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NON PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS IN INDIA AND CRITICAL SUCCESS

FACTORS:
CASE STUDY ON CRY NGO
Prof. Akansha Gajria
ABSTRACT
Non – governmental organizations (NGO’s) are high profile actors in the field of human
development, both as providers of services to vulnerable individuals and communities and as
campaigning policy advocates. NGOs (Non-governmental organizations) are increasingly
becoming an important force, in part because of claims that they are efficient and effective,
because they are innovative, flexible, independent, and responsive to the problems of poor
people at the grass-roots level. The growth of such NGOs over the past two decades has given
them an increasingly important role and has led them; forming a distinctive sector within civil
society. The increase in the number of NGOs and the range of activities of these NGOs, has
called for an understanding on the uniqueness, management practices and the factors
contributing to their success. The need not only comes from the organizations themselves but
also from the various stakeholders of these NGOs. Research in this sector has thrown light on the
diversity of NGOs and the distinctive sectoral characteristics. This paper explores the
understanding of NGOs, features that bring uniqueness in these NGOs and the critical factors for
the success of CRY.

Introduction
Non-governmental organizations are often setup to plug in the gaps left by the government.
India as a nation still has a large population that is vulnerable – in terms of health, education,
jobs and opportunities in general. This has also seen a large proliferation of NGOs. By some
estimates, India has 3.3 million NGOs, or one NGO for every 400 individuals. This may seem
like a large number and it is. A lot of NGOs setup in India are either dormant or fraudulent, used
for a wide range of illegal activities such tax evasion and misappropriation of government funds.
Regardless, there are still a large number of credible NGOs that do genuine work for the people,
providing important services – from education to health to disaster management to pet care, these
NGOs play a positive role in virtually every sector of the economy.
In India, there are NGOs doing brilliant work in different fields. NGOs come in all sizes, shapes,
ideologies, nationalities, organizing structures and styles. Some focus on nothing but local issues.
Others address issues that span whole continents, and some like Amnesty International span the
entire globe. Their very diversity reflects the complexity of these organizations. NGOs
encompass everything from charities and relief agencies to political parties; think tanks and
academic centers to community organizations; cultural associations to continent wide farmers'
networks; women's groups to environmental federations; social movements to human rights and
religious groups. NGOs basically work for social and community development and the interest

resource acquisition. Productivity. they are quite aware about their goals and are constantly working towards quality performance. still dedicated to “doing good”. “They are practicing what most American businesses only preach. child and women welfare. and nearly three-quarters have invested more in measuring results over the last five years. where success is measured in terms of sales or profits. NGO’s are now becoming more and more professional in their approach. few of the aspects susceptible for measurement are beneficiary satisfaction which enables identification of gaps in providing services. Drucker claimed. A transformation in the tools that enable nonprofits to measure the impact of what they do has raised the bar significantly. in turn begins with the organization’s mission. Rosabeth Moss Kanter has argued that non profits may be the “beta site” for new management innovations in the twenty-first century. Paton and Cornforth (1992) discussed the differences between the voluntary and other sectors and identified four main areas of divergence – distinctive purpose. management was a dirty word for those involved in the non-profit organizations. Unlike business.” He narrates that few years ago. misleading. especially in the areas of strategy. However. But they also realize that good intentions are no substitute for organization and leadership. animal welfare. but not all have grasped the opportunities offered by this kind of analysis. or simply not important. for accountability. education. precisely because they lack the discipline of the bottom line.NGO is taken with the objective to analyze as to what exactly are the factors that determine the success and growth of NGO’s. performance and results. NGOs success is not easy to measure. health. of course. Their objective is more to do with social transformation among targeted beneficiaries through voluntary work.. volunteer promotion etc. Now most of them have learned that non profits need management even more than business does. NGOs do not aim at a measurable goal like profit. 75 percent of charities measure some or all of their work. . The present study on CRY . Those require management and that. Literature Review A good review of literature was presented by Tris Lumley (2013). environment. Also. Ten years ago. The non-profits are. Management guru Peter Drucker (1989) argued that non-profit organizations are becoming America’s management leaders. critics dismissed impact measurement as too difficult. Today. are also some measures which can be used to understand success of these NGOs.areas being literacy. It meant business and non –profits prided themselves on being free of the taint of commercialism and above such sordid considerations as the bottom line. stakeholders and governance. and culture. advocacy. money spent etc.

their families and communities across India Over the years CRY has initiated.from influencing child-friendly policies. . Child Rights and You more popularly abbreviated as CRY is a non-profit organization in India that aims to restore children's rights in India. Still other organizations want to raise money to assist a great cause such as medical research or feeding the hungry. to rehabilitation efforts in disaster and natural calamities. permanently. Our campaigns have always involved the public. There are many different reasons that nonprofits are formed but the driving force behind these organizations is some type of mission. When an organization is committed to their mission. Some organizations want to reach others with their message. Commitment becomes a major factor in the overall success of the organization. Have you ever wondered why some organizations thrive and why others merely survive? There are a number of reasons that nonprofits either rise to success or completely sit and struggle. the organization has already achieved a huge success. CRY works along with 220 grassroots NGO partners across 23 states in India. Success is often determined by individual criteria and varies from organization to organization. COMMITMENT TO THE MISSION Every non-profit organization has a mission to accomplish. 1. Over three decades of working with and for children. The organization was established in 1979. Some organizations want to help those less fortunate. Success has a number of common threads or characteristics that can be pinpointed for study. Such is the vision and mission of CRY and it truly stick to what it asserts. Many individuals try to point to one reason or one factor in understanding non-profit success. launched and organized campaigns to amplify the voice of children and their rights. Your support is crucial to bring about social change in the lives of children and their communities. to transform the lives of India's children. Commitment in the United States seems to be at an all time low. When the people involved are committed to the mission. There are many different dynamics that play into the success or failure of an organization.CRY – a non-profit organization: Success is the overall goal of most non-profit organizations but there are some organizations that could be viewed as highly successful. a power and energy is created. to creating awareness on the situation of children. our citizens. The following factors determine the success of a non-profit organization with reference to our case study on CRY. These campaigns have focused on specific issues .

The sign of a great leader is that they move from controlling people to encouraging people. 50/. No one wants to follow a negative leader.from the fundraising methods it employs. justice and equity for all. Negative attitudes will repel followers away from the leader. working in partnership to secure. STRONG AND POSITIVE LEADERSHIP There are two major issues with non-profit leadership: strength and positive attitude. given their backgrounds and motivations. Non-profit organizations need leaders who will move the group forward in a positive manner. they chose not to found a grassroots-level implementing organisation working directly with and for underprivileged children. The problem is that many of these individuals use their leadership to control others into accomplishing the leader's agenda. Uncharacteristically. the more they lose their ability to lead. Mission: To enable people to take responsibility for the situation of the deprived Indian child and so motivate them to seek resolution through individual and collective action thereby enabling children to realise their full potential To make people discover their potential for action and change To enable peoples' collectives and movements encompassing diverse segments. They opted instead to make CRY a link between the millions of Indians who could provide resources and thousands of dedicated people and organisations at the grassroots-level who are struggling to function for lack of them. Being negative does nothing but hold both the leader and the organization back from progress. The leader that can move people without controlling or manipulating them proves the reality of their strength. The more a leader becomes negative. to pledge their particular strengths. to the nature of its relationship with the NGOs it partners. This "link" or enabling position has determined CRY's strategic choices at every juncture . They felt that something needed to be done to improve the situation of the underprivileged Indian child. protect and honour the rights of India's children. In 1979 Rippan and 6 friends started CRY with Rs. There are many people who are strong leaders and have a great gift for leadership. healthy and creative child whose rights are protected and honoured in a society that is built on respect for dignity. 2. .Vision: A happy. The leader must also be positive.around his mother's dining table.

A. each initiative combines direct action with children. The reality is that nonprofit organizations cannot afford to waste money on foolish things. The organization has a responsibility to handle their income with an incredible amount of care. accountability and advocacy. CRY adopts an angel investor or a social venture capitalist approach to grant making. training.each infusion of funds is accompanied by the non-financial inputs necessary to ensure their optimum utilisation and maximum impact. This is . Any income that goes to a non-profit organization is a gift and should be treated as such. grassroots-level NGOs and communities that work in the rights framework. B. community mobilisation and policy influencing components to maximise impact and ensure long-term viability. and perspective building in child rights. In addition. nascent. That means they look for promising. 3. Volunteer Action At CRY. collective responsibility and transparency. as well as uphold CRY’s values across the organisation. C. sharing a firm belief in values of public trust. the team encourages and supports their volunteers to empower people and communities to bring about positive change . addressing the root causes of inequity rather than its symptoms. programme development. CRY defines its role as that of a partner . Inputs in the areas of organisation building.by encouraging them to initiate action in their environment. ManComm A leadership collective comprising of Regional and Strategic Directors. Their grant making (also known as Development Support within CRY) follows a social justice agenda. Being responsible with finances helps an organization become more successful because they can make the money work in a more effective manner. It emphasise on advocacy as an essential medium if change is to be achieved on a significant scale. FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY Non-profit organizations need to be responsible with the finances that they gain. With the NGOs they support. whose key role is to provide direction and leadership. Trustees Each one of the Trustees holds CRY's interest above everything else.

ethnicity and religion. school and college workshops.500. 4. Being financially responsible will allow the donations and the income to stretch farther and accomplish more. Developing connections within the community will allow the organization to tap vital resources all around them. Without commitment to the mission nothing of significance will be accomplished. Marketing tie-ups with corporations. CRY's grant making efforts to over 500 NGOs. In recent years. Over three decades of working with and for children. Their primary role is to channelize public action for child rights. most organizations simply wither and die. exploitation and abuse that shackle India's children. signature drives. gender. Community mobilisation is what they at CRY believe is the most effective long-term solution to the multiple causes of poverty. There needs to be an overall commitment to the mission of the organization. Non-profit success depends a great deal on a variety of factors. media campaigns. Fundraising or Resource Generation at CRY is driven with a social justice agenda. advocacy campaigns. Every fundraising venture from greeting cards to web marketing integrates revenue objectives with advocacy for children. Without community involvement. Strong and positive leadership is essential to carrying a nonprofit to another level. driving a people's movement for the rights of India's underprivileged children. has helped restore to 1. Harnessing these dynamics can help push a non-profit organization in the right direction and propel them toward success. they have been witnessing incredible transformation across 13000 village and slum communities in 22 Indian states that CRY works in along with its partner initiatives. the Internet and street theatre ensure that people everywhere can access information on the situation of India's children and avenues to get involved. COMMUNITY CONNECTION One of the more crucial aspects of non-profit work is connecting with the surrounding community or the community at large. in the form of financial and material resources and time and skills. CRYs endeavour is to get the maximum number of people and organisations involved. society and government institutions are still plagued by feudal biases of caste. deprivation. events.000 children their basic rights to a childhood. .particularly critical where both. The only way that most nonprofits can survive is through the involvement of those within the community. their families and communities.

training and funding support Financial and capacity building inputs for organisation building including leadership building. caste. At CRY too.financial and programmatic Financial risk management . GOVERNANCE In a nation of the size and diversity of India. Today. monitoring and evaluation Exhaustive financial and impact parameters .where priorities are determined by empowered communities is needed to help overcome these vast inequities. 5.CRY is almost entirely funded by individual donors who are people from every walk of life and every corner of the country. political careers and electoral success too often become a patchwork of 'schemes' aimed at appeasing specific interest groups. media and government across markets: . 21st century NGOs adopt best practices in governance as a part of their strategy. Corporate or Institutional partnerships have added more zeal to their work and been an opportunity for the development sector (grant making) and the corporate sector to come together and learn from each other. documented and audited grant sanctioning system Data-driven. the contribution of private philanthropy is ineffective in ensuring that the benefits of India's increasing prosperity are equitably distributed. Government policy. class. Today. CRY has a strong and committed community of lakhs of donors across the globe who shares their vision for the future of our children.process and outcome Internal and external audits . inequities are deeply rooted in centuries-old layers of gender. With the help of development partners CRY attempts to achieve:         Selection criteria based on long-term strategy and values Selection norms and processes designed for transparency Multi-layered. In this context. participative planning. In addition to this. transparency and partnership. CRY believes that a new model of governance . ethnicity and religion. democratic functioning. governance encompasses the non-negotiable values of accountability. participative. performance measurement and internal transparency With donors.

 CRY’s Youth division changes to focus on ensuring children’s voices are recognised as significant and unique in issues that affect them.  Online payment gateway introduced on www. participative. transparent decision-making Formal and informal feedback mechanisms and forums Documentation and independent audit Consistent adherence to. PRAD’s .      Comprehensive reporting to donors and the public Proactive transparency Feedback mechanisms Values. to outsource manufacture and retailing of CRY products. building mission and values led ethos and culture.  Launch of CRY Buddies. evaluation and reward systems Conflict of interest and ethics policies Democratic. Research. advocating for child rights and CRY’s grassroots efforts in key advocacy platforms. augments CRY's reach and market share. Advocacy and Documentation (PRAD). with Archies Greetings and Gifts.org  "My School campaign" to showcase aspirations of children from CRY project areas launched as an exhibition. ethics screening Norm and best practice bench-marking across for-profit and non-profit sectors Active participation in development of sector norms across sectors. a new function established at CRY. CONSTANT INNOVATION  A strategic partnership. 6.  First ever CRY Corporate Responsibility Summit launched to enhance engagement with corporate organisations. With employees and our board:       Mission-centric performance planning. a virtual space for children to listen. and investments in.cry. talk and interact.  Policy.

. research and advocacy and knowledge management.mandate is to provide technical support on policy.