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Title: .

Oncology and

Ocosurgery

Table of Content

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No.

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1.

Oncology and
Ocosurgery

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2.

Services and
treatments

About Us

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3.

2

1. Abstract : Oncology and Ocosurgery
Oncology is that department of medicine that deals with tumors. A
medical professional who practices oncology is an oncologist. It has been
derived from greek word

γκος (ónkos), meaning "tumor", "volume" or

"mass".
Ocosurgery(Surgical oncology) is the department of surgery applied to
oncology; it focuses on the surgical management of tumors, especially
cancerous tumors.
Oncology is concerned with:

The detection of any cancer in a person (pathology)

Therapy (e.g. operation, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and other
modalities)

Post care of cancer patients after successful treatment

Soothing care of patients with terminal malignancies
Screening efforts:
o

of populations, or

o

of the relatives of patients (in types of cancer that are thought to
have a hereditary basis, such as breast cancer)

2. Services and treatments
The nonspecific symptoms (such as weight loss, fatigue, fever of unknown
origin, paraneoplastic phenomena, unexplained anemia, and other signs)
may warrant further investigation for malignancy. Irregularly, a bodily
examination might find the location of a tumor
Diagnostic methods include:

Biopsy or Resection; are methods by which suspicious neoplastic
growths can be removed in part or in whole. This is presently the best
thing for the diagnosis of cancer and is crucial in guiding the next step
in management (active surveillance, surgery, radiation therapy,
chemotherapy or a combination of these)

Endoscopy, either upper or lower gastrointestinal, cystoscopy,
bronchoscopy, or nasendoscopy; to localise areas suspicious for
malignancy and biopsy when necessary.

X-rays, MRI scanning, ultrasound, CT scanning, and other
radiological techniques to localise and guide biopsy.

Scintigraphy, Positron emission tomography (PET) Single Photon
Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), and other methods of
nuclear medicine to identify areas suspicious for malignancy.

Blood tests, adding tumor markers, which can lead to more possibility
of certain types of cancers.

Other than diagnoses, these modalities (mostly by CT scanning) are often
used to determine whether it is surgically possible to remove a tumor.

At present, a tissue diagnosis (from a biopsy) by a pathologist is
classification of cancer and to guide the next step of treatment. On rare
conditions when this is not possible, "empirical therapy" (without an exact
diagnosis) may be considered, based on the available evidence (e.g. history,
x-rays and scans.)
Rarely, a metastatic lump or pathological lymph node is found (typically in
the neck) for which a primary tumor cannot be found. The condition is
referred to as "malignacy of unknown primary", treatment is based on past
experience of the most likely origin.
Therapy
As the detection of the cancer is done, follow up and palliative care will be
start at that time. Certain disorders (such as ALL or AML) will require
immediate admission and chemotherapy, while others will be followed up
with regular physical examination and blood tests.
Usually, surgery is done to remove a tumor entirely. Occasionally surgery
can improve survival even if not all tumor tissue has been removed; the
process is said to as "debulking" (i.e. reducing the overall amount of tumor
tissue). Surgery is also used for the palliative treatment of some of cancers,
e.g. to relieve biliary obstruction, or to relieve the problems associated with
some cerebral tumors.
Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are used as a first-line radical therapy in a
number of malignancies. They are also used for adjuvant therapy, when the
macroscopic tumor has been removed surgically but there is a risk that it
will reoccur. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are commonly used for

palliation, where disease is clearly incurable: in this situation the aim is to
improve the quality of life and to prolong it
Hormone manipulation is well established, particularly in the treatment of
breast and prostate cancer.
There is currently a rapid expansion in the use of monoclonal antibody
treatments, for lymphoma (Rituximab), and breast cancer (Trastuzumab).
Vaccine and other immunotherapies are the subject of intensive research.
Palliative care
A great number of patients will die from the cancer disease, and a and other
proportion of patients with incurable cancer will die of other causes. There
may be ongoing issues with symptom control associated with progressive
cancer, and also with the treatment of the disease. These problems may
include pain, nausea, anorexia, fatigue, immobility, and depression.
These problems fall within oncologist, palliative care has matured into a
separate, closely allied speciality to address the problems associated with
advanced disease. Palliative care is an essential part of the multidisciplinary
cancer care team. They may be less hospital-based than oncology, with
nurses and doctors who are able to visit the patient at home.
Ethical issues
There are a number of recurring ethical questions and dilemmas in
oncological practice. These include:

What

information

to

give

the

patient

regarding

disease

extent/progression/prognosis.

Entry into clinical trials, especially in the face of terminal illness.

Withdrawal of active treatment.

"Do Not Resuscitate" orders and other end of life issues.

These issues are closely related to the patients' personality, religion,
culture, and family life. Though these issues are complex and emotional,
the answers are often achieved by the patient seeking counsel from trusted
personal friends and advisors. It requires a degree of sensitivity and very
good communication on the part of the oncology team to address these
problems properly.
Specialties
There are many sub-specialties within oncology. Oncologists may be
divided on the basis of the type of treatment provided or whether their role
is primarily diagnostic.

Radiology: localize, stage and often perform image-guided biopsy in
order to obtain the tissue for preliminary diagnosis.

Anatomical pathology: render the final diagnosis and prognosis of
cancer, in order to guide treatment by oncologists.

Radiation oncology: treatment primarily with radiation, a process
called radiotherapy.

Surgical oncology: surgeons who specialize in tumor removal.

Medical oncology:

treatment primarily

with drugs,

that is,

pharmacotherapy, which includes chemotherapy, hormonal therapy,
and targeted therapy.

Gynecologic oncology deals more on cancers of the female
reproductive system.

Pediatric oncology: concerned with the treatment of cancer in
children

In most countries it is now common that patients are treated by a
multidisciplinary team. These teams include of the medical oncologist, a
clinical oncologist or radiotherapist, a surgeon (sometimes there is a second
reconstructive surgeon), a radiologist, a pathologist, an organ specific
specialist such as a gynecologist or dermatologist, and sometimes the
general practitioner is also involved. In veterinary medicine, veterinary
oncology is the sub-specialty that deals with cancer diagnosis and
treatment in animals.

2. About Us

Kharghar Medicity

Multispeciality Hospital has placed the

enormous & prominent place in the healthcare sector at the prestigious
location of Navi Mumbai locality – Kharghar. We serves our best efficiency
in the multispeciality healthcare services which significantly specialized in
the super speciality services which offers high end procedures in Neurology
, Neurosurgery , Urology , Joint replacement , knee replacement surgeries
and many more.
We crucially provides following facilities likely :
• Super Specialty Services
• Cashless Facility
• 24 hours Services
• Emergency services
Website : http://www.khargharmedicityhospital.com/