water or alcohol ; in a
Limoges, Rouen, &c., rival each other in price and qua: word, he aromatizes these liquids, and rarely distils
lity. A t the present time the monks of the order of water or alcohol separately.
Saint-Bruno, who reside a t the monastery G r a d e Char-
treuse near Grenoble manufacture three elixirs ; white, The Laboratory, Store-rooms, Cellars; &c.
yellow, and green, which have a great reputation. The
liqueur hygidnipue of Raspail also enjoys u. high degree T h e laboratory of the liquorist should be of sufficient
of public favor. extent to enable him to carry on his operations with
A full description of the apparatus used in the va- facility ; the walls well constructed of good materials,
rious processes of distillation has been given in the vaulted or plastered; of sufficient height of pitch to pre-
earlier chapters of this book, and a repetit.1011 here mill vent the flames; in case of fire, from reaching the ceiling.
be unnecessary. I t shodd be well. ventilated, lighted from above as much
as possible, paved with gravel, or what is better still,
with bricks or stone tiles.
,It is of the greatest importance to have a t hand a
spring or well, which may fhrnish a sufficient supply o f .
water. A great quantity is required for.washing the ves-
sels ; more for cooling the stills, and in case of necessity,
The cellars should be protected as much as possible
to arrest fires which may occur in the establishment. from the jarring of passing vehicles, and the vicinity of
For this purpose, a reservoir is indispensable; which forges where heavy hammers are used. Both excite in
should be large enough to contain all the water needed liquors as well as in mines oscillations, which cause them
for a day's work, and even more. It should be filled to deposit a residuum in casks or in bottles.
- every evening. The chimney should have a large and
well-constructed flue. The breast of this chimney should
Perfect order and absolute neatness should prevail in
d l parts of t h e laboratory, the store-rooms, cellars, and
be very broad, and have the form of a broad, open hood, in all the operations of the liquorist. Without order,
under which should be placed the furnaces for the pans I the labor is confused and hindered at every turn ; with-
and stills. out cleanliness there can be no good products, for the very
The store-rooms for the liqueurs should, if possible, be best materials will only yield the most inferior results ;
on the same level as the laboratory. It is important that 1 then in summer a swarm of flies will add to the Qnnoy-
they shodld be dry. They should be paved or floored with ance. To avoid all inconveniences, i t is necessary to
pitch, and have a constant temperature of 12O or 15O. assign to everything the place i t should occupy habi-
The store-rooms for brandies and other spirits ought tually, and to wash and replace all utensils whenever
to have about the same temperature as for liqueurs. they have been in use, and to scour all implements every
This is of great importance, because heat increases, while evening that have been in use during the day ; the stills
cold diminishes the body of liquids. This store-room should be examined frequently, to see if they require
should only be half lighted, and the floor sprinkled with I
repairs or retinning ; the whole laboratory should be
salt pe t re. I
washed every day, so as to remove all substances cal-
T'he cellars should be situated on the north side, and culated to attract flies, or to engender filth, or to exhale
have a depth of five or. six meters. The vault under unpleasant odors. The fuel, sugars, plants, and other
the keystone should have a height of about four meters, ingredients, should be kept in very dry places, except
and ought to be covered to the depth of a meter or a mineral coal, which may be stored in the cellar.
meter and a half with earth; for the deeper the cellar
the better the vault. Its t e m ~ e r a t u r eshould be main- Vessels and Utensils.
tained constantly at lo0 or 130 Cent., and it is proper
when the temperature exceeds this degree, to close a
I Having treated of the subject of stills, areometers and
thermometers, in the preceding portion of this book, i t re-
portion of the air holes (or ventilators), and when the
temperature diminishes to open, without, however, re-
i mains for us to describe'only thevessels and utensils which -
ducing the temperature below lo0 above zero. are required in fitting up the laboratory' of a liquorist.
The moisture should be constant without being too There must be many pccm or basins of copper of differ-
great; an excess causes the barrels and stoppers to ent sizes (Fig. 4), as well for melting and clarifying sugar
mould, &c.; a deficiency of humidity causes the casks as for the preparation of syrups and preserved fruits, and
other purposes. These pans should be broad rather than
to dry, thereby causing loss of liquid. The reflection
and direct light of the sun must be avoided, as it causes deep, so as to afford a greater surface for evaporation ;
variations of temperature in the cellar, thereby affect+ the bottom should be convex, in order to present the
ing its character. The light should be very moderate. largest surface to the action of the heat, and prevent the
sugar or other substance from becoming impacted and . -
While too bright n light is drying, almost absolute dark-
being burned. The pans, intended for blanching and pre-
ness may and often is the occasion of an explosion, serving fruits should, on the other hand, be flat a t the
which may result in the bursting of the casks.

bottom, so that the fruits may not be crushed or bruised. little above the bottom is a hole to receive a tube B, ap-
Then come fiZte7-s (Fig. 5) : these should be of tinned - plied to the exterior of t.he filter to afford a means of
escape for the air contained in t h e apparatus. Within
Fie. 4. these are two perforated diaphragms, also of tinned
Fig. 6.

copp?r. df many sizes, furnished with covers and stop-

cocks, having small hooks within, arranged at different
. .

Filters, dippers, and dish. ' Decolorizing filter.* -

distances for attaching the strainers. These filters, which copper, one of which i s l a r g e r than t h e other to adapt
reiemble large, closed funnels, should be mounted on a them to the form of the case, one being placed near the
frame of oak, under which is placed a v a t lined with bottom, and the other fitting near t h e top. It is com-
tinned copper, in order t o catch a n y liquid which, by the pleted by the cover E,. intended to prevent t h e contents
inattention of t h e workmen, r u n s over t h e top *
of the fi-om cooling too rapidly. We shall describe t h e manner
vessel intended t o receive it. of. using the filter in t h e article on t h e Cla7ificalion of
A number of filler8 for c7ecoZdzimg syrups. This very Szcgar .
simple filter consists of s bos having t h e form of an invert- Cans (conyes), of different sizes, for mixing liqueure.
ed, truncated pyramid. This box is made of wood, lined
within with tinned copper soldered at the angles ;at the * T h i s is also known as EL '%RECTIFIEB" by.tbe liquor dealers o f
bottom, is a stopcock A, for drawing off the syrups; n the United States.-Trans.
A large bowZ lined and bound with iron, having two
T h e can (Fig. 7) of the liquorist is made of copper, tinned handles and supported a t a height of about one metre
within, having a graduated scale to indicate the quan- from the floor by cords A, attached to a strong hook in
tity of liquid i t contains, a stopcock B and cover c. the ceiling
This bowl is set in motion by twisting the cords first
in one direction and then in another, and by means of
the iron ball .B, which weighs 10 or 12 kilogrammes,
serves for bruising almonds for orgeat syrup. There are
many machines in Paris for the same purpose, but we
are assured by our own experience that they are all in-
ferior t o this simple apparatus. We ought to say, how-
ever, that we have seen a t Orleans a machine for crush-
ing almonds, similar to a mustard mill, which produces
escellent results. We shall describe it in speakiug of
syrup of orgeat.
Fig. .9.

Gradaated oan of the liquoriat.

Fig. 8.

Covered mortar.

A cylinder or ~ a m t e rfor roastiog coffee and cocoa, a .

coflee mill, a stone or marble mortar with a wooden p e e
tle, and a small bra88 mortar.
Wooden bowl and iron ball.
A large iron mortar for bruising hard substances hav- The liquorist should have, according to the importance
ing a loose pocket-like cover of leather, which is attached of his establishment, a certain number of hogsheads and
to the top of the mortar by a hoop with a hole a t the b a m e L of oak well bound with iron, haviug brass stop-
top, for the passage of the handle of the pestle. cocks, painted with oil-color, as much to protect from
of &Zh and hair for straining liquids, a 8?&1?ton
Straine's'~8 moisture and the boring of insects as to prevent evapo-
with a stopcock and a Zigvor pump of tin for transfer- ration through the pores of the wood. The paint is not
ing brandies and liqueurs into barrels, a small tgphon of a useless ornament. These vessels should stand on end
glasa or tin for smaller operations, a &rentins receiver of upon trestles so as to occupy the least space.
glass, funnels of tinned copper, glass and tin of various The laboratory should be abundantly provided with
sizes; a d i p 3 e ~and its d i d , both of which should be . flat eyatzczas of oak for stirring the mixtures, aaucepam
tinned, for pouring liquids on the filters and filling the with a lip, and others, e&immem, pip&ns and crocka of
6roclrs (metal jugs). The dipper should have a capacity stone of different sizes, hocks of tin, copper and wood,
of three litres and have a scale marked on its interior. &mgoJLm covered with osier ;fzaaks, jars, long and s h r t
A press (Fig. 10) with its frame for expressing the =eked bottles of glass, glazed earthen paw, tubes for ex-
juice from fruits and the marc of currants; an extra amining and testing liqueurs and syrups, a tin box hav-
ing many divisions, in which are kept the instrument for
Fia. 10, testing the specific gravity of liquids, steelyards, scalm
and weigh@ and tin measures for liquids.
Alarge assortment of strainera and filtering cloths of dif-
ferent sizes is necessary. The filtering cloth (cham&e)
is a sort of pocket of cloth or other woollen stuff, of
conical form, used for filtering liqueurs. It is hooked in-
side of the copper filter. The strainer is a square piece
of woollen cloth having a row of eyelets along its edge
through which a cord is run. This is hung by means
of small hooks in a square wooden frame for straining
The use of steam for heating conserves cannot be too -
highly recommended to theqiquorist, whatever may be
the extent of his business. The apparatus he should
employ should consist of an upright oaken chest lined
with zinc or copper (the latter is preferable), having a
number of shelves of iron. These shelves are open,
being composed of thin iron bars placed two fingers in
width apart, and are for supporting the bottles and jars.
ijed is necessary for pressing the marc OF orgent. The door is closed by means of two buttons or bolts,
large oak table for the general use of the laboratory; and has in the middle s glazed opening behind which a
under which should be a Inrge drawer containing plyers, thermometer is hung in order to indicate the degree . of
nippers, sugar and fruit knives, graters, cork compres- heat within. A t the bottom of the chest is a stopcock '
sors, etc. for drawing off the water condensed from the steam.

The steam is admitted from below by means of a pipe The Orate.-The grate is the support for the fuel,
and stopcock, communicating with a small + portable and on which i t is burned, by maintaining it in a s u e
boiler, having a water and steam gauge and a safety pended position, so that the air may have free access to
valve like boilers of larger size. it, thereby facilitating the regulation of the fire.
The bare of the grate should be movable, of cast iron,
- huaace. very strong, and straight; they should be supported firmly
on bars of iron ; because grates in a single piece, or fixed
After stills, the furnaces should attract the atten- in a frame, are liable to be disarranged by warping, and
tion of the liquorist. On their proper construction de- are difficult to clean. The bars for burning wood should
pends very much the success of his operations. Every
possible care should be given to their arrangement, for, be placed horizontally, the cross section being a quarter
independently of the matter of economizing fuel, they circle, so that the coals may always fall tn the middle
exercise &eat influence on the quality of the products. of the grate, while for coal, the bars should be arranged
horizontally, and on a level. The space between the
A furnace consists, first, of the fireplace; second, the bars, as well as their size and number, will depend on
grate; third, the ash pit ; fourth, the chimney.
the dimensions of the furnace, and the character of the
The FireepZuce.-The Greplace isi the space between
the bottom of the still or boiler and the grate, or the Finally, the grate should be fixed in the fireplace
place in which the fuel is burned. The walls of the under the anterior part of the still, so that this portion
fireplace should be so arranged as to reflect the greatest
of it may receive the direct action of the fire, and, aa
possible quantity of heat. It is requisite, for attaining the draught tends to send the flame and heat towards the
this end, that they should be comparatively restricted in
their dimensions so that the bottom of the still may re- chimney, the greatest possible effect is produced.
ceive the full action of the fire, and that the flame and The Ash =.-The ash pit, besides the use which its
heated air may circulate freely beneath, before passing name indicates, is principally intended to afford access
off by the sides. The dimensions of the fireplace should, for the air which serves to keep up the fire. Its dimen-
therefore, be strictly proportioned to the size of the still sions are a matter of indifference, especially for wood ;
yet, it is necessary that it should have sufficient height
and the character of the fuel to be employed. I t should and depth to contain all the ashes resulting from a day's
be so constructed that the flames, after having Zichd the work, without being crowded. The ssh pit should be
bottom of the apparatus, may circulate freely around by
means of a flue of speciaI form, making several turns closed accurately by a sliding damper, by which tbe
before reaching the chimney. By this arrangement the draught of the chimney may be regulated. and the fire
increased or lessened, as occasion may require. The
heat, which would otherwise escape, and be lost in the use of coal renders the employment of this sliding
chimney, is utilized, the liquid is equally heated, and
the smoke only escapes after having been deprived of damper indispensable.
a greater portion of its heat. The Chimney.-The chimney conveys the .smoke and
The door of the fireplace should fit as perfectly as vapors arising from the combustion out of the laboratory ;
possible, in order to prevent all access of atmospheric it causes, too, an upward draught, which constantly re-
news t h e air which finds admission through the ash pit;
air, except through the openings into the ash pit. A and this is the reason of the saying, that the taller the
complete closure of this opening is obtained by substi-
tuting for the door a round hole, stopped by a conical chimney, the better the draught. On this principle, the..
sheet-iron plug filled with sand or cinders. rapidity of the combustion, and the intensity of the
FUEL. 311

heat, will be in direct proportion to the height of the control as that made with coal; nevertheleas, there are
chimney. some countries where wood is sold a t a very low price,
The furnace should be constructed of smooth brick of while, on the contxary, coal is very dear. We indicate the
good quality-those called refracCor.y (fire brick) should moods to which we would give the preference :-
have the preference; they are laid in a mortar made of 1. Oak. 3. Hornbeam.*
clay and sand. This method of construction presents 2. Beech. 4. Elm.
the advantages of acquiring greater solidity under the Fire wood is found in the market of two sorts, cord
action of the fire, and of preserving a greater quantity wood and raft wood.
of heat. The furnace should be faced on the exterior Cord wood is that which has been transported on
with pressed brick, and bound with iron. The height wagons or boats from the forest to the place of consump-
should not exceed 85 or 90 centimeters, in order that tion. This is the best. Raft wood is floated in rafts on .
the stills may be luted without the necessity of getting navigable streams, from which circumstance it has its
on the brickwork, and that the pans of syrups and name. I t is inferior to the former.
fruits may be handled with more facility. It is to be observed that hard wood which has been
On account of their importance, furnaces ought to be protected from the prolonged action of water is the best
built by skilful and experienced men, who are perfectly for heating purposes ; round sticks are better than split
acquainted with the subject of heat and its applications. pieces, which are only used for kindling.? This results
in economy of fuel and regularity of heating.
CbaZ,or mineral coal, is of all fuels the most valuable,
and most abundant; it presents the greatest advantages
on account of its low price when compared with the
CHAPTER XIII. amount of heat it produces. All industrial pursuits de-
pend on this primary substance, as railroads, navigation,
FUEL. illumination, the manufacturing of iron, woollens, cot-
ton, &c., for their very existence. Blot out her coal .
FOR purposes of distillation ctnd the other operations fields and England would become a wilderness.
of the liquorist, heat is produced by the combustion of Coke is charred mineraZ coal, as the residuum sf the
different articles of fuel, as wood, coal, and sometimes gas-works ; it produces a very intense heat and leavee
coke. As for charcoal and turf, they are employed only very little ash ; it may replace wood-charcoal advan-
in those localities where it is difficult to procure the tageously.
three first narjned, either on account of their scarcity or Charcoal is the residuum of all kinds of wood which.
high price. The selection and use of these different have been deprived of all their volatile principles. by the
kinds of fuel involve important questions of economy. action of fire. It is black, brittle, sonorous, and of l i t
That should be adopted, the price being the same, which tle solidity; it burns readily and produces a very great
will produce the most intense and lasting heat.
Heating by means of wood is not to be preferred, nor * E c k o r y and ash, which are among the beet of American fire-
is it the least expensive. The heat produced by *his woods, appear to be unknown for such nses in France.-Tram~op. .
fuel is far inferior to that from coal. The former un- t The reader must remember that this is in France, where timber '

questionably takes fire more readily, and produces a is converted to all manner of nses, and none but such as is fit for
nothing else goes into the fire.-Tramktor.
greater amount of flame, but the fire is not so easy of

312 DISTILLATION OF ALCOHOL. some examples : mercury in its natural state is a fluid;
if i t is heated in a retort, the caloric accumulates in it,
quantity of heat; that which is compact and heavy and the mercury is evaporated in the form of a gas;
should be preferred to that which is light. if it is deprived of a sufficient amount of its caloric by
T u ~ is
f the result of a partial decomposition of cer- artificial cold, i t becomes a solid. It is by these means
- tain plants under water; it is brown or almost black ;
it burns with difficulty a t first, but when once on fire,
that water assumes its three forms-liquid, solid, and gase-
ous. Nevertheless, the effects of caloric are not always
the combustion progresses very well ; it produces little as marked, all substances not having the same affinity
flame and yields a gentle heat, but emits a very un- for it. Thus, a piece of charcoal burning at oue end
pleasant odor. may be held by the other end without inflicting any pain,
while i t would be impossible to hold in the hand a, piece
Application of Heat. of copper or iron of the same dimensions, if heated to
Heat is the principal agent of distillation; it is an redness at the other extremity. It is, then, on this prin-
interesting subject to examine and ascertain the laws ciple that alcohol boils and is converted into vapor a t a,
according to which caloric is transmitted to and through lower temperature than that required for water.
bodies. The following table indicates the boiling points Cent.
The name mZo& is given to the fluid which consti- of different liquids, and although given in another part
tutes the principle of heat; in other words, heat is the of this book is repeated here on account of its peculiar
effect, and caloric the cause. value to the liquorist :-
Caloric is an imponderable fluid, like light, distributed
throughout nature ; we become conscious of its presence
through the sensation of heat which is impressed on our
Sulphuric ether
Liquid ammonia
Pure alcohol
. ... 367S0.4

organs of sense ; invisible, eminently elastic, i t tends to Alcohol (90°)

Alcohol (85O)
.. 80°.1