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IN SITU GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION BY HUMANS IN MARS ANALOG ENVIRONMENTS

1,2 3,4 LPSC 2010, Abstract 2052
B. R. Shiro and K. L. Ferrone
1. Department of Space Studies, University of North Dakota; 2. NOAA; email: brian.shiro@gmail.com
3. Sasakawa International Center for Space Architecture, University of Houston; 4. United Space Alliance

Introduction Electromagnetic Sounding Active Seismology + GPR
We carried out three geophysical experiments in Mars analog environ- Electromagnetic sounding has been recognized as the most promising ex- Active seismic experiments have long been used to obtain high resolution
ments in order to better understand the challenges future astronauts will ploration method to detect subsurface water on Mars, and efforts are un- characterizations of subsurface stratigraphy. Land streamers enable geo-
face when conducting similar surveys on Mars or the Moon. The experi- derway to develop hardware for a future lander [3, 4]. The time domain physicists to efficiently deploy and move an array of geophones in a less
ments included a passive seismometer deployment and a time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) method uses a large transmitter loop to supply a labor-intensive way compared to traditional deployment methods [7]. We
electromagnetic survey at the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station source electromagnetic field. When the current is tested the feasibility on conducting a seismograph
& controller
seismic source

(FMARS) on Devon Island, Canada and a seismic refraction survey in abruptly turned off, eddy currents in the ground induce seismic refraction profile using a land receivers (geophones)
(hammer)

surface waves

southeastern Utah at the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS). magnetic fields that are detected by a smaller receiver streamer towed behind a “rover” (ATV). body waves

FMARS loop. This allows for measuring resistivity as a function Ground penetrating radar (GPR) data col-
FMARS is located on the rim of the 23 Ma of depth. lected in November 2009 by MDRS Crew 83
Haughton Crater in a polar desert environ- using the CRUX instrument [8, 9] discovered a
EVA 8 - 19 July 2009, duration 3 hr 2 min, 4 crewmembers
ment. MDRS is located in an area with sedi- We completed the TDEM survey on objective: survey profile & lay first loop, red track
possible buried inverted channel where Kiss-
EVA 10 - 21 July 2009, duration 3 hr 55 min, 2 crewmembers

mentary plateaus and canyons of Jurassic to the Haynes Ridge 250 meters west objective: take 1st loop soundings (A5/6/7), yellow track
EVA 11 - 22 July 2009, duration 3 hr 57 min, 2.5 crewmembers ing Camel Range intersects with Radio Ridge
objective: take 2nd loop soundings (B5/6/7), blue track FMARS
Cretaceous age. Both facilities were built by of the FMARS habitat using a Geon- EVA 12 - 23 July 2009, duration 4 hr 46 min, 2.5 crewmembers
objective: take 3rd loop soundings (C5/6/7), green track about 2 km south of MDRS (See poster 2697
The Mars Society to help develop key knowl- Haughton
Crater
ics TEM47 transmitter and PROTEM Inverted Channel in Miyamoto Crater this sesion.). Inverted river channels on Earth
HiRISE image PSP_009985_1770
edge about human Mars exploration. Crews receiver. The 120-meter profile was preserve fossilized life and organic material.
FMARS

of six spend 2-4 weeks in the habitats and oriented perpendicular to the Haynes Ridge They have been indentified on Mars, and one at Miyamoto Crater is a po-
conduct field research on simulated extra- Haughton Crater rim and was tential landing site for the Mars Science Laboratory [10]. We conducted
vehicular activities (EVAs) wearing mock chosen to overlap a 2001 seismic re- GPS tracks from the four FMARS electromagnetic EVAs. the seismic survey there in order to image the feature more completely.
Symbols indicate the locations of the soundinsgs.
spacesuits. The work reported here was con- MDRS fraction experiment [5, 6]. We de- (B5 Coordinates: 75.430959°N, 89.833022°W, 234 m)

ducted in July 2009 at FMARS and February ployed three 40 × 40 meter square
2010 at MDRS. loops over the course of four EVAs to
complete the experiment. For each
A B C D
HAROZ
of the three stations, we took a suite
KR
IN
RV

F
AM

A B
F

MO
TA
GA

ER

M
GS

RA
E

DRS
WA
ON

PA

N

of measurements with the receiver
L
RR

AI
FE

C D
A

N
LXX

SO
CK

SH
SH

XI
RT
SA

IRO
IR

X
CREW
loop in the center and two offset po-
BE
CU

O

RO

FMARS XII 2009 SARAIVA

FMARS Expedition 12
2-28 July 2009 The Mars Society
MDRS Expedition 89
23 Jan - 6 Feb 2010 MDRS sitions perpendicular to the profile
azimuth. E F G H

A) Choose a site. B) Survey the profile. C) Flagthe shot points. D) Lay out the land streamer geophone cable. E) Replace
broken geophone. F) Strike the metal plate with the hammer. G) Record data. H) Drag geophones to next location.

Seismic Results 109-m total profile length
Passive Seismology E F G H
120 140 160 180 200
Distance (ft)
220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360
6 geophone spreads with:
0
12 geophones at
A key to understanding the origin and evolution of planets is characteriz- A) Survey the profile. B) Lay out the square transmitter loop. C) Set up the receiver coil. D) Configure the receiver.
20

E) Take sounding measurements. F) Move the loop. G) Untangle the wires. H) Repeat at each station.
40 5-ft spacing on a
ing their interior structure, and seismology provides the most complete 60

80 Geostuff land streamer
EM Results
Time (ms)
view of planetary interiors [1]. Deploying a seismic network on Mars is 100

120
36 shots with:
therefore a high priority. Even a single station can provide For central- and off-loop soundings, we used a transmitter current of 2 A, 140 3x stacking each at
160

important information to constrain estimates of seismicity, and 3.5 A, respectively. The frequency was 30 Hz with a 30 second integra- 180
17 shot locations with
200
30-ft spacing
crustal thickness, mantle models, and core radius. tion time and gain of 6 or 7. We collected 20 records per component for 220

240 Geode seismograph
loop A and 10 for loops B and C. example shot gather

With only a 40 meter loop and the TEM47 trans-
We sucessfully deployed a Nano-
mitter, we could generate a transmitted moment
metrics Trillium Compact semi- A
of 3000 to 6000 A-m2. As it turned out, the dolo- Kissing Camel
broadand seismic station. With its 40
1946 m/s 2081 m/s
Range
mite rock comprising Haynes Ridge was too resis- 30 GPR Track 15
small size (128 mm × 90 mm), low
Traveltime (ms)

A B
B 955 m/s

A) Un-normalized dB/dt data from tive for such a small induced moment. The data 20

power consumption (160 mW) and C D station A5 (center of loop A). Lower 269 m/s 178 m/s
two curves are noise sweeps. records were in the background noise by 100 μs. 10

easy deployment using a leveling B) Average apparent resistivity at 0
0 20
689 m/s
40 60
658 m/s
80 100 120 140 160
station A5. Distance (ft)
cradle and transport case that To have any hope of resolving layering, we P-wave
layer
doubles as an insulated seismic needed a loop size at least 100 m and a transmit- velocities
A) Digging the hole. B) Installing the seismometer.
vault, this instrument is a good C) Configuring seismograph. D) Installing radio antenna. ter with 20 A power. However, using the data
analog for those that will be used above the background noise level, we were able
EVA 3 - 14 July 2009, duration 2 hr 23 min, 2 crewmembers 2D MASW inversion
on Mars [2]. A solar-powered FMARS objective: scout site & install radio tower, red track
EVA 5 - 15 July 2009, duration 2 hr 34 min, 2 crewmembers to invert for 1-D profiles of the sub-surface resis-
0

seismic results ? Vs
10
objective: deploy seismic station, yellow track 500

Taurus seismograph recorded the
Depth (ft)

329

tivity: 1,000-10,000 Ω-m.
20
EVA 15 - 26 July 2009, duration 1 hr 25 min, 2 crewmembers 238
objective: remove seismic station, blue track 30 165
Resistivity inversions for each sounding
data, which was transmitted to 40
116
76

Marine Rock 100 Ω-m conductor 40
GPR Track 7
Additionally, we can place an upper bound on
50

FMARS via 900 MHz ethernet radio. and the A5 data 0 50 100 150
Distance (ft)
200 250 300 350 (m/sec)

Time (msec) Frequency (Hz)
The station operated continously von Braun Planitia the depth to a conductor (like groundwater). The 5
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550

1600
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

15
Phase velocity (ft/sec)

1400

for 12 days at this location and 6 expected resistivity profiles for a 100 Ω-m con- 25
35 1200
EVA 13 - 30 Jan. 2010, duration 2 hr 10 min, 2 crewmembers
Distance (ft)

45
55
1000 objective: scout site & plan profile

days next the FMARS habitat. Un- ductor at different depths match best with a con- 65
75
85
800

600
EVA 17 - 3 Feb. 2010, duration 4 hr 19 min, 3 crewmembers
objective: survey profile and set up/test equipment
400
EVA 18 - 4 Feb. 2010, duration 6 hr 5 min, 3 crewmembers
ductor at least 300 m deep.
95

fortunately, all data was compro- GPS tracks from the three FMARS seismic EVAs. 105
115
200

0
objective: conduct seismic survey
(Profile - 38.395120°N, 110.797980°W to 38.396210°N, 110.797060°W)
(S1 Coordinates: 75.447325°N, 89.902636°W, 260 m) CMP gather (left) and dispersion curve fit (right) examples
mised due to a faulty cable. Depth to conductor constraint

Equipment generously provided by Equipment generously provided by Equipment generously provided by
SEISMOLOGICALINSTRUMENTS

Special thanks to Paul Bedrosian for the SiTEM/Semdi software analysis. Special thanks to Geometrics for the SeisImager/2DTM analysis software.

[1] Lognonné (2005) An. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 33: 571-604.

Conclusions Acknowledgements & References [2] Lognonné (2000) Planet. Space Sci., 48: 1289-1302.
[3] Grimm (2002) J. Geophys. Res., 107: 5006-5037.
[4] Grimm, et al. (2009) Planet. Space Sci., 57: 1268-1281.
Simplify User interfaces: large buttons, easy-to-read screens, configurable prior to EVA, automation FMARS-12 & MDRS-89 Crews, The Mars Society, Robert Zubrin, Artemis Westenberg, [5] Pletser, et al. (2009) Acta Astronautica, 64: 457-466.
Passive Seismic: Installation of Trillium Compact system (including burial) is feasible in spacesuits. Gene Traverse (Nanometrics), Rob Harris (Geonics), Dennis Mills (Exploration Instru- [6] Grimm & Stillman (2009) Acta Astronautica, 64: 654-655.
ments), Paul Bedrosian (USGS), Carol Stoker (NASA), David Stillman (SwRI), Bob Grimm [7] van der Veen, et al. (2001) Geophysics, 66: 482-500.
Electromagnetic: Laying loop manually, operating the PROTEM are not very practical in spacesuits. [8] Stoker, et al. (2010) LPSC, Abstract #2697.
(SwRI), Rob Stewart of (Unv. of Houston), Jim Hasbrouck, Deborah Underwood
Active Seismic: Land streamers are good for seismic profiling, but they are heavy. For long surveys, (Geometrics), Chris Gifford (APL), Drew Feustel (NASA) [9] Kim, et al. (2006) IEEEAC Paper #1365.
the source needs to be mobile on a rover, and data collection/processing should be automated. image credit: spaceanimation.com [10] Newsom, et al. (2009) Icarus, 205: 64-72.