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4.

3 Manures

4.3.1a

Organic manures – an overview

Organic household waists
Animal manures
Compost

Humus of
earthworms

Agro-industrial residues

Residues from wood

Algae and other aquatic
vegetal matter

Training Manual on Organic Agriculture in the Tropics

• Frequently do not show the expected success. • Are in many cases wastes.3. • Decrease the content of soil organic matter.3 Manures 4. Training Manual on Organic Agriculture in the Tropics .4. • Bear little risk of leaching of nutrients. • Are cheap or free of cost. • Feed the soil organisms. • Need a lot of energy to be produced. • Increase the content of soil organic matter. • Continuously release nutrients over a long period of time. • Offer all the nutrients the plant needs. • Disturb soil organisms. • Are expensive. • Are easily leached.1b The value of organic manures Organic manures Chemical fertilizers • Contain selected nutrients and may lead to deficiencies.

3. • Build a dam to avoid in.3 Manures 4. • Insure solid underground.4. Training Manual on Organic Agriculture in the Tropics . • Avoid water logging.and outflow. • Water if necessary. • Compress if dry. • Mix with straw. • Protect from wind.2b Appropriate Treatment of Farmyard Manure • Protect from sun and rain.

3. distillery. K ••• ••• Depending on their origin they may contain heavy metals • (• ) ••(•) •• By-products of the oil production Examples: castor cake. wool.4. feathers N Agro-industrial byproducts N. rapeseed cake By-products from brewery. P. peanut cake. neem cake. P Hair. food processing The ratio of the nutrients depends on the product Training Manual on Organic Agriculture in the Tropics . textile processing. P Algae Minerals Oil cakes N. P Hoof and horn meal N.3 Manures 4.3a Commercial organic manures Manure Fertilisation effect Availability Origin Comments Dried droppings of seabirds P content higher than the plants’ demand Slaughterhouse waste The finer it is grinded. the faster N is available of nitrogen Guano N. husks and peels.

4a How to make your own liquid fertilizer 1.3 Manures 4. Collect green sappy leaves Making plant tea Source: Field Notes on Organic Farming. KIOF 3.4.3. Fill a bag with manure Making liquid manure 4. Cover the drum 2. Cover the drum 2. Stir regularly 5. Immerse into fresh water Training Manual on Organic Agriculture in the Tropics . Immerse into fresh water 1. Dilute 2:1 with water 3. Dilute 2:1 with water 4.

more deficiencies of micronutrients) Pulverised rock • Trace elements (depending on the composition of the source) The finer the grinding the better the adsorbance.4. • To farmyard manure (reduces volatilisation of N and encourages the rotting process) Lime Stone Powder • • • • Rock Phosphate Pulverised rock containing P • • • Easily adsorbed to soil-minerals • To compost Weakly adsorbed to organic • Not to reddish soils matter (irreversible adsorbtion) Slow reaction Training Manual on Organic Agriculture in the Tropics .3. algae • Buffers low pH (content of Ca and Mg secondary) Algae: rich in trace elements • Every two to three years when soil-pH is low (avoid excessive use: reduction of availability of P.3 Manures 4.5a Mineral Fertilizers allowed in organic farming – a basic overview Fertilizer Origin Characteristics Application Plant Ashes Burned organic material • Mineral composition similar to plants Easy uptake of the minerals Wood ashes rich in K and Ca • • To compost (best) Around the base of the plants Ground limestone.

• Lives with the roots of nearly all plants. • Lives free • A bacterium. solubilizing phosphorus and making it available. • A bacterium.3 Manures 4.3. • Lives in soil. Pseudomonas Mycorrhiza • A diverse group of bacteria. on its own in soil. • Various functions: e. • Can use a wide range of compounds that plants give off when their roots leak or die. • A fungus-root symbiosis.6a Some of the active ingredients found in microbial fertilizers Rhizobium Azotobacter Azospirillum • A bacterium. • Is able to live around and in the soil. nitrogen. • Fixes atmospheric nitrogen. • A. • Lives in the root and extends itself into the soil. or in close associations with plant roots. • Forms a symbiosis with leguminous plants. • Lives in soil. brasilense is able to fix nitrogen. Training Manual on Organic Agriculture in the Tropics . inside of the • Can fix roots of legumes. • Helps the plant by gathering water and nutrients. • Improves soil structure.g.4.

without stones and clumps • 120 kg of charcoal in small pieces • 20 kg of bran.3. sheep.3 Manures 4.4.6b How to prepare your own biofertilizer • 400 kg of animal dung (cattle. chicken. goat) • 400 kg straw from oats. rice or rye A Bolivian recipe for 1500 kg of Bocashi (to be adapted to the local conditions) • 400 kg of soil from the place. wheat. fermented maize or already prepared Bocashi • 1 litre of sugar cane molasses • 225 litres of water Training Manual on Organic Agriculture in the Tropics . concentrate for cattle or flour • 1 kg of lime (in zones with acid soils) • Some kg of yeast. rabbit.