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A. P. J.

Abdul Kalam
This article is about the former President of India. For was the youngest of four brothers and one sister in his
the Indian freedom fighter, see Abul Kalam Azad.
family.[17][18][19] His ancestors had been wealthy traders
and landowners, with numerous properties and large
Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen "A. P. J." Abdul Kalam tracts of land. Their business had involved trading groceries between the mainland and the island and to and
( i /ˈæbdʊl kəˈlɑːm/; 15 October 1931 – 27 July 2015)
was the 11th President of India from 2002 to 2007. A from Sri Lanka, as well as ferrying pilgrims between
career scientist turned reluctant politician, Kalam was the mainland and Pamban. As a result, the family acborn and raised in Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu, and stud- quired the title of “Mara Kalam iyakkivar” (wooden
ied physics and aerospace engineering. He spent the boat steerers), which over the years became shortened
next four decades as a scientist and science administra- to “Marakier.” With the opening of the Pamban Bridge
tor, mainly at the Defence Research and Development to the mainland in 1914, however, the businesses failed
were lost over time,
Organisation (DRDO) and Indian Space Research Or- and the family fortune and properties
early childhood,
ganisation (ISRO) and was intimately involved in India’s
age, he sold
civilian space program and military missile development
efforts. He thus came to be known as the Missile Man
of India for his work on the development of ballistic missile and launch vehicle technology.[3][4][5] He also played
a pivotal organizational, technical, and political role in India’s Pokhran-II nuclear tests in 1998, the first since the
original nuclear test by India in 1974.[6]

In his school years, Kalam had average grades but was
described as a bright and hardworking student who had a
strong desire to learn. He spent hours on his studies, especially mathematics.[22] After completing his education
at the Schwartz Higher Secondary School, Ramanathapuram, Kalam went on to attend Saint Joseph’s College,
Tiruchirappalli, then affiliated with the University of
Madras, from where he graduated in physics in 1954.[23]
He moved to Madras in 1955 to study aerospace engineering in Madras Institute of Technology.[14] While
Kalam was working on a senior class project, the Dean
was dissatisfied with his lack of progress and threatened to revoke his scholarship unless the project was finished within the next three days. Kalam met the deadline, impressing the Dean, who later said to him, “I was
putting you under stress and asking you to meet a difficult
deadline”.[24] He narrowly missed achieving his dream of
becoming a fighter pilot, as he placed ninth in qualifiers,
and only eight positions were available in the IAF.[25]

Kalam was elected as the 11th President of India in 2002
with the support of both the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party
and the then-opposition Indian National Congress. After
serving a term of five years, he returned to his civilian life
of education, writing and public service. He was a recipient of several prestigious awards, including the Bharat
Ratna, India’s highest civilian honour.
Kalam was widely referred to as “People’s President”.[7]
He died after he collapsed from an apparent cardiac arrest
while delivering a lecture at the Indian Institute of Management Shillong on 27 July 2015, aged 83.[8] His death
was mourned across the nation with thousands including
National high level dignitaries attending the funeral ceremony held in his hometown Rameshwaram, where he was
buried with full state honours.[9]

2 Career as a scientist

Early life and education

This was my first stage, in which I learnt leadership from
three great teachers—Dr Vikram Sarabhai , Prof Satish
Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam was born on 15 Dhawan and Dr Brahm Prakash. This was the time of
October 1931 to a Tamil Muslim family in the pilgrim- learning and acquisition of knowledge for me.
age centre of Rameswaram on Pamban Island, then in
the Madras Presidency and now in the State of Tamil “
Nadu. His father Jainulabudeen was a boat owner and ”
imam of a local mosque;[10] his mother Ashiamma was a A P J Abdul Kalam
housewife.[11][12][13][14] His father owned a ferry that took
Hindu pilgrims back and forth between Rameswaram After graduating from the Madras Institute of Technoland the now uninhabited Dhanushkodi.[15][16] Kalam ogy in 1960, Kalam joined the Aeronautical Develop1

[29] Despite Nationalist Congress Party backed his candidacy. named the “KalamRaju Stent”.(NDA) which was in power at the time. Kalam filed his nomination papers in the by Vajpayee and his seof missiles instead of taking planned missiles one after Indian Parliament. Prime Minister After the Samajwadi Party announced its support for Indira Gandhi allotted secret funds for these aerospace Kalam. Kalam made an effort to Kalam served as the 11th President of India.[29] Kalam played an integral role convinc. he visited NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton. an intermediate range ballistic missile and Prithvi. Narayanan chose not to seek a second term in projects through her discretionary powers under Kalam’s office.nouncement of his candidature: ing the Union Cabinet to conceal the true nature of these classified aerospace projects. [30] R Venkatraman was instrumental in getting another. accompanied [46] nior Cabinet colleagues. said that the thermonuclear bomb had been a "fizzle" and criticisied Kalam for issuing an incorrect report.366 Kalam was invited by Raja Ramanna to witness the votes won by Lakshmi Sahgal.2 ment Establishment of the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) as a scientist. He started his career by designing a small helicopter for the Indian Army.President. the duo designed a rugged tablet computer for health care in rural areas.[30][31] Kalam served as the Chief Scientific Adviser to the Prime Minister and the Secretary of the Defence Research and Development Organisation from July 1992 to December 1999. the National Democratic Alliance pated in its development. Project Devil and Project Valiant.[34] Both Kalam and Chidambaram dismissed the claims.July 2002 to 25 July 2007. succeeding develop the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and K. resentative of TBRL.[12][32] Media coverage of Kalam during this period made him the country’s best known nuclear scientist. the director of the site test. metallurgist and scienthis juncture.[26] Kalam addresses engineering students at IIT Guwahati 3 PRESIDENCY mission. during the testing phase. R. worked on the suggestion by the then Defence Minister. The Pokhran-II nuclear tests were conducted during this period in which he played an intensive political and technological role.[38] In 1963–64. I have been the 1980s. with an electoral vote of 922. expressed rected two projects. but remained unconvinced by his choice of a job at DRDO. leaving the field clear.[30] Kalam played a major part in developing many missiles under the mission including Agni. Kalam developed a low cost coronary stent. Kalam served as the Chief Project Coordinator.[12][28] Between the 1970s and 1990s. Kalam received the government’s approval and expanded the programme to include more engineers. R.[42][43] the disapproval of the Union Cabinet.[2] In 1969.[27] Kalam was also part of the INCOSPAR committee working under Vikram Sarabhai. both of which proved to be successful. the renowned space scientist. the cabinet approval for allocating ₹388 crores for the The polling for the presidential election began on 15 July . I was thinking what mesadvanced missile programme under his directorship. Kalam had first started work on an expandable rocket project independently at DRDO in 1965. and Wallops Flight Facility. along with Rajagopala Chidambaram. Narayanan. Kalam was transferred to the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) where he was the project director of India’s first Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV-III) which successfully deployed the Rohini satellite in near-earth orbit in July 1980. which prompted the government to initiate an asked for a message.[44] Kalam said of the andirectorship. K Santhanam. Everywhere tional leadership brought him great laurels and prestige in both in Internet and in other media. that they would nominate Kalam for the post of which sought to develop ballistic missiles from the tech.884. His term lasted from 25 [39] country’s first nuclear test Smiling Buddha as the rep.[45] tific adviser to the Defence Minister. even though he had not partici. Venkataraman on a proposal for simultaneous development of a quiver On 18 June. Goddard Space Flight Center in 3 Presidency Greenbelt.[33] However. the tactical surface-to-surface missile. Maryland. He won the 2002 presidential election SLV-III projects. named Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP) and appointed Kalam as the chief executive.[29] sage I can give to the people of the country at Kalam and Dr V S Arunachalam.[36][37] In 2012.[40][41] and both the Samajwadi Party and the nology of the successful SLV programme. Virginia. surpassing the 107. although the projects have been criticised for mismanagement and cost and time overruns. along with cardiologist Soma Raju. In the 1970s. Kalam also di.[14] In 1969.[35] In 1998. which was named the “Kalam-Raju Tablet”.On 10 June 2002.[29] His research and educaI am really overwhelmed.

the pending action on his mercy plea resulted in him remaining on death row. an honorary fellow of Indian Institute of Science. and an adjunct at many other academic and research institutions across India. a Kashmiri terrorist who was convicted of conspiracy in the December 2001 attack on the Indian Parliament and was sentenced to death by the Supreme Court of India in 2004. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (1954) and Dr Zakir Hussain (1963) were the earlier recipients of Bharat Ratna who later became the President of India.[80][81] In 2011.[57][58] Kalam acted on only one mercy plea in his five-year tenure as president.[59] In September 2003. and suspend or commute the death sentence of convicts on death row. I am really overwhelmed by this support. Mulayam Singh Yadav backed out.[60][61][62][63] Nearing the expiry of the term of the 12th President Pratibha Patil on 24 July 2012.3 cided not to contest the Presidential election again stating that he wanted to avoid involving Rashtrapati Bhavan from any political processes. in an interactive session in PGI Chandigarh.[83] . This being their wish. Bangalore. Kalam supported the need of Uniform Civil Code in India. Kalam became a visiting professor at the Indian Institute of Management Shillong.of the plant. Kalam declined to contest the 2012 presidential poll. Kalam was criticised by civil groups over his stand on the Koodankulam Nuclear Power Plant. and the Indian Institute of Management Indore.[49] Kalam was the third President of India to have been honoured with a Bharat Ratna. many citizens have also expressed the same wish.[51] During his term as president. He taught information technology at the International Institute of Information Technology. he de. he was affectionately known as the People’s President.[47] Kalam became the 11th president of the Republic of India in an easy victory.[64] However. Samajwadi Party and Indian National Congress proposed him for the 2012 presidential election.[48] and moved into the Rashtrapati Bhavan after he was sworn in on 25 July.[73][74] A month ahead of the election.[71][72] The BJP potentially backed his nomination.[77] 4 Post-presidency After leaving office. I want to thank them for the trust they have in me. Kalam launched a programme for the youth of India called the What Can I Give Movement. with a central theme of defeating be a pro-nuclear scientist and were unimpressed by the vided there was certainty about his victory in the 2007 assurances provided by him regarding the safety features presidential election.[57] Perhaps the most notable plea was from Afzal Guru. He said of his decision not to do so: Many. professor of Aerospace Engineering at Anna University. two days later. Shiv Sena and UPA constituents. who was later hanged. media reports in April claimed that Kalam was likely to be nominated for his second term.[58] While the sentence was scheduled to be carried out on 20 October 2006. the count was held on 18 July.[50] He was also the first scientist and the first bachelor to occupy Rashtrapati Bhawan. It only reflects their love and affection for me and the aspiration of the people.[65] He did not have the support of the left parties. Hyderabad. the Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad. I respect it. rejecting the plea of rapist Dhananjoy Chatterjee. before becoming the President. keeping in view the population of the country. on 20 June 2007.[82] The At the end of his term.[55][56] Kalam was criticised for his inaction in deciding the fate of 20 out of the 21 mercy petitions submitted to him during his tenure.[68][69][70] After the reports. Mulayam Singh Yadav and Mamata Banerjee also expressed their support for Kalam.[79] In May 2012. Kalam expressed protesters were hostile to his visit as they perceived to him his willingness to consider a second term in office pro. he supported the establishment of the nuclear power plant and was accused of not speaking with the local people.[57] Article 72 of the Constitution of India empowers the President of India to grant pardons. social networking sites witnessed a number of people supporting his candidature. and technology at Banaras Hindu University and Anna University.[76] On 18 June 2012.[52][53][54] saying that signing the Office of Profit Bill was the toughest decision he had taken during his tenure. India’s highest civilian honour. to receive a renewed mandate. leaving Mamata Banerjee as the solitary supporter.[78] chancellor of the Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology Thiruvananthapuram.[58] He also took the controversial decision to impose President’s Rule in Bihar in 2005. saying that the party would lend their support if the Trinamool Congress. with the media claiming that the election was a one-sided affair and Kalam’s victory was a foregone conclusion.[66][67] Kalam along with Vladimir Putin and Manmohan Singh during his presidency 2002 in Parliament and the state assemblies.[75] Days afterwards.

I worked very closely with Dr. the public and numerous dignitaries paid homage. He showed the way.[90] On the morning of 29 July. including former prime minister Manmohan Singh. numerous tributes were paid to the former President across the nation and on social media. the governor of Tamil Nadu and the chief ministers of Karnataka. who had served as prime minister under Kalam.4 5 5 Death DEATH their final respects until 8 p. Congress President Sonia Gandhi and Vice-President Rahul Gandhi. Venkaiah Naidu. The flight landed at Palam Air Base that afternoon and was received by the President. IST.m.[84] Despite being placed in the intensive care unit.”[97] Former Prime Minister Dr.m IST. he collapsed. He always had a passion to convey what is in his mind to the young generation”. arriving at Madurai Airport that afternoon.[96] President Pranab Mukherjee. from where it was taken in an army truck to his hometown of Rameswaram. who laid wreaths on Kalam’s body.[91][92] On 30 July 2015. his body was displayed in an open area in front of the local bus station to allow the public to pay Prime Minister Narendra Modi lays a wreath at Kalam’s body. and Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Akhilesh Yadav. Kalam’s body. Kalam was confirmed dead of a sudden cardiac arrest at 7:45 p. including cabinet ministers Manohar Parrikar. Kerala and Andhra Pradesh. He took India to great heights. Manmohan Singh. Bhutanese Prime Minister Tshering Tobgay expressed deep sadness.m. The Bhutanese government ordered the country’s flags to fly at half-staff to mourn Kalam’s death. His body was received at the airport by the three service chiefs and national and state dignitaries.[84][85] He was rushed to the nearby Bethany Hospital in a critical condition. said. Kiran Kumar called his former colleague “a great personality and a gentleman”. and the three service chiefs of the Indian Armed Forces. while former chairman G. . At around 6:35 p. saying Kalam “was a leader greatly admired by all people.000 people attended the last rites. Home Minister Rajnath Singh. Kalam’s body was airlifted in an Indian Air Force helicopter from Shillong to Guwahati.[93][94] 5. His life and work will be remembered for generations to come. Upon arriving at Rameswaram. wrapped in the Indian flag. adding that his death left a vacuum which none could fill.[86] Prime Minister Narendra Modi said “his [Kalam’s] death is a great loss to the scientific community.”[98] ISRO chairman A. were reportedly: “Funny guy! Are you doing well?"[88] Following his death. the Prime Minister.[89] His body was then placed on a gun carriage draped with the Indian flag and taken to his Delhi residence at 10 Rajaji Marg. from where it was flown to New Delhi on the morning of 28 July in an air force C-130J Hercules.1 Reactions Kalam at Bijnor a week before his death On 27 July 2015. Pon Radhakrishnan and the governors of Tamil Nadu and Meghalaya. S. on arrival at Palam Air Base. was taken to Palam Air Base and flown to Madurai in an air force C-130J aircraft. there. and other leaders condoled the former President’s demise. “our country has lost a great human being who made phenomenal contributions to the promotion of self reliance in defence technologies. upon arrival. Chief Minister of Delhi Arvind Kejriwal.[84][86][87] His last words.[95] The Government of India declared a seven-day state mourning period as a mark of respect. including the Prime Minister. Kalam travelled to Shillong to deliver a lecture on “Creating a Livable Planet Earth” at the Indian Institute of Management Shillong. K Rosaiah and V. the former President was laid to rest at Rameswaram's Pei Karumbu Ground with full state honours. and lit 1000 butter lamps in homage. Kalam as prime minister and I greatly benefited from his advice as president of our country. Madhavan Nair described Kalam as “a global leader” for whom “the downtrodden and poor people were his priority. only five minutes into his lecture. After a brief ceremony. Shanmuganathan.[99][100] South Asian leaders expressed condolences and lauded the late statesman. Over 350. that evening. he lacked a pulse or any other signs of life. Kalam’s body was flown by air force helicopter to the town of Mandapam. Vice President Hamid Ansari. to his aide Srijan Pal Singh. India reacted to Kalam’s death with an outpouring of grief.

also expressed his condolences. acclaimed scientist. Transcendence: My port “to the near and dear ones of the deceased leader. President of the United Arab Emirates Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan. and would regularly send small sums of money to his older relations. some articles of clothing.” The President of Pakistan.[101] Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina described Kalam as “a rare combination of a great statesman. and was in cal role in the development of the Indian space program. who survived him. And as a devoted leader.[112][113] In a special gesture. he left no will. Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Razak. Asim Zohra (d.. Kalam would be remembered as a “consistent exponent of closer friendly relations between our nations. 1916. Senior General Min Aung Hlaing. Nepalese Prime Minister Sushil Koirala recalled Kalam’s scientific contributions to India: “Nepal has lost a good friend and I have lost an honoured and ideal personality. expressed “deepest condolences . people to achieve their very best. becomlaptop. Dr. lifestyle. The UN joins the people of India in sending our deepest condolences for this great statesman. who renames himself Kalam in honour of President Dr. He remarked on Kalam’s outstanding “personal contribution to the social.”[109] United States In the 2011 Hindi film I Am Kalam. Former president Maumoon Abdul Gayoom. May he rest in peace and eternity”. Ashraf Ghani.m. 1999) and Kasim Mohammed (d. Mustafa Kamal (d. called Kalam “an inspirational figure to millions of people. who has done a lot for cementing mutually beneficial Russian– Indian cooperation. and his possessions ing known as 'the people’s President'. termed his demise as a great loss to all of humankind. as a respected scientist. veena. expressed condolences on behalf of the Myanmar government. Secretary-General of the United Nations Ban Ki-moon visited the Permanent Mission of India to the UN and signed a condolence book.7 Religious and spiritual views mility and dedication to public service served as an inspiration to millions of Indians and admirers around the Religion and spirituality were very important to Kalam world. and Vice President and Prime Minister of the United Arab Emirates and emir of Dubai Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum—also paid tribute to Kalam. calling Kalam’s death “an irreparable loss”. Ban wrote in his message. and highlighted his his idol. His few personal possessions included his books.[106] The Commander-in-Chief of the Myanmar Armed Forces.” noting that “we have a lot to learn from his life”. he engaged himself in the welfare of the people”.[118][119] Canadian families.. “The outpouring of grief around the world is a testament of the respect and inspiration he has garnered during and after his presidency.m and sleeping by 2 As a committed educator. followed by three elder brothers: Mohammed Muthu Meera Lebbai Maraikayar (b. with Yameen naming him as a close friend of the Maldives who would continue to be an inspiration to Indians and generations of South Asians. 1997). Singaporean Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. economic.[120] achievements as a scientist and as a statesman. friends. Kalam was a man of firm conviction and indomitable spirit.journey the subject of his final book. Bangladesh Nationalist Party chief Khaleda Zia said “as a nuclear scientist. he inspired millions of young [117] a. I join our Indo– went to his eldest brother.S. Mamnoon Hussain. “Dr. the Premier of Ontario.[107] The Dalai Lama expressed his sadness and offered condolences and prayers.” adding that Dr. His death is an irreparable loss not only to India but to the entire world. who had made an official visit to India during Kalam’s presidency.–India relations and increasing space cooperation between the two nations.[114] 6 Personal life Kalam was the youngest of five siblings.”[111] Other international leaders— including former Indonesian president Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono.[121] In fact. Spiritual Experiences with Pramukh Swamiji. notably his role in strengthening U. Kalam’s hu.[115][116] had visited on numerous occasions.[108] to the government.Kalam was noted for his integrity and his simple [116] He never owned a television.[115] He was extremely close to his elder siblings and their extended families throughout his life. the habit of rising at 6:30 or 7 a. and entire people of India”. the eldest of whom was a sister. and technical progress of India and in ensuring its national security. he played a criti. he made his own spiritual sincere condolences and conveyed his sympathy and sup. the President of Afghanistan. aged 99).”[110] Russian President Vladimir Putin expressed throughout his life. and neighbours in mourning the passing of this respected leader. and a source of inspiration to the young generation of South Asia” and termed his death an “irreparable loss to India and beyond”.”[105] Maldivian President Abdulla Yameen and Vice President Ahmed Adheeb condoled Kalam’s passing. APJ Abdul Kalam”. a CD player and a his he gained support both at home and abroad.[102][103][104] The President of Sri Lanka. scientific. Kalam is portrayed President Barack Obama extended “deepest condolences as a positive influence on a poor but bright Rajasthani boy to the people of India on the passing of former Indian named Chhotu. at his death. “Suitably named 'the People’s President'. Maithripala Sirisena. 1995).5 especially the youth of India who have referred to him as the people’s President”.[122][123] . and Prime Minister of Pakistan Nawaz Sharif also expressed their grief and condolences on his passing. himself remaining Kathleen Wynne. which Kalam a life-long bachelor. and I saw him as an outstanding statesman of the world.

As Kalam recalled: “Every evening.”[122][126] Such early exposure convinced Kalam that the answers to India’s multitudinous issues lay in “dialogue and cooperation” among the country’s religious. as I am placed in my final position in eternity.[122][124] The first of eight meetings between Kalam and Pramukh Swami over a fourteen-year period took place on 30 June 2001 in New Delhi. since Kalam believed that “respect for other faiths” was one of the key cornerstones of Islam. Kalam stated that "[Pramukh Swami] has indeed transformed me. including the terrorists. the Hindu guru WRITINGS of the BAPS Swaminarayan Sampradaya. [and] I would like to endeavour to work for bringing about unity of minds among the divergent traditions of our country”. presciently titled Transcendence: My Spiritual Experiences with Pramukh Swami. the head priest of the Ramanathaswamy Hindu temple. the imam of a mosque in his hometown of Rameswaram. (2) education . K. Congress leader Shashi Tharoor stated. “Kalam was a complete Indian.[10][124][125] His father. Gandhinagar complex in September 2002. he was fond of saying: “For great men. spiritual.2 Syncretism One component of Kalam’s widespread popularity among diverse groups in India. demonstrating the view that all human life is sacred.1 8 Islam A proud and practicing Muslim.. He is the ultimate stage of the spiritual ascent in my life . my father A. stating that "[d]uring the last one year I met a number of spiritual leaders of all religions . Kalam recalled being moved by Pramukh Swami’s equanimity and compassion.[125] In 2002. Kalam strongly advocated an action plan to develop India into a “knowledge superpower” and a developed nation by the year 2020.[124] Moreover.”[124][138] Following Kalam’s death a month after his final book was released. during which Kalam described being immediately drawn to Pramukh Swami’s simplicity and spiritual purity. Advani concurred that Kalam was “the best exemplar of the Idea of India..[140] I have identified five areas where India has a core competence for integrated action: (1) agriculture and food processing. daily namāz and fasting during Ramadan were integral to Kalam’s life. in one of his early speeches to Parliament after becoming President. had strictly instilled these Islamic customs in his children.[125] BJP leader L. No manoeuvres are required any more. and sprinkled holy water upon.. and an enduring aspect of his legacy. an embodiment of the eclecticism of India’s heritage of diversity”. Jainulabdeen. who Kalam would come to consider his ultimate spiritual teacher and guru. citing this incident as one of his motivations for writing Transcendence: My Spiritual Experiences with Pramukh Swamiji.[129] 7. he learnt Sanskrit. is the syncretism he embodied in appreciating various elements of the many spiritual and cultural traditions of India. social. Pramukh Swamiji has put me in a God-synchronous orbit. Pramukh Swami prayed for. and unified India was what initially led him to meet Pramukh Swami. and a church priest used to sit with hot tea and discuss the issues concerning the island. He regarded his work on India’s nuclear weapons programme as a way to assert India’s place as a future superpower. an imam.[130][131] read the Bhagavad Gita[132][133] and he was a vegetarian. the sites of all of the deceased.[139] 8 Writings A P J Abdul Kalam delivering a speech In his book India 2020.[137] Summarizing the effect that Pramukh Swami had on him.[124][125][128][129] In addition to his faith in the Koran and Islamic practice.6 7. religion is a way of making friends. he reiterated his desire for a more united India. small people make religion a fighting tool.[136] Kalam stated that he was inspired by Pramukh Swami throughout their numerous interactions.P.[135] and listening to Carnatic devotional music every day. and political leaders. One such incident occurred the day following the terrorist attack on BAPS' Akshardham. co-author Arun Tiwari pointed to this passage as potentially prophetic and premonitory of Kalam’s death. one who embodied the best of all the cultural and spiritual traditions that signify India’s unity in immense diversity. Pakshi Lakshmana Sastry.[128] Describing Kalam as a unifier of diverse traditions.[10] His father had also impressed upon the young Kalam the value of interfaith respect and dialogue.3 Pramukh Swami as Guru Kalam’s desire to meet spiritual leaders to help create a more prosperous. Kalam was well-versed in Hindu traditions.[134] Kalam also enjoyed writing Tamil poetry. This was most strikingly evident in the last book he wrote.”[127] 7. playing the veena (a South Indian string instrument)..

Punya Publishing Pvt Ltd. by. 1998. Penguin Books.[147] • Turning Points: A journey through challenges by A P J Abdul Kalam." the state government further instituted the "Dr. Indian Academy of Sciences.[22] He explained.”[22] 9 Awards and honours • Wings of Fire: An Autobiography by A P J Abdul Kalam. reliable and quality electric power. a certificate and ₹500.J. to residents of the state with achievements in promoting scientific growth. for his contribution to the scientific research and modernisation of defence technology in India.500).[169] Swamiji. the Bharat Ratna. would be observed across the state • Forge your Future: Candid. published just a month before his death.000 students during the two years after his resignation from the post of scientific adviser in 1999.[143][144] The Government of India has honoured him with the Padma Bhushan in 1981 and the Padma Vibhushan in 1990 for his work with ISRO and DRDO and his role as a scientific advisor to the Government. will lead to food. 2004. Henceforth. Kalam received numerous tributes. • India 2020: A Vision for the New Millennium by A Transcendence: My Spiritual Experiences with Pramukh [136] P J Abdul Kalam. particularly high school students.[146] In 2013. It was reported that there was considerable demand in South Korea for translated versions of books authored by him. Kalam received India’s highest civilian honour. how India might realize this Kalam’s writings five-pronged vision of development. Abdul Kalam Award. Ocean Books. July 2014 by Harper Collins.7 and healthcare.[177] . including a research programme for developing biomedical implants. He also supported open source technology over proprietary software. which he describes in his final book. December 2011 | Publisher Penguin Books. Rajpal & Sons. “I feel comfortable in the company of young people. the guru of the BAPS Swaminarayan Sampradaya. economic and national security. • My Journey: (titled . (4) infrastructure. predicting that the use of free software on a large scale would bring the benefits of information technology to more people. as “Youth Renaissance Day. he was the recipient of the Von Braun Award from the National Space Society “to recognize excellence in the management and leadership of a space-related project”. The award will be awarded annually on Independence Day. by Rajpal and Sons. surface transport and infrastructure for all parts of the country. 2005[172] • Inspiring Thoughts by A P J Abdul Kalam. 1988[168] years Kalam’s life.[12] • Ignited Minds: Unleashing the Power Within India by A P J Abdul Kalam. S. helping them to ignite their imagination and preparing them to work for a developed India for which the road map is already available. 2002.Tamil) Transforming Dreams into Actions by A P J Abdul Kalam. 2011. Viking. Pramukh Swami’s answer—to add a sixth area developing faith in God and • Developments in Fluid Mechanics and Space Techspirituality to overcome the current climate of crime and nology by A P J Abdul Kalam and Roddam corruption—became the spiritual vision for the next 15 Narasimha. 29 October 2014.[142] Kalam set a target of interacting with 100. 15 October. New Delhi • You Are Born To Blossom: Take My Journey Beyond by A P J Abdul Kalam and Arun Tiwari.” constituting an 8-gram gold medal. 2007[173] • Indomitable Spirit by A P J Abdul Kalam. August 2013 by the Rupa Publication. Tata McGraw-Hill.P. A. New York. Universities Press. Inspiring by A P J Abdul Kalam. Paintings by Manav Gupta. • A Manifesto for Change: A Sequel to India 2020 by A P J Abdul Kalam and V Ponraj.[141] Kalam took an active interest in other developments in the field of science and technology. the humanities or the welfare of students.[148] Kalam describes a “transformative moment” in his life 10 Books and documentaries when he asked Pramukh Swami.[175] Kalam received honorary doctorates from 40 universities. Rajpal and Sons Publishing[174] • Envisioning an Empowered Nation by A P J Abdul Kalam with A Sivathanu Pillai. Y.000 (US$7. I intend to share with them experiences. Rajan. Arun Tiwari.[178] • Target 3 Billion by A P J Abdul Kalam and Srijan Pal Singh. and (5) self-reliance in critical technologies. 2012. beginning in 2015. (3) information and communication technology.[171] • Mission India by A P J Abdul Kalam. Harper Collins India. 1999. The Tamil Nadu state government announced that his birthday. These five areas are closely inter-related and if advanced in a coordinated way.[145] In 1997.[176] Following his death. Forthright.[170] • The Luminous Sparks by A P J Abdul Kalam.

[185] • My Days With Mahatma Abdul Kalam by Fr A K George. [6] Sen. International Business Times. P. Dhanapal. K. ISBN 978-0-85229-760-5.H. 12 [2] editor. 13. Bhalla. Retrieved 3 May 2012. [13] Jai. [24] Dixit. Retrieved 20 August 2015. New Delhi: Encyclopædia Britannica (India). ISBN 978-81-288-0806-7. p. 2009. Novel Corporation. Indu (2000). 2002. 61–76. Retrieved 20 August 2015. 31 July 2015. Prisoners of the Nuclear Dream. [3] Pruthi.J. . pp.[186] 11 See also • List of Presidents of India • Indian presidential election. 2008. [4] “India’s 'Mr. (2002). Sumita Vaid (18 March 2010). Das. pp. 30 July 2015. 2002. p. A to C (Abd Allah ibn al-Abbas to Cypress).J Abdul Kalam. 167–188. Missile': A man of the people”. 1–10. A. Wings of Fire: An Autobiography. References [18] “How two orthodox Brahmins played a crucial role in APJ Abdul Kalam’s childhood”. Abdul Kalam. Rediff. 14 May 2015. S. Retrieved 30 July 2015.J. Kalam enquired about elder brother’s health”. [17] “Brother awaits Kalam last trip”. [11] “Dr Abdul Kalam. Abdul Kalam: The Visionary of India. editor South Asia. “Kalam meets the teacher who moulded him”. Retrieved 3 May 2012. [12] Kalam. The Hindu (Chennai. Mahesh. Retrieved 2015-0804. Sangam Janak Raj (1 January 2003). [15] “APJ Abdul Kalam. the unconventional President who learnt the art of the political”. A P H Pub Corp. Daily News via HighBeam Research. DailyO. ISBN 97881-87498-65-0.. Harper Collins. 2. A. • Transcendence: My Spiritual Experiences with Pramukh Swamiji by A P J Abdul Kalam with Arun Tiwari. [14] “Bio-data: Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam”. Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul.[181] • President A P J Abdul Kalam by R K Pruthi. Akbar about presidential elections 2012 : INTERVIEW India Today”.153.. • A Little Dream (documentary film) by P. 2002. G. "'People’s President' APJ Abdul Kalam Buried with Full State Honours in Rameswaram”. India). Missile Man of India”. G Katyal.P. pp. 30 July 2015. Times of India. Abdul Kalam”. 2008. 23 January 2012. Pentagon Publishers. [1] “Kalam And Islam”. Retrieved 4 July 2012.P. Amartya (2003). Presidents of India. Annamalai (24 September 2006). Ramana and C. [19] “Day before death. Diamond Pocket Books (P) Ltd. Ramchandani. ISBN 978-81-261-1344-6. [16] “The greatest student India ever had”. [21] Sharma. Pride of the Nation : Dr. Retrieved 1 March 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2015. [20] “Not aware of any will left by Kalam: nephew”.K. “India Pays Tribute to ‘People’s President’ A. Retrieved 30 July 2015. Biographies • Eternal Quest: Life and Times of Dr Kalam by S Chandra. K.P. New Delhi: A. indiatoday. “Ch. by Penguin India. Arun (1 Minveli Media Works Private Limited.J. P. Anmol Publications. (2004). [10] “APJ Abdul Kalam speaks to Editorial Director M. ISBN 97881-250-2477-4. IANS.P.P. Universities Press.intoday. Regency Publications. “The boy from Rameswaram who became President”. Retrieved 30 June 2012. [22] Bhushan. DailyO. Anmol Publications. 2002 • Pokhran-II January 1999). Publishing Corporation. 296. R. 1 March 2012. V. Retrieved 22 April 2012.[183] [9] Neha Singh (30 July 2015).8 12 REFERENCES • Reignited: Scientific Pathways to a Brighter Future by A P J Abdul Kalam and Srijan Pal Singh. President A. ISBN 978-81-7371-146-6. Katyal. “Why Abdul Kalam was the 'People’s President'".J. [23] K.[179] [7] Amarnath k Menon (28 July 2015). Retrieved 31 July 2015. ISBN 9788176483803. 4. Retrieved 29 June 2012. “India and the Bomb”.[184] • The Kalam Effect: My Years with the President by P M Nair. [5] “Kalam’s unrealised 'Nag' missile dream to become reality next year”. (2005). People’s President in Sri Lanka”. vice president Dale Hoiberg. Time Inc. In M.[182] • A P J Abdul Kalam: The Visionary of India by K Bhushan. June 2015[180] [8] Rishi Iyengar (28 July 2015). Rammanohar Reddy. Government of India. 1950–2003. Tiwari. HarperCollins Publishers. p. Press Information

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