TANGENT & NORMAL

THINGS TO REMEMBER :
I
The value of the derivative at P (x1 , y1) gives the
slope of the tangent to the curve at P. Symbolically
f (x1) =

dy 
d x  x

1 y1

= Slope of tangent at

P (x1 y1) = m (say).
II

Equation of tangent at (x1, y1) is ;
y  y1 =

III

dy 

dx x

1 y1

(x  x1).

Equation of normal at (x1, y1) is ;
y  y1 = 

1
dy
d x  x

(x  x1).

1 y1

NOTE :
1.
The point P (x1 , y1) will satisfy the equation of the curve & the equation of tangent & normal line.
2.
If the tangent at any point P on the curve is parallel to the axis of x then dy/dx = 0 at the point P.
3.
If the tangent at any point on the curve is parallel to the axis of y, then dy/dx =  or dx/dy = 0.
4.
If the tangent at any point on the curve is equally inclined to both the axes then dy/dx = ± 1.
5.
If the tangent at any point makes equal intercept on the coordinate axes then dy/dx = – 1.
6.
Tangent to a curve at the point P (x1, y1) can be drawn even through dy/dx at P does not exist.
e.g. x = 0 is a tangent to y = x2/3 at (0, 0).
7.
If a curve passing through the origin be given by a rational integral algebraic equation, the equation of the
tangent (or tangents) at the origin is obtained by equating to zero the terms of the lowest degree in the equation.
e.g. If the equation of a curve be x2 – y2 + x3 + 3 x2 y  y3 = 0, the tangents at the origin are given by
x2 – y2 = 0 i.e. x + y = 0 and x  y = 0.
IV

V

Angle of intersection between two curves is defined as the angle between the 2 tangents drawn to the
2 curves at their point of intersection. If the angle between two curves is 90° every where then they are
called ORTHOGONAL curves.
(a) Length of the tangent (PT) =

y1 1  f ( x1 )2
f ( x1 )

(c) Length of Normal (PN) = y1 1  f ( x1 )2
VI

(b) Length of Subtangent (MT) =

y1

f ( x1 )

(d) Length of Subnormal (MN) = y1 f '(x1)

DIFFERENTIALS :
The differential of a function is equal to its derivative multiplied by the differential of the independent
variable. Thus if, y = tan x then dy = sec2 x dx.
In general dy = f  (x) d x.
Note that : d (c) = 0 where 'c' is a constant.
d (u + v  w) = du + dv  dw
d (u v) = u d v + v d u

Note :
1.
For the independent variable 'x', increment  x and differential d x are equal but this is not the case with
the dependent variable 'y' i.e.  y  d y.
dy
2.
The relation d y = f (x) d x can be written as
= f  (x) ; thus the quotient of the differentials of 'y' and
dx
'x' is equal to the derivative of 'y' w.r.t. 'x'.

EXERCISE–I
Q.1

Find the equations of the tangents drawn to the curve y2 – 2x3 – 4y + 8 = 0 from the point (1, 2).

Q.2

Find the point of intersection of the tangents drawn to the curve x 2y = 1 – y at the points where it is
intersected by the curve xy = 1 – y.

Q.3

Find all the lines that pass through the point (1, 1) and are tangent to the curve represented parametrically
as x = 2t – t2 and y = t + t2.

Q.4

In the curve xa yb = Ka+b , prove that the portion of the tangent intercepted between the coordinate axes
is divided at its point of contact into segments which are in a constant ratio. (All the constants being
positive).

Q.5

A straight line is drawn through the origin and parallel to the tangent to a curve
 a  a 2  y2
x  a 2  y2

= ln 
y
a

 at an arbitary point M. Show that the locus of the point P of

intersection of the straight line through the origin & the straight line parallel to the x-axis & passing
through the point M is x2 + y2 = a2.

Q.6

Prove that the segment of the tangent to the curve y =

2
2
a a a x
ln
2 a  a2  x2

a 2  x 2 contained between

the y-axis & the point of tangency has a constant length.
Q.7

A function is defined parametrically by the equations
f(t) = x =

Q.8

2t  t 2 sin
0

1
if t  0
t
if t  0

and g(t) = y =

1
sin t 2 if t  0
t
o
if t  0

Find the equation of the tangent and normal at the point for t = 0 if exist.
Find all the tangents to the curve y = cos (x + y),  2  x  2, that are parallel to the line x + 2y = 0.
Find the value of n so that the subnormal at any point on the curve xyn = an + 1 may be constant.
Show that in the curve y = a. ln (x² a²), sum of the length of tangent & subtangent varies as the
product of the coordinates of the point of contact.

Q.9

(a)
(b)

Q.10

Prove that the segment of the normal to the curve x = 2a sin t + a sin t cos2t ; y =  a cos3t contained
between the co-ordinate axes is equal to 2a.

Q.11

Show that the normals to the curve x = a (cos t + t sin t) ; y = a (sin t  t cos t) are tangent lines to the
circle x2 + y2 = a2.
1
The chord of the parabola y =  a2x2 + 5ax  4 touches the curve y =
at the point x = 2 and is
1 x
bisected by that point. Find 'a'.

Q.12
Q.13

If the tangent at the point (x1, y1) to the curve x3 + y3 = a3 (a  0) meets the curve again in (x2, y2) then
x
y
show that 2  2 =  1.
x1 y1

Q.14

Determine a differentiable function y = f (x) which satisfies f ' (x) = [f(x)]2 and f (0) = –
equation of the tangent at the point where the curve crosses the y-axis.

1
. Find also the
2

Q.15

If p1 & p2 be the lengths of the perpendiculars from the origin on the tangent & normal respectively at
dy
p1 x sin   y cos  
where tan  = . If in the

p 2  x cos   y sin  
dx
above case, the curve be x2/3 + y2/3 = a2/3 then show that :
4 p12 + p22 = a2.

any point (x, y) on a curve, then show that

Q.16

The curve y = ax3 + bx2 + cx + 5 , touches the x - axis at P ( 2 , 0) & cuts the y-axis at a point Q where
its gradient is 3. Find a , b , c.

Q.17

The tangent at a variable point P of the curve y = x2  x3 meets it again at Q. Show that the locus of the
middle point of PQ is y = 1  9x + 28x2  28x3.

Q.18

Show that the distance from the origin of the normal at any point of the curve





x = a e  sin  2 cos  & y = a e  cos  2 sin  is twice the distance of the tangent at the point
2
2
2
2

from the origin.

Q.19

Show that the condition that the curves x2/3 + y2/3 = c2/3 & (x2/a2) + (y2/b2) = 1 may touch if c = a + b.

Q.20

The graph of a certain function f contains the point (0, 2) and has the property that for each number 'p'

Q.21

A curve is given by the equations x = at2 & y = at3. A variable pair of perpendicular lines through the
origin 'O' meet the curve at P & Q. Show that the locus of the point of intersection of the tangents at P &
Q is 4y2 = 3ax  a2.

the line tangent to y = f (x) at p, f (p)  intersect the x-axis at p + 2. Find f (x).

x2
y2
x2
y2

Q.22(a) Show that the curves 2
=1& 2
= 1 intersect orthogonally..
a  K1 b 2  K1
a  K 2 b2  K 2

(b) Find the condition that the curves
Q.23

x 2 y2
x 2 y2

=1&
= 1 may cut orthogonally..
a
b
a  b

y
Show that the angle between the tangent at any point 'A' of the curve ln (x2 + y2) = C tan–1 x and the
line joining A to the origin is independent of the position of A on the curve.

Q.24

2

For the curve x2/3 + y2/3 = a2/3, show that z + 3p2 = a2 where z = x + i y & p is the length of the
perpendicular from (0 , 0) to the tangent at (x , y) on the curve.

Q.25

A and B are points of the parabola y = x2. The tangents at A and B meet at C. The median of the triangle
ABC from C has length 'm' units. Find the area of the triangle in terms of 'm'.

the side 'c' and the angle 'C' remain constant. Find At what rate is the water level changing when the water is 8 m deep.  cos A cos B Q. 7) touches the circle x2 + y2 + 16x + 12y + c = 0 at a point Q. At t = 0.2 Find the equation of the straight line which is tangent at one point and normal at another point of the curve. y = 2t3.4 (B) – 3 4 (C) 4 3 3 with the positive x–axis. 0)  4  . At what rate is the radius of the water surface changing when the water is 8 m deep. [ REE '98. while the remaining elements are da db changed slightly. Then 4 (D) 1 [JEE 2000 (Scr. the radius of the sphere is 1 unit and at t = 15 the radius is 2 units. 3] Q. –13) (C) (– 10.14 (a) (b) At time t > 0. EXERCISE–III Q. 3] . is(are)  4  . At what time t will the volume of the sphere be 27 times its volume at t = 0.) 1 out of 35 ] The point(s) on the curve y3 + 3x2 = 12y where the tangent is vertical.Q. show that = 0. 2 (D)    3  [JEE 2002 (Scr. Find the radius of the sphere as a function of time t.). [ REE 2000 (Mains) 5 out of 100 ] Q.15 Use differentials to a approximate the values of . x = 3t2 .3 If the normal to the curve. Q. (a) 25. Q.  2 (A)     3  11  (B)   3 . the volume of a sphere is increasing at a rate proportional to the reciprocal of its radius.13 If in a triangle ABC. 1   (C) (0. –11) (B) (–9.5 Tangent to the curve y = x2 + 6 at a point P (1.).1 Find the acute angles between the curves y = x2  1 and y = x2  3 at their point of intersection.2 and (b) 3 26 . 6 ] Q. y = f(x) at the point (3. The volume of water in the hemispherical bowl is given by V =  · y (3R  y ) when the 3 water is y meter deep. 4) makes an angle f  (3) = (A) – 1 Q. – 15) (D) (–6. –7) [JEE 2005 (Scr. Then the coordinates of Q are (A) (– 6.12 (a) (b) Water is flowing out at the rate of 6 m3/min from a reservoir shaped like a hemispherical bowl of radius  2 R = 13 m.

Then there exists at least one point x = c such that a < c < b where f  (c) = 0. 4. It has to be identified by a seperate rule. f (a  h )  f (a )  Similarly decreasing if 2. Similarly if f is decreasing in [a. 6. Even if f'(a) is not defined. b). General Note : (1) If a function is invertible it has to be either increasing or decreasing. b]. A function which in a given interval is increasing or decreasing is called “Monotonic” in that interval. f (x) = x3 is increasing at every point. (a) (i) (ii) (iii) ROLLE'S THEOREM : Let f(x) be a function of x subject to the following conditions : f(x) is a continuous function of x in the closed interval of a  x  b. then the function f(x) in this interval is Increasing . b) is similarly defined. 5. (2) If a function is continuous the intervals in which it rises and falls may be separated by points at which its derivative fails to exist. then f (x) is Decreasing. 3. then the function f (x) at this point is increasing. If it is negative. f can still be increasing or decreasing. . A function decreasing in an interval (a. f (a  h )  f (a )  disregards whether f is non derivable or even discontinuous at x = a A differentiable function is called increasing in an interval (a.MONOTONOCITY (Significance of the sign of the first order derivative) DEFINITIONS : 1. then the function is decreasing. Note that. f  (x) exists for every point in the open interval a < x < b. f (a  h)  f (a ) and   decreasing. Note that if f is not continuous in closed [a.g. b] then f (a) is the greatest value and f (b) is the least value. Tests for increasing and decreasing of a function at a point : If the derivative f (x) is positive at a point x = a. Tests for Increasing & Decreasing of a function in an interval : SUFFICIENCY TEST : If the derivative function f(x) in an interval (a. b) is every where positive. (3) If f is increasing in [a. dy/dx = 3 x². A function f(x) is called an Increasing Function at a point x =a if in a sufficiently small neighbourhood around x = a we have f (a  h)  f (a ) and   increasing. Note : If f (a) = 0. If f (x) is every where negative. b] and is continuous then f (b) is the greatest and f (c) is the least value of f in [a. e. then for x = a the function may be still increasing or it may be decreasing as shown. b] then it may lead to the adjacent graph where all the 3 conditions of Rolles will be valid but the assertion will not be true in (a. b) if it is increasing at every point within the interval (but not necessarily at the end points). f (a) = f (b).

(c) APPLICATION OF ROLLES THEOREM FOR ISOLATING THE REAL ROOTS OF AN EQUATION f (x)=0 Suppose a & b are two real numbers such that .1 Find the intervals of monotonocity for the following functions & represent your solution set on the number line. Then there exists at least one point x = c such that a < c < b where f  (c) = f ( b )  f (a ) ba Geometrically. f(a)  f(b). 1 – f (x) – f 3(x) > f (1 – 5x) Q. 2 ] (b) Q.  3 x Discuss the conti.(b) (i) (ii) (iii) LMVT THEOREM : Let f(x) be a function of x subject to the following conditions : f(x) is a continuous function of x in the closed interval of a  x  b.2). Note the following :  Rolles theorem is a special case of LMVT since f (a) = f (b)  f  (c) = f ( b )  f (a ) = 0. 2 (a) f(x) = 2. ba Note : Now [f (b) – f (a)] is the change in the function f as x changes from a to b so that [f (b) – f (a)] / (b – a) is the average rate of change of the function over the interval [a.2 Let f (x) = 1 – x – x3.5 Let f (x) = Q. the theorem states that the average rate of change of a function over an interval is also the actual rate of change of the function at some point of the interval. & differentiability of g(x) in the interval (0. for instance. . f(x) = sin 2x – 8(a + 1)sin x + (4a2 + 8a – 14)x increases for all x  R and has no critical points for all x  R. the average velocity of a particle over an interval of time is equal to the velocity at some instant belonging to the interval. max {f ( t ) : 0  t  x} . This interpretation of the theorem justifies the name "Mean Value" for the theorem. (i) f(x) & its first derivative f  (x) are continuous for a  x  b. (c) f(x) = x2 ex (d) f (x) = 2x2 – ln | x | Q.1  x  2 .3 Find the intervals of monotonocity of the function (a) f (x) = sin x – cos x in x [0 . e x 4 x (b) f(x) = ex/x Also plot the graphs in each case. Thus. In particular. b]. EXERCISE–I Q. (ii) f(a) & f(b) have opposite signs. f  (x) exists for every point in the open interval a < x < b. (iii) f  (x) is different from zero for all values of x between a & b. Also f '(c) is the actual rate of change of the function for x = c.6 Find the set of all values of the parameter 'a' for which the function. Then there is one & only one real root of the equation f(x) = 0 between a & b. Find all real values of x satisfying the inequality. the slope of the secant line joining the curve at x = a & x = b is equal to the slope of the tangent line drawn to the curve at x = c. x3 x2 + x + 1 and g(x) =   g (x) = 2 sinx + cos 2x in (0  x  2 ).4 Show that. 0  x  1 Q. x3  3x2  9 x + 20 is positive for all values of x > 4.

x  1  (a) f (x) = sin1  ln x in  (b) y = xx in (0. 21  4 a  a 2  3 x + 5x + 7 is increasing at every point of its domain.13 Find the range of values of 'a' for which the function f (x) = x3 + (2a + 3)x2 + 3(2a + 1)x + 5 is monotonic in R. .14 Find the value of x > 1 for which the function F (x) = x2 1  t  1  is increasing and decreasing. Q.  dt 32   t ln  x Q. (d) Point(s) where f fails to be continuous and nature of discontinuity.18 Prove that. f(x) = 8ax  a sin 6x  7x  sin 5x increases & has no critical points for all x  R. 1 1  a 2 1   x3 + (a . 3  2 x 1  3  Q.  a 1  Q. Q.12 Find the intervals in which the function f (x) = 3 cos4 x + 10 cos3 x + 6 cos2 x – 3. 2 . Q. 0  x  . Q. (e) Gradient of the curve where f crosses the axis of y. Q.7 Find the greatest & the least values of the following functions in the given interval if they exist. Q. ) (c) y = x5 – 5x4 + 5x3 + 1 in [ 1. (b) Intervals of monotonocity.1) x2 + 2x + 1 is monotonic increasing for every x  R then find the range of If f(x) =   3   values of ‘a’.20 If ax² + (b/x)  c for all positive x where a > 0 & b > 0 then show that 27ab2  4c3.  2  Q. Q. Deduce that x ln x > (x2/2)  (1/2).9 ex  1 sin3x + 2ax increases throughout the 3  Prove that f (x) =  9 cos 2 ( 2 ln t )  25 cos( 2 ln t )  17 dt is always an increasing function of x. x2 – 1 > 2x ln x > 4(x – 1) – 2 ln x for x > 1. (c) Point(s) where f is continuous but not diffrentiable.17 Construct the graph of the function f (x) =  x2  9 2 and comment upon the following x x3 x 1 (a) Range of the function. F i f n ( d x t ) h = e s e t  1    o f v a l u e s o f ' a ' f o r w h i c h t h e f u n c t i o n .  xR 2 Q.10 Q .Q. Q. 2] . Hence find the set of values of 'a' for which f (x) in invertible.15 Find all the values of the parameter 'a' for which the function .19  3  Prove that tan2x + 6 ln secx + 2cos x + 4 > 6 sec x for x   .8 Find the values of 'a' for which the function f(x) = sinx  asin2x  number line.16 If f (x) = 2ex – ae–x + (2a +1)x  3 monotonically increases for every x  R then find the range of values of ‘a’.21 If 0 < x < 1 prove that y = x ln x – (x²/2) + (1/2) is a function such that d 2y/dx2 > 0. is monotonically increasing or decreasing.

(b) sin x < x for x > 0  2 Prove that if f is differentiable on [a. then show that. Q. there is at least one real solution of g (x) = 0. using LMVT. Q. Q. | f " (x) |  1 for all x  [0.8 Let f. Prove that (c – b) f (a) + (b – a) f (c) > (c – a) f (b) .  . b). Q. show that f (0) = 0. c be three real number such that a < b < c.25 If b > a. f (–2) = 1 and | f ' (x) |  5.Q. Show that there exists a number c satisfying 0 < c < 2 and f ' (c) = 3 g' (c).2 Let f : [a.9 Let f be continuous on [a. f (x) is continuous in [a. a). Q. Q.7 Suppose that on the interval [–2.3 Let f (x) = 4x3  3x2  2x + 1. Find the bounding functions of f on [–2.23 Show that x² > (1 + x) [ln(1 + x)]2  x > 0. find the minimum value of (x  a)3+ (x  b)3. If f (a) = a and f (– a) = – a. c). b) such that  f (x) + f ' (x) = 0. b] and differentiable on (a.14 Show that exactly two real values of x satisfy the equation x2 = x sinx + cos x. Show that between any two real solutions of f (x) = 0. | f ' (x) | < 1 for all x  [0. 1] Q. Q. g (2) = 1.4 Q. b] . 3 x0  2 For what value of a. Show that f (x)  g (x) for all x  0. show that there exist distinct c1. b] and if f (a) = f (b) = 0 then for any real  there is an x  (a. b]  R be continuous on [a. x  R.5 Q. 4] the function f is differentiable. f (a ) f (b) f (c) (a ) (b) (c) = 0 (a ) (b) (c) Q. 2]. m. f (2) = 8. g be differentiable on R and suppose that f (0) = g (0) and f ' (x)  g ' (x) for all x  0. . 1] If f (0) = f (1). m and b does the function f (x) =   x  3x  a 0  x  1  mx  b 1 x  2 satisfy the hypothesis of the mean value theorem for the interval [0. Q. use Rolle's theorem to prove that there exist c. 0< c <1 such that f(c) = 0. Q. If f (a) < f (b). Q. Q.12 f (x) and g (x) are differentiable functions for 0  x  2 such that f (0) = 5.  are continuous in [a.16 Let a. c] and differentiable in (a. EXERCISE–II Q. 4]. b] and differentiable on (a.6   Using LMVT prove that : (a) tan x > x in  0.13 If f. Q. 1] be a twice differentiable function such that. Q. b] and derivable in ]a.15 Let a > 0 and f be continuous in [–a.24 Find the set of values of x for which the inequality ln (1 + x) > x/(1 + x) is valid. a]. g (0) = 0.10 Let f (x) and g (x) be differentiable functions such that f ' (x) g (x)  f (x) g ' (x) for any real x.11 Let f defined on [0. b). c2 in (a. sin x  (1/2) sin² x < (1/2) ( 1) for 0 < x < /2.22 Prove that 0 < x. b[ then show that there is a value of c lying between a & b such that.1 Verify Rolles throrem for f(x) = (x  a)m (x  b)n on [a. b). Also f ' (x) is strictly increasing in (a. If f (a) = a and f (b) = b. then show that f ' (c) > 0 for some c  (a. c). Q. Suppose that f ' (x) exists and f ' (x)  1 for all x  (–a. n being positive integer. b) such that f ' (c1) + f '(c2) = 2. b.

20 Prove the inequality ex > (1 + x) using LMVT for all x  R0 and use it to determine which of the two numbers e and e is greater.M. [JEE ’97.4(a) For all x  (0. Then : (A) h is increasing whenever f is increasing (B) h is increasing whenever f is decreasing (C) h is decreasing whenever f is decreasing (D) nothing can be said in general.  1) (C) (1. then in this interval : (A) both f (x) & g(x) are increasing functions (C) f (x) is an increasing function Q. If a  g (x) dx  0 b  dg > 0 for all x. b). (c) Let f (x) =  ex (x  1) (x  2) d x then f decreases in the interval : (A) (. where a < 2 and let g (x) be a differentiable function .1 If f (x) = x sin x & g (x) = x tan x  EXERCISE–III . then the minimum value of f : x2  1 (A) does not exist because f is unbounded (C) is equal to 1 Q. (B) both f (x) & g (x) are decreasing functions (D) g(x) is an increasing function [ JEE '97 (Scr). 1) : (A) ex < 1 + x (B) loge(1 + x) < x (B) is not attained even though f is bounded (D) is equal to  1. 2N Q. Q.) 1+1+1 out of 35] . R : If a differentiable function decreases in an interval (a. then its derivative also decreases in (a. for every real number x. [ JEE '98. Lim x  Q. + ) [JEE 2000 (Scr. Which of the following is true ? (A) both S and R are wrong (B) both S and R are correct. 2 ] Let a + b = 4 .19 Using L. 5] 0 Q. 2 + 2 ] (C) sin x > x (D) loge x > x (b) Consider the following statements S and R : S : Both sin x & cos x are decreasing functions in the interval (/2.18 Use mean value theorem to evaluate.T.17 Use the mean value theorem to prove. 2) (B) ( 2.2  x 1  x .V. or otherwise prove that difference of square root of two consecutive natural numbers 1 greater than N2 is less than . Q. where 0 < x  1. b). prove that dx g (x) dx increases as (b  a) increases. ). (b) f(x) = x2  1 . but R is not the correct explanation for S (C) S is correct and R is the correct explanation for S (D) S is correct and R is wrong. 2) (D) (2.  x > 1 x Q.3(a) Let h(x) = f(x)  (f(x))2 + (f(x))3 for every real number x.x 1 < ln x < x – 1.

for some x  (2. 1]. If f2(0) +g2(0) = 9.  .5(a) If f (x) = xex(1 – x). 6] . f(2) = 4. 4]  R be a differentiable function. prove that at least one root of p(x) lies between (451/100. x  0  Q. 2 out of 60] Q.6 The length of a longest interval in which the function 3sinx – 4sin3x is increasing. 4].8(a) Let f (x) =  . is 3   (A) (B) (C) (D)  3 2 2 [JEE 2002 (Screening). for some x  (1. for  x  (1. Prove that there exists some c  (–3.  with 0 <  <  < 2 such that 4  0 f(t) dt = 2 ( f (2) +  f (2) ) [JEE 2003 (Mains).Q.  4 (b) Let f : [0. 46). Show that the equation 4x3 – 3x – p = 0 has a unique root in the interval  .  x  0. then Lim x 0 (A) 0 Q. b  [0.10(a) If f (x) is a twice differentiable function and given that f(1) = 1. 4 + 4 out of 60]  x  lnx . (i) Show that there exist a. [JEE 2004. 3) such that g (c) · g"(c)<0. (A) –2 (B) –1 (C) 0 (b) If f is a strictly increasing function. 3) [JEE 2005 (Scr). for  x  (2. using Rolle's theorem.1  2  (B) decreasing on R (C) increasing on R  1  (D) decreasing on  . 1 and 2  identify it. then (A) f '' (x) = 2. Rolle’s theorem is applicable to f for x [0. [JEE 2005 (Mains). prove that sin (tanx) > x . x  0 or otherwise. f(3) = 9. [ JEE 2001. 1  2  1  (b) Let – 1 < p < 1. then f(x) is  1  (A) increasing on   .9 (B) 1 f (x 2 )  f (x) is equal to f ( x )  f ( 0) (C) –1 (D) 1 2 (D) 2 [JEE 2004 (Scr)] If p (x) = 51x101 – 2323x100 – 45x + 1035. 1 + 5 ] Q. if = x0 0. 3] (b) f (x) is differentiable function and g (x) is a double differentiable function such that | f (x) |  1 and f '(x) = g (x). (f (4))2 – (f (0))2 = 8 f (a) f (b) (ii) Show that there exist .7(a) Using the relation 2(1 – cosx) < x2 . 3) (C) f '' (x) = 3. 3]   Q. 3) (D) f '' (x) = 2. 3) (B) f '' (x) = f ' (x) = 2.

Symbolically f (a )  f (a  h)  x = a gives maxima for f (a )  f (a  h) a sufficiently small positive h. The greatest (global maxima) and the least (global minima) values of a function f in an interval [a. . f  (c+ h) > 0  h is a sufficient ly  small positive  quantity Note : If f  (x) does not change sign i. or it fails to exist either by virtue of a vertical tangent dx or by virtue of a geometrical sharp corner but not because of discontinuity of function. then f(x) is either strictly increasing or decreasing throughout this neighbourhood implying that f(c) is not an extreme value of f. 3. dy (iv) Critical points are those where = 0. 2. if it exists . Note : The set of values of x for which f (x) = 0 are often called as stationary points or critical points. (i) (ii) (iii) A NECESSARY CONDITION FOR MAXIMUM & MINIMUM : If f(x) is a maximum or minimum at x = c & if f  (c) exists then f  (c) = 0.h) > 0   x = c is a point of local maxima. SUFFICIENT CONDITION FOR EXTREME VALUES : f  (c. In case f(c) does not exist f(c) may be a maximum or a minimum & in this case left hand and right hand derivatives are of opposite signs. b] are f(a) or f(b) or are given by the values of x for which f  (x) = 0. f  (c+ h) < 0  f  (c. Symbolically if f ( b )  f ( b  h )  x = b gives minima for a sufficiently small positive h. where f  (c) = 0. (ii) the term 'extremum' or (extremal) or 'turning value' is used both for maximum or a minimum value. where f (c) = 0.h) < 0  Similarly  x = c is a point of local minima. (iii) a maximum (minimum) value of a function may not be the greatest (least) value in a finite interval. a function f(x) is said to have a minimum value at x = b if f(b) is least than every other value assumed by f(x) in the immediate neighbourhood at x = b. (iv) a function can have several maximum & minimum values & a minimum value may even be greater than a maximum value. has the same sign in a certain complete neighbourhood of c. (v) maximum & minimum values of a continuous function occur alternately & between two consecutive maximum values there is a minimum value & vice versa. f ( b)  f ( b  h) Note that : (i) the maximum & minimum values of a function are also known as local/relative maxima or local/relative minima as these are the greatest & least values of the function relative to some neighbourhood of the point in question. The rate of change of function is zero at a stationary point.MINIMA FUNCTIONS OF A SINGLE VARIABLE HOW MAXIMA & MINIMAARE CLASSIFIED 1. A function f(x) is said to have a maximum at x = a if f(a) is greater than every other value assumed by f(x) in the immediate neighbourhood of x = a.e.MAXIMA . Similarly.

 Surface area of a cuboid = 2 (lb + bh + hl). i. (b) If positive for x  x 0  dy  is zero for x  x 0  a maximum occurs at x = x0. Constants & variables should be clearly distinguished. x > 0 . if f  (c) = 0 & f  (c) > 0. Important Note : – Given a fixed point A(x1. f (x)) on the curve y = f(x). f  (c) = 0 & f  (c) < 0. examine this point as possible maximum or minimum. Revert back to the first order derivative check for ascertaning the maxima or minima. . FIFTH : If the function y = f (x) is defined for only a limited range of values a  x  b then examine x = a & x = b for possible extreme values. x + y = c . y1) and a moving point P(x. USE OF SECOND ORDER DERIVATIVE IN ASCERTAINING THE MAXIMA OR MINIMA: f(c) is a minimum value of the function f.  Lateral surface of a prism = perimeter of the base x height. the test fails.e. If d²y/dx² is negative when dy/dx = 0  y is maximum. If the sum of two positive numbers x and y is constant than their product is maximum if they are equal. (a) (b) 5. it must be expressed in terms of a single independent variable x. Note : if f  (c) = 0 then the test fails. dx negative for x  x 0  But if dy/dx changes sign from negative to zero to positive as x advances through xo there is a minimum. his may require some algebraic manipulations. then 1 xy = [ (x + y)2 – (x – y)2 ] 4 If the product of two positive numbers is constant then their sum is least if they are equal. Such points are called INFLECTION POINTS.  Total surface of a prism = lateral surface + 2 area of the base (Note that lateral surfaces of a prism are all rectangles). i. – – 6. The usual tests are : (a) If d²y/dx² is positive when dy/dx = 0  y is minimum.4. THIRD : If y = f (x) is a quantity to be maximum or minimum. (x + y)2 = (x – y)2 + 4xy USEFUL FORMULAE OF MENSURATION TO REMEMBER :  Volume of a cuboid = lbh. If this quantity is denoted by ‘y’. draw a figure to illustrate the problem & label those parts that are important in the problem. If dy/dx does not change sign. Then AP will be maximum or minimum if it is normal to the curve at P.  Volume of a prism = area of the base x height. SIXTH : If the derivative fails to exist at some point.e. If d²y/dx² = 0 when dy/dx = 0. find those values of x for which dy/dx = f (x) = 0. f(c) is a maximum value of the function f. FOURTH : Test each values of x for which f (x) = 0 to determine whether it provides a maximum or minimum or neither. SUMMARYWORKING RULE : FIRST : When possible . y > 0 . SECOND : Write an equation for the quantity that is to be maximised or minimised. neither a maximum nor a minimum.

consider the graph of the function dx defined as.  1 area of the base x height. 3 1 Curved surface of a pyramid = (perimeter of the base) x slant height. 3 1 2 r  .  Total surface of a cylinder = 2  rh + 2  r2.  ) Note that the graph exhibits two critical points one is a point of local maximum & the other a point of inflection. From the graph we find that if: (i) d 2y > 0  concave upwards dx2 (ii) d 2y < 0  concave downwards. when  is in radians. 2 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE SIGN OF 2ND ORDER DERIVATIVE AND POINTS OF INFLECTION : The sign of the 2nd order derivative determines the concavity of the curve. 2 Volume of a pyramid = (Note that slant surfaces of a pyramid are triangles). For example.  Area of a circular sector = 4  r3.  Volume of a sphere =  Surface area of a sphere = 4  r2. dx2 At the point of inflection we find that d 2y =0& dx2 d 2y changes sign. 3  Volume of a cone =  Curved surface of a cylinder = 2  rh. dx2 d 2y Inflection points can also occur if 2 fails to exist. x 3/ 5 for x  (  . 7. Such points such as C & E on the graph where the concavity of the curve changes are called the points of inflection. 1  r2h. 1) f (x) = [ 2  x 2 for x  (1 . .

7 The plan view of a swimming pool consists of a semicircle of radius r attached to a rectangle of length '2r' and width 's'. 0  x  2  (b) y = 2 cos 2x  cos 4x .is to be laid out enclosing a football field. Find the volume of the biggest cylindrical (right circular) packet that can be sent by the parcel post. 3 Q. 1 x Determine f (x). Q.6 metres from the ground. (a) Q. 6 . Q.11 By the post office regulations. each being 10 cms. Limit ln x0 x f (x) x 1 1 0 0 1 x 0 1 = 2.1 A cubic f(x) vanishes at x = 2 & has relative minimum/maximum at x = 1 and x = 1 If  f ( x ) dx = 1 Q. 0  x   Suppose f(x) is real valued polynomial function of degree 6 satisfying the following conditions .12 A running track of 440 ft. Q. Q. prove that the semi vertical angle is sin1 1 . Q.4 y = x + sin 2x .6 metres high. find the equations of the tangent lines of x 3 2 Q. (a) f has minimum value at x = 0 and 2 (b) f has maximum value at x = 1 (c) 1 for all x.8 For a given curved surface of a right circular cone when the volume is maximum. find the length of its sides. for what value of 'r' and 's' the perimeter 'P' of the pool is minimum. find the cubic f (x).3 Find the maximum & minimum value for the function . How far from the column must a man. the combined length & girth of a parcel must not exceed 3 metre. Find the maximum area of such a trapezium. 3 Investigate for maxima & minima for the function.6 The length of three sides of a trapezium are equal.2 1 . Q . If the surface area A of the pool is fixed.9 Of all the lines tangent to the graph of the curve y = minimum and maximum slope.10 A statue 4 metres high sits on a column 5. stand in order to have the most favourable view of statue.5 Find the maximum perimeter of a triangle on a given base ‘a’ and having the given vertical angle. 3 14 . 7 . the shape of which is a rectangle with semi circle at each end. f (x) = x 3 2 2  [2 (t  1) (t  2) + 3 (t  1) (t  2) ] dt 1 Q. If the area of the rectangular portion is to be maximum. whose eye level is 1. 22 Use :   .EXERCISE–I Q.

Assume that the compressive strength of a beam is proportional to the area of the cross section and the bending strength is proportional to the product of the width of section by the square of its height.Q. What is the ratio of the sides of the rectangle so that the window transmits the maximum light? Q. the equilateral triangle has the maximum area. Q.21 Consider the function. The clear glass transmits three times as much light per square meter as the coloured glass does. for the top 25 paise and for the sides 20 paise. Q.19 A sheet of poster has its area 18 m². 1 Find the x and y intercept of F if they exist. The cost of the material per square foot for the bottom is 15 paise. 1) find a & b and show that the turning value is a (x  1) (x  4 ) maximum. If the area is fixed & perimeter is minimum.25 The circle x2 + y2 = 1 cuts the x-axis at P & Q. The labour charges for making the box are Rs.23 What are the dimensions of the rectangular plot of the greatest area which can be laid out within a triangle of base 36 ft. Find the greatest value a 2 b2 of the intercept between the point of contact and the foot of the perpendicular. Q. Find the maximum area of the triangle QSR. F (x) = (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)  (t 2  t ) dt . The intervals on which F is an increasing and the invervals on which F is decreasing. x Q. Find the base angle  of the trapezium ABCD which has the greatest perimeter.16 A trapezium ABCD is inscribed into a semicircle of radius l so that the base AD of the trapezium is a diameter and the vertices B & C lie on the circumference. x  R. Find the dimensions of the box when the cost is minimum. Q.22 A beam of rectangular cross section must be sawn from a round log of diameter d. Q. & altitude 12 ft ? Assume that one side of the rectangle lies on the base of the triangle. What are the dimensions of the poster if the area of the printed space is maximum? Q.18 Prove that among all triangles with a given perimeter.20 A perpendicular is drawn from the centre to a tangent to an ellipse x2 y 2 + = 1.17 If y = ax  b has a turning value at (2. The margin at the top & bottom are 75 cms and at the sides 50 cms. Any inflection point. (b) to bending. find r and . The semicircular portion is fitted with coloured glass while the rectangular part is fitted with clean glass. Q.24 The flower bed is to be in the shape of a circular sector of radius r & central angle .13 A window of fixed perimeter (including the base of the arch) is in the form of a rectangle surmounted by a semicircle.14 A closed rectangular box with a square base is to be made to contain 1000 cubic feet. Q. Derivatives F ' (x) and F '' (x).15 Find the area of the largest rectangle with lower base on the x-axis & upper vertices on the curve y = 12  x2. . Another circle with centre at Q and varable radius intersects the first circle at R above the x-axis & the line segment PQ at S. 3/-. Relative maximum and minimum points. Q. What should the width x and height y of the cross section be for the beam to offer the greatest resistance (a) to compression. Q.

8 For a > 0.. find the minimum value of the integral Find the maximum value of the integral 3  4x  a 5 x 2 )e ax dx .7 Show that for each a > 0 the function eax. Q.11 Consider the function y = f (x) = ln (1 + sin x) with – 2  x  2. (d) Find the inflection points of the graph of y = f (x). Find the minima and maxima if they exist.1 The mass of a cell culture at time t is given by. is 3 3 Q. and that F (x) has a minimum value. 0 1 Q. Q. M (t) = (a) Find Lim M ( t ) and Lim M ( t ) (b) Show that (c) t   3 1  4e  t t  dM 1 = M (3  M ) dt 3 Find the maximum rate of growth of M and also the vlaue of t at which occurs. units. Find (a) the zeroes of f (x) (b) inflection points if any on the graph (c) local maxima and minima of f (x) (d) asymptotes of the graph (e) sketch the graph of f (x) and compute the value of the definite integral 0 for x  0 x 0 2  f ( x ) dx . 0) & B (0 .4 Q. 4) and a line y = x. Find the co-ordinates of a point M on this line so that the perimeter of the  AMB is least.e. find the value of 'a' for which the equation x3 + 2 px2 + p = a has three distinct real roots. 1 x ln x when x  0 Q.9  (a | x  a |e x dx where | a |  1. let the perpendicular AY fall on the tangent at a point P on the circle. Show that in order that total surface area may be minimum . Q. Q.10  Consider the function f (x) =   (a) (b) Find whether f is continuous at x = 0 or not.5 A given quantity of metal is to be casted into a half cylinder i.6 Depending on the values of p R. 8 Given two points A ( 2 .3 From a fixed point A on the circumference of a circle of radius 'a'.  2 .2 Find the cosine of the angle at the vertex of an isosceles triangle having the greatest area for the given constant length l of the median drawn to its lateral side. xa² has a maximum value say F (a). 1a Q. (c) Does f ' (0) ? Find Lim f ' ( x ) . prove that the greatest area which the APY can have a2 sq. the ratio of the height of the cylinder to the diameter of the semi circular ends is /(+ 2). Q.EXERCISE–II Q. with a rectangular base and semicircular ends. ee/2.

2 2 1 (p + q) (q + r) (p – r). 4 Q. Q. Find the ratio of the altitude of the cone to the radius of the sphere. Using calculus. Q.19 A segment of a line with its extremities on AB and AC bisects a triangle ABC with sides a. Q.  2). Q.  p) . the base of the rectangle lying on the x  axis and the entire rectangle lying in the region between the curve x y = 2 & the x  axis. Find (a) the intervals on which f is increasing and decreasing and any local maximum or minimum values.  2 You may use the inequality to prove that. B (q2. Q. (c) the function f (x) and plot its graph. x 1 Q.16 A cylinder is obtained by revolving a rectangle about the x  axis . Find the maximum possible volume of the cylinder. E & F on the line segments BC. f (2) = 2 and f ' (x) = k(2x – x2)e –x for some constant k > 0. CA & AB respectively. Find the length of the shortest segment. Q. (b) the intervals on which the graph f is concave down and concave up. A parallelogram AFDE is drawn with vertices D.  r) be the vertices of the triangle ABC.23 The function f (x) defined for all real numbers x has the following properties (i) f (0) = 0.18 Among all regular triangular prism with volume V. find the prism with the least sum of lengths of all edges. cos x  1 – x2  in 0  x   2 . if the cone is of least possible volume.15 Let A(p2. q) . C (r2. show that maximum area of such a parallelogram is : 3 2 5 x + = log1 4 (m) has 3 distinct solutions. 4 < a² < 8 that is farthest from the point (0 . Q. b.22 Prove that the least perimeter of an isosceles triangle in which a circle of radius r can be inscribed is 6 r 3 .14 Find the set of value of m for the cubic x3 – Q.17 For what values of ‘a’ does the function f (x) = x3 + 3 (a  7) x2 + 3 (a2  9) x  1 have a positive point of maximum.13 Find the point on the curve 4 x² + a²y² = 4 a².25 Use calculus to prove the inequality..Q.12 A right circular cone is to be circumscribed about a sphere of a given radius.24 Find the minimum value of | sin x + cos x + tan x + cot x + sec x + cosec x | for all real x.21 Find the magnitude of the vertex angle ‘’ of an isosceles triangle of the given area ‘A’ such that the radius ‘r’ of the circle inscribed into the triangle is the maximum. How long is the side of the base of that prism? Q. Q.20 What is the radius of the smallest circular disk large enough to cover every acute isosceles triangle of a given perimeter L? Q. c into two equal areas. sin x  2x  in 0  x  .

(cos n). 6] Q..6 Find the normals to the ellipse (x2/9) + (y2/4) = 1 which are farthest from its centre.. [JEE '98.EXERCISE–III Q.. the range of m (b) is 1  (C)  . c > b > a > 0.5 (D) 3 [ JEE '99 (Screening)... 1 + 1 out of 35 ] (A) [0. ' f ' has : (A) a local maximum (C) a local minimum Q. Determine the constants a. the right angles of the triangle coinciding with one of the angles of the rectangle. 1] 2  (b) The maximum value of (cos 1) · (cos 2).. 1 out of 35 ] Find the area of the right angled triangle of least area that can be drawn so as to circumscribe a rectangle of sides 'a' and 'b'.10(a) Let f(x) = (1 + b2)x2 + 2bx + 1 and let m(b) be the minimum value of f(x). As b varies.  1 2  . [JEE '99.. [ REE '98. [ REE 2001 Mains... y = 2 x + 11 which is nearest to the circle. 2... 16 (x2 + y2) + 32 x  8 y  50 = 0..9 [REE '99. 1]  (B)  0. [ JEE 2000 Screening.. b are some constants... under the restrictions  O < 1. 1 (D) (0. 6] (B) no local maximum (D) no extremum.. [ REE '97. 6 ] Q..3 Find the points on the curve ax2 + 2bxy + ay2 = c . b & the function f(x). Q.. [REE 2000 Mains.. 5 out of 100 ] Q. 2 + 8] (iii) for all x f  (x) = Q.... How much sectorial area is to be removed from the sheet so that the vessel has maximum volume....7 Find the point on the straight line..8 Let f (x) = | x | for 0  | x |  2 [1 for x  0 .. n < and cot 1 · cot 2. 3] 2 2 2 2 Find the co-ordinates of all the points P on the ellipse (x /a ) + (y /b ) = 1 for which the area of the triangle PON is maximum.. cot n = 1 is 2 1 1 1 (A) n/ 2 (B) n (C) (D) 1 2n 2 2 [ JEE 2001 Screening.. whose distance from the origin is minimum.4 The function f(x) = x  1 (A) 0 t (et  1) (t  1) (t  2)3 (t  3)5 dt has a local minimum at x = (B) 1 (C) 2 Q. 3 out of 100] Q.. f(1) = 1 (ii) f has a minimum value at x = 5 and 2 2ax 2ax  1 2ax  b  1 b b 1 1 2(ax  b) 2ax  2b  1 2ax  b Where a.. where O denotes the origin and N the foot of the perpendicular from O to the tangent at P. Then at x = 0... 10 out of 200] Q.1 A conical vessel is to be prepared out of a circular sheet of gold of unit radius..2(a) The number of values of x where the function f(x) = cos x + cos (A) 0 (B) 1  2 x attains its maximum is : (C) 2 (D) infinite (b) Suppose f(x) is a function satisfying the following conditions : (i) f(0) = 2.

)]   3x · ( x  1)  x  0. [JEE-03. if any used). 4 out of 60] If P(x) be a polynomial of degree 3 satisfying P(–1) = 10. 6] . where O is the origin..2) and cuts the positive coordinates axes at points P and Q. is minimum.. (B) f (x) is increasing for x  [1.. find the value of ‘r’ for which the area enclosed by the tangents drawn from the point P(6. 0 < b2 < c. f (e) = 0. e].. 2 5 ] (C) f (x) has local minima at x = 1 (D) the value of f(0) = 5 e x 0  x 1 x  x 1 1  x  2 and g (x) =  f t  dt .. Mains-2 out of 60] Q. as L varies. [ JEE 2002 Mains. f (c) = – 1. an are positive real numbers whose product is a fixed number e. Then f (A) is bounded (B) has a local maxima (C) has a local minima (D) is strictly increasing (b) Prove that sin x  2 x  Q.13(a) Let f (x) = x3 + bx2 + cx + d. 2) and (a. 8) to the circle and the chord of contact is maximum. (Justify the inequality.14 [JEE 2004 (Scr.12(a) Find a point on the curve x2 + 2y2 = 6 whose distance from the line x + y = 7.Q. [JEE-03. then find the minimum number of zeros of g( x )  f ' ( x )   f ( x ).. Find the absolute minimum value of OP + OQ. [JEE 2006. where x = a is the point of local minima is 2 5 ... .. x  [1. P(1) = – 6 and P(x) has maximum at x = – 1 and P'(x) has minima at x = 1. Mains-2 out of 60] (b) For a circle x2 + y2 = r2.f " ( x ) in the interval [a. the minimum value of a1 + a2 + a3 +. f (1) = – 1 and f '(x) has local maxima at x = 0.  . 5marks each] (c) If f (x) is twice differentiable function such that f (a) = 0. 4 out of 60] Q. If f (2) = 18. [JEE 2005 (Mains). Find the distance between the local maximum and local minimum of the curve.11(a) If a1 . f (b) = 2. 3] then g(x) has (b) f (x) = 2  e x  e 0 2x3  (A) local maxima at x = 1 + ln 2 and local minima at x = e (B) local maxima at x = 1 and local minima at x = 2 (C) no local maxima (D) no local minima [JEE 2006. f (d) = 2.. + an–1 + 2an is (A) n(2e)1/n (B) (n+1)e1/n (C) 2ne1/n (D) (n+1)(2e)1/n [ JEE 2002 Screening] (b) A straight line L with negative slope passes through the point (8... 5 out of 60] Q.  2  [JEE 2004. then (A) the distance between (–1. f (a)).15(a) If f (x) is cubic polynomial which has local maximum at x = – 1. 2 where a < b < c < d < e. a2 ..

6  in (3. – 3]  [1 . (b) EXERCISE–III Q. b =  3/4 .  31/3) Q.5 continuous but not diff.1 (a) I in (2 .  1)  [2. (b) least value is equal to (1/e)1/e.16 Q. 5/6)  (3/2 .02.8 x + 2 y = /2 & x + 2 y =  3 /2 Q. ) & D in (  .11 [ 7. 24  288  66 7 Q.25 m m 2 EXERCISE–II Q.14 (a) r = (1 + t)1/4. 0)  (2. (c) 2 & 10 [1.4 3/8  cm/min Q. 3] increasing in x  (/2 . /2)  (5/6.22 (b) a  b = a b a =  1/2 . cm/sec Q.23  = tan–1 Q.2 (i) 6 km/h (ii) 2 km/hr Q. at x = 1 Q. ) (a) I in [0. x – 4y = 2 x2 Q.2 (0. m  .2 Q.14 Q.3 (–2.11 1 cm/sec..5 1 + 36  cu.8 Q.16 a0 .2 80 27 4 2 7 Q.12 (a) – Q.14 – 1 .3 x = 1 when t = 1.12 a = 1 2e–x/2 Q.1 1/9  m/min Q.05 cm/sec Q. 1) 3 1 Q.7 T : x – 2y = 0 . ] Q.9 200 r3 / (r + 5)² km² / h 5 1 m/min. (b) t = 80 Q.13 0a 3 2 Q. ) & D in ( . 3 /2)] Q. N : 2x + y = 0 Q. 2) (b) I in (1 .10 Q. 2 ] & D in (3/4 .5 D MONOTONOCITY EXERCISE–I Q. 11) & ( 4. (b) – m/min. no greatest value. /2)  (2/3 . 2) & D in ( . 5x – 4y = 1 if t  1.10 a  (– . ) or a > 5 Q. 3)  a <  2 5 Q. 3/4)  (7/4 . 0)  (0 . /6)  (/2 .20 Q. ) (d) I for x > 1 1 1 1 or  < x < 0 & D for x <  or 0 < x < 2 2 2 2 Q.15 (a) 5.3 D Q.7 0.8 2 cm/s 4 Q. 4 Q. 2 ] & D in (/6 . )  (2 .1 2 3 x  y = 2   3  1 or 2 3 x + y = 2   Q. c = 3 2 C Q. ) Q.15  (6.7 Q.3 (4 .1  = tan1 Q.ANSWER KEY TANGENT & NORMAL EXERCISE–I Q. 2/3) & decreasing in [0 . ) Q. 1) (c) I in (0.6 1/48  cm/s Q.12 (a) (/6)+(1/2)ln 3.9 (a) n =  2 Q. 7 /4) (b) I in [0 . (/3) – (1/2)ln 3. ) and  in (1. m = 1/3] Q.4 D ************************************* 2 x+y2 2 = 0 or 2 xy2 2 =0 Q.

(c) C Q.13 6/(6 + ) Q. Max value = 2 . (0. min.3 (a) Max at x = 2 . (d) (0. 0)  (.6 75 3 sq. units Q.8 (a) D . at x = 1 (infinite type) (e) – 2 ( 1. (b)  in 1.17 a = 1.9 3x + 4y – 9 = 0 . (c) x = .1)   . 3  3 3  (d) removable discont.14 side 10'.3 (a) A.19 width 2 3 m.15 32 sq. decreasing (0. y= d 2 3 3 Q. 0] .1 f (x) = x3 + x2  x + 2 Q.24  5 5 5  (a) (– .6 A Q. (e) x = 1/2 Q.6 a = 3. b = 4 and m = 1 Q. 70 ' Q. 2/3) .23 Q. (b) cos  cos p 3  Q. 3x – 4y + 9 = 0 r= Q.7 y = – 5x – 9 and y = 5x + 11 Q. 1) . (b) C Q. units 2A 4 Q. (b) D 1 1  Q. at x = –3 (missing point) and non removable discont. Min value = 0 (b) Max at x = /6 & also at x = 5 /6 and Max value = 3/2 .  and  in (   .25 6' × 18' 4 3 3 .20 a  b Q. ). (b) D . at x = 1 .Q. Min.12 110 ' . at x = 7/5 .11 1/ cu m Q. 0).5 (a) A.17 Q. length 3 3 m Q.16  = 600  a  1  cos ec   2 Q. b = 0 Q.21 (a) (–1. ) Q. C . (b) x = .18 0 EXERCISE–III Q. Min at x = /2 .22 (a) x = y = d d 2 .4 f (x) = 2 6 12 5 x  x + 2 x4 3 5 Q. 5/6) .  = 2 radians Q.4 (a) B . height 10' Q. (b) F ' (x) = (x2 – x).10 4 2 m Q.25 (b  a)3/4 EXERCISE–II mb  na which lies between a & b mn Q. F '' (x) = 2x – 1.MINIMA EXERCISE–I Q. 0)  (1.10 (a) D ************************************* MAXIMA .1 c= Q.1 C Q. f(1) = 0 . 5/6) . (c) increasing (– .24 r = A . f(7/5) =  108/3125 Q.7 2A s = 4 Q. at x = 0 .2 Q.5 Pmax = Q. Min value =  3 max.    { 3} . (1.

 2 (a  b) Q.17 ( . – .10 (a) D .19 2  3  Q.6 ± c   2 (a  b)  3 x ± Q. (c) maxima at x = 2 .10 (a) f is continuous at x = 0 .9  c   &   2 (a  b)   1 5 1 . 0. (b) 18 Q. B.1  1   3   Q.1 (a) 0. 2) & max.EXERCISE–II Q. t = ln 4 4 Q.15 (a) B. value = 0 and local max.8 A Q. b =  . 0) 32 p 3 32 p 3 + p if p > 0 . ). + p < a < p if p < 0 27 27 Q.4 (a) B. 3. local min. 29/7) Q.6 p < a < 3 . (c) 6 solutions ************************************* a2 a 2  b2 Q. 2) Q.2 cos A = 0.5 ± Q. (d) pt.3  c  .14 4 65 Q.13 (a) D Q.23 (a) increasing in (0. . 2. (c) Q. 1) . 2 – 2 )  (2 + 2 . (b) no inflection point. 0)  (2. (e) –  ln 2 2 2 (d) x = Q. of inflection x = 1 e  3 and – and no minima.16  4 1/ 3  4V  (c  a  b)(a  b  c)  Q. D. 2) and decreasing in (–.20 L/4 Q. does not exist . (b) – Q. (b) A 2 y= Q. value = 2 (b) concave up for (– . ) and concave down in (2 – 2 ). 2 (a  b) Q.2 (a) B.4 (0 .11 (a) A .11 (a) x = – 2.12 4 2 Q. units Q.13 (0 .18 H = x =  Q.21 3 Q. (2 + 1 2· x 2 (c) f (x) = e ·x Q. 5 Q. f(x) = (x2  5x + 8) 4 4 4 .8 Q.14  1 1 m  . (b) a = Q.7 (–9/2 .12 (a) (2. (b) 5 . (c) does not exist. distance = 4 Q. (b) A.   32 16  Q.9 Maximum value is (e + e–1) when a = – 1 Q. ± b2 a 2  b2 2ab c .  3)  (3 . C.8 4 when a = Q.24 2 2  1 2 2) EXERCISE–III  2  sq. 2 2 3  and x = – .

0).9 The radius of a right circular cylinder increases at the rate of 0.1 Suppose x1 & x2 are the point of maximum and the point of minimum respectively of the function f(x) = 2x3  9 ax2 + 12a2x + 1 respectively..10 If a variable tangent to the curve x2y = c3 makes intercepts a. The rate of change of the volume of the cylinder. and the height decreases at the rate of 0.. Point B has the coordinates (x. a4. then for the equality x12 = x2 to be true the value of 'a' must be (A) 0 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D) 1/4 2 2 Q. ..2 cm/min.6 The minimum value of the polynomial x(x + 1) (x + 2) (x + 3) is : (A) 0 (B) 9/16 (C)  1 (D)  3/2   tan x  6 Q.2 Point 'A' lies on the curve y  e  x and has the coordinate (x..} is a progression where an = (A) a6 (B) a7 (D) none n2 . If 'O' is the origin then the maximum area of the triangle AOB is (A) 1 2e 1 4e (B) 1 e (C) 1 8e (D) Q. when the radius is 2 cm and the height is 3 cm is (A) – 2 (B) – 8 5 (C) – 3 5 (D) 2 5 Q. e2] is (A) 2 (B) e (C) e2 (D) 1 . then the value of a2b is (A) 27 c3 (B) 4 3 c 27 (C) 27 3 c 4 (D) 4 3 c 9 Q.. f (x) = sin2x – x on   .1 cm/min.8 The difference between the greatest and the least values of the function.5 The angle between the tangent lines to the graph of the function f (x) =  ( 2 t  5) dt at the points where 2 the graph cuts the x-axis is (A) /6 (B) /4 (C) /3 (D) /2 Q.4 {a1.. . The largest term of this progression is : n 3  200 (C) a8 (D) none x Q. b on x and y axis respectively.7 The minimum value of is : tan x (A) 0 (B) 1/2 (C) 1 (D) 3    Q.3 The angle at which the curve y = KeKx intersects the y-axis is : (A) tan1 k2 (C) sec1  1  k 4    (B) cot1 (k2) Q..11 Difference between the greatest and the least values of the function f (x) = x(ln x – 2) on [1.Question bank on Application of Derivative Select the correct alternative : (Only one is correct) Q. e x ) where x > 0.. in cm3/min..   2 2 3  3 2   (A)  (B) 0 (C) (D)  2 3 2 3 Q. a2..

is (A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) infinite Q. If the gradient at B is K times the gradient at A then K is equal to (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) – 2 (D) 1/4 . n  N.19 Let C be the curve y = x3 (where x takes all real values). The tangent at A meets the curve again at B. (B) f (x) is bounded and it takes both of it's bounds and the range of f (x) contains more than one integral point.3]   x 1 (D) f(x) =    6 if x  1 2 x x6 on [–2. (D) f (x) is not bounded as the upper bound does not exist.17 Suppose that f (0) = – 3 and f ' (x)  5 for all values of x. The theorem which best describes this. x 0 on [0. (C) f (x) is bounded but minimum and maximum does not exists.18 The tangent to the graph of the function y = f(x) at the point with abscissa x = a forms with the x-axis an angle of /3 and at the point with abscissa x = b at an angle of /4. then the value of the integral.    x  0 (B) f(x) =  on [–. 1] x 3  2 x 2  5x  6 if x  1. f  (x) dx is equal to a (A) 1 (B) 0 [ assume f  (x) to be continuous ] (C)  3 (D) –1 Q. 1) where the  0 for x  0 Q. f (x) = x3 + 7x – 1 then f (x) has a zero between x = 0 and x = 1.15 The sum of lengths of the hypotenuse and another side of a right angled triangle is given. is (A) Squeeze play theorem (B) Mean value theorem (C) Maximum-Minimum value theorem (D) Intermediate value theorem  x sin for x  0  x Q. on [ 2.3] x 1 Q. The area of the triangle will be maximum if the angle between them is : (A)  6 (B)  4 (C)  3 (D) 5 12 Q.12 Let f (x) = tan n x 2n  tan r x   .   2 r 0 (A) f (x) is bounded and it takes both of it's bounds and the range of f (x) contains exactly one integral point.16 In which of the following functions Rolle’s theorem is applicable? x . (C) f(x) = x 1 sin x  x . 0 x  1  (A) f(x) =  0 . Then the largest value which f (2) can attain is (A) 7 (B) – 7 (C) 13 (D) 8 Q.13 I f derivative f (x) vanishes . b  f  (x) . 0]  0 .Q.14 Consider the function f (x) =  then the number of points in (0. where x  0.

The tangent drawn to C2 at one of the points of intersection A  (a. g (D) g. 2) and tangent to the parabola y = curve y = 4  x 2 is : (A) 2x + 2y  5 = 0 (B) 2x + 2y  3 = 0 Q. 0) where 0 < x < . The maximum area for such 2 a triangle in sq.28 f (x) =   2  2 2  1  x 1  x   (A) increasing in (0. k (C) f.21 The subnormal at any point on the curve xyn = an + 1 is constant for : (A) n = 0 (B) n = 1 (C) n =  2 (D) no value of n Q. h (B) h. 4 1  = a has atleast one solution on the interval (0.25 If f(x) = 4x3  x2  2x + 1 and g(x) =  1  4  3  4 (D) 9 f ( t ) : 0  t  x [ Min 3 x . 0) (B) increasing in (– . h. x 0 h (x) = {x} k (x) = 5log 2 ( x  3) then in [0. The value of ‘a’ is (A) 4 (B) 3 (C) 2 (D) 1  1 1   dx then f is Q.y2) y1  y2  . ) and decreasing in (– . (a > 0) meets C1 again at B(1. The tangents drawn to the curve at P and Q (A) intersect each other at angle of 45º (B) are parallel to each other (C) are perpendicular to each other (D) none of these Q. Q.22 Equation of the line through the point (1/2.26 Given : (B) 9 4 1  f (x) = 4    x  2  (C) 2/3 13 4 (D) 5 2 ta n [ x]  . is (A) 3 3 32 (B) 3 32 (C) 4 32 (D) 6 3 32 Q. 1] Lagranges Mean Value Theorem is NOT applicable to (A) f.y1) . x 0 x g (x) =   1 .23 The lines y =  (C) y  2 = 0  x2 + 2 and secant to the 2 (D) none 3 2 x and y =  x intersect the curve 3x2 2 5 + 4xy + 5y2  4 = 0 at the points P and Q respectively. (x. units. 0 x1 .  .  (C) increasing in (–  . k R intersect each other at two different points. 1 x  2 then  5  4 g   + g   + g   has the value equal to : (A) 7 4 Q.24 The least value of 'a' for which the equation.  (D) decreasing in (–  .20 The vertices of a triangle are (0. k Q. cos x) and (sin3x. 0) and decreasing in (0. 0). g.27 Two curves C1 : y = x2 – 3 and C2 : y = kx2 . /2) is : sin x 1  sin x (A) 3 (B) 5 (C) 7 Q.

(A) FFTF (B) TTFT (C) FTTF (D) TTTF . The rate in cms/min at which the level in the pot is rising at the instant when the coffee in the pot is 10 cm.Q. A lantern is at the centre of the circle .5 cm (B) 8 cm (C) 10 cm (D) 12 cm Q. b)  R.32 A closed vessel tapers to a point both at its top E and its bottom F and is fixed with EF vertical when the depth of the liquid in it is x cm. The largest area of such a rectangle is (A) 135 8 (B) 45 (C) 135 2 (D) 90 x x 1   3 0 x 1 Q. ) (D) function attains its extreme values at x1 & x2 .36 A horse runs along a circle with a speed of 20 km/hr . c  (a. Statement-2 : Let f : (a. the volume of the liquid in it is. If f(x) = x for x  R. height and diameter both 15 cms into a cylinderical coffee pot diameter 15 cm.31 Which of the following statement is true for the function f ( x )   x   3  x  4x x  0 (A) It is monotonic increasing  x  R 3 (B) f  (x) fails to exist for 3 distinct real values of x (C) f  (x) changes its sign twice as x varies from (– . 4) m n Q. f (4) = 10 and g (4) = 8 then (A) g ' (x) > 4 f ' (x)  x  (2. 4) (B) 3g ' (x) = 4 f ' (x) for at least one x  (2. b). then (A) f(x) is differentiable every where (B) f  (0) exists (C) f increases on (0. The rate at which coffee drains from the filter into the pot is 100 cu cm /min. and y = 30 – 2x. x2 > 0 Q. g (2) = 0. b] be bijective map such that f is differentiable at c then f–1 is also differentiable at f (c). x2 (15  x) cu.29 The lower corner of a leaf in a book is folded over so as to just reach the inner edge of the page. Use T if statement is true and F if it is false. Statement-4 : Let f : [c – 1.30 A rectangle with one side lying along the x-axis is to be inscribed in the closed region of the xy plane bounded by the lines y = 0. cm. The speed with which the shadow of the horse move along the fence at the moment when it covers 1/8 of the circle in km/hr is (A) 20 (B)40 (C) 30 (D) 60 Q. Then f can not have both a local maximum and a point of inflection at x = c.35 Let m and n be odd integers such that o < m < n.33 Coffee is draining from a conical filter. is (A) 9 16  (B) 25 9 (C) 5 3 (D) 16 9 Q. A fence is along the tangent to the circle at the point at which the horse starts . ) and decreases on (–. such that x1. 0) (D) f increases on R Q. c + ) then f has a local maximum at c. 4) (D) g ' (x) = 4 f ' (x) for at least one x  (2. y = 3x. 4) (C) g (x) > f (x)  x  (2.34 Let f (x) and g (x) be two differentiable function in R and f (2) = 8. Statement-1: If f : R  R and c  R is such that f is increasing in (c – . The fraction of width folded over if the area of the folded part is minimum is : (A) 5/8 (B) 2/3 (C) 3/4 (D) 4/5 Q. Where  is a sufficiently small positive quantity. Statement-3 : The function f (x) = x2 | x | is twice differentiable at x = 0. The length EF is: (A) 7. c + 1]  [a.37 Give the correct order of initials T or F for following statements. c) and f is decreasing in (c.

2]  R be differentiable such that 0  f ' (t)  1 for t  [–1. 1) (C) (1. x = sec2 t and y = cot t where t is a parameter.46 Let f (x) =    ( x  2) 3 if x  1 then the number of critical points on the graph of the function is (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4 Q. The value of  for which the volume of the pyramid is greatest.45 In a regular triangular prism the distance from the centre of one base to one of the vertices of the other base is l. is (A) 1/3 (B) 1/2 (C) 2/3 (D) 3/4 Q. is : (A)  4 (B) sin1 2 3 (C) cot1 2 (D)  3 Q.P. 0) (D) no point Q.43 The lateral edge of a regular hexagonal pyramid is 1 cm.Q.38 Let f : [–1. 9) (B) (3.39 A curve is represented by the equations. Q. The lateral edge makes an angle  with the plane of the base. 1) (C) (1. 1) (B) (0. If the volume is maximum.42 The sum of the terms of an infinitely decreasing geometric progression is equal to the greatest value of the function f (x) = x3 + 3x – 9 on the interval [– 2. The altitude of the prism for which the volume is greatest :     (A) (B) (C) (D) 2 3 4 3 x3 5 if x  1 Q.44 The lateral edge of a regular rectangular pyramid is 'a' cm long .   e (B) (0. 3]. 0] and – 1  f ' (t)  0 for t  [0. e2 x = 1 is : (A) 2 (B) 4 (C) 6 (D) zero Q. If the tangent at the point P on the curve where t = /4 meets the curve again at the point Q then PQ is equal to: (A) 5 3 2 (B) 5 5 2 (C) 2 5 3 (D) 3 5 2 Q.e) (D) (0.  15) (C) (1.47 The curve y  exy + x = 0 has a vertical tangent at : (A) (1. 2]. Then (A) – 2  f (2) – f (–1)  1 (B) 1  f (2) – f (–1)  2 (C) – 3  f (2) – f (–1)  0 (D) – 2  f (2) – f (–1)  0 Q.e) Q.41 The set of values of p for which the equation ln x px = 0 possess three distinct roots is  1 (A)  0.  3) (D) none .49 The point(s) at each of which the tangents to the curve y = x3  3x2  7x + 6 cut off on the positive semi axis OX a line segment half that on the negative semi axis OY then the co-ordinates the point(s) is/are given by : (A) ( 1. then its height must be equal to : (A) 1 3 (B) 2 3 (C) 1 3 (D) 1 Q.48 Number of roots of the equation x2 .40 For all a. b  R the function f (x) = 3x4  4x3 + 6x2 + ax + b has : (A) no extremum (B) exactly one extremum (C) exactly two extremum (D) three extremum . If the difference between the first and the second term of the progression is equal to f ' (0) then the common ratio of the G.

58 Let f (x) =   for each x  J. 4) (D) R – [1.52 Consider the function f (x) = x cos x – sin x. is (A) 0 (B) 1/2 (C) 2 (D) 1 Q. (A) f is neither odd nor even (B) f is monotonic decreasing at x = 0 (C) f has a maxima at x =  (D) f has a minima at x = –  Q. where p. does not hold good? (A) f (x) is non monotonic (B) increasing in (– . has a maximum value. then solution set of f g ( 2  2 ) > f  g(3  4)  is (A) R (B)  (C) (1.54 The x-intercept of the tangent at any arbitrary point of the curve a b  2 = 1 is proportional to: 2 x y (A) square of the abscissa of the point of tangency (B) square root of the abscissa of the point of tangency (C) cube of the abscissa of the point of tangency (D) cube root of the abscissa of the point of tangency. ) and decreasing is (–2. Then (B) g is decreasing on J (D) g is concave down on J ( x  1)(6 x  1) 1 if x  2x  1 2 0 (A) f has a local maxima (C) f has an inflection point then at x = 1 2 1 2 (B) f has a local minima (D) f has a removable discontinuity if x  Q.56 The function 'f' is defined by f(x) = xp (1  x)q for all x  R. The absolute value of the tangent of the angle between the two curves at the points where they meet.55 For the cubic. such that f (x1) > f (x2) and   g (x1) < g (x2). for x equal to : (A) pq pq (B) 1 (C) 0 (D) p pq Q. 3x2  2x3 = log2 (x2 + 1)  log2 x is : (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) none Q. – 2)  (–1. f (x) = 2x3 + 9x2 + 12x + 1 which one of the following statement.q are positive integers.  x1 > x2 . Let g(x) = ln h ( x )  Suppose for each x  J h ' ( x ) 2 > h''(x) h(x) (A) g is increasing on J (C) g is concave up on J  Q.57 Let h be a twice continuously differentiable positive function on an open interval J.59 Let f (x) and g (x) be two continuous functions defined from R  R. –1) (C) f : R  R is bijective (D) Inflection point occurs at x = – 3/2 Q. 1) and also touches the x-axis at the point (1. then identify the statement which is correct .51 Number of solution(s) satisfying the equation. 4] . 0) then the values of x for which the curve has a negative gradient are (A) x >  1 (B) x < 1 (C) x <  1 (D)  1  x  1 Q. Q.50 A curve with equation of the form y = ax4 + bx3 + cx + d has zero gradient at the point (0.53 Consider the two graphs y = 2x and x2 – xy + 2y2 = 28.Q.

and let  be the angle between them.4].67 Let f (x) and g (x) are two function which are defined and differentiable for all x  x0. y = a (2 sin t  sin 2t) the tangents are parallel to the axis of x corresponding to the values of the parameter t differing from each other by : (A) 2/3 (B) 3/4 (C) /2 (D) /3 Q. The local minimum occurs at x =  (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 2 (D) 2 . 3) (B) (–  . If x is increasing at the rate (1/12) m/hr. If f (x0) = g (x0) and f ' (x) > g ' (x) for all x > x0 then (A) f (x) < g (x) for some x > x0 (B) f (x) = g (x) for some x > x0 (C) f (x) > g (x) only for some x > x0 (D) f (x) > g (x) for all x > x0 Q.70 The function S(x) =  sin   2   0 is a local minimum and the other is a local maximum. 4) (D) (4. then global maximum value of f(x) is : x (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 4 (D) 5 Q.60 If f(x) = x2  (t  1) dt .61 A right triangle is drawn in a semicircle of radius 1/2 with one of its legs along the diameter. ) Q.65 The least area of a circle circumscribing any right triangle of area S is : (A)  S Q.  ) (C) (–1.66 (B) 2  S (C) 2  S (D) 4  S A point is moving along the curve y3 = 27x.68 P and Q are two points on a circle of centre C and radius . The interval in which the abscissa changes at slower rate than ordinate. 1) (D) (– .62 At any two points of the curve represented parametrically by x = a (2 cos t  cos 2t) .69 The line which is parallel to x-axis and crosses the curve y = x at an angle of (A) y =  1/2 (B) x = 1/2 x (C) y = 1/4 (D) y = 1/2  is 4  t 2   dt has two critical points in the interval [1. One of the critical points Q.Q. ) (C) (– . 1  x  2. ) Q. is (A) (–3 . the angle PCQ being 2 then the radius of the circle inscribed in the triangle CPQ is maximum when (A) sin   3 1 (B) sin   2 2 5 1 (C) sin   2 5 1 (D) sin   2 5 1 4 Q. 4) (B) (0. 2.63 Let x be the length of one of the equal sides of an isosceles triangle. –3)  (3. and  is increasing at the rate of /180 radians/hr then the rate in m2/hr at which the area of the triangle is increasing when x = 12 m and  = /4 (A)   21/2 1  2  73 1/2  (B) ·2 5  2 Q. The maximum area of the triangle is (A) 1 4 (B) 3 3 32 (C) 3 3 16 (D) 1 8 Q. where 't' is a parameter has a minimum and a maximum then the range x4 of values of 't' is (A) (0.64 If the function f (x) = 1  (D) 21/2    2 5 31 2   (C) 2 5 t  3x  x 2 .

II. T T 0 0 III. Adifferentiable function ' f ' with maximum at x = c  f ''(c) < 0.78 The radius of a right circular cylinder increases at a constant rate.   f (x) = (a2  3 a + 2)  cos2 (A) [1. cm/sec. respectively from [0. If f has a period T then for any a  R.5 C (C) 1. 3 3    (D)  3  3   2 (B) 2 3. then h (x)  h (1) is : (A) always zero (B) strictly increasing (C) always negative (D) always positive Q. ) (C) ( 2. f(x) = 1 + a2x – x3 satisfy the inequality x2  x  2 < 0.  2 3. 3/2) & decreasing in (3/2. (A) exactly one statement is correct.77 If the point of minima of the function. Let h (x) = f [g (x)] . ) to [0.71 For a steamer the consumption of petrol (per hour) varies as the cube of its speed (in km). ) (D) decreasing in (0. ).25 C (B) 1. If f (x) has a maxima at x = c . the volume is increasing at the rate of 1Cu cm/sec. 3 3 3. (B) exactly two statements are correct. 1) (C) increasing in (0. 3)  (3. then 'f ' is increasing in (c – h.  2)  (0.  f ( x ) dx =  f ( x  a ) dx IV.72 Let f and g be increasing and decreasing functions. Its altitude is a linear function of the radius and increases three times as fast as radius.  3 3 3. Q. c) and decreasing in (c. The value of 'n' is equal to: (A) 12 (B) 22 (C) 30 (D) 33 . c + h) as h  0 for h > 0. 1)  (1. 0) a x3 + (a + 2) x2 + (a  1) x + 2 possess a negative 3 (B) { 4/5 } (D) empty set Q.73 The set of value(s) of 'a' for which the function f (x) = point of inflection . (C) exactly three statements are correct. 5) Q. When the radius is 6cm. the volume is increasing at a rate of n cu.75 The set of all values of 'a ' for which the function .74 A function y = f (x) is given by x = 1 1 & y= for all t > 0 then f is : 2 1 t t (1  t 2 ) (A) increasing in (0. When the radius is 36cm. When the radius is 1cm the altitude is 6 cm. ) x x  sin 2  + (a  1) x + sin 1 does not possess critical points is: 4 4 (B) (0. Now indicate the correct alternative.75C (D) 2 C Q. 4) (D) (1. If h (0) = 0. then 'a' must lie in the interval: x 2  5x  6  (C) 2 (A) 3 3. 1) Q. 4) (C) ( 2. Antiderivative of a periodic function is also a periodic function.Q. (D) All the four statements are correct. 3 3  Q. ) (B) increasing in (0. If the speed of the current is steady at C km/hr then the most economical speed of the steamer going against the current will be (A) 1. (A) (.76 Read the following mathematical statements carefully: I.

f (x) has (A) a maxima whenever a > 0.Q.82 The cost function at American Gadget is C(x) = x3 – 6x2 + 15x (x in thousands of units and x > 0) The production level at which average cost is minimum is (A) 2 (B) 3 (C) 5 (D) none Q. The value of dx/dt when x = 3 is (A) 4 (B) 9 2 (C) 3 3 2 (D) none   Q. g and b = 3/2 (B) LMVT is not applicable to f and Rolles theorem if applicable to g with b = 1/2 (C) LMVT is applicable to f and Rolles theorem is applicable to g with b = 1 (D) Rolles theorem is not applicable to both f. a). then the length of the median from the vertex containing the sides 'a' and 'b' is (A) 1 2 a  b2 2 (B) 2a  b 3 a 2  b2 2 (C) (D) a  2b 3 Q. b > 0 (D) neither a maxima nor minima whenever a > 0. b < 0 x ln t   Q. If f (a) = a and f (– a) = – a then f (0) (A) equals 0 (B) equals 1/2 (C) equals 1 (D) is not possible to determine Q.axis.87 Let f (x) =   t ln ( t )   dt (x > 1) then t   1 (A) f (x) has one point of maxima and no point of minima. g for any real b.80 Let a > 0 and f be continuous in [– a. If the triangle is to have the maximum area. 1 < x < 2 2 then which of the following is correct? (A) Rolles theorem is applicable to both f.81 The lines tangent to the curves y3 – x2y + 5y – 2x = 0 and x4 – x3y2 + 5x + 2y = 0 at the origin intersect at an angle  equal to (A) /6 (B) /4 (C) /3 (D) /2 Q.  is  4 (A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) 3 Q. b < 0 (C) minima whenever a > 0. The x2 (D) e½ (C) 1 A particle moves along the curve y = x3/2 in the first quadrant in such a way that its distance from the origin increases at the rate of 11 units per second. b > 0 (B) a maxima whenever a > 0. Then at x = 0. (B) f ' (x) has two distinct roots (C) f (x) has one point of minima and no point of maxima (D) f (x) is monotonic Q. . a].86 Let f (x) = ax2 – b | x |. The upper right hand vertex on the curve y = maximum area of the rectangle is (A) e–1 (B) e – ½ Q.88 Consider f (x) = | 1 – x | 1  x  2 and  g (x) = f (x) + b sin x.84 nx .79 Two sides of a triangle are to have lengths 'a' cm & 'b' cm. Suppose that f ' (x) exists and f ' (x)  1 for all x  (– a.83 A rectangle has one side on the positive y-axis and one side on the positive x .85 Number of solution of the equation 3tanx + x3 = 2 in  0. where a and b are constants.

(B) x = 2 is a point of relative maxima. y = a (1 + sint)2 with the x-axis at any point on it is  1 (A) 1. Read the following carefully before attempting the questions (i) f (x) is continuous and defined for all real numbers (ii) f '(–5) = 0 . (v) the signs of f '(x) is given below Q. (C) x = 4 is a point of relative minima. )  (B) x   ln 1 2  8 (C)  4 . (D) graph of y = f (x) must have a geometrical sharp corner.   3 (A)  1   2 t  4 Q. but f ''(x) is negative everywhere else. then the coordinates of the point P  2  2   7 65   (B)  . . ) (B) decreasing on [0. g   and (3. ) (C) increasing on [0.90 The co-ordinates of the point on the curve 9y2 = x3 where the normal to the curve makes equal intercepts with the axes is 6 2 6  (B) 3. f '(2) is not defined and f '(4) = 0 (iii) (–5. ) ln (   x ) is : ln ( e  x ) (A) increasing on [0.94 to Q. then f (x) increases in (B) (0.89 Consider f (x) =   t  t  dt and g (x) = f  (x)  0 1  for x   . 5 5    Q. /e) & decreasing on [/e.   3 1 sin t cos t (C) 1 2 t    4 (D) 1 sin t cos 2 t  t  2lnt dt .92 If f (x) = 1 + x + (A) (0. g(3) ) of the curve.  6   (C) (1.93 The function f (x) = Directions for Q.96 Suppose you do not know the function f (x). 12) is a point which lies on the graph of f (x) (iv) f ''(2) is undefined. ) (D) decreasing on [0. 3 (D)  5 . ) Q. /e) & increasing on [/e. 2) Q.94 On the possible graph of y = f (x) we have (A) x = – 5 is a point of relative minima. 3 2  If P is a point on the curve y = g(x) such that the tangent to this curve at P is parallel to a chord joining the  1  1  points  . ) (C) no value (D) (1. e–2)  (1.91 The angle made by the tangent of the curve x = a (t + sint cost) .x  1 Q.  4 28  (A) can't be found out  3 5   (D)  2 . however some information about f (x) is listed below.

Q. ) A cube of ice melts without changing shape at the uniform rate of 4 cm3/min.97 to Q. ) (B) R – { 0 } (C) (–. when the volume of the cube is 125 cm3. e) (C) (1. 0)  (0.2 for 1  x  6. The rate of change of the surface area of the cube. (v) It has a negative root between – 2 and –1. (iii) and (vi) (B) only (ii).95 From the possible graph of y = f (x).97 Domain of f (x) is (A) (–1. ) (D) (0. (iii) It has a root between 0 and 1. The smallest possible value of f (6). (A) only (i). (D) Curve always concave up. is (A) – 4 (B) – 16/5 (C) – 16/6 (D) – 8/15 Q. in cm2/min.101 Q. (vi) It has no complex roots.103 Which of the following six statements are true about the cubic polynomial P(x) = 2x3 + x2 + 3x – 2? (i) It has exactly one positive real root. (iv) and (v) . (ii) It has either one or three negative roots. (C) The curve is always concave down. (iv) It must have exactly two real roots.96 Possible graph of y = f (x) is (A) (B) (C) (D) Directions for Q. (iii) and (iv) (C) only (i) and (iii) (D) only (iii). is (A) 9 (B) 12 (C) 15 (D) 19 Q. (B) f (x) increases on – 5 < x < 2 and x > 4 and decreases on –  < x < – 5 and 2 < x < 4. ) (D) (1.99 The function f (x) (A) has a maxima but no minima (B) has a minima but no maxima (C) has exactly one maxima and one minima (D) has neither a maxima nor a minima Q. e)  (e.98 Which one of the following limits tends to unity? f (x) (A) Lim x  f (x) (B) xLim 0  f ( x ) (D) Lim f ( x ) (C) xLim x  1 Q. ) Q. Q.100 x  1 Consider the function f (x) = 1   then  x Q.100 Range of the function f (x) is (A) (0.102 Let f (1) = – 2 and f ' (x)  4. we can say that (A) There is exactly one point of inflection on the curve. ) (B) (– . –1)  (0.

104 Consider the function f (x) = 8x2 – 7x + 5 on the interval [–6. (ii) The equation f (x) = 0 has at least one solution in a < x < b. (A) only (ii) and (iv) are true (B) all but (iii) are true (C) all but (v) are true (D) only (i). the output per additional tree drops by 10 apples. which of the following are always true? (i) f (x) is bounded on a  x  b.110 Q.107 1 . 6]. is (A) 5 (B) 10 (C) 15 (D) 20 Q. (C) f must have exactly 2 stationary points. For each additional tree planted in the orchard. then n equals a 0 2 (D) 4 normal intersects the y-axis at the point (0. Then (A) f has exactly one stationary point. f (a) < 0 and f (b) > 0. is 2 sin 2 x  3 cos 2 x (A) always equal to 1/2 (B) always equal to 1/3 (C) 1/2 or 1/3 according as n is an even or an odd integer. Each tree produces 800 apples. (iii) The maximum and minimum values of f (x) on a  x  b occur at points where f ' (c) = 0. an) on the graph of y = xn (n  N) in the first quadrant a normal is drawn. The Q.105 Q. (v) There is at least one point d with a < d < b where f ' (c) < 0. (iv) There is at least one point c with a < c < b where f ' (c) > 0. Number of trees that should be added to the existing orchard for maximising the output of the trees. . (D) 1/2 or 1/3 according as n is an odd or an even integer. b). The value of c that satisfies the conclusion of the mean value theorem. If H denotes the number of point on the curve where the tangent is horizontal and V the number of point where the tangent is vertical then (A) H = 2 and V = 1 (B) H = 1 and V = 2 (C) H = 2 and V = 2 (D) H = 1 and V = 1 At the point P(a.108 Suppose that f is a polynomial of degree 3 and that f ''(x)  0 at any of the stationary point. Q. (D) f has either 0 or 2 stationary points. (B) f must have no stationary point. If f (1) = 2 and f (4) = 8 then f (2) has the value equal to (A) 3 (B) 4 (C) 6 (D) 8 Q.112 The ordinate of all points on the curve y = 1 where the tangent is horizontal.109  x 2 for x  0  Let f (x) =  . If Lim b  (A) 1 (B) 3 (C) 2 Q. (ii) and (iv) are true Q.111 There are 50 apple trees in an orchard.106 Consider the curve represented parametrically by the equation x = t3 – 4t2 – 3t and y = 2t2 + 3t – 5 where t  R. Then x intercept of the line that is tangent to the graph of f (x)  x 2  8 for x  0 is (A) zero (B) – 1 (C) –2 (D) – 4 Suppose that f is differentiable for all x and that f '(x)  2 for all x.Given that f (x) is continuously differentiable on a  x  b where a < b. is (A) – 7/8 (B) – 4 (C) 7/8 (D) 0 Q.

e–e) (D) none Q. the tangent at which cuts off equal intersects from the co-ordinate axes is : ( a > 0) (A) Q. b > 0 (B) a > 0. 2/3) (D) increases in (2/3. n  I (D) none of these . n  I Q. 0) is the point of inflection Q. 1] (B) it is an increasing function (C) it is an odd function (D) the point (0.113 to 'a' can be :  x  a  y  b  x  a  y  b  x  a  y  b (A)      = 2 (B)      = 2 (C)      = 0 Q.114 The function y = 2x  1 (x  2) : x2 (A) is its own inverse (C) has a graph entirely above x-axis Q. is  1 (A)  1.122 Let f(x) = (x2  1)n (x2 + x + 1) then f(x) has local extremum at x = 1 when : (A) n = 2 (B) n = 3 (C) 4 (D) n = 6 . 2/3) (B) decreases in (2/3. b < 0 Q.117 4 8 2 (B) The function f(x) = x  2 2 1 1  . where x  R is : sin x  4 cos x  4 (C) 8 2 2 2 4 2 1 (D) 4 2 8 2 1  t 4 dt is such that : 0 (A) it is defined on the interval [ 1. 1] Q.115 If  x  a  y  b (D)      = 0 (B) decreases for all values of x (D) is bound for all x. K > 0 then : t a b (A) a > 0.Select the correct alternatives : (More than one are correct) n n  x  y The equation of the tangent to the curve      = 2 (n  N) at the point with abscissa equal  a  b Q.   e 1  (B)  1. K x y  = 1 is a tangent to the curve x = Kt. y = . b > 0 (D) a < 0. n  I (C) b  a = 2n  . The co-ordinates of the point P on the graph of the function y = e –|x| where the portion of the tangent intercepted between the co-ordinate axes has the greatest area.120 a 2 (B)  The function a 2 (D)  a 2 sin (x  a ) has no maxima or minima if : sin (x  b) (A) b  a = n  .   e (C) (e. b < 0 (C) a < 0.121 (C) a 2 (B) b  a = (2n + 1)  .119 The abscissa of the point on the curve x y = a + x. 1] (C) increases in [0.116 The extremum values of the function f(x) = (A) Q.118 Let g(x) = 2 f (x/2) + f (1  x) and f  (x) < 0 in 0  x  1 then g(x) : (A) decreases in [0.

) The parabola y = x2 + px + q cuts the straight line y = 2x  3 at a point with abscissa 1.4 where the 3 2 tangent drawn cut off intercepts from the co-ordinate axes which are equal in magnitude but opposite in sign.130 If the side of a triangle vary slightly in such a way that its circum radius remains constant.1) (D) none Equation of a tangent to the curve y cot x = y3 tan x at the point where the abscissa is (A) 4x + 2y =  + 2 (B) 4x  2y =  + 2 (C) x = 0 (D) y = 0  is : 4 Q.128 (B) f(x) = 0 has at least one root in (0.131 (C) 0 (D) 2R(dA + dB + dC) In which of the following graphs x = c is the point of inflection .Q. f(x) = x3 5 x2  + 7x . ) (D) (0. is (A) (2.125 The co-ordinates of the point(s) on the graph of the function. then : (A) ' h ' is increasing whenever ' f ' is increasing (B) 'h ' is increasing whenever ' f ' is decreasing (C) ' h ' is decreasing whenever ' f ' is decreasing (D) nothing can be said in general. If the distance between the vertex of the parabola and the x  axis is least then : (A) p = 0 & q =  2 (B) p =  2 & q = 0 (C) least distance between the parabola and x  axis is 2 (D) least distance between the parabola and x  axis is 1 Q.124 Q.129 Let h (x) = f (x)  {f (x)}2 + {f (x)}3 for every real number ' x ' .  7) is the point of inflection (C) the graph is concave downwards in (0. 1) (B) (0. 8/3) (B) (3.123 For the function f(x) = x4 (12 ln x  7) (A) the point (1.126 On which of the following intervals.132 (B) 2 R (B) An extremum value of y = (A) 5/6 (B) 2/3 (C) (D) x  (t  1) (t  2) dt is : 0 (C) 1 (D) 2 .1) (C) f (c) vanishes for some c (0. then. 1) (C) (/2. Q. da db dc is equal to:   cos A cos B cos C (A) 6 R Q. /2) Q. 5/6) (D) none Q. then (A) f(x) = 0 has no root in (0.1) Q. (A) Q. the function x100 + sin x  1 is strictly increasing. 7/2) (C) (1. (A) ( 1. 1) (B) x = e1/3 is the point of minima (D) the graph is concave upwards in (1.127 Let f(x) = 8x3 – 6x2 – 2x + 1.

106 Q.63 D Q.22 A Q.B ANSWER KEY .73 Q.58 C Q.72 A Q.42 B Q.80 Q.91 C Q.113 B.76 Q.130 A.45 Q.2 D Q.1 B Q.90 Q.111 A.26 A Q.20 Q.92 A Q.33 D Q.86 A Q.C.118 Q.124 B.C Q.83 Q.39 B Q.17 Q.C Q.D Q.96 C Q.6 Q.112 Q.23 C Q.D Q.119 A.67 A Q.C.61 B Q.129 A.109 C Q.11 A Q.C B Q.102 Q.5 D Q.D A.128 A.47 C Q.57 D Q.104 B D Q.15 C Q.64 C Q.59 Q.127 Q.4 C Q.C Q.51 A Q.84 C Q.43 C Q.B.81 D Q.121 Q.107 D A.126 C.C A.37 A Q.93 B Q.10 Q.B.71 B Q.123 Q.49 C Q.95 Q.41 Q.B Q.53 C Q.19 A Q.75 B Q.115 D C B.14 A Q.30 C Q.62 Q.110 A.56 A Q.D Q.70 A Q.38 Q.A.101 B B D D C D C C C D B D C C B Q.D Q.50 C Q.60 C Q.131 A.28 D Q.32 A Q.B Q.89 D Q.46 B Q.D Q.69 Q.C.40 B Q.85 B Q.C.88 D Q.114 Q.8 A Q.B Q.74 A Q.108 Q.105 Q.97 D A.9 D Q.100 D D B Q.16 D Q.98 Q.34 Q.3 Q.66 Q.54 C Q.25 C Q.120 A.78 D Q.D Q.7 D Q.82 B Q.12 A Q.24 Q.122 B.44 C Q.29 B Q.117 A.55 Q.21 B Q.B.B Q.B Q.132 Q.36 B Q.65 A Q.94 Q.B.79 A Q.103 B D D C C D C B D D C D A A B C Q.99 D Q.B.77 A Q.87 Q.18 D Q.27 Q.35 A Q.31 Q.116 A.D C Q.125 Q.52 Q.48 Q.68 B Q.13 Q.D Q.