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SPECIALCIVILACTIONS|ATTY.

MELO 1
RULE62:INTERPLEADER

INTERPLEADER: a special civil action filed by a person against whom two conflicting
claimsaremadeuponthesamesubjectmatterandoverwhichheclaimsnointerest,to
compel the claimants to interplead and to litigate their conflicting claims among
themselves.

REQUISITES:(NETO)

1. TheplaintiffclaimsNOINTERESTinthesubjectmatterorhisclaimtheretois
notdisputed;
2. ThepartiestotheinterpleadermustmakeEFFECTIVECLAIMS;
3. TheremustbeatleastTWOORMOREconflictingclaimants;and
4. ThesubjectmattermustbeONEANDTHESAME.

PURPOSE: To protect a person not against double liability but against DOUBLE
VEXATIONinrespectofonesliability

PROCEDURE:

1. FILING:Acomplaintforinterpleaderisfiledbythepersonagainstwhomthe
conflicting claims are made. Docket, other lawful fees, costs and other
litigation expenses shall be borne by the complainant; but these will
constitute a lien or charge upon the subject matter of the action, unless the
courtholdotherwise.

WHEN TO FILE: within a reasonable time after a dispute has arisen without
waitingtobesuedbyeitherofthecontendingclaimants.

2. COURT ORDER: Upon filing of the complaint, the court shall issue an order
requiring the conflicting claimants to interplead with one another; the order
shallbeservedupontheconflictingclaimantstogetherwiththesummonsand
acopyofthecomplaint;courtmayincludeanorderdirectingthatthesubject
matteroftheactionbepaidordeliveredtothecourt.

3. MOTION TO DISMISS: Within the time for filing an answer (15 days), each
claimantmayfileamotiontodismissonthegroundsspecifiedinRule16and
onthegroundofimproprietyoftheactionforinterpleader.

4. Theperiodtofileananswerisinterruptedortolledbythefilingofthemotion
todismiss.Ifthemotionisdenied,themovantmayfilehisanswerwithinthe
remainingperiodtoanswer,butwhichshallNOTBELESSTHAN5daysinany
eventfromthenoticeofdenialofthemotion.

5.

6.

ANSWER: The answer shall be filed within 15 days from the service of
summonsuponhim;settingforththeclaimoftheclaimingpartyandshallbe
serveduponeachoftheconflictingclaimants.Nonansweringclaimantwithin
the reglementary period will be declared in default and a judgment will be
rendered barring him from any claim in respect to the subject matter of the
action.

REPLY: A reply to the answer may also be filed by each of the conflicting
claimants. Other pleadings that may be filed: COUNTERCLAIMS, CROSS
CLAIMS,THIRDPARTYCOMPLAINTSandRESPONSIVEPLEADINGS.

7.

PRETRIAL:ApretrialwillbeconductedinaccordancewiththeRulesofCourt.

8.

DETERMINATION: After the filing of pleadings and pretrial, the court shall
proceed to determine their respective rights and adjudicate their several
claims.
COURTWITHJURISDICTION

MTC
RTC
InMetroManila
Personalproperty<P400,000
Realproperty<P50,000
OutsideMetroManila
Personalproperty<P300,000
Realproperty<P20,000

DISTINCTIONSBETWEENINTERPLEADERANDINTERVENTION

INTERPLEADER
INTERVENTION
Specialcivilaction;independent Merely ancillary and depends
Nature
andoriginal
upon the existence of a pending
action
Commencement Byfilingofacomplaint
Byfilingamotiontointervenein
ofcomplaint
apendingcase
Apersonwhohasnointerestin Apersonwhohasalegalinterest
thesubjectmatteroftheaction inanyofthefollowing:
or his interest in undisputed by
1. Subjectmatter
theclaimants
2. Successofeitherparty
Plaintiff
3. Successofbothparties
4. Disposition or distribution of
property in judgments
adverselyaffectinghim
Sued to interplead them and Original parties to the pending
determine their respective suits not because of the
Defendant/s
rights/claims
intervention but because of the
originalsuit

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CASEDOCTRINES

Ocampov.Tirona
6. SyQuiav.SheriffofIlocosSur
An action for interpleader is a remedy whereby a person who has a property
Interpleader is an action employed to avoid double vexation, not double liability,
whether personal or real, in his possession, or an obligation to render wholly or
forthesameliability.
partially,withoutclaiminganyrightinboth,orclaimsaninterestwhichinwholeor

in part is not disputed by the confliction claimants, comes to court and asks that
7. DeJesusv.SociedadArendatariadeGallerasdePasay
the persons who claim the said property or who consider themselves entitled to
To avoid risks of paying damages for withholding payment of claims, an
demandcompliancewiththeobligation,berequiredtolitigateamongthemselves,
interpleaderisproper.
inordertodeterminefinallywhoisentitledtooneortheotherthing.

8. Mesinav.IAC
Anactionforinterpleaderisproperwhenthelesseedoesnotknowthepersonto
Aninterpleadermustbefiledwithinareasonabletimefromnoticeingoodfaith.
whomtopayrentalsduetoconflictingclaimsontheproperty.

9. Vda.DeCamilov.Arcamo
PraxedesAlvarezv.Commonwealth
An action for interpleader is IMPROPER when no conflicting claims are made
There must be an active assertion or demand by the party with conflicting
againsttherespondents.
interests. It is necessary that there be a declaration before the defendant may

litigateamongthemselvesandfileacomplaintofinterpleader.
10. MakatiDevelopmentCorp.v.Tanjuatco

FailureofRule5,19oftheROCtomakeRule62(onInterpleader)applicableto
WackWackGolfandCountryClubv.Won
inferior courts, merely implies that the same are not bound to follow Rule 62 in
Anactionforinterpleadershouldbefiledwithinareasonabletimeafteradispute
dealing with cases of interpleading, but may apply thereto the general rules on
has arisen without waiting to be sued by either of the contending claimants.
procedureapplicabletoordinarycivilactioninsaidcourts.
Otherwise,hemaybebarredbylachesorunduedelay.

11. RCBCv.MetroContainerCorp.
Ramosv.Ramos
The reason for interpleader ceased when the MeTC rendered judgment directing
Thisiscaseismoreofanactionofquietingoftitle,ratherthananinterpleaderas
defendanttopaypetitionerwhateverrentalsweredue.
filed.Itsoughttoresolvetheownershipofthelandandwasnotdirectedagainst

thepersonalliabilityofanyparticularperson.

Beltranv.PeoplesHomesiteandHousingCorp.
An action for interpleader requires that the conflicting claims upon the same
subjectmatterareormaybemadeagainsttheplaintiffininterpleaderwhoclaims
nointerestwhateverinthesubjectmatteroraninterestwhichinwholeorinpart
isnotdisputedbytheclaimants.

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RULE63:DECLARATORYRELIEFANDOTHERSIMILARREMEDIES

DECLARATORYRELIEF:aspecialcivilactionbyanypersoninterestedunderadeed,will,
contract or other written instrument or whose rights are affected by a statute,
ordinance, executive order or regulation to determine any question of construction or
validityarisingundertheinstrument,executiveorderorregulation,orstatuteandfora
declarationofhisrightsandduties

REQUISITES:(SANDRA)

1. The SUBJECT MATTER of the controversy must be a deed, will, contract or


other written instrument, statute, executive order or regulation, or
ordinance
2. There must be an ACTUAL JUSTICIABLE CONTROVERSY or the ripening
seedsofonebetweenpersonswhoseinterestsareadverse
3. TheremusthavebeenNOBREACHofthedocumentsinquestion
4. The terms of said documents and the validity thereof are DOUBTFUL and
requirejudicialconstruction
5. The issue must be RIPE FOR JUDICIAL DETERMINATION, as, for example,
wherealladministrativeremedieshavebeenexhausted
6. ADEQUATE RELIEF is not available through other means or other forms of
actionorproceeding

PURPOSE:Torelievethelitigantsofthecommonlawrulethatnodeclarationofrights
maybejudiciallyadjudgedunlessarighthasbeenviolatedandfortheviolationofwhich
reliefmaybegranted

Declaratory judgments are to be distinguished from those which are advisory in


character, since they are res judicata and binding upon the parties and those in
privity with them, and from decisions of abstract or moot questions since they
mustinvolvearealcontroversy.

SUBJECTMATTER(Exclusivelist)
1. Deed
2. Will
3. Contractorotherwritteninstrument
4. Statute
5. ExecutiveOrderorRegulation
6. Ordinance
7. Anyothergovernmentalregulation

WritofExecution
Breach or Violation
ofRight
MotiontoDismiss

ORDINARYACTION
YES

DECLARATORYRELIEF
NO

YES

NO

RULES16AND17

Additionalgrounds:
1. Decision will not terminate
the
uncertainty
or
controversy
2. Declaration is unnecessary
and improper under the
circumstances

OtherSimilarRemedies
1. ActionforReformationofanInstrument
Onlytimewhenthe
2. ActiontoQuietTitle
courtmayNOTdismiss
3. ActiontoConsolidateOwnership
thecontroversy

ACTUAL CONTROVERSY: controversy that is definite and concrete, touching the legal
relations of parties having adverse legal interests. It must be real and substantial
controversyadmittingofaspecificreliefthroughadecreeofaconclusivecharacter.It
meansanexistingcaseorcontroversythatisappropriateorripefordetermination,not
conjecturaloranticipatory.

JUSTICIABILITY: the court must be satisfied that an actual controversy or the ripening
seedsofone,existsbetweenparties,allofwhomaresuijurisandbeforethecourtand
thedeclarationsoughtwillbeapracticalhelpinendingthecontroversy

REQUISITESFORJUSTICIABILITY
1. TheremustbeREALPARTIESININTEREST
2. AssertingADVERSECLAIMS
3. PresentingaRIPEISSUE

COURTHASDISCRETIONTOREFUSETOGRANTDECLARATORYRELIEFWHEN:

1. A decision on the petition will not terminate the uncertainty or controversy


whichgaverisetotheaction
2. A declaration or construction is unnecessary and improper under the
circumstances as when the instrument or the statute has already been
breached

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COURTWITHJURISDICTION:RTC(issuesareNOTcapableofpecuniaryestimation)
PARTIES

PETITIONER
a. Subjectmatterisadeed,will,contractorotherwritteninstrument
i. Personsinterestedinthedeed,will,contract,etc

b. Subjectmatterisastatute,executiveorder,regulationorordinance
i. Persons whose rights are affected by the statute, executive order,
regulationorordinance

c. Others
i. All persons who have or claim any interest which would be affected by
thedeclaration

FailuretoimpleadsuchpersonsdoesNOTaffectthejurisdictionofthecourtover
thepetition;theirrightsareNOTtobeprejudicedbytheirnoninclusion.

WHEN TO FILE: before there occurs any breach or violation of the deed, contract,
statute,ordinanceorexecutiveorderorregulation.

CONVERSION: If before the final termination of the case, a breach or violation of the
instrumentorstatuteoccurs,thenthesamemaybeconvertedintoanordinaryaction.

WHENANACTIONFORDECLARATORYRELIEFWILLNOTLIE

1. Actiontoobtainjudicialdeclarationofcitizenship
2. Action to establish illegitimate filiation and actions to determine hereditary
rights
3. Wherethetermsoftheassailedordinancesarenotambiguousorofdoubtful
meaning
4. Thesubjectoftheactionisacourtdecision
5. Actiontoresolveapoliticalquestionorissue
6. Thosedeterminativeoftheissuesratherthanaconstructionofdefinitestatus,
rightsandrelations
7. Wherethecontractorstatuteonwhichtheactionisbasedhasbeenbreached
8. Actionismerelytoseekadvisoryopinionfromthecourtonamootquestion
9. Whenthepetitionisbasedonthehappeningofacontingentevent
10. Whenpetitionerisnottherealpartyininterest
11. Whereadministrativeremedieshavenotyetbeenexhausted

ACTION FOR REFORMATION: action brought to reform the instrument evidencing the
contract;presupposedthatthereisnothingwrongwiththecontractitselfbecausethere
isameetingofthemindsbetweentheparties.

Thecontractistobereformedbecausedespitethemeetingofthemindsoftheparties
astotheobjectandcauseofthecontract,theinstrumentwhichissupposedtoembody
theagreementofthepartiesdoesnotreflectthetrueagreementbyreasonofmistake,
fraud,inequitableconductoraccident.

ReformationoftheinstrumentCANNOTbebroughttoreform:

1. Simpledonationsintervivoswhereinnoconditionisimposed
2. Will
3. Voidagreement

Wheretheconsentofapartytoacontracthasbeenprocuredbyfraud,inequitable
conductoraccident,andaninstrumentwasexecutedbythepartiesinaccordance
withthecontract,theremedyistofileanactionfortheannulmentofthecontract,
notactionforreformation.

CONSOLIDATION OF OWNERSHIP: a petition whereby a party seeks to consolidate


ownershiportitleuponthepersonofthevendeewheneverthesellerfailstoexercise
hisrightofredemptionwithinthestipulatedperiod.

LEGALREDEMPTION:retractolegal;astatutorymandatedredemption
ofapropertypreviouslysold.

CONVENTIONAL REDEMPTION: pacto de retro; sale is one that is not


mandated by the statute but one which takes place because of the
stipulationofthepartiestothesale.

PURPOSE:Toregistertheproperty

QUIETINGOFTITLE:anactiontodetermineownershipofaproperty

PURPOSE: To remove a cloud on title to real property or any interest therein; as a


preventiveremedytopreventacloudfrombeingcastupontitletorealpropertyorany
interesttherein

Plaintiffneednotinpossessionoftherealpropertybeforehemaybringtheaction
as long as he can show that he has a legal or an equitable title to the property
whichisthesubjectmatteroftheaction.

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CASEDOCTRINES
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AlliedBroadcastingCenterv.Republic
A petition for declaratory relief is not among those petitions within the original
jurisdiction of the Supreme Court even if only questions of law are involved.
Jurisdiction for petition for declaratory relief is lodged with the RTC (issues are
incapableofpecuniaryestimation).
Salvacionv.CentralBank
The Supreme Court has no original and exclusive jurisdiction over a petition for
declaratoryrelief.HOWEVER,exceptionstothisrulehavebeenrecognizedwhere
the petition has farreaching implications and raises questions that should be
resolved,itmaybetreatedasoneformandamus.
Tolentinov.BoardofAccountancy
RequisitesforPetitionforDeclaratoryRelief:
a. Justiciablecontroversy
b. Controversybetweenpersonswithadverseinterests
c. Party seeking declaratory relief must have a legal interest in the
controversy
d. Issueinvolvedmustberipeforjudicialdetermination

PACUv.SecretaryofEducation
Nojusticiablecontroversybecausetherewerenothreatstorevokepermitsinthe
firstplace.

Cutaranv.DENR
No justiciable controversy because the application for a land claim has yet to be
approved.

Justiciablecontroversy:adefiniteandconcretedisputetouchingonlegalrelations
ofpartieshavingadverselegalinterests

Caltexv.Palomar
Thereisjusticiablecontroversybecauseitsmaterialwillbesubjecttoafraudorder
ifimplemented.

Elementsofjusticiablecontroversy:
a. Assertionofaclaim
b. Denialofaright
c. Legalinterest
d. Ripeforadjudication

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Mirandov.WellingtonTy
Requisitesarewanting.Atnotimedidthepetitioners(squatters)acquireanyright
whatsoeverontheparcelsofland.Paymentofnominalrentalsisimmaterials.

Delumenv.Republic
Justiciablecontroversyexistswhenthereisanantagonisticassertionofalegalright
on one side and a denial thereof on the other concerning a real, and not a mere
theoreticalquestionorissue.

Limv.Republic
Generally,adeclaratoryreliefcannotbeinvokedsolelytodetermineortryissues
or to determine moot, abstract or theoretical questions. This includes resolving
doubtsconcerningonescitizenship.

DelaLlanav.COMELEC
Theholdingofareferendumisapoliticalandnonjusticiablequestion,involvingas
itdoesthewisdom,nomoreorless,ofthedecisiontocallforareferendum.The
power to determine when a referendum should be called and what matter is
important for referral to the people, resides in the political branch of the
government,theexerciseofwhichinvolvesconsiderationofamultitudeoffactors,
normallyoutsidetheperipheryofcompetenceofcourts.

Samsonv.Andal
Iftherehasbeenaviolation,declaratoryreliefcannotbegranted.Afterthebreach,
theregularremedyobtains.

Olladav.CentralBank
Acomplaintfordeclaratoryreliefwillnotprosperiffiledafteracontract,statuteor
righthasbeenbreachedorviolated.Anactionfordeclaratoryreliefshouldbefiled
before there has been a breach of a contract, statute or right. An action for
declaratory relief is proper only if adequate relief is not available through the
meansofotherexistingformsofactionorproceeding.

Sarmientov.Capapas
Ifanactionfordeclaratoryreliefistobeallowedafterabreachofthestatute,the
decisionofthecourtintheactionfordeclaratoryreliefwouldprejudgetheaction
forviolationofthebarterlawandviolatestheruleonmultiplicityofsuits.

Tandav.Aldaya
Acourtdecisioncannotbethesubjectofdeclaratoryreliefforthereasonthatifa
partyisnotagreeabletoadecisioneitheronquestionsoflaoroffact,hemayfile

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withthecourtamotionforreconsiderationoranewtrialinorderthatthedefect
maybecorrected.
The fundamental reason why the decision of the court cannot be subject of
declaratoryreliefispredicatedupontheprincipleofresjudicata.Partiesoughtnot
tobepermittedtolitigatethesameissuesmorethanonce.

15. Edadesv.Edades
Petition for declaratory relief is an improper action in the determination of
hereditaryrights.

16. Degalav.Reyes
Nonjoinderofthenecessarypartieswoulddeprivethedeclarationofthatfinaland
pacifying function it is calculated to observe, as they would not be bound by the

declaration and may raise the identical issue. The absence of the defendant with
suchadverseinterestisajurisdictionaldefect,andnodeclaratoryjudgmentcanbe
rendered.

17. BaguioCitizensActionv.CityCouncil
A declaration on the nullity of the ordinance would give the squatters no right
which they are entitled to protect. They are not necessary parties because the
questioninvolvedisthepoweroftheMunicipalCounciltoenacttheOrdinancesin
question.

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RULE64:REVIEWOFJUDGMENTSANDFINALORDERSORRESOLUTIONS
OFTHECOMELECANDCOMMISSIONONAUDIT

SCOPE:ReviewofjudgmentsandfinalordersorresolutionsofCOMELECandCOA

PETITION:CertiorariwiththeSupremeCourtunderRule65,notRule45

Petitioner must anchor the petition on jurisdictional groundsthat the


commissioncommittedGADLEJ

Petition cannot question the findings of fact of the commission where


such findings are supported by substantial evidencefinal and non
reviewable.

TIMETOFILE:30daysfromnoticeofjudgment
Ifmotionforreconsiderationisdenied,thepetitionmustbefiledwithintheREMAINING
period,butwhichshallnotbelessthan5daysinanyevent,fromthenoticeofdenial.

BASICREQUIREMENTSFORTHEPETITION

1. Verifiedpetitionanin18copiesaccompaniedbyacertifiedtruecopyofthe
judgment
2. Aggrieved party as petitioner while commission concerned and person
interestedinsustainingthejudgmentasrespondents
3. Findingsoffactofthecommissionsupportedbysubstantialevidenceshallbe
finalandnonreviewable
4. Petitionshallstatethespecificmaterialdatesshowingthatitwasfiledontime
5. Petitionshallbeaccompaniedbyasworncertificationagainstforumshopping

6. Proof of service of its copy on the commission concerned and the adverse
party,andofpaymentofdocketandotherlawfulfees.

Failure to comply with any of the requirements shall be sufficient ground for its
dismissal.

ORDERTOCOMMENT;OUTRIGHTDISMISSAL

Order to Comment: if the petition is found to be sufficient in form and substance; file
within10daysfromnotice;18copieswiththeoriginaltobeaccompaniedbycertified
true copies of the material portions of the records referred to with other supporting
papers.

Nootherpleadingmaybefiledbyanypartyunlessrequiredorallowedbythecourt.

OutrightDismissal:
1. ifpetitionisnotsufficientinformandsubstance
2. petitionisfiledmanifestlyfordelay
3. thequestionraisedistoounsubstantialtowarrantfurtherproceedings

EFFECT OF FILING: Filing of a Petition for Rule 64 does NOT stay the execution of the
judgment, final order or resolution of the commission concerned, unless the Supreme
Courtdirectsotherwise.

A TRO or writ of preliminary injunction is required to prevent the execution of the


judgment, final order or resolution of the commission concerned because the filing of
thepetitiondoesNOTinterruptthecourseoftheprincipalcase.

ORALARGUMENTS,MEMORANDA,SUBMISSIONFORDECISION

Uponthefilingofthecomments,orupontheexpirationoftheperiodtodoso(10days
fromnotice),thecaseshallbedeemedsubmittedfordecision

EXCEPTiftheCourtdecidestosetthecasefororalargumentsorrequiresthepartiesto
submitmemoranda.

RULE64
RULE65
Object
Directed
only
to
the Directed to any tribunal, board
judgments, final orders or or officer, exercising JUDICIAL
resolutions of COMELEC or orQUASIJUDICIALfunctions
COA
Period
30 days from notice of 60 days from notice of
judgmentorresolution
judgmentorresolution
Motion for If MR is denied, file petition If MR is denied, FRESH PERIOD
Recon
within
the
REMAINING of60daysfromnoticeofdenial
PERIOD,butwhichshallnotbe withinwhichtofilethepetition
lessthan5days
Certification CertifyALLANNEXES
CertifyonlyORDERASSAILED

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CASEDOCTRINES

Aratucv.COMELEC
Underthe1973Constitutionandstatutoryprovisions,thecertiorarijurisdictionof
theSupremeCourtoverordersanddecisionsoftheCOMELECisNOTasbroadasit
used to be and should be confined to instances of grave abuse of discretion
amountingtopatentandsubstantialdenialofdueprocess.

Dariov.Mison
ThejurisdictionoftheSupremeCourtovercasesemanatingfromtheCivilService
Commission is limited to complaints of lack of excess of jurisdiction, complaints
thatjustifycertiorariunderRule65.

AmbilJr.v.COMELEC
The mode by which a decision, order or ruling of the COMELEC en banc may be
elevatedtotheSupremeCourtisbythespecialcivilactionofcertiorariunderRule
65,whichrequiresthatnoappealoranyplain,speedyandadequateremedyinthe
ordinarycourseofthelawisavailable.AMotionforReconsiderationisaplainand
adequate remedy provided for by law. Failure to abide by this procedural
requirementconstitutesagroundfordismissalofthepetition.

ABSCBNv.COMELEC
Theproceduralrequirementoffilingamotionforreconsiderationmaybeglossed
over to prevent a miscarriage of justice, when the issue involves the principle of
socialjusticeortheprotectionoflabor,whenthedecisionorresolutionsoughtto
be set aside is a nullity, or when the need for relief is extremely urgent and
certiorariistheonlyadequateandspeedyremedyavailable.

Repolv.COMELEC
Interlocutory orders merely rule on an incidental issue and do not terminate or
finally dispose of the case as they leave something to be done before it is finally
decidedonthemerits.

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RULE65:CERTIORARI,PROHIBITIONANDMANDAMUS
CERTIORARI

WRIT OF CERTIORARI: a writ emanating from a superior court directed against an


inferiorcourt,tribunalorofficerexercisingjudicialorquasijudicialfunctions.

PURPOSE:Tocorrecterrorsofjurisdiction

REQUISITES(CJWING)

1. TheremustbeaCONTROVERSY.
2. RespondentexercisesJUDICIALORQUASIJUDICIALFUNCTIONS.
3. Respondents acted WITHOUT OR IN EXCESS OF ITS JURISDICTION or acted
withGRAVEABUSEOFDISCRETIONamountingtolackofjurisdiction.
4. TheremustbeNOAPPEALorotherplain,speedyandadequateremedy.

A petition for certiorari is a remedy designed for the correction of errors of


jurisdiction,noterrorsofjudgmentaswhenacourtorbodyactedwithgraveabuse
ofdiscretionamountingtolackofjurisdiction.

Writ of certiorari is granted to keep an inferior court within the bounds of its
jurisdiction or to prevent it from committing such a grave abuse of discretion
amountingtolackorexcessofjurisdiction.

The filing of the petition for certiorari does NOT interrupt the course of the
principal action nor the running of the reglementary periods involved in the
proceeding, unless an application for a restraining order or a writ of preliminary
injunctiontotheappellatecourtisgranted.

Insummaryproceedings,petitionsforcertiorari,prohibitionormandamusagainst
aninterlocutoryorderofthecourtareNOTallowed.

Certiorari is and cannot be made a substitute for an appeal where the latter
remedy is available but was lost through fault or negligence. The existence and
availability of the right to appeal prohibits the resort to certiorari because of the
requirementsforcertiorariisthatthereisnoappeal.

Generally, certiorari is not available when the period for appeal has lapsed.
However,certiorarimaystillbeinvokedinthefollowinginstances:

Whenappealislostwithouttheappellantsnegligence
Whenpublicwelfareandtheadvancementofpublicpolicydictates
Whenthebroaderinterestofjusticesorequires
Whenthewritsissuedarenullandvoid
When the questioned order amounts to an oppressive exercise of
judicialauthority

o
o
o
o
o

RULE45
Petitionforreviewoncertiorari

Continuation of the appellate process


overtheoriginalcase
Correctserrorofjudgment:errorsoflaw
oflawofthelowercourts

Appeal to the Supreme Court from the


Court of Appeals, Sandiganbayan and
RTC
Filed within 15 days from notice of
judgment or final order or resolution
appealed from, or of the denial of the
MRorMNT(nofreshperiod)
Lower court is not impleaded as a
respondent
Plain,speedyandadequaterelief

DoesnotrequireapriorMR
Staysthejudgmentappealedfrom

RULE65
Petitionforcertiorari

Not a part of the appellate process but


anindependentaction
Corrects error of jurisdiction: lack or
excess of jurisdiction or grave abuse of
discretionamountingtolackorexcessof
jurisdiction
SpecialcivilactiontotheSupremeCourt
orpropercourtagainstaninferiorcourt,
tribunal or officer exercising judicial or
quasijudicialfunctions
Filed within 60 days from notice of the
judgment, order or resolution sought to
be assailed or the denial of the MR or
MNT(freshperiod)
Lowercourtisimpleadedasrespondent
Last resort; cannot be used as a
substituteforalostappeal

RequiresapriorMR
Does NOT stay the judgment or order
subject of the petition unless an
injunctivereliefisissued

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SPECIALCIVILACTIONS|ATTY.MELO 10
RESPONDENTMUSTEXERCISEJUDICIALORQUASIJUDICIALFUNCTIONS

JUDICIALFUNCTION:powertodeterminewhatthelawisandwhatthelegal
rights of the parties are, and then undertakes to determine these questions
andadjudicateupontherightsoftheparties.

QUASIJUDICIAL FUNCTION: action, discretion etc of public administrative


officers or bodies, which are required to investigate facts or ascertain the
existence of facts, hold hearings and draw conclusions from them as a basis
fortheirofficialactionandtoexercisediscretionofajudicialnature.

JURISDICTIONALISSUE

Petitionforcertiorarimustbebasedonjurisdictionalgroundsbecauseaslong
astherespondentactedwithjurisdiction,anyerrorcommittedbyhimortin
the exercise thereof will amount to nothingmore thanan errorofjudgment
whichmaybereviewedorcorrectedbyappeal

ERRORS OF JURISDICTION: the act complained of was issued by the court,


officer or a quasijudicial body without or in excess of jurisdiction, or with
grave abuse of discretion, which is tantamount to lack or in excess of
jurisdiction.

EXCESSOFJURISDICTIONvs.ABSENCEOFJURISDICTION

o EXCESSOFJURISDICTION:anact,thoughwithinthegeneralpower
of a tribunal, board or officer, is not authorized and invalid with
respect to the particular proceeding because the conditions which
aloneauthorizetheexerciseofthegeneralpowerinrespectofitare
wanting.

o ABSENCE OF JURISDICTION: lack or want of legal power, right or


authority to hear and determine the cause or causes, considered
either in general or with reference to a particular matter (lack of
powertoexerciseauthority).

GRAVEABUSEOFDISCRETION:powerisexercisedinanarbitraryanddespotic
manner by reason of passion or hostility; such capricious, whimsical exercise
ofjudgmentbythetribunalexercisingjudicialorquasijudicialfunctionsasto
amounttolackofpower.

NOAPPEALOROTHERPLAIN,SPEEDYORADEQUATERELIEF

Generally, the filing of a motion for reconsideration is a sine qua non to the
filingofapetitionforcertioraritoallowthecourtanopportunitytocorrectits
imputederrors.

Certiorari as a special civil action will not lie unless a motion for
reconsideration is first filed before the respondent court to allow it an
opportunitytocorrectitself.

EXCEPTION:
1. Whentheorderisapatentnullity,aswherethecourtaquohasno
jurisdiction
2. When the questions raised in the certiorari proceeding have been
dulyraisedandpassedbythelowercourt,orarethesameasthose
raisedandpasseduponinthelowercourt
3. Wherethereisanurgentnecessityfortheresolutionofthequestion
and any further delay would prejudice the interests of the
governmentorofthepetitioner
4. Wherethesubjectmatteroftheactionisperishable
5. Whereunderthecircumstances,amotionforreconsiderationwould
beuseless
6. Where the petitioner was deprived of due process and there is
extremeurgencyforrelief
7. Whereinacriminalcase,relieffromorderofarrestisurgentandthe
grantingofsuchreliefbythetrialcourtisimprobable
8. Where the proceedings in the lower court are a nullity for lack of
dueprocess
9. Wheretheproceedingswasexparteorinwhichthepetitionerhad
noopportunitytoobject
10. Wheretheissueraisedisonlypurelyoflaworwherepublicinterest
isinvolved

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SPECIALCIVILACTIONS|ATTY.MELO 11

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

CASEDOCTRINES

Tuazonv.RegisterofDeeds
7. GoldCityIntegratedPortsSystem,Inc.v.IAC
The extraordinary writ of certiorari may properly issue to nullify only judicial and
Thetestindeterminingwhetherornotajudgmentororderisfinaliswhetheror
quasijudicial, unlike the writ of prohibition, which may be directed against acts
notsomethingremainstobedonebytheCourt.Afinaljudgment,orderordecree
eitherjudicialorministerial.
isonethatfinallydisposesof,adjudicatesordeterminestherightsorsomerightor

rights of the parties, either on the entire controversy or on some definite and
Certiorari is an action properly laid against governmental bodies, not to private
separatebranchthereof,andwhichconcludesthemuntilitisreversedorsetaside.
courts/tribunal/boardorofficer.

8. St.PeterMemorialParkInc.v.Campos
MeralcoSecuritiesIndustrialCorp.v.CentralBoardofAssessmentAppeals
GR: The extraordinary writ of certiorari is improper when an ordinary appeal is
Judicial review of the decision of an official or administrative agency exercising
available. The writ is granted in cases where it is shown that appeal would be
quasijudicialfunctionsisproperincasesoflackofjurisdiction,erroroflaw,grave
inadequate, slow, insufficient and will not promptly relieve petitioner from the
abuse of discretion, fraud or collusion or in case the administrative decision is
injuriouseffectoftheordercomplainedof.
corrupt,arbitraryorcapricious.

9. Valenciav.CA
Angarav.FedmanDevelopmentCorp.
Certiorari lies against a judgment allowing execution pending appeal, when such
Certioraricanonlybeinvokedforanerrorofjurisdiction,wheretheactcomplained
writofexecutionwasissuedfornogoodreason.
ofwasissuedbythecourt,officeroraquasijudicialbodywithoutorinexcessof

jurisdictionorwithGADLEJ.
10. NationalElectrificationAdministrationv.CA
Dismissal of appeal for failure to comply with the requisite record of appeal and
IntestateEstateofCarmendeLunav.IAC
amended record of appeal amounts to GADLEJ because the lower court merely
Findings of the trial court are accorded with great respect absent any evidence
gave a vague judgment (of such failure to comply) without saying what the
from the respondent, aside from the allegations that valuation was without basis
deficienciesoftherecordswere.
andpurelyconjectural.Absentanyshowingthatthetrialcourtcommittedabuseof

discretion, there is no justification as to why the appellate court should interfere


11. Abrahamv.NLRC
withtheexerciseofthetrialcourtsdiscretion.
GR: A MR should be filed before resorting to certiorari, to give the court an
opportunitytorectifyitsownmistake,subjecttoexceptions(listedabove).
BigFiveProductsv.CIR

Petitonforcertiorariisimproperwhenthelegalprovisionconferringdiscretiontoa
12. MetroTransitOrganizationInc.v.CA
government body is neither unlimited nor arbitrary, capricious, inquisitorial or
Generally, a MR is indispensable before resort to certiorari, subject to certain
oppressiveinnature,butasound,legaldiscretion,limitedbytheevidentpurpose
exceptions. Certiorari is NOT a shield from the adverse consequences of an
of lawto assure the freedom of laborers and employees engaged in union
omissiontofiletherequiredMR.
activities,byprohibitingtheperformanceofactsconstitutingULP.

13. Contiv.CA
Lalicanv.Vergara
An essential requisite for the availability of the extraordinary remedies under the
Certiorariisanimproperremedywhereamotiontoquashininformationisdenied.
Rules is an absence of an appeal or any plain, speedy and adequate relief in the

ordinary course of law, one which has been so defined as a remedy which would
Certiorari may NOT be availed of where it is shown that the respondent court
equally be beneficial, speedy and sufficient NOT merely a remedy which at some
lacked or exceeded its jurisdiction or committed GAD. Where the court has
timeinthefuturewillbringaboutarevivalofthejudgmentcomplainedofinthe
jurisdiction over the case, even if its findings are not correct, its questioned acts
certiorariproceeding,butaremedywhichwillpromptlyrelievethepetitionerfrom
would at most constitute errors of law and not abuse of discretion correctible by
theinjuriouseffectsofthatjudgmentandtheactsoftheinferiorcourtortribunal
certiorari.
concerned.

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SPECIALCIVILACTIONS|ATTY.MELO 12

14. Peoplev.Albano
Achallengetothevalidityofthecriminalproceedingsonthegroundthattheacts
forwhichtheaccusedischargeddonotconstituteaviolationoftheprovisionsof
RA 3019, or the provisions on bribery of the RPC, should be treated only in the
same manner as a challenge to the criminal proceeding by way of a motion to
quashonthegroundprovidedinRule1172oftheROC(thatthefactschargeddo
not constitute an offense). A resolution of the challenge to the validity of the
criminalproceeding,onsuchground,shouldbelimitedtoaninquirywhetherthe
factsallegedintheinformation,ifhypotheticallyadmitted,constitutetheelements
ofanoffensepunishableunderRA3019ortheRPC.

15. Escuderov.Dulay
GR:Certiorariwillnotbeasubstituteoracureforfailuretofileatimelypetitionfor
reviewoncertiorariunderRule45.

EXCEPT: Where the application of the rule will result in a manifest failure or
miscarriageofjustice.

16. Leonorv.CA
Avoidjudgmentforwantofjurisdictionisnojudgmentatall.Itcannotbeasource
ofanyrightorthecreatorofanyobligation.Allactsperformedpursuanttoitand
allclaimsemanatingfromithavenolegaleffect.Itcanneverbecomefinalandany
writofexecutionbasedonitisvoid.

17. PastorJr.v.CA
Daugherinlaw was no party to the lower court proceeding but aggrieved by the
decision,andthuscanfileapetitionforcertiorariandprohibition.

NB:Courtwasmoreliberalandinaccordancewithsubstantialjusticeinthiscase.

18. Chuav.CA
WhenacourtcommitsGADLEJ,thepersonaggrievedcanfileaspecialcivilaction
forcertiorari.Onlyapartyininterestorthoseaggrievedmayfilecertioraricases.It
is settled that the offended parties in criminal cases have sufficient interest and
personality as persons aggrieved to file special civil action of prohibition and
certiorari.

19. Tangv.CA
Personaggrievedisnottobeconstruedtomeanthatanypersonwhofeelsinjured
bythelowercourtsorderordecisioncanquestionthesaidcourtsdispositionvia
certiorari.Itisonewhoisapartyintheproceedingsbeforethelowercourt.

Ifanonpartyintheproceedings beforethe lower courthas nostanding tofilea


MR,logicwouldleadustotheconclusionthathewouldlikewisehavenostanding
toquestionthesaidorderordecisionbeforetheappellatecourtviacertiorari.

20. Yuchengcov.CA
Ajudgmentofacquittalinacriminalcasemaybeassailedinapetitionforcertiorari
under Rule 65, but only upon a clear showing by the petitioner that the lower
court, in acquitting the accused, committed not merely reversible errors of
judgment but also GADLEJ or denied of due process, thus rendering the assailed
judgmentvoid.

21. Castrov.People
Errors of judgment cannot be raised in Rule 65, as a writ of certiorari can only
correcterrorsofjurisdictionorthoseinvolvingthecommissionofGAD.

22. TanjuanvPhil.PostalSavingsBank
Generally,issuesoffactscannotbeentertainedinapetitionforcertiorari,subject
toexceptions:

InNLRCcases,theCAcanadjudicatequestionsoffact.

IfthesamewasraisedintheSC,itcannotprosperbecausetheSCcannot
receiveevidence,althoughitmayhavethepowertodoso.

23. Rodriguezv.Gadiane
A special civil action for certiorari may be filed by an aggrieved party alleging
GADLEJonthepartofthetrialcourt.Aggrievedpartiesareconstruedtoinclude
the State and the private offended party or complainant. The complainant has in
interestinthecivilaspectofthecasesohemayfilesuchpetitionquestioningthe
decisionoractionoftherespondentcourtonjurisdictionalgrounds.

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SPECIALCIVILACTIONS|ATTY.MELO 13
PROHIBITION

WRIT OF PROHIBITION: a writ issued by a superior court and directed against and
inferior court, corporation, board, officer or other person whether exercising judicial,
quasijudicial or ministerial functions for the purpose of preventing the latter from
usurpingjurisdictionwithwhichitisnotlegallyvested.

REQUISITES(CJWING)

1. TheremustbeaCONTROVERSY.
2. Respondent exercises JUDICIAL, QUASIJUDICIAL OR MINISTERIAL
FUNCTIONS.
3. Respondents acted WITHOUT OR IN EXCESS OF ITS JURISDICTION or acted
withGRAVEABUSEOFDISCRETIONamountingtolackofjurisdiction.
4. TheremustbeNOAPPEALorotherplain,speedyandadequateremedy.

PURPOSE:Tosecureanordertocommandtherespondenttribunal,board,corporation
orofficertodesistfromfurtherproceedingsintheaction;topreventanencroachment,
excess, usurpation or assumption of jurisdiction on the part of tribunal, corporation,
boardorofficer.

ACTSFAITACCOMPLI(ACCOMPLISHEDFACTS)

GR:ProhibitiondoesNOTordinarilylietorestrainanactwhichisalreadyafaitaccompli.

EXCEPT:Topreventthecreationofanewprovincebythoseinthecorridorsofpower
who could avoid judicial intervention and review by merely speedily and stealthily
completingthecommissionofsuchillegality.

Prohibition, not mandamus, is the proper remedy when a motion to dismiss is


wrongfullydenied.

PROCEDURE:samewithCertiorari,supra

PROHIBITIONvs.INJUNCTION

PROHIBITION:directedtothecourtortribunaldirectingittorefrainfrom
theperformanceofacts,whichithasnojurisdictiontoperform.

INJUNCTION:directedagainstapartytotheaction.

PROHIBITIONvs.CERTIORARI

PROHIBITION
Directednotonlytoajudicialoraquasi
judicialact,buteventoaministerialact
Directed to the court itself to restrain it
fromfurtherproceedingwiththecase
Purpose:Tocommandtherespondentto
desistfromfurtherproceedings

CERTIORARI
Seekstoannulajudicialorquasijudicial
act
Directedtotheactionofthecourtwhich
issoughttobeannulled
Purpose: To annul or modify the
judgment, order, resolution or
proceedingsofthepublicrespondent

CASEDOCTRINES

1.

2.

3.

MatuginaIntegratedWoodProductsv.CA
Prohibitionisaremedytopreventinferiorcourts,corporations,boardsofpersons
fromusurpingorexercisingajurisdictionorpowerwithwhichtheyhavenotbeen
vestedbylaw.

Aurillov.Rabi
Pendency of the special civil action for prohibition will NOT interrupt the
investigation in the case. The relief granted in a prohibition is governed by the
natureofthegrievanceprovedandthesituationatthetimeofjudgment.

Althoughthegeneralruleisthatthewritofprohibitionissuesonlytorestrainthe
commission of a future act, and not to undo an act already performed, where
anythingremainstobedonebythecourt,prohibitionwillgivecompleterelief,not
onlybypreventingwhatremainstobedonebutbyundoingwhathasbeendone.
Morfev.JusticeofthePeaceofCaloocan
Thewritofmandamushasforitsobjecttocompelaninferiortribunalintheproper
case, as a justice of the peace court, to comply with a function which the law
specifically prescribes as a duty resulting from its office when there is no plain,
speedyandadequateremedy.

Prohibition has for its object that of preventing an inferior tribunal in the proper
case,asajusticeofthepeacecourt,fromexecutingorcontinuingtoexecuteanact
inexcessofitsjurisdiction,whenthereisnoplain,speedyandadequateremedyin
theordinarycourtoflaw.

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SPECIALCIVILACTIONS|ATTY.MELO 14
4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Vergarav.Rugue
The office of the extraordinary remedy of prohibition is NOT to correct errors of
judgmentbuttopreventorrestrainusurpationbyinferiortribunalsandtocompel
them to observe the limitation of their jurisdictions. As a preventive remedy, its
function is to restrain the doing of some act to be done. It is not intended to
providearemedyforactsalreadyaccomplished.
Versozav.Martinez
Wheretheactshavebeenperformedpriortothefilingoftheinjunctionsuit,the
general rule is that consummated acts can no longer be restrained by injunction.
However, where the acts are performed after the injunction suit is brought, a
defendantmaynotasamatterofrightproceedtoperformtheactssoughttobe
restrained and then be heard to assert in the suit that the injunction will not lie
becausehehasperformedtheseactsbeforefinalhearinghasbeenhad,butafter
thebeginningoftheaction.

Aninjunctivewritmaybeissuedwhenthefollowingrequisitesareestabilished:
a. Theinvasionoftherightismaterialandsubstantial
b. Therightofcomplainantisclearandunmistakable
c. There is an urgent and permanent necessity for the writ to prevent
seriousdamage
NacionalistaPartyv.Bautista
Thewritofprohibitioncannotbeavailedofasasubstituteforquowarranto.This
has been allowed, not only against courts and tribunals in order to keep them
within the limits of their own jurisdiction and to prevent them from encroaching
upon the jurisdiction of other tribunals, but also in appropriate cases, against an
officerorpersonwhoseactsarewithoutorinexcessofhisauthority.
Enriquezv.Macadaeg
Whenamotiontodismissonthegroundofimpropervenueiserroneouslydenied,
mandamus is not the proper remedy for correcting the error, but a writ of
prohibition.
Asinasv.CFIRomblon
TheextraordinaryremedyofprohibitiondoesNOTliewhenaremedyofappealis
adequatetocorrecttheerrorofthelowercourt,whenitexceededitsjurisdiction
inorderingthepaymentofexpensesotherthanadministrativeexpenses.

NIKKIHIPOLITO|A2012

SPECIALCIVILACTIONS|ATTY.MELO 15
MANDAMUS

WRIT OF MANDAMUS: a writ issued in the name of the State to an inferior tribunal,
corporation, board or person commanding the performance of an act, which the law
enjoinsasadutyresultingfromanoffice,trustorstation.

GROUNDS

1. When any tribunal, corporation, board, officer or person UNLAWFULLY


NEGLECTS the performance of an act which the law specifically enjoins as a
dutyresultingfromanoffice,trustorstation.
2. When any tribunal, corporation, board, officer or person UNLAWFULLY
EXCLUDES another from the use and enjoyment of a right or office to which
theotherisentitled.

REQUISITES(CPMEN)

1. TheremustbeaCLEARLEGALRIGHTORDUTY.
2. The act to be performed must be PRACTICALwithin the powers of
respondenttoperformsuchthatifthewritofmandamuswasissued,hecan
complywithit,orelsetheessencewillbedefeated.
3. Respondent must be exercising a MINISTERIAL DUTYa duty which is
absoluteandimperativeandinvolvesmerelyitsexecution.
4. ThedutyoracttobeperformedmustbeEXISTINGacorrelativerightwillbe
deniedifnotperformedbytherespondents
5. ThereisNOOTHERPLAIN,SPEEDYANDADEQUATEREMEDYintheordinary
courseoflaw.Preliminaryinjunctionmustbesought.

PURPOSE:Tocompeltheperformance,whenrefused,ofaministerialduty,thisbeingits
mainobjective.Itdoesnotlietorequireanyonetofulfillacontractualobligationorto
compelacourseofconduct,nottocontrolorreviewtheexerciseofdiscretion.

EXHAUSTIONOFADMINISTRATIVEREMEDIES
GR:Mandamuswillnotissuewhenadministrativeremediesarestillavailable.

Exception:
a. Ifthepartyisinestoppel
b. Purequestionsoflawareraised

MINISTERIALDUTY:adutyoractthatdemandsnospecialjudgment,discretionorskill;
onethatleavesnothingtodiscretionandisasimpleanddefinitedutyimposedbylaw.

MandamuswillNOTlietocompeltheperformanceofadiscretionaryduty,to
control or review the exercise of discretion of a public officer where the law
imposesuponsaidpublicofficertherightanddutytoexercisehisjudgmentin
referencetoanymatterinwhichheisrequiredtoact.

Mandamus will NOT lie as a remedy to enforce the performance of a


contractualobligation.Itisnotintendedtoaidaplaintiffintheenforcement
ofamerecontractright,ortotaketheplaceoftheotherremediesprovided
bylawfortheadjudicationofdisputedclaims.

MANDAMUSvs.INJUNCTION

MANDAMUS
INJUNCTION
Specialcivilaction
Ordinarycivilaction
Directed
against
a
tribunal, Directedagainstalitigant
corporation,boardorofficer
Purpose:Toperformaministerialact
Purpose: To refrain from an act or to
perform not necessarily a legal and
ministerialduty
Purpose: To perform a positive legal Purpose: To prevent an act to
duty and not to undo what has been maintain the status quo between the
done
parties

MANDAMUSvs.QUOWARRANTO

MANDAMUS
Proper
remedy
when
the
respondent unlawfully excludes the
petitioner from an office to which
the latter is entitled without
usurping, intruding into or
unlawfullyholdingtheoffice

QUOWARRANTO
Proper remedy when the respondent
claimsanyrighttotheofficeandusurps,
intrudes into or unlawfully holds it
againstthepetitioner.

Bothmandamusandquowarrantomaybecombined.

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SPECIALCIVILACTIONS|ATTY.MELO 16

1.

2.

3.

4.

CASEDOCTRINES

AngchancoJr.v.Ombudsman
5. UniversityofSanCarlosv.CA
Mandamusisawritcommandingatribunal,corporation,boardorpersontodothe
Schoolsaregivenamplediscretiontoformulaterulesandguidelinesinthegranting
actrequiredtobedonewhenitorheunlawfullyneglectstheperformanceifanact
ofhonorsforpurposesofgraduationaspartoftheiracademicfreedom.
whichthelawspecificallyenjoinsasadutyresultingfromanoffice,trustorstation,

ORunlawfullyexcludesanotherfromtheuseandenjoymentofarightorofficeto
6. Peraltav.Salcedo
whichsuchotherisentitled,therebeingnootherplain,speedyandadequaterelief
The writ of mandamus prayed for cannot issue for the reason that the petition is
intheordinarycourseoflaw.
clearly premature. No recourse to the courts can be had until all administrative
remedies have been exhausted and special civil actions have been held not
Lambv.Phipps
entertainableifsuperioradministrativeofficerscouldgrantrelief.
Whenever a duty is imposed upon a public official and an unnecessary and

unreasonabledelayintheexerciseofsuchdutyoccurs,ifitiscleardutyimposedby
7. Madrigalv.Lecaroz
law, the courts will intervene by the extraordinary legal remedy of mandamus to
Apetitionforquowarrantoandmandamusaffectingtitlestopublicofficemustbe
compel action. If the duty is purely ministerial, the courts will require specific
filed within 1 year from the date the petitioner is ousted from his position. In
action. If the duty is purely discretionary, the courts by mandamus will require
actions for quo warranto involving the right to an office, the action must be
actiononlyandnotinaspecificmanner.
institutedwithintheperiodof1year.

Kapisanan ng mga Manggagawa sa Manila Railroad Company Credit Union v.


8. UniversityofSanAgustinInc.v.CA
ManilaRailroadCo.
Mandamusisemployedtocompeltheperformance,whenrefused,ofaministerial
Mandamusistheproperremedyifitcouldbeshownthattherewasneglectonthe
duty,thisbeingitsmainobjective.Itdoesnotrequireanyonetofulfillcontractual
partofatribunalintheperformanceofanact,whichspecificallythelawenjoinsas
obligationsortocompelacourseofconduct,nortocontrolorreviewtheexercise
adutyoranunlawfulexclusionofapartyfromtheuseandenjoymentofarightto
ofdiscretion.Itisessentialtotheissuanceofthewritofmandamusthatheshould
whichheisentitled.Onlyspecificlegalrightsmaybeenforcedbymandamusifthey
haveaclearlegalrighttothethingdemandedandmustbetheimperativedutyof
areclearandcertain.Ifthelegalrightsofthepetitionerarenotwelldefined,clear
therespondenttoperformtheactrequired.
andcertain,thepetitionmustbedismissed.
Carbungcov.Amparo
The law has prescribed a period, and this requirement should be complied with
strictly,anditsobservanceandcomplianceshouldbeenjoinedandenforcedbythe
courts,notonlyfortheprotectionofthepartiesinwhosefavorthelawhappensto
have been made and promulgated, but also for the information and guidance of
those otherwise affected there. Pending appeal, failure to make the deposit of
rentalwithintheperiodfixedbylaw,howevershortthedelay,givespetitionerthe
righttoexecutethejudgment,whichthecourtisboundtograntandenforce.

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SPECIALCIVILACTIONS|ATTY.MELO 17

COMMONMATTERS(RULE65)

CERTIORARI
DirectedagainstanentityorpersonexercisingJUDICIALOR
QUASIJUDICIALFUNCTIONS
Entityorpersonisallegedtohaveacted:

Withoutjurisdiction

Inexcessofjurisdiction

Withgraveabuseofdiscretionamountingtolack
orexcessorjurisdiction(GADLEJ)
Purpose:Toannulornullifyaproceeding

PROHIBITION
Directed against an entity or person exercising JUDICIAL,
QUASIJUDICIALorMINISTERIALFUNCTIONS
Entityorpersonisallegedtohaveacted:

Withoutjurisdiction

Inexcessofjurisdiction

Withgraveabuseofdiscretionamountingtolack
orexcessofjurisdiction
Purpose: To have the respondent desist from further
proceeding

MANDAMUS
Directed against an entity or person exercising
MINISTERIALFUNCTIONS
EntityorpersonisallegedtohaveUNLAWFULLY:

NEGLECTEDaministerialduty

EXCLUDEDanotherfromarightoroffice

Purpose:

Todotheactrequired

Topaydamages
Correctiveremedy:Tocorrectusurpationofjurisdiction
Preventive and negative remedy: To restrain, prevent Affirmativeandpositiveremedy:
usurpationofjurisdiction

Toperformaduty

Todesistfromexcludinganotherfromarightor
office
CoversDISCRETIONARYACTS
CoversDISCRETIONARYandMINISTERIALACTS
CoversMINISTERIALACTS

c. DatewhentheMRorMNTwasdenied
PROCEDURE

COURTWITHJURISDICTION
1. Person aggrieved may file a verified petition in the proper court alleging the

factswithcertaintyandprayingforafavorablejudgment.

REGIONAL TRIAL COURT: if the petition relates to the acts or omissions of a

lowercourtorofacorporation,board,officerorperson
2. Petitionmustbeaccompaniedwith:

a. Certified true copy of the judgment, order or resolution subject of

COURT OF APPEALS: if the petition involves acts or omissions of a quasi


thepetition
judicialagency
b. Copiesofallrelevantpleadingsanddocuments

c. Sworncertificationofnonforumshopping

SANDIGANBAYAN:ifitisinaidofappellatejurisdiction

3. Petition must be filed within 60 days from the notice of judgment, order or

SUPREME COURT: doctrine of hierarchy of courts will refrain the SC from


resolution.
taking cognizance of the petition unless a compelling reason exists for not
a. In case a MR or MNT is filed and subsequently denied, the 60day
filingthesamewiththelowercourts.
period will be counted from the notice of denial of MR or MNT

(freshperiod).
PARTIESTOTHEPETITION
b. NoextensionoftimetofilethepetitionshallbegrantedEXCEPTfor

compellingreasonsandinnocaseexceeding15days.

PERSONAGGRIEVED:personwho was a partyintheproceedings before the

lowercourt
4. Petitionmustdatematerialdates(MaterialDateRule)

Petitionershalljoinasprivaterespondent/swiththepublicrespondent/sthe
a. Datewhenthejudgmentorfinalorderorresolutionwasreceived
person/sinterestedinsustainingtheproceedingsincourt.
b. DatewhentheMRorMNTwasfiled

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SPECIALCIVILACTIONS|ATTY.MELO 18

If the case is elevated to the higher court by either party, the public
respondents shall be included therein as nominal parties. However, unless
otherwise specifically directed by the court, they shall not appear or
participateintheproceedingstherein

INJUNCTIVERELIEF

It is necessary that a TRO or a writ of preliminary injunction be issued by a


highercourtagainstthepublicrespondentsothatduringthependencyofthe
petition,itwillrefrainfromfurtherproceeding.

ORDERTOCOMMENT

Nosummonsisissuedinapetitionforcertiorari

Instead of summons, court will issue an order requiring the respondents to


commentonthepetitionwithin10daysfromreceiptofacopythereof.Itshall
be made only if the court finds that the petition is sufficient in form and
substance.

InpetitionsforcertioraribeforetheSCandtheCA,therespondentsmayalso
be required to file a comment to the petition and not a motion to dismiss.
Thereafter, the court may require the filing of a reply and such other
responsiveorotherpleadingsasitmaydeemnecessaryandproper.

PROCEEDINGSAFTERCOMMENT;JUDGMENT

Afterthecommentorotherpleadingsarefiled,thecourtmay
o Hearthecaseor
o Requirethepartiestosubmitamemoranda

Thecourtdismissesthepetitionif:
o Petitionispatentlywithoutmerit
o Petitionisprosecutedmanifestlyfordelay
o Questionsraisedinthepetitionaretoounsubstantialtorequire
consideration

SERVICEOFCOPYOFTHEJUDGMENTTOPUBLICRESPONDENT

Certifiedcopyofthejudgmentshallbeserveduponthepublicrespondent
concerned.

Disobediencetothejudgmentorordershallbepunishedascontempt.

RELIEF

Primaryrelief:ANNULMENTORMODIFICATIONOFTHEJUDGMENT,ORDER
ORRESOLUTIONORPROCEEDINGSUBJECTOFTHEPETITION
Otherincidentalreliefsaslawandjusticemayrequire
Damagesandtheexecutionoftheawardfordamagesandcostsshallfollow
procedureinRule391.

NOTES:

Rule65doesNOT

o Interruptthecourseoftheprincipalaction
o Affect the running of the reglementary periods involved in the
proceedings
o Stay the execution of the judgment, unless a TRO or writ of
preliminaryinjunctionisissued

A writ of certiorari or prohibition cannot be issued by a RTC against an


ADMINISTRATIVEAGENCYexercisingQUASIJUDICIALFUNCTIONsincetheRTC
hasthesamerankastheADMINISTRATIVEAGENCY.

A writ of prohibition may be issued by the RTC against ADMINISTRATIVE


AGENCIESexercisingADMINISTRATIVEFUNCTIONS.

Generally, a motion for reconsideration is an essential precondition for the


filingofapetitionunderRule65.Itisaplain,speedyandadequateremedyto
givethecourttheopportunitytocorrectitself.

o EXCEPTION:

1. Whentheorderisapatentnullity,aswherethecourtaquohasno
jurisdiction
2. When the questions raised in the certiorari proceeding have been
dulyraisedandpassedbythelowercourt,orarethesameasthose
raisedandpasseduponinthelowercourt
3. Wherethereisanurgentnecessityfortheresolutionofthequestion
and any further delay would prejudice the interests of the
governmentorofthepetitioner
4. Wherethesubjectmatteroftheactionisperishable
5. Whereunderthecircumstances,amotionforreconsiderationwould
beuseless
6. Where the petitioner was deprived of due process and there is
extremeurgencyforrelief

NIKKIHIPOLITO|A2012

SPECIALCIVILACTIONS|ATTY.MELO 19
7.

Whereinacriminalcase,relieffromorderofarrestisurgentandthe
grantingofsuchreliefbythetrialcourtisimprobable
8. Where the proceedings in the lower court are a nullity for lack of
dueprocess
9. Wheretheproceedingswasexparteorinwhichthepetitionerhad
noopportunitytoobject
10. Wheretheissueraisedisonlypurelyoflaworwherepublicinterest
isinvolved

1.

2.

Generally,wheretheproperremedyisappeal,theactionforcertiorariwillnot
beentertained.Itisnotaremedyforerrorsofjudgment,butonlyforerrorsof
jurisdiction.

o EXCEPTIONS:(REPOFC)

1. When the appeal does not constitute a speedy and adequate


remedy
2. When orders were issued either in excess of or without
jurisdiction

3.
4.
5.
6.

For certain special considerations as public policy or public


welfare
Whentheorderisapatentnullity
Whendecisioninthecertioraricasewillavoidfuturelitigation
When, in criminal actions, the court rejects rebuttal evidence
for the prosecution as in case of acquittal, there could be no
remedy.

RemedyofappealandcertiorariareMUTUALLYEXCLUSIVE.
Except:whentheappealisnotaplain,speedyandadequateremedy.

CASEDOCTRINES

Santiagov.Vasquez
3. JoyMartConsolidatedGroupv.CA
TheoriginalandspecialcivilactionfiledwiththeSupremeCourtis,forallintents
ByliftingthewritofinjunctionbeforetheCAcouldruleonwhetherornotitwas
and purposes, an invocation for the exercise of its supervisory powers over the
properly issued, the trial court in effect preempted the CAs jurisdiction and
lower courts. It does not have the effect of divesting the inferior courts of
flouteditsauthority.
jurisdiction validly acquired over the case pending before them. It is elementary

that the mere pendency of a special civil action for certiorari, commenced in
Nopetitionforcertiorari,mandamus,prohibition,habeascorpusorquowarranto
relationtoacasependingbeforealowercourt,doesnoteveninterruptthecourse
maybefiledintheIACifanothersimilarpetitionhasbeenfiledorisstillpendingin
ofthelatterwhenthereisnowritofinjunctionrestrainingit.Foraslongasnowrit
theSC.
ofinjunctionorrestrainingorderisissuedinthespecialcivilactionforcertiorari,no

impedimentexistsandthereisnothingtopreventthelowercourtfromexercising
4. Gov.JudgeAbrogar
itsjurisdictionandproceedingwiththecasependingbeforeit.
The principle of judicial courtesy could not have prevented the judge from
authorizing the execution of the judgment and issuing the writ of execution. This
EternalGardensMemorialParkv.CA
principle should not be applied indiscriminately and haphazardly if we are to
The rule of judicial courtesy would apply only if there is a strong probability that
maintaintherelevanceofSec.7,Rule65oftheROC.
the issued before the higher court would be rendered moot and moribund as a
resultofthecontinuationoftheproceedingsinthelowercourt.

NIKKIHIPOLITO|A2012