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Experiment - 1

Basics of Structures

Aim

**: To study various civil engineering structures and general structural
**

understanding and how to find structural degrees of indeterminacy.

Theory

**: i) Basic understanding of structures
**

An important consideration in engineering design is the capacity of the

object being designed to support or transmit loads. Objects that must sustain

loads include building structures, machines, aircrafts, vehicles, ships and

seemingly endless list of other man-made things. For simplicity, we will

refer to all such objects as structures; thus, a structure is any object that must

support or transmit loads. In other word a structure is an arrangement of

structural elements to receive and transfer safely the load to the subsoil.

If structural failure is to be avoided, the loads that a structure actually can

support must be greater than the loads it will required to sustain when in

service. The ability of a structure to resist loads is called strength.

A detailed study of structures, including their design for safe working

condition is known as “Theory of Structures”. Actually structural analysis is

an integral part of structural design, involves the determination of forces

developed in various components of the structure for the given loading.

A structural element subjected to loads or forces is termed as body. Body

may be rigid or elastic (deformable) in nature.

Elastic body- A body is said to be perfectly elastic if deformation produced

due to application of external force completely disappears after the removal

of the load. In other word deformable bodies are those whose shape and

volume change under the action of forces.

Rigid body- A body is said to be rigid when distance between two points

remains always the same for any arbitrary chosen points of the body under

loading. Actually, solid bodies are never rigid; the deform under the action

**of applied forces. In many cases, this deformation is negligible compared to
**

the size of the body and the body may be assumed rigid. The study of

strength of materials is based on the deformation of elastic bodies. Whereas

the study of engineering mechanics is entirely based on the rigid bodies.

If the body traces back the original path of deflection on removal of load is

termed as a linearly elastic body.

ii) Classification of structures- structures can be classified in several ways,

depending upon the parameters involved. These parameters include

structural action, structural configuration, type of structural systems, types of

joints, type of applied loading and material of the structure.

1. On the basis of structural action : Basically there are two types of

structural elements – those subjected to axial forces (A.F) and others

subjected to moments. Axial forces can be tensile or compressive,

and moment can be bending or torsion. A combination of these

structural actions is possible in complex structures.

P

P1

P2

Bending

P

P

Axial Compression

Axial Tension

P

Torsion

**2. On the basis of structural geometry : Structural geometry can vary
**

over a wide spectrum, and can include one, two and three

dimensional forms. The structure may comprises

a. Linear elements (1D) (Skeletal structures)

The two dimensions are negligible as compared with first one.

Like frames and trusses.

b. Planar elements (2D) (Surface structures)

One of the three dimensions is negligible compared to others.

**Examples are plates, shells and walls.
**

c.

**Solid elements (3D) (Solid structures)
**

All the 3 dimensions i.e. length, breadth and height are

comparable. e.g. dams, tunnels etc.

d.

Curved elements like arches and shells.

**3. On the basis of joints:
**

a. Pin jointed structure – examples are Trusses, hinges of doors &

windows etc.

b. Rigid jointed structure – examples are Angle structures, fixed

end, Welded structures, buildings etc.

Each one of these are further classified asPlane frames & Space frame.

Plane frames- All the structural members and forces lie on one

plane.

Space frames- any one of the structural members or forces do not

lie in the same plane as others.

4. On the basis of structural systems: structures can be grouped as

statically determinate or statically indeterminate depending upon the

complexity of the analysis involved. The former type can be

analyzed by applying simply the principles of equilibrium of forces,

whereas the latter require more complex techniques involving the

displacement conditions in addition to the equilibrium conditions.

Further, forces or displacements can form the basis of analysis for

statically or kinematically structures.

5. On the basis of applied loading :

a) Structure subjected to static load

b) Structure subjected to dynamic load

c) Structure subjected to impact load.

6. On the basis of materials : Like R.C.C structure, Steel Structure,

Wooden structure, Masonry structures etc.

iii) Force system :

**Force- it is defined as an external agent which produces or tends to
**

produce a change in a body‟s state of rest or of uniform motion . force

system i.e. combination of different forces acting in different directions &

can be classified as :

Concurrent forces- if the line of action of forces pass through the same

point.

Non – concurrent forces- if the lines of actions of the forces do not pass

through the same point.

Coplanar forces- if the forces lie in the same plane.

Non –coplanar forces: if at least one force does not lie in the same plane.

Concurrent coplanar forces: if the lines of action of forces pass through the

same point and all forces lie in the same plane.

Concurrent non – coplanar forces: if the lines of action of forces pass

through the same point and at least one force does not lie the same plane.

Similarly we can define Non-concurrent coplanar forces & non-concurrent

non-coplanar forces.

iv) Equilibrium:It is that state of the body where all the resultant forces acting on the

body is zero. It can be further classified into two types:

1) Static equilibrium: it is that state of the body where all the net forces

acting is zero and the structure is at rest.

2) Dynamic equilibrium: it is that state of the body where the net forces

acting is zero and the structure is in uniform motion i.e. dynamic

state.

3) Free body diagram: the free body diagram is a diagram of a section

of the structure showing all the internal and external forces acting on

that part when isolated. It is drawn to know the internal and external

forces.

4) Supports : to ensure that a structure or an element remains in its

specified position under the loading conditions, it is attached to a

foundation or connected to other structural member using supports.

**e.g. hinged support, roller support and fixed support.
**

V

V

H

Hinged / Pinned support

Roller support

H

M

V

Fixed Support

v) Degree of freedom

A structure may be capable of movements (displacement and rotations) at its

joints and supports after the load are applied. The total numbers of such

possible movements in a structure is known as degree of kinematic

indeterminacy or degrees of freedom.

The pinned support is allows rotation about the defined axes but at the same

time it cannot allow the translation along all the axes.

The roller support is allowed rotation about all the axes and translation along

one define axis whereas other translation are restricted.

The fixed support is not allowed any translation and rotation along and about

the axis respectively.

Resolution of forces

If a force F acts at an angle β with axis of reference

Fx = F cosβ and Fy = Fsinβ

Fy = Fsinβ

F

β

Fx = F cosβ

Resultant force

It is that single force, which produce same effect on the body as the number

of forces are producing on it while acting simultaneously, it is also called as

Statically indeterminate structures Statically determinate structures Statically indeterminate structures Conditions of equilibrium are Conditions of equilibrium are sufficient to fully analyze the not sufficient. iii) Degree of indeterminacy It is the number of additional equations required besides the equations of . ∆V=0 and Ө=0. For a fixed support ∆H=0.equivalent force. some the mathematical conditions are to be included for to solve the unknown quantities of the structure such additional conditions are called as compatibility of deformation or compatibility conditions. support and members structures are classified as Plane frame: in which all members and forces are in the same plane.M at a section and the force They are not independent in any member is independent of material of the components of structure. Statically determinate structures 2.g. structure are classified as pin jointed and rigid jointed. In general structures are of following two types 1. No stress are caused due to Stress are generated due to temporary changes temporary changes. On the basis of the type of support. On the basis of alignment of forces. Space frames: in which at least one member is out of plane. Resultant of forces can be found out by graphical method or analytical method Compatibility of deformation In addition to the equilibrium conditions. structure B. For e.

equilibrium to determine all the external and internal reactions and moments. External indeterminacy. . pin jointed structure is said to be determinate one if. of joints in the frame For a space frame. For pin jointed structures: Internal indeterminacy: A plane frame pin jointed structure is said to be a perfect or statically internally determinate if M = 2j – 3 Where. Kinematic indeterminacy: A structure is said to be statically kinematically Indeterminate if its deformation cannot be determined completely using the support condition. So the minimum cuts are required to open all close loops gives the internal indeterminacy.no. of members adds to the degree of redundancy. M – no. It is also called the degree of redundancy. It is given by number of unknown reactions at support minus number of known equations of equilibrium. Internal indeterminacy. A structure is said to be statically indeterminate if it is a closed structure. Statically indeterminacy: It is stated in terms of external indeterminacy and internal indeterminacy. of structural members in frame j . When the three equations of equilibrium are insufficient to determine all the reactions at the supports. M = 3j – 6 The excess no.

external indeterminacy = 3-3=0 Structure is statically externally determinate.i) The given structure in plane frame pin joined No. ii) The given structure is plane frame pin jointed It has two supports and both are hinged No. of unknown reactions = 3 No. For internal indeterminacy: No. of known equations of equilibrium = 3 Hence. of members for frame to be determinate internally M = 2 (6) – 3 = 9 Hence. structure is internally determinate. of members = 9 No. of joints = 6 No. of unknown reactions = 4 .

of equations of equilibrium = 3 External indeterminacy =12 – 3 = 9 Structure is statically externally indeterminate to a degree 9. No. Structure is close. so indeterminate internally. For internal indeterminacy No. of joints = 8 Total no. of joints = 4 No. of support reactions (unknown) = 12 No. of members = 6 No. of unknowns) = 15 No. of deformation = 8 x 3 = 24 .No. of known equations of equilibrium = 3 External indeterminacy = 4 – 3 = 1 Hence structure is statically indeterminate to a degree = 1. of cuts required to completely open the surface = 5 Internal indeterminacy = 5 x 3 (no. of members required for frame to be perfect = 2(4) – 3 = 5 Structure is statically indeterminate to a degree = 1 Hence total redundancy = 1 + 1 = 2 For rigid joint structures: i) The given structure is plane frame rigid jointed No.

of known deformations = 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 = 12 ( deformations for fixed support are zero in all dimensions) i. ӨA = 0 Kinematic indeterminacy = 24 – 12 = 12 Total indeterminacy = 9 + 5 + 12 = 36 Conclusion(s) : Instructions for the students The theory suggested above is tentative of minimum information required. It is expected that the students should modify it for additional contents by referring various books on this topic.e. .No. ∆V = 0. ∆H = 0 .

they identify the maximum values of V and M. distributed loads. uniformly distributed loads or a combination of all. These reactions can be determined by the equations of . In a beam. When loads are not at right angle to the beam. we must derive the expressions for V and M in terms of the distance x measured along the beam. The shear force and bending moment diagrams are convenient visual references to the internal forces in a beam. the internal force system consists of a shear force and bending moment acting on the cross section of the bar. the reactions at support can be force or moment.Date: Experiment . The determination of the internal force system acting at a given section of a beam is straightforward: We draw a free-body diagram that exposes these forces and then compute the forces using equilibrium equations. that is. the applied forces are perpendicular to the bar. However the goal of beam analysis is to determine the shear force V and the bending moment M at every cross section of the beam. in particular. Depending upon the type of support. The transverse loading of a beam consists of concentrated loads. By plotting these expressions to scale. The internal forces give rise to two kinds of stresses on a transverse section of a beam: 1) Normal stress that is caused by the bending moment and 2) shear stress due to the shear force. they also produce axial forces in the beam. To accomplish this task. we obtain the shear force and bending moment diagrams for the beam.2 Verification of Shear Force and Bending Moment Diagrams for Beams using Standard Structural Analysis Package Aim : To determine the shear force and bending moment diagrams for different structures manually and verifying it using SAP2000 NL software Theory : The term beam refers to a slender bar that carries transverse loading.

5*2.5 + 5*2.5 m Calculate the reactions at supports M@A=0 + ve 25 * 1. Sign conventions Sagging BM is considered +ve Hogging BM is considered –ve Shear force diagram The diagram obtained by plotting values of shear force at various points of beam and plotted them against x measured from one end of beam is the shear force diagram.97 RA = 19. Procedure : Step # 1: Getting the problem and finds the reactions 25 kN 5 kN/m A B C 1.53 kN. Sign conventions: if the loads acting on the beam on the right side of the section deflect it downwards or those at the left side of the section deflect it upwards then the SF at the section is considered to be +ve.5 m . Bending moment diagram The value of bending moment is determined at various points of beam and plotted against the distance x measured from one end of the beam.5 – 17.75 – RB * 4 = 0 RB = 17. 2. This plotting is known as bending moment diagram.equilibrium in case of determinate structures.5 RA = 37.97 kN Fy = 0 + ve RA + RB = 25 + 5*2. The bending couple creates normal stresses while the shear force creates shearing stresses.

ve + ve + ve .Step # 2: Sign Conventions Shear Force: From Left to Right From Right to left .ve OR .53 kN + ve . Step # 4: Solution of the Problem Let us try the summation of quantity from right to left end.ve Bending Moment : Sagging Moment + ve Hogging Moment .47 kN SF at C (Just left of C) = 5. And accordingly adopt the sign convention as mentioned above.ve Step # 3: Theoretical Planning Decide the direction of summation of quantity either from right towards left or from left toward right.ve SF at B (Just Right of B) = 0 SF at B (Just Left of B) = 17.ve + ve From Left to Right From Right to left + ve .97 kN SF at C ( Just Right of C) = 17.97 -5*2.47 – 25 = -19.5 = 5. Shear force calculationsAdopt the sign convention indicated right From Right to left .53 kN SF at A (Just Right of C) = -19.

97 kN 5. BM at A = 17. 15 kN 2m 2m 2m .47 kN + A 19.53 kN C B Shear Force Diagram (SFD) 19.3 kNm.53 + 19.5*1.3 kNm Second degree curve + A B C Bending Moment Diagram (BMD) Likewise we can also find out the values of SF and BM from left towards right side by adopting the different sign convention as mention in the step # 2. . The SFD is the mirror image of Above Diagram.75 -25*1. Problems : 5 kN 1.5*2.SF at A (Just Left of C) = -19.53 kN From Right to left + ve If we adopt the sign indicated right then The sign of above quantities are reversed.ve Bending Moment Calculations: Sign convention is same as mentioned above BM at B = 0 kNm BM at C = 17.97*4 – 5*2.25 = 29.5 -5*2.97 * 2.5 = 0 (Hence Check) 29.53 = 0 (Hence Check) 17. Step # 5: Verify the Problem in SAP 2000 NL Software.

10 kN/m 1m 1m 1m 1m 10 kN 4.2. 10 kN 5 kNm 2m 2. 15 kNm 3m Calculations : Sample Problem No. _____ 3m 3m .5 m 2. 6 kN 2m 2m 10 kN 5.5 m 10 kN 3.

. And also the exercise problem may be different for each student/batch.Conclusion(s) : Instructions for the students The theory written and sample problems taken above is tentative of minimum information required. It is expected that the students should modify it for additional contents by referring various books on this topic.

Knowing these deflections. let us consider a structure of any type (that is. Now let us consider that the both forces P act simultaneously on the beam. dial gauges. Thus. scales. three dimensional body of arbitrary shape. in the second state. the deflections for the second state of loading are indentified as ab and bb. In an analogous manner. weights. For convenience a simple beam is discussed see the given figure. two basic conditions to be satisfied: 1) the material must follows Hooke‟s law and 2) the displacement must be small enough that all calculations can be based upon the deformed geometry of the structure. and and bb. In the first state of loading. structures for which the principle of superposition is valid). Also let us consider two states of loading acting on structure.Date: Experiment Verification of Maxwell’s Reciprocal Displacement Theorem Aim : To verify Maxwell‟s Reciprocal Displacement Theorem Apparatus : Simply supported beam. To prove the theorem in more general sense. beam. the same load P acts at any point B. This work equal to the total strain energy U of the beam. Theory : Maxwell‟s reciprocal theorem states that “In any beam or truss the deflection at any point ‘B’ due to load ‘W’ at any other point ‘A’ is the same as the deflection at point ‘A’ due to same load ‘W’ at point B. The deflections at point A and B for the first state of loading are denoted by aa and ba respectively. The first subscripts indicate the displacement measured at and second subscripts indicated the load position. we can easily calculate the work done by the two loads P as they are slowly and simultaneously applied to the beam. The deflection corresponding to the load P acting at A is aa the deflection corresponding to the load P acting at B is and ba ab. and so on). a truss.” The reciprocal theorem are important concepts in applied mechanics and structural analysis. They apply only to linear elastic structures (That is. a force P acts at any point A. is .

followed by the load at B. Because the beam behaves linearly. Let us assume that load A is applied first. the second load does work equal to ½P bb ----------------------------------------(c) And an equal amount of strain energy is developed in the beam. When an additional deflection result at B equal to the second load is applied. The . we must not overlook the fact that. bb. Hence. the strain energy must be the same when the loads are applied simultaneously and when one load is applied before the other load. The final state of the beam is the same in both cases. Then the strain energy of the beam during the application of the first load is ½P aa ----------------------------------------(b) Because this load causes the deflection aa. However. the load P acting at A undergoes an additional deflection ab.U = ½ P( aa + ab) + ½ P( ba + bb) ---------------------------------(a) P A B aa ba P B A ab bb P P A aa B + ab ba + bb The total strain energy of the beam subjected to two loads does not depend upon the order in which the loads are applied. when the load at B is being applied.

Equating the two expressions for strain energy leads to the following result: ab = ba This equation represents the reciprocal-displacement theorem. Take readings for at least three different weights. Summing equations (b). ii) Place the load hooks at any point say “C” whose distance is measured from left support. on the beam and measure deflection using dial gauge. we get the total strain energy for the case when one load is applied before the other: U=½P aa +½P bb + P ab -----------------------------------------(e) This amount of strain energy must be equal to the strain energy produced when the two loads are applied simultaneously (Equation (a)). . vi) Compare the readings of deformations at points “C” and “D”. say “A”. iv) Add load at point “C” and measure corresponding deflection at point “D”. iii) Mark another point. Procedure : i) Place the metal beam on simple supports and measure the spans. this additional strain energy is produced.corresponding amount of work done by the load is P ----------------------------------------(d) ab Thus. v) Repeat similar procedure by adding weights at point “D” and measuring deflections at point “C”. (c) and (d). say “D”. Equation (d) does not contain the factor ½ because the force P remains constant during the time that the additional deflection ab occurs.

01 mm. Load at point A (gm) Div Deflection at Load at point D (gm) Deflection at D (mm) C (mm) Div 1 2 3 4 5 6 Calculations : Conclusion(s) : Reference : Maxwell. 294-299. Table Sr. Instructions for the students The theory and procedure suggested above is tentative of minimum information required.Observation : Least count of dial gauge = 0. vol. J.” Philosophical Magazine & Dairies 4. “On the calculation of the equilibrium and stiffness of frames.. 27. pp.No. . C. 1864. It is expected that the students should modify it for additional contents by referring various books on this topic.

Since the deflection is obtained by integrating the basic differential equation twice. E= = Macaulay’s Method: We know the basic differential equation for the deflection curve: EI Where. E is the ratio of intensity of tension or compressive stress to the corresponding strain within the linear elastic range.- . Theory : Stress is the resistance offered by a body against its deformation. It gives the relation between flexural strength EI and the deflection. we get the value of deflection at the given point. two constant of integration C1 and C2 will be obtained. The bending moment at the section is given by. integrating the basic differential equation once. and Young’s modulus of elasticity. simply supported beam setup. the method is known as the double integration method. This method is introduced by Sir Macaulay. we have EI Integrating again. Apparatus : weights.- . = On Integrating - . we have EIy = Thus. strain is the ratio of change in dimension to the original dimension. while integrating it again.Experiment No – Flexural Rigidity of Beam Aim : To determine the flexural rigidity of beam having symmetric loading. we get the slope at a given point. extensometer. Integrating once. In the process of double integration.. the values of which can be determined by using the conditions at the two ends of the beam. M is positive when it is of sagging nature. It is a method for determining the deflections of a beam subjected to point loads original discontinuous loads. that‟s why it is often called as Macaulay‟s Method.

At Procedure y = ymax. At =0 At Integrating the equation (1). putting in equation (3) : Take a simply supported beam and mark point equidistant from the opposite side.For symmetrically loaded beam. The observation were made and requisite calculation were performed Observations : Span length = Least count of dial gauge = . Dial gauge was placed at the centre of the beam to find the deflection. For different set of symmetric loadings find the deflection.

pp.” The Messenger of Mathematics.SR. vol. “Note on the deflection of beams. NO LOAD (gm) DISTANCE (N) a (cm) DIAL GAUGE READING FLEXURAL RIGIDITY b (cm) 1 2 3 4 5 Average Calculations : EI = Result : The flexural rigidity of simply supported beam is found to be____________________ Reference : Macaulay.. . H. 129-130. Cambridge. 1919. XLVII. W. May 1918-April 1919.

Mathematically. These relationships are developed by considering the continuity of the beam displacement curve over supports (compatibility conditions). then the same number of equations required to determine the support moment can be obtained from the consecutive span”.B and C = flexural rigidity of span AB = flexural rigidity of span BC = distance of C. The support moment can be determined from these relationships by the boundary conditions of the beam. developed by Clapeyron in 1857.G of from A . provides a simple method to analyze continuous beams. = span length AB = span length BC = flexural rigidity of span AB = flexural rigidity of span AB = moment at support A. Theory : This theorem. When the material is different for different spans Where.M.Experiment No – Three Moment Theorem (Clapeyron’s Theorem) Aim : Verification of three moment theorem by using standard structural analysis package. The three moment theorem or Clapeyron‟s theorem is stated as “If a beam (shown in the figure below) has „n‟ supports the ends of which are fixed. in the corresponding simple spans. This theorem also called as Clapeyron‟s theorem. develops a relationship between the moment at three consecutive supports of continuous beams and the B.

Que. Diagram Application : The three hinge moment theorem can be used to analyze beams which are indeterminate easily.= distance of C. 15 kN 12 kN/m 8 kN/m M C A B 2m 3m 2m 20 kNm 3m .M.G of E1 I1 A from C E2 I2 B l1 C l2 a) Given system MA MB MC b) Reduced system X1 X2 A2 A1 c) B. diagram in the released system - - + - + + + d) Final B. fixed supports and with overhang. : Determine the support moments and draw SFD and BMD for the beam shown below considering young’s modulus is constant. Theory is the most useful in analysis of continuous beams with simply supports.m.

3-moment theorem. . “Calcul d‟une pouter elastique resposant librement sur des appuis inegalement espaces. Now consider span AB and BC Result : The three hinge moment theorems are verified using SAP2000.E. Vol. pp.Considering imaginary beam AM and AB Applying.. B. 1857. 1076-1080.P.” Comptes Rendus.45. Reference : Clapeyron.

OR Procedure : 1. 1 and fig. Q2 Q1 Qn Pm ‟Q2 ‟Q1 Q2 Q1 Qn Pm ‟Pm 1 P2 2 ‟P2 P2 ‟P1 P1 P1 ‟Qn From the fig. dial gauge were setup and load is applied as other set. 3. The apparatus was setup and the span of the beam is measured. Theory : The reciprocal-work theorem states that “The work done by the forces in the first state of laoding when they move through their corresponding displacement in the second state of loading is equal to the work done by the forces in the second state of loading when they move through their corresponding displacements in the first state of loading.” Betti‟s law is an extension of Maxwell‟s theorem. . 2. 2 we have. Two sets of three points were chosen. At one set of points.Experiment No – Betti’s Theorem (Reciprocal-work Theorem) Aim : Verification of Betti-Rayleigh reciprocal theorem.

No. Deflections were measured for the different sets of loading. The dial gauges were setup at the second set of points and loadings applied on the first set. Observations : S. The setup was reversed. Step 4 to 6 was repeated. 5. Load (P) Deflection Caused by Load (P) Division Deflection (mm) Load (Q) Deflection Caused by Load (Q) Division Deflection (mm) ‟ Summation Calculations : . 6.4.

1872.. pp. 357-368. Series 2.” Proceeding of London Mathematical Society. “Teoria della Elasticita. 4. Lord. 7 and 8. . 2) Rayleigh. “Some General Theorems relating to vibrations. 1873. Vol.” II Nuova Cimento. E.Result : Reference : 1) Betti. Vol.

Date: Experiment Verification of Moment Distribution Method by using Standard Structural Analysis Software Aim : Verification of moment distribution method by using some standard structural analysis software. The moment distribution method was developed by Prof. methods that did not involve simultaneous equations were required to analyze large structures before the advent of computers. The end moments of all the members are computed for this condition of the structure (all the members having fixed ends). they converge in a few iterations to the correct solution. This is accomplished by assuming all the joints to be fully restrained. The structural system is first reduced to its kinematically determinate form in this method. Though this method is iterative in nature. The method can also be applied to frames with few additional computations. This method involves the distributing the known fixed-end moments of the structural members to the adjacent members of the joints. Thus. in order to satisfy the conditions of continuity of slope and displacements (compatibility conditions). This method provides an elegant and quick procedure to analyze continuous beams. Theory : The method of analysis of indeterminate structures involves the formulation and solution of simultaneous equations. The joints are allow to rotate one after other by releasing them successively. Such method was developed early this century which did not rely exclusive on the solution of simultaneous equations. Such process can be tedious. time consuming and error prone when large structure are analyzed. The unbalanced moment at the joint is shared by the members connected at the joint when it is released. Procedure : The process of moment distribution method for prismatic beams is summarized below: . This method makes use of the ability of various structural members at a joint to sustain moments in proportion to their relative stiffnesses. Hardy Cross in the 1930s (some time referred as Hardy Cross‟ Method).

F. 2. 4. Exercise Problem : Determine the B.M.).. The unbalanced moments so distributed at a joint are known as distributed moments (D. diagrams for the beams shown in Fig below. and K = 0 (if the far end is free).O.M.M.) 5.M) these moments are distributed among the various members meeting at the joint on the basis of D. D. These values are known as the final end moments (F.M) are computed for each member for the given loading.M. Distribution factors at each joint are computed on the basis of relative rotational stiffnesses of the members at that joint. 50 kN 10 kN/m 1) B A C EI 8m EI 4m 2m ..M. The D.M. The released moments are carried over to the far ends of the corresponding members depending upon the carry over factors. Fixed end moments (F. K = 3EI/L ( if the far end is simply supported).M) from all the cycles (Step 5 to 7) for each member meeting at the joint is calculated. 7. 3. 6. Rotational stiffnesses K of all the members meeting at a joint are computed depending upon the condition at the far end. these moments are known as carry over moments (C.M. The algebraic sum of all the moments (F.O.O. The unbalanced moments at each joint are computed from the total moments (T. or T. These factors are noted alone each member meeting at the joint. and C.M).E. these moments are referred as released moment (R. Moments are released at the simply supported end. R.1.F.E.). The value of K is given by K = 4EI/L (If the far end is fixed). Steps 5 and 6 are repeated at each joint until no unbalanced moment exists at any joint or till the moment carried over is negligible compared to their final end moments (usually within about one percent) 8.M are carried over to the far ends of the corresponding members on the basis of their C.M and S.M.

5 m 2m 2m C .25 EI 2. _____ 1.25 kN/m 2) B A C 1.5 m Calculations : Problem No.5 m 1.5 m 2EI 3m 4m 5 kN 4) A 4 kN/m 2 kNm B EI 2.5 EI 1.5 EI EI Support C sinks by 10 mm 10 m 8m Assume EI = 10 MNm2 150 N/m 125 Nm 3) 200 N C B A 2.

Cross. Proceeding of the American Society of Civil Engineers(ASCE): pp. Hardy (1930).. McGraw-Hill Book Co. Wang C.. Indeterminate Structural Analysis. “Analysis of Continuous Frames by Distributing FixedEnd Moments”. 919-928. New York (1983). 2.Conclusion : References : 1. K. .

moments are then known. Sign Convention – All clockwise internal moments and end rotation are positive. It is no different from that used with the force method. while the redundant forces were used in the force method.Date: Experiment Verification of Slope Deflection Method by using Standard Structural Analysis Software Aim : Verification of Slope deflection method by using some standard structural analysis software. Fundamental Slope-Deflection Equations – w(x) B A A MAB MBA B . The basic assumption used in the slope deflection method is that a typical member can bend but shear and axial deformation are negligible. Solve for the generalized displacements. The basic idea of the slope deflection method is to write the equilibrium equations for each node in terms of the deflections and rotations. Maney. Theory : The slope deflection method is a structural analysis method for beams and frames introduced in 1915 by George A. This method consider the deflection as primary unknowns. the relationship is established between moments at the ends of the members and the corresponding rotations and displacement. The structure is thus reduced to a determinate structure. The slope deflection method was widely used for more than a decade until the moment distribution method was developed. Using moment displacement relations. In this method.

A segment is the portion of the beam between the two nodes. 2) for each segment. Check the end conditions to see whether one of the end rotations is zero or not. . MBA = 4EI B/L MAB = 6EI /L2. FEMAB = Fixed end moments due to external loading over span AB at joint A FEMBA = Fixed end moments due to external loading over span BA at joint B w(x) A B FEMAB FEMBA Rotation at A – MAB A B MAB = 4EI A/L. generate the two governing equations. MBA = 2EI A/L MAB = 2EI B/L. generate an equilibrium conditions using the FBD. MBA = 6EI /L2 A MBA Rotation at B – MBA MAB A B B Displacement of end B related to end A A MAB MBA Procedure B : 1) Scan the beam and identify the number of segment and kinematic unknowns. the FEM term is zero.Where. Kinematic unknowns are those rotations and displacements that are not zero and must be computed. 3) For each kinematic unknowns. If there are no element loads.

50 kN 10 kN/m B A 1) C EI EI 8m 4m 2m 25 kN/m B A 2) C 1.5 m 2m 2m C .5 EI 2EI 3m 1.5 EI EI Support C sinks by 10 mm 10 m 8m Assume EI = 10 MNm2 150 N/m 125 Nm C B A 3) 200 N 2.4) Solve for all unknowns by combining all the equations from step 2 and 3.25 EI 2. diagrams for the beams shown in Fig below. 5) Compute the support reactions with appropriate FBDs.5 m 4m 5 kN 4) A 4 kN/m 2 kNm B EI 2.5 m 1. _____ 1. Exercise Problem : Determine the B. Now the equations are entirely in terms of the kinematic unknowns.F.5 m Calculations : Problem No.M and S.

Minneapolis: University of Minnesota. Maney.(1915). Studies in Engineering.Conclusion : References : 1. . George A.

Energy principles and principles of structural analysis are based on Newton‟s laws of motion. Strain energy is released in elastic bodies on removal of the loads. the work done by the force is stored in the body as strain energy. Its application is not only in elementary analysis but also in advanced analysis and finite element methods. Theory : Energy principles are used to determine displacement in structures and redundant action of an indeterminate structures. Some significant concepts about force and energy are explained here. the concepts of strain energy can be applied to determine displacements . does not often leads to serious errors in practical structures. If the force applied results in the distortion (or deformation) of the body. Computation of real energy can be tedious because of high order terms involved. However. This assumption. It is generally assumed that energy is converted from one form to another within a given structural system. especially when steady loads are applied. This is ideal situation. and no energy is dissipated in vibrations or as heat. however. the algebraic sum of external and internal work done must be zero. The body receives either Kinetic Energy (if its velocity is changed) or potential energy (if its position in the gravitational field is changed). which may not always be realized in practice. When a force displaces a body. Since the total energy of a system remains constant.Date: Experiment Verification of Strain Energy Method by using Standard Structural Analysis Software Aim : Verification of strain energy method by using some standard structural analysis software. It is equal to product of the force applied and distance moved by its point of application in the direction of force applied. Work is done when a force acting on a body displaces it from its original position. Strain energy can be visualized as another form of potential energy and is sometimes referred to as internal work done.

Theorem II: If the strain energy of a structure is expressed as a function of external forces. This was first observed by Castligliano. U = UA + US + UB + UT Where. ( Total strain energy should be minimum) R is the redundant action of the beam. U = UB = Now. Theorem I: If the strain energy of a structure is expressed as a function of the relative displacements of the external forces applied at its nodes. Castligliano‟s first theorem is useful in analyzing statically indeterminate structures. . the partial derivatives of the resulting expression with reference to these forces yield the values of relative displacements at the corresponding points of their application. Who postulated two theorems in 1876. while his second theorem is extensively used in computing displacement in a structure. the partial derivatives of the resulting expression with reference to those displacements yield the values of the corresponding forces. U = Total strain energy stored in the structure UA = Strain Energy due to axial forces = US = Strain energy due to shear forces = UB = Strain energy due to bending moment = UT = Strain energy due to Twisting moment = In case of beam subjected to lateral load only.in a structure by making use of principle of minimum energy of a system.

5 m 1. 50 kN 10 kN/m 1) B A C EI EI 8m 4m 2m 25 kN/m 2) B A C 1. diagrams for the beams shown in Fig below.5 m Calculations : Problem No.M and S.25 EI 2. _____ 1.5 m 2m 2m C .Exercise Problem : Determine the B.5 m 4m 5 kN 4) A 4 kN/m 2 kNm B EI 2.F.5 EI 2EI 3m 1.5 EI EI Support C sinks by 10 mm 10 m 8m Assume EI = 10 MNm2 150 N/m 125 Nm 3) 200 N C B A 2.

Conclusion : References : 1) Castligliano. 1966. C. Dover Publications. The Theory of Equlibirium of Elastic Systems and Its Applications. S.. New York.. Andrews with a new introduction and biographical portrait section by G. Oravas. P. Inc. . A. A. translated by E.

It consists of two points or parts AC and BC hinged together at the point C. people of Asiatic origin who invaded northern Italy around 1300 B.Date: Experiment Study of Three Hinged Arch Aim : Study of Three Hinged Arch. two-hinged.M. and resist external loads predominantly through axial compression. Arches have a long and interesting history through several countries and their development spans over several countries. Their use in other structures is also extensive on account of their efficient structural performance. dams and large subterranean structures make use of arch profiles for safety and economy. two-hinge with tie rod.C. The support of arch must be strong enough to develop horizontal thrust. Theory : An Arch may be visualized as a beam curved in elevation with convexity upward which is restrained at its ends from spreading outwards under the action of downward vertical loading. Circular segments. This concept is called as Theoretical arch concept. The given figure shows a three-hinged arch. Ancient Egyptians.M. on the basis of materials. suspended tie arch and fixed arch. Bridges. The central line of an arch should be approximately. and used them extensively as architectural units. Arches are used in buildings either for their functionality and aesthetics. shape and structural systems. Arches can be classified in several ways. Structural shape/configuration permits classification of arches as three-hinged. apparently used in recorded history. Assyrians and Babylonians also knew the advantages of arches.. Each part is hinged at to the permanent . horizontal thrust can be developed by means of a tie rod connecting the two end of an arch. Etruscans. parabolas and multicentre circular curves provide ideal shapes to the approximate funicular polygons for usual loading conditions. Arches are very efficient forms of structural elements that develop only small B. as close as possible to the funicular polygon for dead load and at least a part of live load so that the B. In some cases. are small.

C Rise. (L/2) = H. This is called the H moment at section X-X.y In case of parabolic arch the numerical relation between x and y is . we can easily find out the horizontal reactive component whereas the vertical reactions will get from MA = 0 and FY = 0. The horizontal distance between the lower ends A and B is called the span of the arch. The horizontal component of reactions are equal if there is no horizontal applied load over the arch. Hinge C. W1 a Crown. the height of the crown (point C). The bending moment at section XX. MC = 0. When ends A and B are at the same level. x – W1(x-a) – H. Reactions at both ends A and B will have both horizontal and vertical components. as horizontal and vertical movement are not possible. Actual BM at X-X = Beam moment at X-X – H moment at X-X. yc y HA A x B HB Span VA VB Any external loads tends to cause an increase in the span length. Taking moment about C. By using M C = 0. above the level of the ends is called the rise of the arch. is provided at the highest point of the centre line of the arch.support like an abutment at the lower ends (A and B). H is calculated. The difference between beam and arch is that in case of arch a horizontal thrust is induced at each support which provides a hogging moment Hy at any section. „x‟ distance from support A is MX = VA. Va .h + W1((L/2)-a) Hence.

2) For the same material of construction. 4) Three hinged arches adjust themselves in case of yielding of support and so does not fail. Tata Mc-Graw Hill Publishing company limited. Disadvantages: 1) They are difficult to construct. 3) Three hinged arch fail easily if any of the horizontal support fails.Advantages : 1) The sagging moments are compensated by the hogging produced by horizontal reaction. . thickness of arches is less than that of beams. Gupta. New Delhi. 3) More resistance to temperature stresses. Pandit and R. hence more economical.(1999).Gupta.” Volume II.S. References : 1) S. span.P. G. “Theory of Structures.

cracking and delamination. Ideally such testing should be done without damaging the concrete. c) Schmidt/rebound hammer test. Importance and need of non-destructive testing It is often necessary to test concrete structures after the concrete has hardened to determine whether the structure is suitable for its designed use. elastic modulus and strength as well as surface hardness and surface absorption etc. Basic Methods for NDT of Concrete structures The following methods.Date: Experiment No Study of Non-Destructive Testing (Schmidt Rebound Hammer Test) Aim : Theory : To determine the strength of concrete member by rebound hammer test. such as core tests and pullout and pull off tests. e) Permeability test. . The range of properties that can be assessed using non-destructive test is quite large and includes such fundamental parameters as density. used to measure the flow of water through the concrete. have been used for the NDT of concrete. used to detect corrosion potential of reinforcing bars in concrete. used to determine whether moisture has reached the depth of the reinforcing bars and hence corrosion may occurring. b) Half cell electrical potential method. where the surface can be repaired after the test. In some cases it is also possible to check the quality of workmanship and structural integrity by the ability to detect voids. which is an essential part of NDT. with some typical applications. d) Carbonation depth measurement test. Non destructive testing can be applied to both old and new structures. where there is no damage to the concrete. to partially destructive tests. The tests available for testing concrete range from the completely non destructive. used to evaluate the surface hardness of concrete. a) Visual inspection. through those where the concrete surface is slightly damaged.

Schmidt rebound hammer. The main components include the outer body. The rebound distance is recorded as a “rebound number” corresponding to the position of the rider on the scale. Other features include a latching mechanism that locks the hammer mass to the plunger rod and a sliding rider to measure the rebound of the hammer mass. delamination and other anomalies in concrete and also detect water entry points in buildings. and the main spring. . empirical correlations have been established between strength properties and the rebound number. used to detect voids. The hammer weighs about 1. 2. 1. the plunger. Fundamental principle The Schmidt rebound hammer is principally a surface hardness tester.f) Radiographic testing. 1. used to detect void of concrete and the position of stressing ducts. The rebound distance is measured on an arbitrary scale marked from 10 to 100.8 kg and is suitable for use both in a laboratory and in the field. It works on the principle that the rebound of an elastic mass depends on the hardness of the surface against which the mass impinges. FIG. However. Kolek has attempted to establish a correlation between the hammer rebound number and the hardness as measured by the Brinell method. A schematic cutaway view of the rebound hammer is shown in Fig. h) Infrared theromography. g) Ultrasonic pulse velocity testing. EQUIPMENT FOR SCHMIDT/REBOUND HAMMER TEST The Schmidt rebound hammer is shown in Fig. the hammer mass. mainly used to measure the sound velocity of the concrete and hence compressive strength of concrete. There is little apparent theoretical relationship between the strength of concrete and the rebound number of the hammer. within limits. Further.

however.FIG. Too much reliance should not be placed on the calibration curve supplied with the hammer since the manufacturer develops this curve using standard cube specimens and the mix used could be very different from the one being tested. affects the rebound number due to the action of gravity on the mass in the hammer. provided the hammer is perpendicular to the surface under test. A typical correlation procedure is. Thus the rebound number of a floor would be expected to be smaller than that of a soffit and inclined and vertical surfaces would yield intermediate results. as follows: . 2. A cutaway schematic view of the Schmidt rebound hammer APPLICATIONS OF SCHMIDT REBOUND HAMMER TEST The hammer can be used in the horizontal. the test is only useful if a correlation can be developed between the rebound number and concrete made with the same coarse aggregate as that being tested. The position of the mass relative to the vertical. vertically overhead or vertically downward positions as well as at any intermediate angle. Although a high rebound number represents concrete with a higher compressive strength than concrete with a low rebound number.

For cubes. 5 on each of 3 vertical lines 120° apart. Use the same cement and aggregates as are to be used on the job. place the cylinders in a compression-testing machine under an initial load of approximately 15% of the ultimate load to restrain the specimen.(1) Prepare a number of 150 mm × 300 mm cylinders (or 150 mm 3 cube specimens) covering the strength range to be encountered on the job site. Avoid testing the same spot twice. Ensure that cylinders are in a saturated surface-dry condition. Cure the cylinders under standard moist-curing room conditions. (2) After capping. take 5 readings on each of the 4 molded faces without testing the same spot twice. (4) Average the readings and call this the rebound number for the cylinder under test. (6) Fit a curve or a line by the method of least squares. . (5) Test the cylinders to failure in compression and plot the rebound numbers against the compressive strengths on a graph. against the side surface in the middle two thirds of each cylinder. keeping the curing period the same as the specified control age in the field. (3) Make 15 hammer rebound readings. Repeat this procedure for all the cylinders.

2.2a. (Greene curve used Type N hammer. RANGE AND LIMITATIONS OF SCHMIDT REBOUND HAMMER TEST Although the rebound hammer does provide a quick. Fig.2b. inexpensive method of checking the uniformity of concrete. the body is allowed to move away from the concrete until the latch connects the hammer mass to the plunger. A button on the side of the body is pushed to lock the plunger into the retracted position and the rebound number is read from a scale on the body.2c. Surface and internal moisture conditions of concrete 5. The plunger is then held perpendicular to the concrete surface and the body pushed towards the concrete. The mass hits the shoulder of the plunger rod and rebounds because the rod is pushed hard against the concrete. Carbonation of the concrete surface Procedure: The method of using the hammer is explained using Fig. When the maximum extension of the spring is reached. shape and rigidity of the specimen 3. Fig. Fig. Observations: . With the hammer pushed hard against the concrete. Smoothness of the test surface 2. Size. Type of cement 7. During rebound the slide indicator travels with the hammer mass and stops at the maximum distance the mass reaches after rebounding. Fig. the latch releases and the mass is pulled towards the surface by the spring. Type of coarse aggregate 6. Age of the specimen 4.2d. it has some serious limitations.Correlation curves produced by different researchers. others used Type N-2). This movement extends the spring holding the mass to the body. The results are affected by : 1.

Results : Conclusion : .

it will be possible to locate the position of loads for maximum effects by inspection or intuition. was first formulated in 1867 by E.Date: Experiment No Influence Line Diagram and moving loads application in bridges Aim : Study the influence line diagram and special application of moving loads in bridges. A. for instance. when Heinrich Mueller-Breslau.. Winkler. . In some cases. for which their effects (B.L. another German. In the case of linear structures such as beams. In some cases. a systematic procedure to determine the critical effects of moving loads is offered by the concept of influence lines (I.L.F. in general.. developed in further by extending the principle of reciprocity enunciated by J.). or deflections) will be maximum. a German scientist. C. when expressed in a graphical form. there will be at least one position of the given loads. are subjected to moving loads whose effects on structures vary depending upon the position occupied by the load systems. Trial and error process may be adequate in few other cases. trusses and frames. For any system. it will be possible to locate the position of loads for maximum. when a unit load moves along its length. The importance of the concept was not realized until after 1887. S. However. The concept of I. Maxwell. An influence line. Bridges. can be defined as the graphical representation of the variation of a specified parameter at a section in a structure. is known as the influence diagram. This variation. Theory : Superimposed loads on structures are not always static. these diagrams are called influence lines. The variation of significant effects in a structures caused by a moving unit load can be expressed as a function of the position of the load.M.F. Mueller-Breslau also discovered a simple method of developing influence diagrams qualitatively (Which bears his name).

Consider the beam subjected to a moving unit load as shown below. accordingly the constraints corresponding to the chosen reaction component is released and the chosen reaction component is given a unit displacement while all other reaction components are kept undisplaced. Solution.Influence diagrams can be drawn for statically determinate as well as indeterminate structures. VC. RB. The ordinates of the influence line for any chosen reaction component may be determined by adopting any one of the following methods: i) Direct Method In this approach. the unit load is placed at any point P and the value of the chosen reaction component is determined by using any one of the methods. RB . Example 1: Construct influence lines RA. Influence lines for reactions RA. and for planar structures (plates). in the latter case they are called influence surfaces. They can be drawn for structures comprising linear elements (beams. ii) Indirect Method The indirect method is based on Muller Breslau‟s principle. MC of a simply supported beam. arches and frames).

MC .Influence lines for shear and bending moment VC.

comprises a series of concentrated loads. or a combination of both. Influence lines provide an infallible means of determining the worst possible effects (BM. for instance.Rolling Loads: Loads that can occupy any location on a structure are known as moving loads or rolling loads in order to distinguish them from stationary loads. It is essential to determine the maximum possible effects of loads on a structure to design its cross sections to withstand the applied loads with adequate safety. Bridge loading (highways and railways). A systematic procedure is essential to determine the possible locations of live loads on a structure for design purposes. Further. SF and AF) of dead loads . loads that are a combination of both concentrated and distributed loads leads to avoidable complications in analysis. and the process may involve several trials. Such loads are usually replaced by their equivalent uniformly distributed loads (EUDL) in order to simplify design computations. or loads spread over a certain length. It is difficult to determine the location of such loads for their maximum effects at a section by inspection.

When a number of concentrated moving loads cross the girder. Sometimes a particular section of the bridge girder may be of interest. it is necessary to determine the maximum (and. Thus. the minimum) values of stresses at several sections of the structure in addition to the largest (and some times the lowest) values of stress components that can occur at any section of the structure. in certain existing or contemplated industrial areas. A structure is always designed for the largest (absolute maximum) value of a parameter. Bridges designed for Class AA loading should be checked for Class A loading also.on a structure require more careful considerations than dead loads. it shall be used in place of IRC Class AA loading. IRC load classifications Road bridges and culverts shall be divided into classes according to the loadings they are designed to carry IRC Class AA loading : This loading is to be adopted within certain municipal limits. as under certain conditions. and the adequacy of the member provided is checked at various section. Where Class 70-R is specified. and along certain specified highways. a vehicle crossing a bridge it is necessary to find the maximum shear force and maximum bending moment and the corresponding position of the series of loads. . for example. in other specified areas. heavier stresses may be obtained under Class A loading. some times. in such case of the load position giving maximum value of shear force and maximum value of bending moment.

IRC Class A Loading: This loading is to be normally adopted on all roads on which permanent bridges and culverts are constructed. .

Structure with timber span are to be consider as temporary structures.IRC Class B Loading: This loading is to be normally adopted for temporary structures and for bridges in specified areas. .

Conclusion(s) : .

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