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Designing & Organizing

a Training Course
Prepared by

Md. Raihan Ubaidullah1

Assistant Chief (Trade Policy Division), Bangladesh Tariff Commission. Mr. Md. Raihan Ubaidullah joined at
Bangladesh Tariff Commission in 2007 as a Public Relations and Publication Officer. Before Joining at BTC, he
worked at BRAC and UNFPA. He has completed his Master in Public Policy from KDI School of Public Policy and
Management of South Korea. His prior Master degree was from Department of Mass Communication and
Journalism of the University of Dhaka. Beside it, he completed Post Graduate Diploma in Information Technology
from IIT, DU, Post Graduate Diploma in Population Science from DPS, DU and Post Graduate Diploma in
Personnel Management from Bangladesh Institute of Management. Moreover, he has 27 years affiliation with
Bangladesh Scouts and other voluntary organizations like LiveStrong Foundation, World Ocean Conservancy,
International Coastal Cleanup Program, Green Peace Australia and so on. For further information please
communicate at: mdraihanubaidullah@gmail.com and www.bd.linkedin.com/in/mdraihanubaidullah

Designing & Organizing a Training Course 2015

1. PREAMBLE
Training is any planned activity to transfer or modify knowledge, skills, and attitudes
through learning experiences. Personnel may require training for a variety of reasons,
including the need to maintain levels of competence and respond to the demands of changing
circumstances and new approaches and technologies. Training by itself cannot solve
structural, organizational, or policy problems within an organization, although supportive
supervision and the use of motivational strategies can help sustain performance improvement
derived from training (www.who.int/medicinedocs/documents).
Conventional 'training' is required to cover essential work-related skills, techniques
and knowledge, and much of this section deals with taking a positive progressive approach to
this sort of traditional 'training'. Importantly however, the most effective way to develop
people is quite different from conventional skills training, which let's face it many employees
regard quite negatively. They'll do it of course, but they won't enjoy it much because it's about
work, not about themselves as people. The most effective way to develop people is instead to
enable learning and personal development, with all that this implies
(www.businessballs.com).
The first step in the design of training involves an assessment of training needs. The
assessment comprises (www.who.int/medicinedocs/documents)
Observing workers performing normal duties
Interviewing workers and others
Studying routine reports or performance reviews, along with job descriptions
Identifying performance problems
The second step involves defining the training programs learning objectives. The
learning objectives, which are derived from the needs assessment, specify the observable,
measurable actions that each learner will be able to demon strate as a result of participating in
the training activities (www.who.int/medicinedocs/documents).
The third step is the creation and implementation of a training program to improve
performance, taking into account the experience and educational levels of the personnel and
the time and resources available for training (www.who.int/medicinedocs/documents).
Options range from short courses to long-term placements in academic institutions in
the country, in the region, or overseas, and nonclassroom-based interventions, such as onthe-job training, coaching, and mentoring. All options must be weighed against the immediate
operational needs of the program or institution, because facilities may not have enough
personnel
to
operate
when
staff
members
go
for
training
(www.who.int/medicinedocs/documents).
The learning outcomes that must be achieved, along with the training environment,
audience characteristics, and the experience of the trainer, all determine the mix of learning
methods and media that will achieve maximum effectiveness. Methods and media may
include lecture, discussion, case study, role-playing, group exercise, simulation games,
brainstorming, and demonstration. If no published training materialsincluding audiovisual
aidsare available, the trainer must develop them. Development of the training program also
includes design of the training evaluation, which is carried out during the course as well as at
its conclusion. During the course, trainers monitor learner progress and satisfaction to identify

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where they may need to make adjustments to the training program. At the end of the course,
trainers should collect data on how well the learners achieved the course objectives and how
satisfied they were with the training experience. Whenever possible, the trainer should follow
up with participants after they return to their work situations to assess the impact of training
on performance. Data collected during follow-up can help identify the need for additional
training or reinforcement of newly acquired skills, as well as inform review and revision of
the training materials (www.who.int/medicinedocs/documents).
In some countries, availability of basic training and continuous professional
development programs is limited; therefore, many health workers lack access to formal
training opportunities and new ideas and approaches that can improve their work
performance. Well-designed in-service training programs can help fill this need
(www.who.int/medicinedocs/documents).
Training should be put into a context of continuous performance improvement.
Changing and improving practices require an environment conducive to work, the appropriate
learning resources, and the continuous use of motivational strategies. Training should be
based on competencies: the abilities required to do work to the standards expected. Therefore,
training should result in changes in work behavior that lead to an improved, efficiently
functioning pharmaceutical management system. At the same time, training alone is unlikely
to change overall supply system performance unless the environment and supervisory systems
support change and unless individuals are encouraged to maintain changes
(www.who.int/medicinedocs/documents).
Learning requires active involvement. People prefer to learn in different ways
through visual stimuli, verbal interactions, and learning by doing. Therefore, offering a
variety of training opportunities and training techniques is usually more effective than using
only one approach. Training can be formal or informal, academic or applied, guided or selfdirected,
or
provided
in
public
agencies
or
private
institutions
(www.who.int/medicinedocs/documents).
Training alone is often not sufficient to change behavior or improve performance.
Improved performance, changed attitudes, and new skills acquired during training may need
to be complemented by and maintained through continuing education, supportive supervision,
and adequate motivational incentives. In many cases, structural changes, such as workspace
improvements and increased access to supplies and equipment may be needed to support
improved performance (www.who.int/medicinedocs/documents).

Figure 01: Capacity Building Framework (www.who.int/medicinedocs/documents)

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Figure 02: A Training Design Structure (www.go2itech.org)

2. OBJECTIVES OF TRAINING
The training of personnel has four major objectives
1. Increase knowledge about the special considerations related to any systems
(www.who.int/medicinedocs/documents)
2. Improve attitudes about the importance of pharmaceutical management, thus
improving the environment for change (www.who.int/medicinedocs/documents)
3. Build and strengthen skills in the specific tasks to be completed for efficient
functioning of the pharmaceutical system
(www.who.int/medicinedocs/documents)
4. Improve work behavior, so that people function better at assigned activities and
fulfill their potential (www.who.int/medicinedocs/documents)
Training should address the needs of three levels of personnel, because it takes all
three groups to effect sustainable change
1. Policy makers, who are responsible for creating the environment needed for
improved management (www.who.int/medicinedocs/documents)
2. Midlevel managers, who are responsible for planning and supervising activities
required in the management (www.who.int/medicinedocs/documents)
3. Line or operations-level personnel, who are responsible for carrying out the
work of management (www.who.int/medicinedocs/documents)

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Finally, the main Objectives of Training Program are as follows:


i)

To impart to new entrants basic knowledge and skills


(www.yourarticlelibrary.com).
ii) To assist the employees to function more effectively in their present position
by exposing them to the latest concepts, information and techniques and
developing in them the skills required in their fields
(www.yourarticlelibrary.com).
iii) To build up a second line of competent officers and prepare them as a part of
their career progression to occupy more responsible positions
(www.yourarticlelibrary.com).
iv) To broaden the minds of the senior managers by providing them opportunities
for interchange of experiences within and outside with a view to correct the
narrow outlook that may arise from over specialization
(www.yourarticlelibrary.com).
v) To impart customer education (www.yourarticlelibrary.com).

Figure 03: Defining the Training Objectives by SMART (www.structuredlearning.com)

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SMART isn't a writing process; it's a checking process. Trying to write a training
objective using it is, to say the least, tortuous. In fact, trying to write any sort of objective
using SMART as the structure is difficult and it's time that it was recognized that there is a
difference between checking something is SMART an appropriate thing to do and writing
an objective using SMART which is pretty well an impossible thing to do (www.iom.edu).
2.1 SPECIFIC
The specific part of an objective tells us what will change for whom in concrete
terms. It identifies the population or setting, and specific actions that will result. In some
cases it is appropriate to indicate how the change will be implemented (e.g., through training).
Coordinate, partner, support, facilitate, and enhance are not good verbs to use in objectives
because they are vague and difficult to measure. On the other hand, verbs such as provide,
train, publish, increase, decrease, schedule, or purchase indicate clearly what will be done
(www.iom.edu).
2.2 MEASURABLE
Measurable implies the ability to count or otherwise quantify an activity or its results.
It also means that the source of and mechanism for collecting measurement data are
identified, and that collection of these data is feasible for any program or partners
(www.iom.edu). A baseline measurement is required to document change (e.g., to measure
percentage increase or decrease). If the baseline is unknown or will be measured as a first
activity step, that should be indicated in the objective as baseline to be determined
usingXXX database, 20XX. The data source are using and the year the baseline was obtained
should always be specified in an objective statement (www.iom.edu).
2.3 ATTAINABLE/ACHIEVABLE
The objective must be feasible with the available resources, appropriately limited in
scope, and within the programs control and influence. Often, talking to others who have
implemented similar programs or interventions can provide information about expected
change. In some situations, it is more important to consider the percentage of change as a
number of people when discussing impact (www.iom.edu).
2.4 RELEVANT
Will this objective have an effect on the desired goal or strategy? Relevant relates to
the relationship between the objective and the overall goals of the program or purpose of the
intervention. Evidence of relevancy can come from a literature review, best practices, or your
theory of change (www.iom.edu).
2.5 TIME BOUND
A specified and reasonable time frame should be incorporated into the objective
statement. This should take into consideration the environment in which the change must be
achieved, the scope of the change expected, and how it fits into the overall work plan. It could
be indicated as By December 2010, the program will or Within 6 months of receiving the
grant,... (www.iom.edu).

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3. DEVELOPING A COMPREHENSIVE TRAINING PROGRAM


A training program is composed of a schedule of activities with training goals,
learning objectives, subject areas, methods, trainers, trainees, methods of assessment, and
locations. A good training program is designed to address performance problems. Figure 03
shows how a training program is developed, proceeding from problem identification, through
needs assessment, training, and evaluation, to a change in behavior that result in better
Performance (www.who.int/medicinedocs/documents).

Figure 04: The training process for improved performance (www.who.int/medicinedocs/documents)

The key elements of a training program include needs assessment, course work,
learning tasks, and practical application. Facilitators introduce new information to trainees
through course work or lectures. Learning tasks or activities, such as case studies or roleplays, provide individuals with opportunities to work with the new information in a smallgroup setting. Practical experiences and application give the trainees the opportunity to apply
the knowledge and skills learned in a real-life or simulated situation
(www.who.int/medicinedocs/documents).
The current level of the trainees skills will guide decisions on developing a training
program specifically for the group. For example, the objectives and goals for a program to
train new employees will differ dramatically from those for a program geared toward
experienced technicians learning a new technique (www.who.int/medicinedocs/documents).
4. CONDUCTING NEEDS AND KNOWLEDGE ASSESSMENTS
A training needs assessment and a pre training knowledge and skills assessment are
required to help plan an effective training program. The needs assessment should encompass
the overall working environment, including the supervisory structure and the level of
employee motivation (www.who.int/medicinedocs/documents).
A knowledge and skills assessment evaluates the participants level of prior
knowledge, as well as previous training and experience, in the area of interest. The results of
this assessment are used to develop the training learning objectives, and ultimately, the
content. Methods for assessing training needs are outlined below. The optimal method
depends on the goals of the assessment and the cadre of the individuals being assessed. A

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knowledge assessment can be based on observation of a worker performing routine duties.


This review uncovers both strengths and weaknesses, but the presence of an observer may
influence the behavior observed (www.who.int/medicinedocs/documents).
Interviews with supervisors, administrators, users of services, and workers can help
determine where performance problems might exist and what skills need to be taught or
improved. If workers fear reprisals from management, reassurances about confidentiality of
information will be necessary to obtain good data. In some situations, a training needs
analysis can be done by conducting a group interview in which the staff are invited to identify
competencies in terms of knowledge, attitudes, and skills. Staff members rate themselves on a
graph in relation to each of a set of competencies. Exit interviews with workers leaving their
jobs can also be useful. Finally, interviews with users of the services can help in assessing
levels of satisfaction (www.who.int/medicinedocs/documents).
Analyses of job and task descriptions may reveal special training needs. Selfadministered, anonymous questionnaires for both managers and workers can also be valuable.
Several types of reports are useful needs assessment tools
Organizational reports, for an overview of the performance of the organization and
personnel (www.who.int/medicinedocs/documents)
External evaluation or appraisal reports, for an outsiders view of the organization
and its training needs (and performance) (www.who.int/medicinedocs/documents)
Annual or semiannual performance reviews (www.who.int/medicinedocs/documents)
It can be described by the following cycle easily

Figure 05: The Training/Learning Procedure (www.conted.ox.ac.uk)

Figure 06: The Training/Learning Needs Analysis (www.conted.ox.ac.uk)

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5. SELECTING SUBJECT AREAS AND SETTING LEARNING OBJECTIVES


A training needs assessment should indicate which subject area, topic, or target group
should be given priority. In many countries, some subject areas require more attention than
others, but certain basics must be provided: the selection process needs to be well managed
and participatory; procurement officers need training in efficient purchasing methods and
quantification of needs; distributionproper storage, efficient transportation, and security and
so on (www.who.int/medicinedocs/documents).
In addition to these basic management skills, staff will benefit from training in other
areas, including (www.who.int/medicinedocs/documents)
general management
Financial management, budgeting, and accounting
Computer systems and information management
Training program development and management
Training materials development
Patient and public communications
Personnel planning and management
Program planning, monitoring, and evaluation
Proposal development and writing
After determining which tasks and competencies are required by staff for a particular
situation, training goals should be established and learning objectives should be set. Goals
will be broad statements about what the training intends to achieve
(www.who.int/medicinedocs/documents).
Objectives, on the other hand, should clearly state what the participant must be able to
do at the end of the training. They must be clear, concise, relevant, easily understood, and
measurablein other wordsSMART (specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, and timebound) (CDC 2009). They are, in fact, indicators by which course output and performance
can be assessed (www.who.int/medicinedocs/documents).

Figure 07: The Structure of Setting Learning Objectives (www.knowledgejump.com)

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6. LEARNING METHODS
Kolb, D. A. (1984) described about different learning styles and training delivery
mode which are as follows:

Table 01: Kolbs Model (Kolb, D. A., 1984)

A variety of learning experiences can be used in training, including (www.who.int)


Brainstorming: Members of a small or large group are encouraged to contribute any
suggestion that comes into their heads on a given subject, initially with no criticism,
but later with a sifting and assessment of all ideas. (Because brainstorming is such a
versatile but sometimes misunderstood method, it is described in detail in Table 01)
Case study: A real situation is presented in a brief paper or presentation, then
analyzed by participants.
Demonstration: The facilitator shows learners how and what should be done while
explaining why, when, and where an action is taken; participants then perform the
action.
Discussion: A method in which the participants learn from one another, usually with
guidance from a facilitator.
Distance learning: A system designed to build knowledge and skills of learners who
are not physically on-site to receive training. Facilitators and students may
communicate at times of their own choosing by exchanging printed or electronic
media or through technology that allows them to communicate in real time.

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Table 02: Learning Method (www.who.int/medicinedocs/documents)

e-learning: Participants interact with facilitators through the use of some of the many
electronic, computer-based learning materials that are now available, ranging from
CD-ROMs to Web-based systems.
Group exercise: A number of participants undertake an activity together, followed
by a critical analysis of the process involved.
Lecture: A direct talk with or without learning aids but without group participation.
Role-playing: Participants act out the roles of those represented in a given situation.
Self-paced: Participants are allowed to learn anywhere, anytime, and at a pace that
suits their levels of skills, knowledge, and aptitudes.
Simulation game: A more advanced version of a case study, where participants are
given more detailed information on a situation, including data sets to analyze. On the
basis of their analyses, participants develop and defend a plan of action.
Worksheet: A step-by-step approach to identifying problems or solutions through
written questions or problems, with space provided for answers.
Whatever the procedure is, the trainers have to maintain his/her workflow as like as
the following:

Figure 08: The Structure of trainers strategy to provide the lecture (www.knowledgejump.com)

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The uses, advantages, disadvantages, and trainers role for some of these methods are
summarized in Table 03. Some of the methods are more suitable for adult participatory
training, and others work well in formal academic settings (such as lectures or seminars).
Most people learn better in an active rather than a passive fashion. A combination of methods
is likely to be more effective than the exclusive use of one method
(www.who.int/medicinedocs/documents).

Table 03: Advantage and Disadvantage of Guides (www.who.int/medicinedocs)

7. SEQUENCING TOPICS
Sequencing means arranging topics in a logical order during training. In doing so,
bear in mind that most people prefer to learn in easy and progressive stages. Adults,
especially experienced trainees, usually prefer to start with an overview of the whole course
before concentrating on particulars. The best approach is to sequence topics to build on
previously completed content and learning experiences. In addition, spiraling the curriculum
revisits the basic concepts repeatedly, while building on them. The trainer should, however,
be aware of training fatigue and not leave the most complex topic for the end of the course,
when learners are likely to be more tired (www.who.int/medicinedocs/documents).

Figure 09: The Strategy of Providing the lecture (www.uwex.edu)

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8. DEVELOPING TEACHING MATERIALS


Training materials may not be available for the kind of in-service training that would
best suit a particular program. Many countries, however, have developed their own teaching
materials using a number of approaches. These materials can be requested and used as is or
can be adapted to suit specific needs (www.who.int/medicinedocs/documents).

Table 04: Comparison of Training Method (www.who.int/medicinedocs)

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According to Honey, P. & Mumford, A. (1986), there are several styles to develop
different materials to different purposes:

Table 05: Different Training Method for different purpose (Honey, P. & Mumford, A., 1986)

8.1 MANUALS
A training manual is a book or booklet of instructions, designed to improve the
quality of a performed task. Training manuals are widely used, including in business and the
military (www.en.wikipedia.org).
A training manual may be particularly useful as (www.en.wikipedia.org):
an introduction to subject matter prior to training
an outline to be followed during training
a reference to subject matter after training
a general reference document
A training manual may form an important part of a formal training program. For
example, it may help ensure consistency in presentation of content. It may also ensure that all
training information on skills, processes, and other information necessary to perform tasks is
together in one place (www.en.wikipedia.org).
Training manuals can be designed to be used as (www.en.wikipedia.org):
Work books used in training sessions to provide basic information, examples and
exercises.
Self-paced guides: designed for trainees to work through on their own.
Reference manuals: for containing detailed information on processes and procedures.
Handouts: provide general information to support training done during the session.
Job aids: provide step-by-step instructions to be used in the workplace.

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8.2 TRAINERS AND PARTICIPANTS GUIDES


Training materials should include guides for trainers and participants, as well as
audiovisual aids. Some of these materials may be obtained from established programs. It
provides structured but adaptable notes and exercises for each unit. The participants guide
should contain the technical content for the unit, including definitions of all essential terms
and concepts. The trainers guide should provide guidance on how the session should be
taught (www.who.int/medicinedocs/documents).
8.3 AUDIOVISUAL AIDS
Audiovisual aids are useful because they stimulate the trainee and help reinforce the
ideas presented. However, poor visual aids can confuse participants. Common visual aids
include posters, wall charts, chalkboards, flip charts, overhead projections, and computer
projected presentation slides. CDs and tapes are common audio aids. Videotapes, DVDs, and
films are good audiovisual aids, but their expense often makes them impractical. The
equipment and technology support required for some of these approaches may limit their use
in certain settings. If relying on equipment or technology that requires electricity, having a
backup option that does not need electricity is an important consideration
(www.who.int/medicinedocs/documents).
9. IMPLEMENTING A TRAINING PROGRAM
There are two basic approaches to implementing a training program: one is centered
on the trainer, who controls learning contents and experiences; the other is centered on the
learner, with the trainer acting as a guide and providing resources. This approach assumes that
people are able and willing to learn if they are given the proper materials in an atmosphere
that is conducive to learning. This method is preferred because it is participatory, learners
experiences are shared, and participants have more freedom to learn at their own speed
(www.who.int).
An important aspect to include in a training package is follow-up support to the
participants and evaluation of the training outcome. This support, which should be included in
the training budget, may be in the form of supervision, coaching, mentoring, setting up a
network support group, or simply providing a source of ongoing information. Follow-up
activities may be conducted in person but may also be provided by telephone or e-mail
(www.who.int/medicinedocs/documents).
9.1 STRATEGIES
Training strategies must be appropriate to the educational level of personnel being
trained and to the resources available in the country, feasible in terms of the amount of time
and travel involved, and relevant to the job. In some countries, governments often place
officials in jobs that require a higher degree of technical capacity than they possess. In such
cases, managers and trainers need to work together to close the gap between requirements and
ability (www.who.int/medicinedocs/documents).
Training programs must consider the resources available. For example, an individual
working in a central medical store that uses a simple card system for inventory control should
be trained in the operation of that system rather than a computerized system that may never be
installed (www.who.int/medicinedocs/documents).

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Training programs must be feasible. Governments may not be able to allow a senior
official to take an extended training leave, regardless of potential long-term benefits. Some
officials may not be able to be absent from work for more than one week. Similarly, health
care providers may not be able to be away from the patient population they serve if no backup
staff support is available. This factor is of particular concern in the private sector, where
having staff away from work will result in facilities losing revenues and in providers losing
income (www.who.int).
Pre-service training is conducted at established training institutions and is often a
prerequisite for hiring. In-service training may be offered in a classroom setting or in the work
environment, either as part of a planned staff development program or after an assessment of
deficiencies has determined what training is needed at the workplace (www.who.int).
Continuing professional development allows cadres of professionals to maintain and
improve their knowledge and professional competence throughout their careers. Professional
associations often develop and sponsor continuing professional development courses and
accreditation. A recognized credential can be a powerful incentive for seeking professional
development; for example, Tanzania created a new cadre of private-sector drug dispenser,
who may earn a license to work in a government-accredited drug dispensing outlet after
completing a training program and examination. A comprehensive training program is likely
to include a combination of long- and short-term training, observation trips, conferences and
seminars, and in-country counterpart training (www.who.int).
9.2 LONG-TERM TRAINING
Long-term training is often obtained in an institution of higher learning (sometimes in
overseas institutions). Such training, whether in academic or nonacademic settings, is most
useful for highly technical areas, such as research and development of new drugs, quality
assurance, production, improved manufacturing practices and so on. The provision of
fellowships for doctors, pharmacists, industrial engineers, and other technical professionals is
most appropriate here (www.who.int).
9.3 SHORT-TERM TRAINING
Short-term training is usually conducted over a period of one to three months in an
academic or nonacademic setting. To work effectively, the trainee needs to be separated from
everyday work responsibilities. Sometimes, when staff members have difficulty getting away
for an entire week, training may occur on a series of holidays (www.who.int).
This approach is appropriate for most training needs at management, especially for
top- and middle-level personnel. Prerequisites for effective short-term training include
(www.who.int)
A sufficient supply of people with appropriate background or education
Courses available in the language of the participants
Course design that uses training modules to allow for flexible curricula to meet the
needs of target groups
Intensive, practical training so that participants gain a good mix of information and
skills in a short time
Adequate follow-up of graduates, including provision of continuing education
programs, to ensure that they continue to function effectively.

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Short-term training program is suitable for the training of trainers (often referred to
by the acronym TOT) who will return to their jobs and train others in the techniques and skills
they have learned. Thus, short-term training should include pedagogical and leadership skills
and provide some institution-building capacities. Table 03 provides further information on
workshop logistics and evaluation (www.who.int).
An example of an innovative type of training is the monitoring-training-planning
(MTP) methodology, which puts into place an ongoing process to deal with individual
training issues in the short term. MTP puts the tools and responsibility for training into the
hands of local staff, who tackle specific problems in concise, monthly sessions. A number of
institutions have developed training materials and can provide training at the regional or
international level. Some private nongovernmental institutions in the United States, such as
Management Sciences for Health, and quasi-governmental institutions, such as the Eastern
and Southern African Management Institute in Arusha, Tanzania, offer training in individual
countries. In addition, some institutions are beginning to develop regional training centers in
management (www.who.int).
9.4 OBSERVATION TRIPS
Countries that do not have formal training programs but have successfully
implemented any programs can offer useful and practical examples for personnel from other
countries. In addition, some multinational and national companies have regional or local
warehouses, manufacturing plants, and laboratories that are good sites for visits. Observation
trips work best when combined with short-term training, to reinforce in a practical way the
skills learned. Such programs can benefit both the visitors and the institution visited,
especially if the trainer accompanies the trainees (www.who.int).
9.5 CONFERENCES AND SEMINARS
Standardized curricula prepared by an international institution can be used to present
at regional conferences and seminars. This approach works well for focusing on particular
components. It is also an effective way to promote longer training programs, information
sharing among developing-country personnel, desire for improvement, and general
sensitization of policy makers to the importance of any management (www.who.int).
9.6 IN-COUNTRY COUNTERPART TRAINING
An outside consultant with expertise in an aspect of any management, such as
computerized inventory, can train counterparts by working on-site for a period of weeks or
months. Short-term consultancies work best when they are focused on a specific activity (for
example, a pharmaceutical packaging process or the development of an operations manual).
Longer periods (from two to four years) are required for overall systems renovation.
Meaningful improvements in any management systems can be made using long-term, on-site
consultants. The major limitations are (www.who.int)
9.6.1 EXPENSE
International agencies characteristically spend a significant amount of money a month
to support an in-country consultant.

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9.6.2 LACK OF REGIONAL EFFECT


Only the individual country benefits, although participants in a program could train
others.
9.6.3 LACK OF APPROPRIATE INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY BUILDING
The host country may not be able to continue innovations after the departure of the
consultant.
10. ASSISTANCE FOR THE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF TRAINING
COURSES
Ideally, training courses are best developed by educators skilled in instructional
design who have a solid background in and knowledge of the topic areas. However, the skills
involved in designing and implementing a training program can be learned by observing good
trainers and paying attention to how they use different methods. Many programs rely on
outside organizations, such as Management Sciences for Health, i+Solutions (previously the
International Dispensary Association), and WHO to help them develop local training
programs or provide training opportunities for staff (Table 03). Training-of-trainers courses
are also frequently offered by local, regional, or international training institutes
(www.who.int).
Another valuable resource for a training program is the practical experience of
organizations and institutions in the pharmaceutical supply process. Among these are
international organizations, governmental and nongovernmental organizations, universities,
developing-country institutions, and programs already operating in developing countries
(www.who.int).
With few exceptions, however, these organizations have made technical assistance
rather than training their highest priority. Training programs have usually been established on
an ad hoc basis to fulfill a specific need rather than in a systematic and comprehensive way.
(www.who.int).
11. TRAINING AND PRESENTATION SKILLS
A trainer is expected to be knowledgeable, possess excellent communication skills,
and be able to communicate at the level and in the language of the participants (consecutive or
simultaneous translation may be appropriate for certain situations). To be effective, the trainer
should take into account the nature of the target group or audience (www.who.int).

Table 06: Training and Management (www.who.int)

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11.1 PREPARATION

Time used in preparation is time well spent. On average, the amount of time spent
preparing the first presentation of a course or training session by a person knowledgeable on
the topic equals four times that spent presenting it. So a one-week course would require four
weeks of preparation. After looking up information and consulting manuals and other
resources that are relevant to the subjects (identified in the needs assessment), the trainer
chooses appropriate learning methods and puts together a session plan. He or she takes steps
to acquire or prepare appropriate participants guides and audiovisual aids well in advance of
the targeted training date. The trainer should have the draft materials peer reviewed by
someone who is technically competent in the subject area. Also, if possible, the trainer should
rehearse the presentation before colleagues, keeping in mind issues of time and clarity
(www.who.int).
11.2 PRESENTATION
The trainer should always come to the training venue and the session early to check
out the room, the seating arrangements, and the audiovisual equipment. A friendly chat with
participants before the session creates a more comfortable environment. Formal introductions
should take place at the beginning of the first session. One way to do this is to ask pairs of
participants to interview each other; then each presents the other to the group or records the
information on a wall chart for all to see. The actual session should begin with the trainer
presenting the objectives of the course or session and summarizing its main points. These
main points are then expanded using the chosen learning methods. At the end of the session,
the trainer should always summarize the discussion, making sure to allow time for questions
and clarification (www.who.int).

Figure 10: The Seating arrangement at a training session (www.who.int)

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In developing visual aids, the following points should be kept in mind (www.who.int)
Use only one idea per visual aid to avoid crowding.
Use large letters and clear drawings.
Do not include too much information on one slide (seven lines with seven words per
line is a maximum guideline).
Do not use multiple fonts, sizes, and colors.
Allow plenty of time for preparing the visual aids and time for obtaining and testing
the equipment.
Test the materials in a rehearsal before the session, preferably in front of critical
colleagues.
When using visual aids, the trainer should take care to (www.who.int)
Check the visual aids and equipment a few minutes before the session begins.
Always face the audience, without obstructing their view, and use a pointer.
Switch off the equipment during discussions.
12. TRAINERS PERSONAL STYLE
Personal appearance and style can make a difference in keeping participants interest
during a session. The trainer should maintain eye contact with the group and make sure that
his or her voice is clear and can be heard by everybody. When interest appears to be flagging,
the trainer needs to be flexible and willing to change the schedule, perhaps by introducing a
role-play or arranging a short field visit or by inserting an unscheduled break to allow
participants to stretch or get refreshments. A good story or joke can help revive interest. In a
session in which participants are divided into small groups, having the trainer move from
group to group stimulates interest. During a long course, allocating time for dinners and other
social activities is important (www.who.int).
13. MONITORING AND EVALUATION
Monitoring and evaluation to assess the performance and progress of the participants
is one of the trainers key roles. These assessments should be done as formative evaluations
while the course is in progress (for midcourse adjustments and fine-tuning), as summative
evaluations at the end of the course (to make the course better in the future), and as periodic
follow-ups after the training is over to monitor outcomes and assess the continuing
performance of the trainees (www.who.int).

Table 07: Training Assessment Guide (www.who.int)

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The training outcomes should be measurable, performance-based, and directly related


to the objectives of the training program. For example, if the goal of the training is for the
participants to be able to institute a post-exposure prophylaxis program in their workplaces, a
relevant outcome measure would be the completion of this activity within a reasonable time
frame. Curriculum mapping is a method to evaluate the links between course content and
outcomes (Plaza et al. 2007).
In training, formative assessment is important, because the aim of the course is to
improve performance, not to grade the participants. The trainer can help them learn more
quickly and more completely by providing them with constructive criticism during the course.
The trainer can also use the feedback from evaluations to adjust the content and methods of
the training to better meet participants needs (www.who.int).

Figure 11: Training Design & Delivery Framework (web.mit.edu)

14. CONCLUSION
Training is teaching, or developing in oneself or others, any skills and knowledge that
relate to specific useful competencies. Thus Training has specific goals of improving one's
capability, capacity, productivity and performance. Basic training required for a trade,
occupation or profession, observers of the labor-market recognize as of 2008 the need to
continue training beyond initial qualifications: to maintain, upgrade and update skills
throughout working life. People within many professions and occupations may refer to this
sort of training as professional development (www.en.wikipedia.org). The key motivator of
training is the Trainer. The trainer has to collect, plan, maintain and design every sort of pros
and corns of training. The success of training is mostly dependable upon trainers and the
training design. Thus, the person who is working as a trainer, he/she has to be cautious about
the designing of training.

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