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IRC:SP:82-2008

GUIDELINES FOR DESIGN

OF CAUSEWAYS AND

SUBMERSIBLE BRIDGES

Published by

INDIAN ROADS CONGRESS
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2008
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IRC:SP:82-2008
FirstPublished:November, 2008

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: June, 2009

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Scope J 3. References 146 . General Features 4 4. . Scour and Foundations 72 7.IRC:SP:82-2008 CONTENTS Page Personnel oftheBridges Specifications & Standards Committee (i) 1. Hydrology and Hydraulics 15 5. Approaches. Design 96 8.. Protection Work and Appurtenances 130 9. Introduction 1 2.. Waterway and Afflux 60 6. .

MP.K. Navi Mumbai CE (Retd.N. Sector 56. Koshi. Lucknow Director and Vice-President. Central Road Research Instt. Ghaziabad Director (Tech. Road Transport & Highways. 20. Consultant. Patliputra Co-op.K. Ghaziabad Chairman & Managing Director. Services (I) Pvt.). S.. Director General (Road Development). Road New Delhi Director (Engg. Ninan 21. S. Gurgaon (Haryana) DG(RD) & AS (Retd. £-2/136.R. Sharan. 5. R P 17. Mumbai Managing Director. B/11 02. Dhodapkar. nc.2008) 1. Sector NOIDA (UP) Scientist-G. Research Design & Standards Orgn.. A-8. UPPWD. Kolkata ChiefEngineer..N. (INSDAG) Ispat Niketan Kolkata Advisor. T. New Delhi Executive Director (B&S) & Structures Directt. MORT&H. Banerjee. S. Madangir. 13.A. Green Woods City. and Growth. G. C. H-54. Sector 19C. Road Transport and Highways. Sinha.P. R. Chandra Nagar. Annexe II. Ashok 9. Kumar. Lal. Avenue.K. 18.) (NH). (Retd. C-33. P. 15. Palm Beach Road. New Delhi ChiefEngineer.G. New Delhi Chief Engineer (Retd.B. Road Transport and Highways. Road Transport & Highways.). Ltd.). 213. Ministry of Shipping. Chakraborty. Plot No. NHAI B-21 0. A. Chakrabarti. Ministry of Shipping. MahavirNagar.). Gurudwara Road. 8. of Shipping. 16 Indoria. Consulting Engg. Kanhere.S. Bongirwar. Nehru Place. Mahalaxmi. E-002. Sector 46. Room No. Kumar. 7. Ministry of Shipping. Engineers & Builders Ltd. c. 11. MOST Consultant. Bandyopadhyay. Core). Officers Qtrs. Indian Roads Congress MEMBERS 4. D-86. Kumar. Vijay 23.).L. BuildingNo. 19. Delhi Mathura Road. MOST. (Convenor) 2. Mumbai Member (Tech. D. Kand. Institute for Steel Dev. P-11. Manak Nagar. Housing Society Ltd. New Delhi Chief Engineer (B) (S&R). New Delhi Secretary General..v.) B. Gupta. Joglekar. Indira Puram. Dr. Bhopal Chief Engineer (Retd. Residency Greens. Alimchandani.. NaIDA E-in-Ch'ief (Retd. Vashi. STUP Consultants Ltd. STUPConsultants Ltd. L&T. Ram DG(W) (Retd. Agrawal. Park Circus. 22A. New Delhi Chief Engineer (Retd. Bhubaneswar Joint Director General. Krishna Apra Residency. Darga Road. 57. STUP Consultants Ltd. B-830. Chaman (Member Secretary) 3. 10. SpanConsultants(P) Ltd. Mumbai DG(RD) & Addl. 12. HajiAli Govt.). 12. Prafulla 22. Dr. Second Floor. Ghoshal. Secy.). PWD..3.IRC:SP:82-2008 PERSONNEL OF THE BRIDGES SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS COMMITTEE (As on 29. 14. CPWD. Dr. New Delhi (i) .K. Ministry of Shipping. BlockNo. FourBunglow Signal. Basa. T. vx. K.) (Retd. A. 6. Chitranjan Park. Banerjee.).

) Directorate General Border Roads.. Sector 10.K. P. G-I365. Tandon. ConstrumaConsultancy (P) Ltd.K. Indian Roads Congress. Munirka. DG (RD) & Add\. Kendriya Vihar Kharghar. ClDCO Ltd. New Delhi 34. Mumbai (ii) . Flat No. Navi Mumbai 33. Secretary (Retd.) Ministry of Shiping. Sharma. New Delhi 26. Sector 26.C. New Delhi -29. Manjure. D Block.4. Mumbai 25. Dr. Director. Secretary to the Govt. Dr. Vijay. New Delhi 28. ChiefGeneral Manager. P. DG(RD) & SS (Retd.K. New Delhi 37.L.S. Ground Floor. 3. Mumbai Flat No. Mina).1. CBD Belapur. P. Chitaranjan Park. Dwarka. Freyssinet Prestressed.) 324. R. B-I86. MOST.N. Nalanda Appartment. New Dellii (Y. New Delhi 36. A-39/B. C-478 Second Floor. National Highways AuthorityofIndia. Building No. Vikas Puri.K. Velayutham. of Rajasthan PWD. Seema Sadak Bhawan. Concrete Co. Ministry of Shipping. Sector. Nandanam. New Delhi 31. New Delhi Ex-officio Members 1.o.Y.). M.A. 1110 Road No. Malabar Hill. New Delhi 72. Road Transport and Highways. Ltd. M. 26. Sinha. IRC. Dr. 401182. Emeritus Scientist BH-l/44. Mandakini Enclave. Mahesh Managing Director Tandon Consultants (P) Ltd. Road Transport & Highways. Mahooz Manama-332. G-5 & 6. Ninan. Sinha. Add\. ChiefTechnical Advisor. A.D. Raina. 3223. Ministry of Shipping.N.K. IRC 2. S. Director General (Road Development) 3. 3rd Floor.IRC:SP:82-2008 24. Mukherjee. Director General Naraina. Little GibbsRoad. Chief Transportation Officer. (Retd.B. Narain. S. Prof. Bahrain (Middle East) Chairman. CPWD.. 339-340.ZeniaAbad. L&T-RAMBOLL ConsultingEngineers Ltd. Tamhankar. Chitaranjan Park. DDA Flats. ChiefEngineer (Retd. ManakBhavan.S. 38.Anna Salai. Dr. Director & Head Bureau of Indian Standards. NaviMumbai 35.) MOSRT&H. DG(RD) & SS (Retd. Past SecretaryGeneral. 2. Y. Rao. New Delhi (Civil Engg. N. Jaipur (0. Road Transport & Highways. New Delhi Corresponding Members 1. New Delhi 32. DG(W) (Retd. T.). 4. Puri.). Sharan). ClDCO Bhavan. NOIDA 27. Addl... Chief Engineer.Vikaspuri. Plot No.) MORT&H. Subba ADG (B). President. R. Reddi. Rajagopalan. Bhasin. Chennai 30. Secretary General (H. MOST (Retd. S. Sinha). V.

) . D.R. Dr.C. S. TheGeneral Design Features Committee in itsmeeting held on May.Y. Members Kumar. B. C.IRC:SP:82-2008 GUIDELINES FOR DESIGN OF CAUSEWAYS AND SUBMERSIBLE BRIDGES 1. Rastogi.Ashok Bhowmick. Kumar. P. Kand. Chandak. Vijay Kumar. H. Ramakrishnan.Y. P. Reddy. thedraftas prepared bytheSub-group andShri S. K S Kand. Bagish.) Secretary General. Mumbai (S.R.P.P. M. S. Kamlesh Kurian. Ashok Roy. Dr. Taunk. MOSRT&H (Sharan. Alok Bongirwar. R.K. Deepak Reddi.S. Y. Rastogi.Lucknow (S. R.K. Shri Prafulla Kumar. Jangde. Agarwal. Basa. Mukherjee. Rao and Late Shri N. Patel. Ex-officioMembers President. Later on this Committee wasmerged with the General Design Features (Bridges and Grade Separated Structures Committee (B-1) at the timeofreconstitution in January.L. Arora.N. K. Be Rep. Jose Naryan. S/Shri D. Prof. M. Thereafter. C.Y.A. M. IRC (Mina. 2006.) DG(RD).1. Rustagi.C. TheGuidelines for Design ofCauseways and Submersible Bridges hadbeen under theconsideration ofthe earlier General Design Features Committee since theyear 2004. B-1) in a number of meetings andfinalized it in itsmeeting held on 12th October. INTRODUCTION 1. Dr.K. Sabnis) Corresponding Members Tandon.K. Kaiastha wasconsidered by thereconstituted General Design Features (Bridges and Grade Separated Structures Committee. 1.K.G.C.L. H. Thepersonnel ofB-1 Committee isgiven below: Convenor Co-Convenor Member-Secretary Kumar. Bongirwar. ofMSRDC.K. Prafulla Indoria. ofRDSO. IRC (Sinha. G. Alimchandani.S. Dr.K. 2006 subject to incorporation ofcertain comments byits Convenor.L. Gupta) Rep. 2004 had constituted asub-group consisting ofShri P. C.B.M.

2.5.2008 andauthorized Secretary General.Y. 1. thedraft guidelines for Design of Causeways and Submersible Bridges were considered bytheBridges Specifications and Standards Committee (BSS) initsmeeting held on J'" November.4. Addl.B. The Sub-group metthrice on9. Kand and Shri Sharad Varshney. The Committee formed a Sub-group comprising Shri Chaman Lal.2008 and putupthedraft document again to Bridges Specifications &Standards Committee. atAizwal (Mizoram) for printing subject to incorporation of some comments offered bytheCouncil members.3 .1. 1. The draftdocument was approved bythe Bridges Specifications and Standards Committee in itsmeeting heldon29. C.2008 and 23.2. Director (Technical). IRC fortechnical enhancement ofthe document.4.4. Dr. The document was approved bytheIRC Council inits 1851h meeting held on 11. 1. CE(B) S&R..2008.IRC:SP:82-2008 Thereafter. MOSRT&H. Shri M.2008.3. The valuable suggestions offered bythe members of General Design Features (Bridgesand Grade Separated Structures) Committee (B-1) and Bridges Specifications &.Rao. 2 .Standards Committee are duly incorporated. IRC toplace thesame before Council..Y. and theExecutive Committee in itsmeeting heldon 11. 1. 2007.2008.

3 . Major District Roads. SCOPE This document contains guidelines for planning and design ofsubmersible structures like fords. State Highways.IRC:SP:82-2008 2. causeways andsubmersible bridges onvarious categories ofroads viz. Other District Roads and Village Roads inthecountry. dips.

3. 3. Causeway Acauseway isa paved submersible structure with orwithout openings (vents) which-allows flood to passthrough and/or over it. A minor bridge upto a total length ono missometimes classified as a small bridge.1.1.5.1. 7. Submersible bridge A submersible bridge is a bridge designed to be overtopped during floods. High level bridge A highlevel bridge is a bridge which carries theroadway above the highest flood level of thechannel. Bridge Bridge is a structure having atotal length ofabove 6mbetween theinner faces of the dirt walls for carrying traffic or other moving loads over a depression or obstruction such as channel. 3.1.1. Ford A ford is an unpaved shallow portion in a river or stream bed which can be used as a crossing during dry flow. These are classified as minorandmajor bridges as per classification given below: (a) Minor Bridge A minor bridge is a bridge having a total length of upto 60 m.4.2. Culvert A culvert is a cross-drainage structure having atotal length of6 morless between theinner faces of the dirt walls or extreme ventway boundaries measured atright angles there to. Definitions Thefollowing definitions shall beapplicable for thepurpose ofthese Guidelines.3. Channel A channel means a natural or artificial watercourse.1. f 3.1. GENERAL FEATURES 3.1. (b) Major Bridge A major bridge is a bridge having a total length of above 60m. 3.1. road or railway.6. Afflux It is the risein theflood level of thechannel immediately onthe upstream of a bridge as a result of obstruction to natural flow caused bythe construction ofthebridge andits approaches.8. 3. 3. 3.IRC:SP:82-2008 3. 4 .1.

Types of SubmersibleStructures 3. velocity of flowing water islow and bed surface isrelatively firm. 3. 3.14. 3. Ordinary Floodlevel (OFL) Ordinary flood level isthe level offlood expected tooccur every year. Defined Cross-section It istheundisturbed natural cross-section ofriver which does not exhibit signs oferosion or silting ofbed. Highest Flood Level(HFL) Highest flood level isthe level ofthe highest flood ever recorded orthe calculated level for the design discharge. FOI Fords areunpaved structures andare suitable only for roads having very low volume of traffic.1.11. Low Water (LWL) Low water level is the level ofthe water surface attained generally inthe dryseason. Boulders ( neither too large which may result in scouring ofbednor small likely tobe carried away byflow) are placed across the river bedat downstream side oftheford to filter the flow ofwater and retain small size particles ofbedmaterial like sand. It corresponds tolevel ofhighest flood of 50 years 100 years returnperiod (whichever is chosen for design) or the highest known flood level ifthe same happens to behigher. 5 . thebedcanbestrengthened and made more even with buried stones justbelow thebedsurface.1.1. 3.13.12. whichever ishigher.1 shows atypical cross-section of suchtype of ford.IRC:SP:82-2008 3.10. It can also be determined byaveraging thelow water levels recorded inseven consecutive years.1. 3. Design Flood Level (DFL) It isthe highest flood level for which the structure must bedesigned. 3.2. Protected Bed Level (PBL) It is thelevel atwhich thebedsurface is protected against erosion due to flow of water.1. 3. this is prevented byconstruction of barriers made of suitable size of boulders or wooden piles. These are thesimplest form ofcrossings where the stream is wide and shallow. It canbedetermined byaveraging the highest flood levels ofseven consecutive years.2.1. If thestones arelikely to becarried away inflow. Fig. gravels etc.9.1. In case the bedsurface isnot firm enough and notcapable ofcarrying the vehicular traffic. resulting ina more even surface for vehicular traffic.

LOGS 2m LONG AT 600mm c/c (C) FORD WITH TIMBER POSTS Fig.1.• : PLUNGE . 3. .. . BED (A) FORD WITH DOWNSTREAM BOULDERS 1x1m ROCK FILLED GAStON (B) FORD WITH DOWNSTREAM GABION GUIDE POSTS GUIDE POSTS FLOW . Typical Details of Fords 6 . ' .. 100mm ...lRC:SP:82-2008 ROADWAY 1- GUIDE POSTS -I I BOULDERS GUIDE POSTS fLOW --------- ..

2. CUT OFF WALL BURIED APRON CARRIAGEWAY Fig. thestream is notperennial.2. It is suitable where the crossing remains dryfor most of partofyear i.2. Typical Features of Paved dip/Flush Causeway (b) Vented causeway A causeway provided withvents to permit normal flow of the stream to passunder thecauseway is known as vented causeway. thetop level of road is keptsame asthat ofbedlevel ofthechannel. 3. (i) Low vented causeway Low vented causeways areprovided to cross quasi-perennial streams having sandy· beds in areas annual rainfall less than1000 andwhere thecarriageway of a 7 . Flush causeways arenot suitable for crossing the streams with steep bedslopes causing high velocity even in lowfloods. Vented causeways areclassified as low vented causeways and highvented causeways.IRC:SP:82-2008 3. Thecauseway covers the full width ofthe channel Fig. Causeways There are mainly three types of causeways: (a) Flush causeway Inthis typeofcauseway which isalso called paved dipor roaddam.e.2. 3.

short span slabs/R.C. The height isgenerally less than 1.20 mabove the bed ofthe watercourse. Inexceptional cases.2. 3.3. The choice mainly depends onthe classification of theproject road. Box cells areprovided inthewidth of stream. The decklevel oflow submersible bridge is fixed above the OFL so as to ensurethat the interruptions caused to traffic remain within permissible limits.C. General Thetype ofstructure (i. Submersible bridge Submersible bridge isnormally sub-classified ashigh submersible bridge orlowsubmersible bridge depending upondecklevel withreference to OFL.e. hydrology of the watercourse andavailability of funds for the 8 . the height maybe 1.300 mmbelow theaverage bed level of thestream. requirements oftheuser authority. and as suchthe structure serves as high level bridge during OFL but gets submerged under higherfloods withpermissible number andduration ofinterruptions.C.3. 3. Thesilllevel ofvents iskept about 150 mm.3.5 m to 3. The deck level of high submersible bridge is fixed with reference to OFL and vertical clearance. slab superstructure overa seriesof shortmasonry piers or series of arches or boxeswith individual spans less than 3 m are provided. Small sizeof vents in the form ofhumepipes.50 mabove the bedlevel.IRC:SP:82-2008 flush causeway would beliable to getslushy due to post monsoon flow in the stream. high level or submersible) across a watercourse (channel) has to bejudiciously selected on the basisof reconnaissance inspection report andavailable data. Selection of Type of Submersible Bridge/Causeway 3. (ii) Highvented causeway Highvented causeway is provided when a roadcrosses a stream having one or more ofthefollowing characteristics: (i) Sizeable catchment areawith annual rainfall more than 1000 mm (ii) Depth of postmonsoon flow is more than 900mm (iii) Flow is perennial butnotlarge (iv) Banks arelownecessitating construction ofhigh embankment inthe stream bed from considerations of the free boardin non-submersible portion as well as geometric standards of approach roads The heightof the causeway above the bed is generally kept between 1.0 m and larger size of vents comprising of hume pipes or simply supported/continuous R. Thistypeofbridge is suitable for streams having large variationbetween HFL and OFL.C.1.

and velocity ofwater during floods (e) Duration. thenumber of interruptions in a year caused totraffic andduration ofthe interruptions arelikely to exceed the suggested values given in Table 3. thefollowing criteria may befollowed for selection ofsuitable type ofsubmersible structures including causeways ondifferent categories of roads. from future traffic considerations. magnitude offloods and interruption to traffic (f) Spread anddepthof waterduring floods and postmonsoon period (g) Extent of catchment area 3.3. ford or causeway or submersible bridge) inter-alia depends on: Requirements of user authority and availability offunds (b) Category. flashy/perennial/seasonal etc. intheNational Highway network (iii) If the length of a highlevel bridge at such crossings would be lessthan 3am except where construction ofhigh level structure is noteconomically viable (iv) mean velocity ofstIeam during floods is more than 6 mJsec (v) If the cost of submersible bridge with its approaches is estimatedto be more than approximately 70% of the cost of high level bridgewith its approaches.1 below.3. nearabout the same site (vi) Iffirm banks are available and approaches are incutting orheight ofembankment for submersible portion ofapproaches is more than 2 m (vii) Where there arefaults in theriver bed (viii) If after completion ofthesubmersible structures. roads linking important towns orindustrial areas or areas withpopulation more than 10.000 where alternative all weather route with reasonable length ofdetour is notavailable (ii) On roads which are likely to be upgraded or included. 9 . (I) These should be avoided onNational Highways (2) These may notbe considered foradoption inthefollowing situations: (i) Roads ofeconomic importance.3. importance of road and traffic intensity (c) Population to be served (d) Nature ofstream i.IRC:SP:82-2008 3.2. Considerations in the selection of type of submersible structures Selection oftype of submersible structures (i. Criteria for avoiding/selection of submersible structures Intheabsence of any directives/guidelines bytheuser authority.e.e.

D. These should be proposed on rural and less important linkroads. Causeways Causeways forcrossing a wide watercourse withlowbanks andhaving nottoo large but perennial flow should be proposed with caution.1: Permissible Number and Duration of Interruptions S. less than 6 h notto be considered and more than 12 h not acceptable 3.D. endangering theaquatic lifeinthewatercourse ortheenvironment. industrial estates. Submersible bridges These can be provided in all situations other than those mentioned in paras 3.3.). Maximum No. volume oftraffic islow and thewater isnotlikely tobecome muddy due tothetraffic. less than 2 h not to be considered and more than 6 h not acceptable 2.e. though the cheapest typeof crossing. inurban ornon-urban area). Geometric Standards 3. of permissible interruptions in a year Duration of interruption in hours at a time 1.lRC:SP:82-2008 Table 3.Rs. State Govt. State Highways. 3. General (a) A road conforming to sound geometric standards resultsin economical operation of vehicles andensures safety. 3.4.3.e. unpaved causeway).3.. State Highway (SH) or Major District Road (MDR) orRural Road (RR) which include Other District Road (ODR) and Village Road (VR). M. notlikely to generate much traffic innearfuture dueto situations likedead end. 10 . etc.e.4.4. shallow with depthof water not more than 200 mm. Category of Roads No.e. velocity of flow is low (lessthan2 m/sec).Rs. 3.e. roads linking important towns.4 and 3. Geometric standards for approach roads to a submersible bridge or causeway depends ontheclassification ofroad (i. 6 2-6 h duration. causeways may beproposed onstreams of flashy nature with high frequency ofshort duration oratsites where construction ofsubmersible bridge isnoteconomically viable. Fords Fords (i.5 above where provision of submersible structures is technically feasible and economically viable. plainorrolling ormountainous or steep).3. O. local. .Village Roads 6 6-12 h duration.5. should be avoided as far aspossible andits adoption should be limited to sites where stream is wide. low habitation and difficult terrain conditions.6. bed is firm. length of crossing and requirements ofthe userauthority (i. terrain (i.3.1. location (i.

which stipulates thatvented causeways/submersible bridges shall provide for at least two lanes of traffic (7. Width of cross drainage structures Cross-drainage structures aredifficult to widen ata later date.3.5 m wide carriageway) unless one lane of traffic (4.2.e.2. IRC:SP:20. between theinner faces ofdiscontinuous kerbs/safety kerbs wherever provided or between the guideposts/stones (without kerbs). 3. 3. if provided should notbeless than600mm. IRC:73.25 mwide carriageway) isspecially permitted inthe design.2. In case footpaths are provided. measured at rightangles to the longitudinal center line ofthestructure. it is desirable to adopt higher roadway width.3.5 Two lanes 7. IRC:SP:23 and IRC:SP:48). theprovision forsingle lane width is likely toberevised and has been increased inthese guidelines.5 111 each.5 7. Refer Table 3. IRC:38. IRC:5. However. ifthe length ofthecrossing is more than60m. should be as given in Table 3. Table 3.IRC:SP:82-2008 (b) The geometric standards in general should conform to relevant IRC Publications (i. Minimum carriageway widthof submersible structures. Overall width between the outer faces of discontinuous kerbs/safety kerbs wherever provided or guideposts/stones/railings (without kerbs) of the structures with lengthupto 30 m should preferably be a little more to match withthe roadway width of immediate approaches Table 3. the width offootpaths should notbe lessthan 1.4.8 5. IRC:86.2: Minimum Width of Carriageway for Submersible Structures I Category of road Minimum Width of Carriageway*(m) Plain & Rolling Terrain Note: Mountainous and Steep Terrain Single lane 6.5 * Minimum width of carriageway should be suitably increased as per IRe:?3 in case of structures located on curves. As such. However.4. road width should be selected carefullyat the planning stage itself. Geometries of approach roads (i) Alignment ofthe road generally governs the site ofa submersible structure if thelength of crossing isless than 60m. In case a road is likely to be upgraded in the foreseeable future. (c) Thereis no specific separate guideline in theIRC codes regarding geometric design standards for submersible structures including immediate approaches except in IRC:5. Thewidth of discontinuous safety kerbs. IRC:52. 11 .

0* 12. Radii ofhorizontal curves in case of immediate approach roads however should. not be lessthan 60m in case of plain androlling terrain and 30m in case of hilly terrain from road user safety consideration.3: Width of Roadway (m) S.25## 8. State Highways single lane ii) two lanes i) 2.4. where necessary. Roadway width Width ofroadway should be as shown in Table 3. Design speed From consideration of safety ofroad users. 12. In case the length of crossing ismore than 300 m. 3.5*** 9. thesuper-elevation and transition length should beprovided inaccordance with relevant stipulations contained in IRC:38.8 9.25## 8. 6.0## 7.8 7.No. the most suitable site for the bridge should bethegoverning criteria. Ifhorizontal curves have to beprovided intheapproaches.IRC:SP:82-2008 the suitability of the site for thesubmersible structure andthe geometric design of immediate approaches both should be considered together. Table 3.5 Major District Roads i) single lane ii) two lanes 3.4. Road Classification Plain & Rolllnz Terrain & Steep Terrain I.0 6.3. (ii) The approaches oneither side ofastraight submersible bridge should have a minimum straight length ono m and should be suitably increased. 3. to provide for theminimum sight distance for a vehicular speed of 35 km/h. (iii) Horizontal curves in immediate approach roads fora length of about 100 m on either side of a submersible structure orcauseways should beavoided.5. thesame should belocated beyond thestraight portion on either side and theminimum radius of curvature.0 9. lower design speed thanthatrecommended in IRC:73 shouldbe adopted for the immediate approaches to a submersible bridgeor causeway.4.0 Rural Roads i) single lane ii) two lanes 12 ** .0 6. Theinformatory boards installed on approaches should indicate permissible speed of35 km/h in case of plainand rolling terrain and20 km/h incase of mountainous and steep terrain irrespective of anyhigher speed adopted in the design of theroad.

Brick/stone set pavement 3. the roadway width should be increased corresponding to the extra widening of carriageway for curvature. or unstable locations where excessive cutting might lead to slope failure.4 m in other cases.4. ** The roadway widths in mountainous and steep terrain. *** Roadway width for rural roads in plain and rollers terrain also may be reduced to 6.4: Pavement Camber/Crossfall Unidirectional Cross fall (%) Surface Type I I For all categories of roads l. High Type bituminous surfacing or cement concrete 2. width of roadway might be reduced to 9 m if the possibility of widening.6 m) and side drains (usual width 0. 3.5 3. Superelevation Superelevation to beprovided onhorizontal curves iscalculated from thefollowing formula subject to the maximum values indicated in Table 3.5: Maximum Permissible Superelevation 1. low habitation and difficult terrain conditions. width of roadway may be reduced by 0.6. 2. the carriageway to two lanes is considered remote. 5 The roadway widths for Rural Roads are on the basis of a single lane carriageway of 3.6 m). Superelevation in m per m = (Design speed in km/h)' 1(225 x radius of curvein 111) Table 3. 7.4. the roadway width may be increased by 1. 7. 6 In hard rock stretches.0 2. 3. Hill roads not affected bysnow 10% 13 I" .0 Note: Shoulders of approach roads likely to be submerged during floods should be paved to same cross fall towards downstream as for pavement. 3. where regular snow clearance is done over long periods to keep the road open to traffic.4 depending on typeof surface of pavement Table 3.5 m.5. Plain/rolling terrain and snow bound hill roads 7% 2. I. Thin bituminous surfacing for approaches 2.8 m on two-lane roads and 0.75 m. Camber/crossfall The camber/crossfall on straight sections of immediate approaches andon submersible structures shouldbe unidirectional towards the downstream and as recommended in Table 3. On horizontal curves. given above are exclusive of parapets (usual width 0. 4 ## On roads subject to heavy snow fall.0 m in case where traffic intensity is less than 100 motor vehicles per day and traffic is not likely to increase due to situations like dead end.lRC:SP:82-2008 Notes: 1 * For single lane State Highways.

I 14 .4. Gradients As ageneral rule.0% (l in 20) irrespective of nature ofterrain. otherwise permitted by user authority. SP: 82-2008 3. values ofruling gradients specified inIRe:?3 should beadopted. incase of immediate approaches tosubmersible structures. gradients inimmediate approaches unless. should not exceed 5. Nevertheless. However. carrying substantial slow traffic.8. flatter gradients than ruling values should bepreferred.iac.

flood discharge in m3/s Catchment Area in sq.1.1.1. Some hydraulic structures especially bridges have failed inthepastmainly due to inadequate assessment ofHFLIDesign flood discharge andrarely due to structural failures.2. km AnEmpirical Constant. Q = A C n = = = Max. Arational estimation of design flood discharge for thespecified return period leads to economical design of bridge foundations for submersible bridges. General Forthedesign of anefficient andeconomical hydraulic structure.1 ) Where.2. Determination of design discharge Thedesign discharge for which thewaterway ofmost of thebridge including submersible bridges isto be designed should bebased ontheflood discharge corresponding to highest observed flood level. Due attention to the determination of hydrology of the structure needs to be paid as anirrational approach canlead to loss and destruction of the structure due to floods higher than thedesign floods. Abriefabout hydrology isgiven in Appendix 4. knowledge ofhydrology and the characteristics of theStream/River are of paramount importance. Empirical methods I Based on studies conducted. Thefailures of hydraulic structures arevery expensive as in mostcases. Theempirical formulae for flood discharge suggested areintheform: (4. irrespective of the return period of that flood orthe flood years' return period whichever is higher. Hydrology 4.1. Inmost cases hydrological record ofthestream particularly data regarding floods may notbeavailable. the indirect costs aremany times larger than thedirect costofbridge replacement. depending uponnature andlocation of catchment A Constant 15 . some empirical formulae for specific regions have been evolved.lRC:SP:82-2008 4. 4.1.1. except in thecaseof important bridges whenreturn period may be takenas 100 years. HYDROLOGY AND HYDRAULICS 4. The design discharge canbe determined bythefollowing methods: (1) (2) (3) (4) Empirical Methods SlopeArea Method Rational Method UnitHydrograph Method 4.1.

. are to be accounted for in selectingan appropriate valueofthe coefficient 'C'. The value of'C' willtherefore be valid onlyfortheregion for whichit has beendetermined. areaof thecatchment andtherefore a large number of remaining factors that affect the run-off such as shape. therefore. The details of the method are given in Appendix 4. ' . as eachbasin has its owncharacteristics affecting run­ off (ii) These involve only oneknown variable factor viz.3) Where. beused withduecaution as given below: (i) These weredeveloped forparticular region andfor small catchments and.IRC:SP:82-2008 The mostcommonly adopted empirical formulae and recommended for use are: Dicken's formula based on dataof rivers in Central India.3. however.. This method has also considerable roomfor errordueto: (i) The variability of bed profile slope etc. slope.2.2. which may include identification of flood marks on structures or trees closeto the bridge site. have obvious limitations. (iii) A correct value of' C' canonly bederived fora given region from anextensive analytical studyofthe measured flood discharge vis-a-vis characteristics ofthe basin. (ii) Ryve'sformulabased on Rivers in South India and(iii) Inglis formula based onWest Indian rivers inthe old Bombay Province. Anew designer should use these formulae onlyunder the guidance of an experienced designer or expert.2) Where.2. 4. as each basin has its own characteristics affecting run-off. Details of these emperical formulae aregiven in Appendix 4. duringfloods from those measured during survey. The value ofC' at the bestis validonlyfor the region for whichit hasbeendetermined. Q = dischargein m and A = wetted area in m2 V velocity oft1owin ill/see whichcan becalculated by the Mannmg's formula: (4.. Slope area method In this method the maximum water level reached in a historic flood is estimated on the evidence of local witnesses.1. (i) Theempirical formule should. permeability of catchments etc. \ 16 \ . S = the energy slope which may be taken as equal to bed slope and n = rugosity coefficient.The discharge is then calculated by: Q= AV (4. R = hydraulic mean depth.

RDSO (Railways). Therational formula is asfollows: (4.3. 17 .(ii) The computation of stream velocity is dependent upon a subjective selection of an Empirical Coefficient of rugosity for different conditions of bed out of the various values recommended by Manning.5) Where. such as shape.2.4. MoSRT&H and IMD have been published by ewc. Alist of thesezonesand sub-zones is givenin 'Annexure A' of Appendix 4. (ii) A Committee of Engineers appointed by Govt. distribution and duration of rainfall as well as the characteristics of the catchment area. Q A Io Maximum flood discharge in m' /s = Catchment area in hectare Max. 4.1. 4.5.056 fP t c +1 (4. The report as preparedjointly by CWC. km and upto 2000 sq. These reports give methodology througha set of charts and graphsfor quick estimation of designflood of 25. resulting from an isolatedrainfall of unit duration (normally taken as 6 h to 12h) occurring uniformly overthe catchment and producing unit run-off. The unit run-offadopted is 1 em depthover the catchment area. 'f" is the areacorrection factor.4) Where. slope. The formulae may generally be adopted for catchment areas upto 500 sq. 'tc 'is thetime of concentration in hours and' P' is permeability coefficientofthe catchment depending on the soil cover conditions and slope of catchment Thedetails about Rational Method aregiven in Appendix 4. of India.4. permeability and initial wetness ofthecatchment. 50 or 100 years of return periods for ungauged catchments. Unit hydrograph method stormrun-offat a given pointin the river. ofIndia recommended a rational methodology based onuse ofdesign storms andunithydrographs forestimating design floods for different zones/sub-zones oflndia.2. km in exceptional cases.1. intensity ofrainfall incrn/h Function depending upon characteristics ofthe catchment in producing peakrun­ off and given by- = 0. Govt. Rational method The rational method forflood discharge takes into account the intensity.

The highest ofthese values should beadopted asthedesign discharge providedit does not exceed the next highest discharge by morethan 50%. km. 4.3. (4.3) Ab X Where.1) = Afflux \8 . Discharge through a submersible bridge The total discharge in the stream after the constructionof a submersiblebridge can be found by the method suggested by Johnson Victor as given below: Total discharge Q = 2 and Q = A x ---.1. Fixingdesign discharge Flood discharge can be estimated by three or more different methods and the values obtained should becompared.Ca 3 Q b = = + Qb + Qc (4.6. 4.6.h 3/2 H c. & Cc are coefficients of discharge H (4.5.restrict it to that limit.6) (H + h )3/2 . (iv) The unithydrograph method can givefairly preciseresults for drainage areas upto 5000 sq.6. Variation in assumptions madefor largerareas (>5000 sq.2.5.1. If it does. km) in the method areusually too great to be ignored. The detailed procedure for constructing Synthetic unit hydrograph andhowto obtain designHood from storm of corresponding returnperiod is illustrated in an example given in Appendix 4.2) x Cc (4. = Discharge between afflux upstream water levelanddownstream waterlevelandA is its areaofflow Qb = Discharge between downstream water levelanddecklevel All = Areaof flowbetween downstream waterlevelanddecklevel Qc = Discharge through vents andAc is the areaof vents C C.lRC:SP:82-2008 (iii) Unithydrographs areprepared either by computation from direct run-offhydrograph for gauged streams or aresynthetically prepared from catchment characteristics for ungauged catchments and then used for finding design flood of desired return period.

2) and (4.IRC:SP:82-2008 ha = Head dueto velocity of approach. ( b) Flow over the causeway/submersible bridge proper through area A2 and (c) Flow over shallow triangular compartments of area A3 on eitherside of the main stream at the crossing.1 for various parameters of flow. the discharge through causeway or low level submersible bridge can also be found by adding the calculated discharge of the threepartsviz.1.1) C. (See Fig 4. 4.2).4.6. I H HFL D!S TOP OF SLAB BOnOM OF SLAB -c AVERAGE BED LEVEL LONGITUDINAL SECTION Fig. AFFLUXED HFL HFL-\ l H=AFFLUX Aa t Ab RTL Ac SOFFIT LEVEL CROSS-SECTION uS AFFLUXED HFL --.625 for equation (4.6.1. 4.3) (Refer Fig. 4. In cases where the cross-section of the stream has wide spill zones of shallow depth. (a)Discharge through vents of areaAI.) ( .6. Ca = ·0. Total Discharge at a Submersible Bridge 19 . = Cc=O.9 for equations (4.

Water current forces onfoundation above scourleveland on substructure Water currentcauses hydrodynamic force onthe submerged partof a body. P = 52KV 2 Where. while checkingfor maximum pressure theminimum uplift pressure atthelowwater level should betaken into account. the maximum uplift pressure at high water level should beconsidered. In case of submersible bridges. SLOPING APPROACHES Fig. P = Intensity of pressure dueto water current in kg/m' 20 (4. It mustbe considered for stability of structure ifthere is possibility where while considering combination of forces. full buoyancy effect onthesuperstructure alsoneeds to be ed.1.2. PORTION OF THE PROTECTED AREA Of fLOW OVER EITHER SIDE. stability ofthestructure is to beaffected. Forces due to Water 4.2 Typical Vented Causeway 4. Hydrodynamic force of water current 4.2.1. It is recommended thatwhile checking forminimum pressure on foundation.2.2. 4. It force due to the afflux head and the force of buoyancy. 4.2. A2 = AREA OF FLOW OVER THE HORIZONTAl.2. These forces on a member canbe calculated bythe following formula as given in Clause2l3 ofIRC:6.IRC:SP:82-2008 TOP LEVEL OF PROTECTED BED I AREA Al AREA AVAILABLE A1 FLOW AT CAUSEWAY A=A1+A2+A3 AREA OF VENTS. Further. HydroStatic Force Force of stationary water on a solid surface is called thehydrostatic force. A body submerged in water experiences an upward force dueto water pressure and this force is called' Buoyancy'.7) .

1.IRC:SP:82-2008 V Thevelocity ofthecurrent atthepoint where thepressure intensity is being calculated in meter persecond and K = A constant having the following values for different shapes ofmembers as given inTable 4.90 0. Square ofvelocity at a height X from thepoint of deepest scour = U2 = 2 V 2 X (4.50 WITH SQUARE ENDS (AND FOR SUPERSTRUCTURE) 0. Thevalue of V' intheequation (4.8) H Where V isthemaximum mean velocity.1: Shapes of Bridges Piers & Value ofK VALUES OF K SHAPES OF iN PLAN I i . 21 .50 INTERSECTING AT 90 DEGREES The maximum velocity at the top surface of flow shall be assumed to be times the maximum mean velocity ofthe current.45 EQUILATERAL ARCS OF CIRCLES u.66 CIRCULAR OR SEMICIRCULAR ENDS I 0. 4.50 TRIANGULAR (THE ANGLE INCLUDED BETWEEN THE BEING DEGREES OR LESS) 0.3).70 TRIANGULAR (THE ANGLE INCLUDED THE FACES BEING MORE THAN 30 OIGREES BUT 'LESS THAN 60 DEGREES) TRIANGULAR (THE ANGLE INCLUDED BETWEEN THE FACES BEING 60 TO 90 DEGREES OR LESS 0.8) is assumed to vary linearly from zero at thepointof deepest scour tothesquare ofthe maximum velocity atthefree surface of water (Fig.70 TO 0.50 TO 0. Table 4.

Bothdragforce and lift force depend largely onthe shapeof the bodyand several otherfactors and these canbe bestdetermined byconducting hydraulic model studies.2. (ii) Flowingwater produces twotypes of forces on a submerged or partially submerged superstructure viz.2. Where Vv is the velocity through vents and V is velocity of approach. the stresses on foundations dueto watercurrent forces actingon the submerged superstructure are quitepronounced. (iii) The results of modelstudies conducted so far do not conclusivelyrecommendany andco-efficient oflift (CJ. Theseare characterized by two factors i. the drag force and the lift force. generalized values of co-efficient of drag presently the following method is adoptedfor calculation of drag force and uplift pressure onsuperstructures. Water current forces on superstructure (i) The importance ofwatercurrent forces onthe superstructure is significant dueto the extent of obstruction offered bythebridgesuperstructure and its location. 22 I I .IRC: SP: 82-2008 FREE SURFACE­ OF WATER t I POINT OF DEEPEST SCOUR \ I i I 4. Where 'w' is the unitweightof water and 'h' is the upliftheadunderthe deck and can be estimatedas h = thickness of slab + wearing coat andaffluxafter deducting the head loss due to increase in velocity through vents.5for drag force.2. However.2. .2. thedrag force co-efficient (Cd) andcoefficient oflift (CL) .6.1 be adopted with value ofK as 1. The head loss is givenby the expression (V} . (b) Theexpression p = wh maybe adopted for calculating upliftpressure.V2)l2g.e. in cases where it is not feasible oreconomically viable to conduct hydraulic model studies: (a) Theexpression P = 52KV2 as givenin para4. Sincethe submerged areaofsuperstructure exposed towater current forces is sufficiently large and the velocity of currentat its levelis alsohigh. as explained in Appendix 4.

The Hydrologic Cycle: Most oftheearth's water sources such asrivers.4 II. This evaporation and precipitation continues forever and thereby. a balance ismaintained between thetwo. snow. 23 . andtherefore it can also be named as 'Discharge oftheStream' while surface run-off includes only the waterthat reaches the stream channel without firstpercolating downto the water table. 4. Water islost totheatmosphere asvapour from the earth. /(Rain. 4. Run­ off includes all water flowing inthestream atany given section. It canbe represented graphically. Hydrology deals with depletion and replacement of our water resources. as shown in Fig. Sleet etc.IRC:SP:82-2008 Appendix 4. Run-off Run-off and surface run-off are two different items and should notbeconfused. etc.4. Run-off consists ofthefollowing (Fig. sleet orfrost. -­ <. I. Snow. etc. this is very small and ignored. (ii) Surface run-off consisting oftrue surface run-off and sub-surface run-off. while therain water in itself istheevaporation from these sources. The basic knowledge ofthis science ismust for Civil Engineer.5). dew. gettheir supply from the rains. hail.1 A BRIEF ON HYDROLOGY I. This process isknown asHydrologic Cycle. lakes. Representing Hydrologic Cycle Fig. which is thenprecipitated back intheform ofrain. 4.) / / / / Transpiration from Ve etations Evaporation . r / / Precipitation Le. (i) Direct precipitation over thesurface ofthe stream and its distributaries. oceans and underground sources. particularly the one who isengaged indesign planning and construction ofhydraulic structures such as Bridges. Hail.

because it reaches stream so quicklythat it is difficultto differentiate from truesurface run-off.Western India.. Extra tropical cyclonic precipitation is responsible for most ofthewinter rains inNorth." - R.------ = I True S. (ii) Characteristics of Rainfall Precipitation depend upon (i) Slope of Channel. Forthisreason Sub-Surface Run-offis always treated as surface run-off. Run-off= Surface Run-off + Ground Water flow.O. (v) Sub-surface run-off. Ground Water Flow Fig. III.R. Hence.. (ii) Shape in plan (layout) (iii) Nature ofbed(iv)Sub-soil storage characteristics of thebedand banks (v)Status offlow at commencement of precipitation... --_ --------=== ---::. 4. Run-offdepends upon(a) Characteristics of drainage basin and (b) Characteristics of rainfall precipitation which further depends onfollowing factors: (i) Characteristics ofDrainage basin depend upon (i) Size... -.::. 24 . It is to be further noted thatGround water flow is important for 'Minimum flow' inthe stream while surface run-offis important for the 'Maximum flow' ofthe stream. The ground wateris oftentimes. The Rainfall precipitations are of following types: ­ (i) Cyclonic Precipitation-' Cyclonic precipitation is oftwo types: Tropical and Extra Tropic.. (ii) Shape (fan or fern). long delayed before it reaches the stream. (iv) True surface run-off:. thetype ofvegetation cover are various other factors 1 uencmg therun-off. It behaves nearly likea surface run-offand not like a ground waterflow.al. the type ofsoil. . IRC:SP:82-2008 . moves laterally and before joining water table itjoinstheriver channel and thisquantity ofwater is known as sub-surface run-off.O. Besides thesethreeimportant characteristics of the ement of thestream channels formed bynature withinthe basin. The tropical cyclones originate intheopen ocean andare primary source ofmonsoon rainfall inthecountry.Water thatinfiltrate thesoil..Water thatflows directly overthe ground surface to the stream. (iii) Elevation of watershed.5 (iii) Ground water flow.

(a) Arithmetic-Mean Method Whenthe rainfall measured at various stations in a catchment showlittle variation. . Inpractice. hence riseupcausing condensation andprecipitation.IRC:SP:82-2008 (ii) Convection Precipitation Convection precipitation generally occurs intropics intheform of showers ofhigh intensity and short duration. A striking example ofsuch natural barriers is insouthern slopes of thehills ofMeghalaya. Point/Station Rainfall Point rainfall. The rainfall is dependent on various factors andcombination which are numerous such as: (a) Duration (b)Quantum (c) Intensity (d) Direction ofstorm (e)Special distribution of rain over the catchments (f) Temperature and Humidity (g) Velocity and duration ofwind IV. (b) Thiessen-Mean Method In this method the rainfall recorded at each station is given a weightage onthe basisof an areaclosest to thestation. however. monthly. the average precipitation over the catchment areaistaken asthearithmetic ofthestation values. the following three methods are inuse: (a) Arithmetic-mean method. suchas overa catchment. (iii) Orographic Precipitation :. To convert the pointrainfall values at various stations into an average value overa catchment.It is most important precipitation and is responsible formost ofthe rains in India. .\ Thismethod is explained in Fig. and greatest amount of precipitation falls onwind ward side. thenthevalueof themean precipitation over thecatchment bythe arithmetic-mean method is P= 1 n n i= 1 == n P. weekly. . Pn aretheramfall values in a given period in n stations within a catchment. (b) Thiessen-polygon method. 4. The procedure ofdetermining theweighting areais asfollows: Consider a catchment area shown in Fig. datacan belistedas daily. Depending upon the need. and (c) Isohyetal method. seasonal or annual values for various periods..4. Orographic precipitation is caused byair masses which strike some topographic barriers like mountains and can notmove forward. hydrological analysis requires a knowledge of the rainfall overan area.6 (b) containing eleven raingauge stations.. catchment areais shown and positions ofthe . of which five lie outside the catchment butin itsneighbourhood. also known as stationrainfall refers to the rainfall data of a station. ThusifP P2' ..6(a).

01 1.84 -100 626 Average = 2. I 1\75 Area· (sq km) Percent total area Weighted precipiation (col. 4.84 em Area af corresponding polygon within basin boundary (b) Thiessen method 0.82 4 'om em 2em 3em 1. Net Area (sq km) enclosed (sq krn) .69+4.00 1.65 \' 1.5 206 116 3.98 20 92 15 0.8 290 25 Average = 1623 + 626 = 2. Areal Averaging of Precipitation 26 Precipiation volume (col.45 5.5 406 402 196 2.65 7 1 0.35 2.05 0.50+2.9B+5.75 Avg precip.95 2 1 <1 90 77 4. 1 x eol.65 1em Isohyetal (em) 2.5 490 595 626 1.09 em 2.69 120 19 0.54 -- 2. J .65 0.3 x colA) (em) 626 1.6.3) 0.59 cm ·polygon within bosin boundary (c) Isohyetal method Rainfall in em at different stations shown (*) Fig.92 109 18 0.46+ 1.46 120 19 0.28 1.92+2.00 6 =3.5 31 0.54 2.75 (a) Arithmetic mean method Observed precip (em) 2 \ \.50 82 76 13 12 lO.IRC:SP:82-2008 0.51 1.95 1.69 -r: 1.

aredescribed in a manual published byU. 4. 2. then themean precipitation Pover thecatchment area is given by (P + P ) 2 3 ----------- P= 2 a j + a2+ + an_I Fig. . An are therespective areas oftheThiessen polygons'. + An Isohyetal Method An isohyet is a line joining points of equal rainfall magnitude.. an_ 1 are the inter-isohyet areas respectively. The area between two adjacent isohyets are then determined with a planimeter.S. Two situations areusually considered: (i) A short period accumulation of anoptimum snow cover in a fairly wetdrainage basin. v Snowfalt/Snow Melt In India snowmelt is of importance in Himalayan region. 4.IRC:SP:82-2008 eleven stations marked on it. Thus PI' P2' . Neighbouring stations outside thecatchment arealso considered... the catchment boundary is used as thebounding line.. Perpendicular bisectors for each ofthesides ofthetriangle are drawn. The average value of the rainfall indicated bytwo isohyets is assumed to be actingoverthe inter-isohyet area. Theprocedure issimilar to thedrawing ofelevation contours based on spotlevels...If Pl' P2' andAI'A2. The areas of these eightThiessen polygons aredetermined eitherwitha planimeter or by using an . which arein general use..6. Therecorded values for whichareal average P is to be determined arethen marked on the plot at appropriate stations. Pnarethe rainfall magnitudes recorded bythe stations 1..6(c)).. Pnarethevalues of isohyets andif a. The boundary ofthecatchment.. a2... (ii) Amaximum snow accumulation and melting under acritical temperature sequence. Stations 1 to 11 (not indicated) arejoined to form a network of triangles. along witha rainstorm at the time of maximum snowmelt run-off. ifit cuts thebisectors istaken as the outerlimit ofthe polygon. Thesebounding polygons arecalled Thiessen Polygons. Bureau ofReclamation. . Methods of estimation ofmaximum probable snowmelt flood arebeing developed Some methods. The isohyets ofvarious values arethendrawn byconsidering point rainfalls asguides and interpolating between them bytheeye (Fig. Shows areal averaging ofprecipitation bythethree methods. followed bya rainfall ofa maximum probable magnitude forthe season. If the isohyets gooutof catchment. then theaverage rainfall P over thecatchment isgiven by P (c) = P Al + P2 A2+ . 27 . the catchment areais drawn to scale andtheraingauge stations aremarked. n overlay grid. These bisectors form a polygon around each station. Inthe isohytal method. Snowmelt run-offadds to theflood byaugmenting therainfall run-off. + PnAn 1 ------------------------------------------ AI + A2+ .

0 for limited areas near thehills Inglis Formula: Col.3) 10 Q A I Run-ott 111 m3/s and Catchment areain sq. Inglis. Q = CA2/3 ..km. (4. having values as: = 6. 28 I . = 11-14 where the annual rainfall is 60-120 em. evolved aformula: Q = 125A I Where. = 14-19 where annual rainfall ismore than 120 em. km and Cis a constant.1) Where..Ais catchment areainsq. = I I I I I Ryve's Formula. who wasworking in oldBombay Presidency. Q C (iii) i = run-off inmvs. afterstudy of the run-offand floods intheregion.2) Where.5 for areas between 25 km & 160 km off the coast = 10.2.2. = 22 inWestern Ghats. (4. (4. km andC is a constant. Ais catchment areain sq.I IRC:SP:82-2008 Appendix 4. = I ..8 for areas within 25 kmoffthe coast = 8. Q C (ii) run-offin m3/s.2 EMPIRICAL FORMULAE FOR CALCULATION OF DISCHARGE (i) Dickens' Formula.2.... Q=CA .

'n' number of cross sections. etc. When the cross-section is notplotted tothenatural scale (thesame scale horizontally and vertically).0to 15. The PQ= (PR2 + QR2).3 DISCHARGE BY SLOPE-AREA METHOD Thismethod isapplicable where reliable dataregarding the highest level ofdischarge ator close tothe siteis available butnotregarding velocity.IRC:SP:82-2008 Appendix 4. oneupstream and onedownstream. Where a number of cross-section have taken.0km2 300 m (Scaleriotlessthan I em to 10m or 1/1 000) Over 15. the mean is arrived as follows. 4.7.let PRor QRbe its horizontal andvertical projections.' A' l' 'A' 2etc. the wetted perimeter (P) cannot be scaled directly from the section and has to be calculated. A= 2(n-l) Where.0km2 One halfkm or widthbetweenthe banks whichever is more (Scale I emto 50 m or ]/5000 The average ofthethree cross-sectional areas should be usedfor computation. Divide upthe wetted lineintoa convenient number ofpartsAB. Site datato be collected forthis purpose are:­ 1.0 km 2 or less 100m (Scalenot lessthan I. Consider onesuchpart sayPQ. Now PR can be measured on the horizontal scale of the given 29 . The determination of Hood discharge can then be done by applying formulae for determining discharge in openchannels. It is generally easy to obtain highest level of discharge databylocal enquiries from theoldest inhabitants inthearea or byobserving oldflood marks on the trees andbuildings nearthe project site. 'A' mean areaof flow inthe stream. areas of flow at different cross-sections.em to 10m or (1/1 000) 3. Cross-Section ofthe river at the siteof theprobable scoured bedline 2. Table 4. Observation ofthe nature ofriver 3.2: Spacing of Cross-Section on Streams Catchment Area of stream/River Distance apart for Cross-Section 3.2below. Slope ofthesurface ofthe water inthestream noted byobservations during Hoods or from flood marks For this purpose three cross-section ofthe river should betakenoneat the proposed site ofthe crossing. BC and CD. distances being as given in Table 4. as shown in Fig.

Similarly thelength of each partis calculated. PQcanthen becalculated.-Zo+[ . (4.8 Slope S may be corrected for thekinetic energy difference atthetwo ends andis given by: Z. 4. Generally. Their sum gives thewetted perimeter.7 cross-section and QRonfhevertical scale. V = R = = S = Velocity of flow inm/sec considered uniform throughout thesection Hydraulic mean depth thatis AlP (inm) Rugosity coefficient Flood slope of the riverusually taken as bed slope in absence of precise data (Fig 4.8)..1) Where.. 4..- -. Manning's formula (in metric units) which issimpler. is used V = .---- I Fig.2) S= i 30 I ..-. Thevelocity ofdischarge is calculated by Chezy Formula or Manning's formula.. (4. i ZZI .IRC:SP:82-2008 II I lcm=10rn I 1cm=10rn Fig.

3: Value of SI.035 0. Ifthe shape of thecross-section is irregular ashappens when a stream risesits banks and shallow overflows are created.06 0.033 0. straight bank. (Rugosity Coefficient) Surface Perfect Good Fair 0. Clean.15 Calculation of Discharge (Q) Q=AV V= \ Where.08 8. but some weeds and stones .05 0.04 0.03 Natural Streams i I I 1.033 0.= R 2/3 'A' is a function ofthesize. rather weedy or with deep pools 0.04 0.3. Same as (4). Very weedy reaches 0.04 0.05 0. itisnecessary tosub-divide thechannel into two orthree subsections.. stoney sections 0. clean 4.03 0.055 Same as (3).045 0. Thevalue ofrugosity coefficient is given inthefollowing Table 4. 3. = . (4.No. Sluggish river reaches. full stage. 4. Same as (1).045 0. some weeds and stones 0. and their velocities and discharges arecomputed separately andthenadded together to getthetotal discharge.04 0. Then 'R' and are found for each sub-section.06 7.1 0.033 0.045 0..125 0. which is negligible andcan be neglected where thereach is sufficiently long ortheslope isnottoo flat. more ineffective slope and sections 5. Same as (3). Winding.045 6.05 0.05 0. 0. Thusthedischarge conveying capacity ofa stream depends on its conveyance factor and slope.3) 1 1 R2/3 s. shape and roughness ofthestream and iscalled itsconveyance factor.0275 0. lower stages. 31 .IRC:SP:82-2008 The second term is kinetic energy difference. no rifts or deep pools 2. some pools and shoals.

tc 2.. 1.5) t c +1 P = percentage coefficient ofsurface run-off for thecatchment characteristics as given in (Table 4. applied thefollowing Rational formula where byknowing the highest observed rain fall at a representative gauging station in an hour and knowing characteristics of thecatchment areaand rainfall. = timeofconcentration inhours Estimation oftime of Concentration (t)c _ It isthetimetaken bytherun-off from thefarthestpoint ontheperiphery ofthe Catchment (called thecritical point) to reach site ofBridge.056 fP . The concentration timedepends on (i)the distance from the critical pointupto theBridge site and (2)the average velocity of flow whichdepends upon the slope.4 DISCHARGE BY RATIONAL METHOD Arational method for estimation offlood discharge should takeinto account theintensity. Q A I = = 0 = Maximum flood discharge inm' Is Catchment area inhectare Max. slope. 32 I . inhismethod. f = Factor tocorrect for thevariation ofintensity ofrainfall over thearea ofthecatchment. one find the discharge safely for areas upto 500 sq.IRC:SP:82-2008 Appendix 4. (4. It should also take into account thedischarge characteristics ofthecatchment areawhich depend on its shape. distribution and duration ofrainfall aswell ascharacteristics ofthecatchment area. km. Any error inthelater will diminish thereliability oftheresults oflaborious calculations involved inthis method. permeability and initial wetness ofthe catchment... intensity ofrainfall incentimeter perhour Function depending upon characteristics oftheCatchment in producing run-off andgiven by 0.4) Where. Complicated formulae exists for determining the time of concentration from characteristics ofthecatchment.. Considerable judgment andexperience are called for in assessment value ofP.4). Govardhanlal.the roughness of drainage channel and depth of flood.1). (Graph 4. (4. The formula is asfollows .

60 -do­ 0. lightly covered 0.IRC:SP:82-2008 Table 4.20 -do­ 0. L H distance from thefarthest point ina catchment to the sitein km = fall in level from thefarthest point to thebridge siteinm andtc is thetime of concentration - 33 . <.9 1\ \ \ 0.30 lightly cultivated Sandy soil.70 Clayey soils.80 Plateaus. This formula has also beenrecommended for application in India. stiff and bare 0.10 covered.2 andwhich is as follows: .50 lightly covered Loam..1 3. heavy bush 1. (4. steep but wooded 0. para 4. light growth 0.5.6 05 o 10000 20000 30000 40000 CATCHMENT AREA IN HECTARES f curve Graph 4. in IRC:SP: 13.4: Maximum Value of P in the Formula Steep. bare rock and also city pavements 0.7 <.0 0. 0.7. lightly cultivated or covered 0.40 -do­ 0..6) Where.90 Rock. Thetime of concentration can be obtained byusing the Stateof Californiaformula.

10 has to be obtained from Meteorology Department. i r I I I 34 . Para 4. km in extreme cases. . it is characteristic ofthewhole region and applies to pretty vastareas having the same weather conditions.7. and Hcan beobtained from Survey ofIndia Topographical maps.1RC:SP:82-2008 The value ofA. The Metrological Department. 10 of a region should be found once for all and should be known to local engineers.L.14 stating that since theaverage designer cannot rely somuchon hisjudgement andintuition for selecting value of 'C' inEmpirical formulae he should adopt' Rational Method' which has been outlined indetail inIRC:SP:13. The use ofRational Method for small catchments have been advised inIRC:SP: 13 vide clause 4. Rational Method may beapplied safely for areas upto 500 sq. km and upto 2000 sq. ofIndia have data for heaviest rainfall incentimeter/ hour collected forvarious places in India and are to beobtained from them. Govt. 10 of region have notto be found for each design problem.7.

5 PROCEDURE FOR ESTIMATION OF DESIGN FLOOD BY UNIT HYDROGRAPH METHOD A typical example withreference to Bridge catchment (treated asungauged) isworked out forillustrating theprocedure to compute 50-year design flood andis given below: Theparticulars ofthe catchment understudy are asunder: (i) Name &number of sub-zone Mahi & Subarrnati Sub-zone-3(a)* (ii) Name of site(i. With unithydrograph & 1houreffective rainfall. km 33. calculated earlier considering design lossrate.e. Theprocedure is explained stepwise as follows: Step I: of Catehment Area Plan The point of interest (i. Estimationof effective rainfall unitis done using 50year 24hourpoint rainfall values given in thereport fordesign storm duration.36 sq. bridge site in this case) was located on the Survey ofIndia toposheet and catchment boundary was marked using thecontours along theridge line and also from thespotlevels intheplains. Plate 1.50km Area(A) length ofthelongest stream (L) 35 . contours andspotlevelswasprepared. A catchment areaplan (Plate1) showing therivers. 129 (iii) Name of section Dehod-Ratlam (iv) Name oftributary KaliNadi (v) Shape ofthe catchment Oblong (vi) Site location Latitude-22°52' 00" Longitude-74° 22' 00" (vii) Topography Moderately steepslope Note: '(See Annexure A for Sub-zones of riversystems) Theprocedure comprises ofassessing A(area).e. L(Length oflongest channel).pointof study) : BridgeNo. 50 year flood is estimated considering design baseflow.e. Step: 2: Determination of Physiographic Parameters The following physiographic parameters were determined fromthe catchment area plan i. (i) (ii) 136. S (Equivalent Slope of channel) andthenfinding out Synthetic unithydrograph ordinates byusingthesevalues andrelationship derived by research studyforthe sub-zone concerned.IRC:SP:82-2008 Appendix 4.

10.. I T J South 1 b ( suovono . 2 { !98S} Plains scbvcoc ..:<I:.. ..3 L S r:" ( • i -r . ':9 :":...__ .I :5T OF IIMATION A. •r . I 3 (c) S.. •..3 (f) / I - \ B E N L G ! \ \ R en r­ I I z I PLI\N subvonc : 1 OF ( ... . Upper • _... _--_. East coast /.2 ._3 . c t sunzono ... (19891 1 {c} (1991) North Brahmaputra sub/one .__.ONG I' (1978) SUD/0'10 . 1d I / Wast Coast KOI Luni • \ br .._. 3 12. . ( 1 REVISED UNDER LONG lower Ganga y A B <. {a} subvono ·3 (g) t: 3 d' sub/one ...3 & Sabarmati subzone . ... t i ! upper Naramada & TI 4 (a) {b) sene sub/one 1 (d) Chambal 1 Betwa .5 \­ 0 UT BY THE N o Z rn . 5 StlOIH -e 00 PIAN (1913) I rn- I r: UNDER l.onc ."'. --. of Appendix 00 .-­ -.. (' -+ 1 A subvonn Pcnnar subzone • 3 (h) <..UCKNUW 1 14 N . \ j t r->.-. (0 xnvort . 3" 2.• .-._ \ I • - IlJmalayas zono / C.. 1 I 2 Lower 3 !f} "l ap! subvono . 3 slJbl".).. .Jb/Oi"C ...-. ARABI/AN .'····. + Lower Godavari subzone . I.-..

...----. /\ -----------------..0 1... srn.•- _. ...0 '0.L NOT -------..... . SHAPE Of' NADI L ..... _- 7. ... RIVERS AN!) . LONGllUDINAL SECTION OF KALI Of 2.-­ 2_ UNE J.--.---------------- ..c.--------------------..0 ---.£VELS CORRESPOND TO C..0 2.S...T.....0 3. H. ----------_ ... . ALL l.F.0 8. «: ...95 00 I Plate 1 00 .. 2. t.) 8 1.i"· N (IN THE BEEN ROUNDEO UP N'TER ro stcnos IS ACTUAL VALU£S OF" CONTOUR IN C 1.. 7. .0 t.. _-..

40 115.72 280.68 401. 32. Draw a sloping line bytrial ontheL-Section line from the pointof study suchthatthe area above and below theL-Section lineareequal.44 212.86 179.22 Sum= 280.78 497.68 320. + D) (km x m) 1. No.57 4.44 2.Fordetermining (S). 38 .40 Equivalent Stream Slope = (b) = 3. Following methods are adopted forcomputation ofequivalent stream slope (S): (a) Mathematical Calculation: Thecomputation of (S)withreference to Plate 1 isexplained inthe Table 4.59 9.96 0.95 252.95 1. L.53 4.21 278.68 35.75 5.) ofthe catchment area tothegauging sitealong themain stream (Lc) Equivalent stream slope (S) l7.60 10.00km 3.IRC:SP:82-2008 (iv) Length ofthelongest stream from a point opposite to centroid (C.21 172.26 290.72 15. 19.33 15. observe reduced level ofriver bedat different points starting from bridge site.54 631.97 91. 0 265.76 380.48 340.G. 6.40 Note: *Datum IS reduced level of river bed at point of study = 265. 29.61 7.62 483. Distance starting from bridge site (km) Reduced level Lengthofeach Height above of river bed the datum'.98 391.26 0.55 3661.96 326.65 7.92 136.40 300.80 75.02 3.36 8. 27.21 2.I segment.00 m 3661.64 418.28 55.1+D j (m) Lj(Dj_.39 6.36 362.96 153. (m) (m) (km) Dj. 31.57 131.65 50.33 6.26 m/km. Then compute the slope ofthis line which gives theequivalent stream slope (S). 33. D. 14. 24.50 437.33 103.65 510.39 484.88 97.5below: Table 4.5 Sl.00 0 0 0 0 2.26m/1an By Graphical Method Draw a longitudinal section ofthelongest main stream from contours crossing the stream and thespot levels along thebanks from thesource tothepoint ofstudy from thecatchment planshown in Plate 1.97 5.

37S(t p)0. Equivalent stream slope in m/km. Base width ofunit hydrographs inhour. Peakdischarge ofunit hydrograph incumecs.00 1.km.512 Where.433 (i) tp (ii) qp (iii) W50 = (iv) W75 = (v) WR50 = 0.IRC:SP:82-2008 Step 3: Determination of l-hour Synthetic Unit Hydrograph Parameters: The following relationships have been derived from the studies carried out by CWC & IMD forestimating the l-hourunithydrograph parameters for anungauged catchment in thesubzone 3(a).635 2. .827(qp)-1023 (vi) WR75 = 0. tp = qp W50 = = W75 WR50 = Tb TIn = Qp = L S = tr = A = = = Time from thecenter of unit rainfall duration to the peakof unit hydrograph inhour Peakdischarge ofunit hydrograph perunitarea in cumecs/sq. .037 (vii) TB (viii) T = tP tr /2 (ix) Qp = qxA p In = 1.km Width of unit hydrograph measure at 50percent maxdischarge ordinate (Q p) inhour ofthe unit hydrograph measured in 75 percentmax discharge ordinate (Qp) inhour Width oftherising side ofthe unit hydrograph measured at SOper centofmaximum discharge ordinate (Qp) inhour . 39 . Unit rainfall duration adopted ina specific study in hour Catchment area insq. Length for longest main stream along the river course in km. Time from thestart ofrise ofthepeak of unithydrograph in hour..161 (tp)-0.331 (q )-0.284(q) p -1.991 P 8. (Similar relationship for other sub-zones arealso prepared andmay be seen inreports ofrelevant sub-zones) 0. cent of maximum discharge ordinate (Qp) inhour.S61(q p)-1.

the sumof 1hr Ll. then thefalling limb andlor rising limb may be suitably modified to getthe correct volume under the hydrograph.375 (3.50 cumecs = 0. Conversion factor of 0. The discharge ordinates (Q) oftheunitgraph at t hr interval were summed upandmultiplied by t! i.e.512 = 15. In case the Qt t t for the unit hydrograph is higher or lower than the volume worked outbytheabove formula.561 (0.00 em direct run-off depth over thecatchment was computed from theformula.161 (3.0hour = 71.52 hour = 1. obtained from the above formula.8 cumecs as shown in Plate 2.254)-1. obtained bygraphical andtheoretical method arecompared.254 cumecs/sq.5 hour = 0. thelimb of synthetic unit hydrograph is adjusted to make it equal totheoretical value.827(0. 50year 24-h point rainfall=32.0emdepth = tr (the unitduration of theUG) = 1. The theoretical volume of 1. A d t. In case graphical value is different from theoretical.36 x 1 = 378.36 x t = 136.433 1. I = A x d/0. Theabove two values of discharge i. Land S as under: (i) tp (ii) qp W50 (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) W75 WRSO TR7s (vii) TB (viii) T (ix) Qp In = = = = = = 0.36 Step 4: Drawing of a Synthetic Unit Hydrograph Estimated parameters of unit hydrograph in Step 3 were plotted to scale ona graph paper as shown in Plate 2.38 hrs.5)-0. = cumecs.36 x 1. Step 5: Estimation of Design Storm Duration Thedesign storm duration (Tp) = b = 16.e. Thepotted points were joinedto draw a synthetic hydrograph.10 hour 8.3 75(0.331 (0.G.60 hour = 1.IRC:SP:82-2008 The above equations were used tocompute theunithydrograph parameters with theknown values ofA.00 h Therefore.00 h Step 6: Estimation of Point Rainfall and Areal rainfall for storm duration Thesiteunder study was located on Plate 3 ofthis Annexure showing 50-year 24-hpoint rainfall.0 em.254)-1.km 1. Qth Where.991 0.36 x 1/0.037 8.8 cumecs catchment areain sqkm = 1.5+1/2 = 4.905 was readfrom 40 .G. The discharge indicated byunit hydrograph iscalculated graphically by Qtt This discharge is compared with theoretical discharge given byformula Qth =Ad/0. was compared with the sum of 1h U.254)-0.254)-1000 0. taking care to getthe smooth shape of the unit hydrograph.90 hour say 16 hour = 3.36 hour = 2.5) 0.635 = 3. rounded offto 3. Thesumof hourly ordinates Qt X t t) of 1h U.254 x 136. Qtt t = 378.G.023 4.

- W W .00 10 12.36 SQ.50 18.. ­ tr: 00 I _ Plate 2. Km . 3 .70 3 . -c .5 hrs . RAINFALL EXCESS 75 .0 h rs. 2 .- I i .50 5 8 . ' <. tr = tr HOUR l em.rr.. W5 0 W75 WR50 WR75 .0 .80 15 16 o 3 78 .- \ . = 4.36 h rs. -. 6 0 h r s .0 d = = OJ = Tm WR50 hrs • hr". 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 TIME IN HOURS -.50 5 . . G. 11 1. .Tm HOURS _. _ . 00 / . 12 13 14 9 . o 1 9 . = . '" . 1.3 6 x 1. 10 hrs.00 2 3 4 71 . 9 0 0 .1' = 71.. I ' II C. 16 .. 1. 0 0 1.00 25 .70 4.00 x 0 ._.5 0 61 . Qp I• • r t.50 A x d tp x 0.70 24 .I . L w = = = = = -r. . = + . \ r.: / .524 Cumecs/Sq.00 Cm .36 1.. -. tp T8 . o o 2. KM. '. .52 h r s.50 32 .t- ! = 136.36 . i-r-> . 5 Cumecs .• o i.t z 19 . Synthetic Unit Hydrograph .A.80 TOTAL 378 .00 5 6 7 8 9 44.80 Cumecs. HOUR ' I r-t LJ. .0 hrs. 0 .

BRIDGE SEA . . !... < \ x <.< ) I <. \\ \ \ \ \ \ <. ARABIAN . ! I ( > (I / 360 I / • •.. ( .. . • <.. N CONTOURS IN THE HAVE BEEN ROUNDED UP UP AFTER CONVERSION FROM FEET TO 1 ... 7. ' / .. \ I I I\ I 897' ' I r-.. .> I J . v :I X ·.. . .•. ( I' 6 ) (' " 120 X /! /.. -.. • X69 > . .. < 280 . 6 .. V ... \. -. > .. +-21­ 1..>: l '..25· .. -.. . X 280 . SUB ZONE BOUNDARY 2. 25 \ J' \ X L <.. \ \ 200 I ) X • _. s I 75" I 25­ -e OC 69­ . x 129 5.• I . RIVERS I TOWNS l ..t · . ! su - B ZONE 3­ i ) 1 1­ I _! 2T 75­ b • /!ffl. I i: ! > r: -. .

km forTD = 16h was interpolated from Fig.96x 0.45 cm/hhas beenadopted for this sub-zone Tabie 4.6)to get 1h rainfall increments as follows: Thehourly rainfall increments in col.50 em. (4) of Table 4. Step 8: Estimation of Effective Rainfall Units Designlossrate of 0.8 is taken col. (2). 16 of Table 4.9 for conversion of point to areal rainfall. 50 year 16h arealrainfall = 28.7thecomputation of 1h effective rainfall units inCol. (3)from l-h rainfall increments in Col. The Column(2) in Table 4.IRC:SP:82-2008 Plate 4 for conversion of 50year24-h point rainfall to 50year 16-h pointrainfall since TD = 16 h 50 year 16 h point rainfall thus worked out to be 32.00 x 0. 1 __ __ o zUJ o UJ o 4-HC UR - z I­ Z 2 6 14 10 18 22 26 AREA 1x102 Sq. 4.(4) ofthe above table were obtained by subtracting the successive rainfall values from 1h onwards.96 ern. (4)bysubtracting thedesign loss ratein Col.9 Step 7: Time Distribution ofAreal Raifnall 50-year 16-h areal rainfall = 26.915 = 26.915 corresponding to a catchment area of136. Areal reduction factor of 0.7 43 .905 = 28.36 sq.50 em wasdistributed withthe distribution coefficients (Col. 4. Km Fig.

RATIOS OF 24-HR.930 0.990 1.960 0.850 0.20 0.50 I I 00 II o 0.980 0.890 0.70 7 0.860 0.360 0.35 0.80 0.55 0.· POINT RAINFALL TO SHORT DURATION RAINFALL.570 0.665 0.825 0.) 0.700 0. I j 2 3 4 5 i 6 0.620 0.805 0.000 .60 0.30 0.65 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 0.780 0.25 z o W 0.95 0.75 .730 0.970 0.90 0.85 0.45 0.875 0.505 0.40 0.100 0. (mes.945 0.05 u [ o o 2 iii I II 4 6 71 8 5 I i I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 910 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 DURATION (HOURS) Plate 4 -e 00 I 00 ---­ 0.905 0920 0.15 > 0.10 o 0.760 0.

83 0.67 9 1.46 0.98 0.94 0.62 0.70 0.96 0.73 0.82 0.70 0.99 0.52 0.79 0.85 0.88 0.85 0.97 0.78 0.63 0.82 0.94 0.74 0.82 0.86 0.97 0.56 0.83 0.87 0.94 0.84 15 1.36 0.80 0.66 0.00 0. 0.43 0.99 23 \.50 5 1.64 0.82 0.76 0.16 0.98 0.61 0.88 0.99 0.92 0.68 0.93 0.93 0.38 0.98 0.00 0.62 0.96 0.97 0.95 20 1.78 0.82 0. Subzones (a) Coefficient for Design Storm Duration of h I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 (1 ) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) ( 10) (I 1) (12) (13) ( 14) (15) (16) ( 17) (18) (19) (20) (21 ) 23 24 25 (23) (24) (25) 1.41 0.64 0.58 0.00 0.60 0.82 0.99 0.42 4 1.41 0.87 0.99 0.95 0.88 0.97 0.82 0.87 0.92 0.82 14 1.98 0.63 8 1.00 0.00 0.68 0.88 0.45 0-43.00 0.72 0.32 0.63 0. Mahi and Sabarmati Basin.98 0.92 0.75 0.76 0.93 0.93 0.00 0.98 0.96 0.68 0.90 0.91 0.74 0.80 0.76 0.97 0.96 0.51 0.72 0.54 0.29 0.97 0.55 0.52 0.31 0.97 0.91 0.98 0.48 0.89 0.00 0.74 11 1.79 0.00 0.98 22 1.58 0.98 0.78 0.96 0.72 0.87 0.94 0.77 0.42 Note: Hourly rainfall distribution coefficients are given in the vertical columns for various design storm durauons from 2 io 45 16 .89 0.86 0.75 0.84 0.21 0.47 0.80 0.84 0.84 0.68 0.90 0.89 0.59 0.77 12 1.97 0.99 0.99 0.96 0.78 1.24 0.00 0.IRC:SP:82-2008 Table 4.50 0.66 0.95 0.86 0.99 0.66 1 0.98 0.94 0.22 0.93 0.47 0.83 0.94 0.94 0.7\ 10 1.93 0.67 0.95 0.70 0.86 0.14 0.95 0.94 19 1.88 0.35 3 0.97 0.76 0.50 0.55 0.97 21 1.71 0.00 0.66 0.84 0.63 0.92 0.96 0.68 0.87 0.88 0.94 0.84 0.90 17 1.76 0.99 0.83 0.99 0.62 0.00 0.80 0.61 0.71 0.58 0.56 0.57 0.95 0.00 0.22 0.40 0.00 0.75 0.93 0.86 0.65 0.18 0.78 0. Rainfall.69 0.98 0.52 0.40 0.39 0.67 0.28 0.00 0.55 6 1.96 0.53 0.97 0.33 0.13 1 (22) 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 \0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1.96 0.98 0.9\ 0.00 0.96 0.00 0.65 0.74 073 0.6: Time in Hour Distribution Distribution Coefficients ofAreal.86 0.65 0.96 0.59 7 1.94 0.30 0.95 0.57 0.93 0.99 0.98 0.30 0.00 0.51 0.39 0.43 0.96 0.92 0.76 0.87 0.00 0.95 0.80 0.76 0.73 0.73 0.37 032 0.85 0.98 0.98 0.77 0.28 0.82 0.58 0.00 24 \.61 ·0.84 0.39 0.00 0.00 0.75 0.27 2 0.77 0.53 0.90 0.90 0.89 1.86 0.57 0.00 0.93 18 1.93 0.

91 0.11 0. 0. 0. 1.91 24.44 " 2. 0.33 9. 0.85 7.08 11.82 21. 1.IRC:SP:82-2008 Table 4. 7.00 26.88 23.42 2. 1. 0.94 24.08 IS.98 25.99 26. 0. 16 of Table 2) Storm rainfall= Rainfall x Distribution coefficient (em) l-h rainfall increment (em) (1) (2) (3) = (2) x 26.66 17.33 " 0. 0.34 12. 0.06 " 0.73 1. 1. 0. 1.79 12.97 2.59 6.53 14.60 15.26 " - 16. 0.97 0.18 4.41 5.53 " 0.73 19.08 14.80 " 0. 0. 0.23 0.80 13.53 " 0.53 " 0.53 15.50 0.06 10.27 " - 47 .99 3. 0. 0.53 11.7 Durations (h) Distribution Co-efficients (Col. 0.86 22.86 3.28 7.77 20.8 : Durations (hrs) l-hour rainfall (em) Design loss rate (em/h) l-hour effective rainfall (em) (1) (2) (3) (4) 1.32 0.27 Table 4.44 3.44 0. 1.45 6.42 7.26 16. 0. 0.34 1. 0.79 " 0.86 " 1.06 " 0. 0.53 14.40 7. 3.04 3. 0. 3.79 1.96 25.35 13.49 1.41 10.06 8.61 10.85 " 1. 0.61 8.90 1.40 1. 0.50 (4) 1.86 5.14 6.42 0. 1.88 9.18 " 2:99 4.59 " 1.

1091 AO.04 50-Year Flood Peak 1032.41 62.78 8.08 0.IRC:SP:82-2008 Step-9: Estimation of BaseFlow Thedesign base flow for thissub-zone is recommended to be computed bythe following formulae: qb = 0.74.99 182.36)°·126 = 0. ordinate andsoonas shown inCols.00 2. 32.70 0. 24.059 = 8. 12.61 10.39 6. ordinate.9 Time D.50 6.75 11.50 0.35 3. 9.28 14. the next lower value ofrainfall effective againstthe nextlower value of U.G.34 3.00 1. (obtained from the UGdiagram plotted afterStep4).97 498.km Total BaseFlow = 136.46 13.07 3.109/(136.00 2. 58.00 0.73 158. (2) and (3) and summation oftheproduct ofU.08 0.G Ordinate (cumecs) l-h Effective Rainfall (cm) Direct Runoff (cumecs) (1) (2) (3) (4) l.36 x 0.G. 71.88 21.08 0. 2.00 0.G.40 45.56 9. 44.9below: Table 4. 25.16 1024. 126 qb = 0.70 1. 9.059 cumecs/sq.61 7.50 0.50 1.06 2.50 0.24 Base Flow 8.04 cumecs Step 10: Estimation of 50-Year Flood (Peak Only) Fortheestimation ofthe peak discharge the effective rainfall units were re-arranged against the unitgraphordinates such thatthe maximum effective rainfall wasplaced against the maximum U. 7. 5.14 29. 61.32 12.34 4.00 0.98 10.28cumecs 48 . 18. ordinate and rainfall gives the totaldirect run-off asin Table4.35 5.70 0. 3.

The total drainage area has to be divided into anumber of subbasins. and therefore for large Bridge projects one should go in for detailed analysis supported byProject specific Hydro-meteorological investigations. 49 . flood frequency analysis ispreferred method.IRC:SP:82-2008· UnitHydrograph Method cannotbe applied safely to large catchments more than5000 sq. Separate hydrographs may be derived for each subbasin from analysis ofdifferent storms byusing routine method. Calibration of flood hydrographs and flood routine parameters isessential. Forlarge catchments.km.

Model studies began to beused for thestudy ofwater flow phenomenon inthelater of nineteenth century and today model-studies are accepted asuseful for Engineering practice.(CWPRS). inter-alia deal with the coefficient ofdrag onsubmerged bodies particularly with reference tobridge superstructure. u=Kinematic viscosity offluid. Pune. Several submersible bridges situated informer Central Province (CP) were damaged during floods of 1938-39 andthe deckslabs were carried away bodily. Theresults arrived at bytheResearch Station are summarized below. therefore recourse to hydraulic models studies isgenerally taken to determine magnitude ofdrag and liftcoefficient inthecase ofimportant structures. Annual reports of 1938-39.8) Where. butthese suggest vital improvement in design asthese studies enable the designers to visualize the whole problem. = Dynamic viscosity offluid. (a) Drag Force: - The dragon a bodykept in steady now is expressed as Fd = C d A'/2 P V2 (4.6 A NOTE ON MODEL STUDIES FOR DETERMINING DRAG AND LIFT FORCES Bothdrag force and liftforce depend largely onshape of a body andseveral other factors and as suchanalytical calculations forthese forces cannot be done accurately. Thedrag force mentioned above takes into account 'Skin-Friction-Drag' and'Form-Drag'. 1939-40 and 1941-42 of CWPRS. 3. Govt. Khadakvasla. Therefore recourse to model studies is generally taken to determine the magnitudes of coefficient of lift(CL) andcoefficient of drag(Cd) for evaluation of these forces on superstructures ofimportant submersible bridges. roughness of the surfaceand Reynolds number (R) whichis expressed as or p where V=Velocity. 2.1. Model Studies carried out for Bridges in theformer CentralProvince 3. 50 . Model studies cost aninsignificant fraction ofthe expenditure ofa project.IRC:SP:82-2008 Appendix 4. p=Mass density offluid. eliminating doubts and indecisions due to close conformity between the model andthe prototype. Cd A P V = = = = co-efficient ofdrag characteristic projected areaofthe body Mass density offluid Undisturbed free stream velocity The value of Cd is dependent on shape of body. D=Representive e . ofCP got model studies done at Central Water and Power Research Station. dimension ofbody.

---------­ == Where.11) . rapidor tranquil) depends upon whether Froud's number is greater or less thanunity. a force dueto 'Kinematic energy' of flow and is termed as HydrodynamicUplift force. is Where D is representative characteristic dimension ofthebody Thenon-dimensional ratio is called Froud'sNumber (F. Y=Stream Velocity Theratio oflntertia Force (FI) andViscous Force (F is Reynold's Number i. Theliftforce largely depends uponthe shape ofthe body andcomprises hydrostatic force and hydrodynamic force. p 51 (4.e. This force is independent of theshape ofthebody.Liftforce isthefluid force component onimmersed body acting vertically at rightangle to the approach velocity. This force depends onvelocity of flow.= u. C1 = p = coefficient ofUplift.9) == P gD3 gD Thesquare rootofthisratio.or F) aud it is the ratio ofdynamic force to weight. thekinematic viscosity ofthefluid. A=plan or chord area Mass density offluid.e. This liftforce onabody can beexpressed inform offollowing equation: y2 (4. Thehydrostatic force is generally referred as Buoyancy andacts vertically upwards.10) 2 Where. Thenature offree surface flow (i. It has greater significance while carrying outmodel studies for free surface or open channel flow.IRC:SP:82-2008 (i) Skin-Friction-Drag: Itdepends upon viscosity ofthefluid and it forms only a small part of the total dragforce (10to15 %) (ii) Form-Drag: It isindependent ofviscosity and depends largely onshape ofthe body immersed in fluid andtherefore form drag can be found accurately in geometrically similar models with similar Froud's number Theratio oflnertia force (F1) and Gravity force (F g) is Froud's number i. When a body is immerged ina flowing fluid thebody experiences in addition to hydrostatic force. Reynold's Number andshape ofbody.e. ---. pD2Y2 ----------- y2 (4. (b) Lift-Force .

4.0 Xl 06 gives steadyvalue of C. Submersible Bridge at Chambal River . particularly in lower range of Reynold's Number. Its value beyond 1. (2) If 'Gravity' is the onlyforce producing the motion then 'Froud's Number' will be applicable.on (NH-3) Near Dholpur (Rajasthan) (a) In absence ofvalue of'k' for box-type deck submersible bridge intheIRC codes. 52 . (i) Submersible Bridge on 'Chambal River' onNH-3 near Dholpur.W. Rajasthan P. therefore. Theshape anddimensions oftheAerofoil boxsuperstructure adopted at Chambal bridge aregiven below in Fig. the CWPRS station. Acritical value ofReynold's Number makes distinction between Laminar and Turbulent flow.2 The above results give value ofcoefficient ofdrag onvarious shapes ofsolid slabs having aspect ratio (width/depth) in range of 12to 15 and.thenReynold's Number will be applicable. 4. for the box section adopted for superstructure forthereconstruction ofdamaged submersible bridge at Chambal (NH-3).10. model studies were got done to study the effect of water current forces onthefollowing for submersible bridges. sothatvalues ofcoefficient ofdrag (Cd) andcoefficient oflift (CI) are evaluated andaccordingly precautions are taken indesign and construction for drag andlift forces. Studies have shown that both drag and liftforce are highly sensitive to Reynold's Number. andMinistry of Shipping Road Transport & Highways (MoSRT&H) tookdecision that model studies be gotdone at Indian Institute of Technology. arenot applicable for box section havingaspect ratio usually in range of 5 to 5.D.(Rajasthan) (ii) Submersible Bridge on'Bhima River atSangam Village onTembhumi-Akluj Road­ Distt.IRC:SP:82-2008 VD This non-dimensional ratio is called Reynold's Number (Re or N)r and it is the ratio of dynamic force to viscous force. In the absence of information on coefficient of drag and lift forces for box-type superstructures for submersible bridges.33. 3. Notes: (1) If 'Frictional orViscous force' governs themotjon. IRC Codes does notprovide any value for Cd andC1forAerofoil box Section. Solapur (Maharashtra) During these model studies itwasdecided to observe value ofcoefficient ofdrag (Cd) coefficient oflift onbox-girder superstructure for various depths ofsubmergence and various velocities ofwater current. 4. Mumbai. Pune in 1940 did notestimate theliftforce onsuch shapes and values for thesame even for rectangular shapes arenotavailable. Further.1. At present.

IRC: SP:82-2008 ____".28 m Experiments were carried outfor two conditions offlow: Corresponding to maximum designed flood level passing over thebridge deck. (Cd) and the coefficient oflift(C I) (c) For similitude between prototype and model. Cross-Section at Support ofChambal Bridge (42.. thescales selected were 1:25 and 1:75 geometric.23 mbelow the maximum design flood level (v) Length ofindividual span = 43. _. . The main obj ective ofthis study was todetermine thecoefficient of drag. o a a . (b) Upstream water just grazing atbridge decklevel. _ .·. Theformer for detailed measurement of coefficient oflift (CI) with the help of piezometric taps.... 4. and coefficient of drag (Cd) was measured with help of strain gauge on 1:75 scale model.70 m Span) (b) The brieftechnical details for theChambal submersible bridge are asfollows: (i) Maximum design discharge = 5097.10._"" . (d) Results ofmodel studies onSubmersible Bridge at Chambal onNH-3 are shown in Table 4..10. " _. ----RCC ANCHOR II II II II ._..6 cumec (ii) Maximum design velocity offlow = 4.13 m (iv) Deck level is at 8.57 m/sec (iii) Maximum depth offlow = 27._·_······· II II II !I II II II II "" " II II I II II II II STAINLESS STEEL ANCHOR II II II I- il Fig. 53 . __ _ __..

.79 1. Drawing Annexure-A-1 & A-2). maximum value of Cd obtained is 1.575 mls velocity 1.10 above.Test-Results S. thrust-blocks were provided to prevent sliding of the superstructure. 0.75 - - 1.04 (e) As canbeseen form result in above tablethatvariation in value ofcoefficient of drag (i.60 1. The Aerofoil deck adopted for submersible bridge at Bhima river is given in Fig.11.27 Upstream waterjust grazing the top of deck at (12 ft/sec) 3.e.2 cumecs 54. Pune.IRC:SP:82-2008 Table 4. 0. Flow condition Results in 1:75 model Cd Cd Total Pressure Resultsin 1:25 model C\ Cd Cd C1 Total Pressure Flow Normal 1.10 2. (a) Thebrieftechnical details ofBhimaBridge aregiven below: Length ofthebridge 350 m Design discharge 2436.11 0. 4. The value of C1 obtained in model studies gave mdlcation that streamlined shape of superstructure are also likely to be unstable against lift forces and need extra anchorages to prevent lifting of the superstructure. However.60 Flow at 28° oblique 3.573 mls velocity 1.10 as given in Table 4.26 2.60 1.04 4. it is seenthat value of C.5 i. hydrostatic effects also. Cd) obtained during model studies atlITMumbai was very small.32 0. Mumbai thatthecoefficient oflift (C1) observed during model experiments includes buoyancy i.265 Design conditions at (15 ft/sec) 4.e. (f) It wasinformed by lIT.10 Model . Also there isno substantial difference in value of Cd underobliqueflow.e.265 Design conditions at (15 ft/sec) 4. 4. 0.26 1. to getmodel studies done at CWPRS.66 mls velocity 1. Thevariation incoefficient oflift (C1) values obtained fordifferent conditions of submergence were large from 0.22 2.04 to 2. (Coefficient of drag) are more than 1.36 0.2. Submersible Bridge at Bhima River-Maharashtra In absence of more information for value of 'k' in IRC code for Aerofoil box type superstructure it wasdecided byMaharashtra Govt.63 1. (ref. Froud's No.70 1.66 mls 1.27 Upstream waterjust grazing the top of deck at (12 ft/sec) 3.55 for normal flow. the values recommended by (IRC:6).54 1.46 - - 1. and therefore.No.79 andminimum 1. 0.55 1.53 0.

..10 forthe above range ofvelocities.0 m/sec forsubmergence ofthedeck slab by 5.13 m._---------_ .. 500 - 0' . TH. __ .0 m/sec.12. 4.26 m/sec 463.11. The coefficient of drag (Cd) variedfrom OJ7 to 2. 4.: .83 m 225 ..._---------------_. (b) Thepiezometric observations were done onmodels with approach velocities ranging from 6.12 55 8xl0 I 6 6 lax 10 . Cross-Section of Submersible Bridge on BhimaRiver The model studies were carried outtoevaluate coefficient ofdrag andliftforces for different depths of submergence andvelocities onAerofoil shaped box girder. .. -u o 0 1­ 0 Z W w 0 o I o 6 2x10 I I 4xl0 I 6 6 6x10 REYNOLD'S NUMBER Fig. 4.andotherwithwater level grazing deck slab's top and having approach velocity 4. Thesevariations in Cd values areplotted asa function of Reynold's Number for differentsubmergences and areshown in Fig. 500 .IRC:SP:82-2008 Design flood velocity Design maximum high flood level Design deck level 225 5. .95 m 458. ­ 200 150 I 150 150 200 2575 Fig..

isthehighest attaining value of(-) 0. 4. . 0 REYNOLD'S NUMBER 6 6 6 2X10 4X10 6X10 6 8X10 6. The results indicate thatcoefficient of drag varied 56 .86. and maximum submergence. is shown in Fig.3 State ofMaharashatra also got carried outmodel studies from CWPRS Pune for conventional rectangular shape ofboxsuperstructure (Fig4. thecoefficient of liftC.IRC:SP:82-2008 (c) The coefficient oflift (CI) for Phase I studies for the velocities as given in para(b) above varied from 0. These C1values were worked outbyexcluding the hydrostatic force which is to be accounted for separately. The variation of C.04 to 0.41. 4.. Pune carried out model studies for different conditions ofsubmergence and velocity. thefollowing inferences can bedrawn: (a) Coefficient of Drag (i) Values of mcreases.13. . (b) Coefficient of Lift (C I) Values of Ct vary with Re (Reynold's Number). thevalue ofCd isabnormally high. vis R. For low R. (a) On above rectangular box section CWPRS. 0 -0-60 -0-70 z w w 0 -0-80 -0-90 -1-00 -1-10 -1-20 Fig.14). 10X10 0 -0-10 -0-20 -0-30 -0-40 -0-50 u. 4. (Reynold's Number) (ii) The co ag d) varies withdepth of submergence (iii) Forvery low R.13 (d) From the above values of Cd andC1asworked out aftermodel studies onBhimaBridge. shows atendency to decrease as value ofR.

5 mto 1.Dholpur (Rajasthan) (iii) CWPRS.2 (b) The coefficient oflift 4. The graphs showing variation of Vs R. It was seen thatvalue of C.5 to 2.5 m. 4.4.14. 38 • • 24 25 7 8 0' NI 39 26 23 22 21 20 12 13 14 15 17 16 . the variation in valuesof submergence for 2. Punemodel studies (1938 to 1942). Pune model studies on submersible bridge at Bhima 57 (Maharashtra) . Briefdiscussion onresults of studies carried outinthefollowing cases: (i) wasvarying from (-)0.9. 0 0 .2.15.25 m was negligible. 290 300 47 .8 under various depths of submergence andapproach velocity..n 4 46 40 4. WL i S I o u o . varied substantially for the submergence of5. are given below in Graph 4. andareshownin Fig 4.2to (-)0. Models of BoxType Submersible Bridge from about 0. for bridges in Central Province (ii) lIT Mumbai model studies on submersible Chambal bridge on NH-3 .4 5 6 0' • 9 I 10 11 ! .­Z u.IRC:SP:82-2008 . 0 U o 2 REYNOLD'S NUMBER Re = 6'­ X10 Graph 4. CWPRS. Fig.13 m and 2.

IRC:SP:82-2008

6
REYNOLD NUMBER Re ==YD X10

0

2

4

6

I

I

I

10

I
WL

-02

S
y

-03

I

-04
0..

0

-05

u,

-06

0

z -07

x

w

-08
u,

w
0

-09

S-2.5m

-10

Fig. 4.15

4.4.1. The Tests carried out by Central Water and Power Research Station (period 1938 to
1942) pertain to thesolid slab deck where thewidth to depth ratio is very high (inrange of
12 to 15) and velocities simulated were inlow range of 1.83 m/sec to2.44mJsec inprototype
i.e. 0.56 m/sec to 0.74 m/sec in model. Comparison of theseresults with recent model
studies done for Box Aerofoil Superstructures for Chambal andBhima river bridge will not
be correct. Moreover, observations carried outbythe Central Water andPower Research
Station in 1940 were only qualitative innature forestimating theliftforce.
4.4.2. Recent studies carried out by 1.1.1. Mumbai for Chambal river bridge and by Central
Water Research Station forBhimariver bridge havebeenexamined in depth. It willbe
noticedt a n ge an Bhima river bridge are
apparently similar butthere are some difference's also. The overall widthof decks of both
thebridges aremore or less the same asalso thewidth of straight portion of soffit, butthe
depth ofthebox being different, therefore, the angle subtended byinclined soffit withdeck
top for Chambal bridge is 37.875° andthe same for Bhimariver bridge is only 22.25°.
Due 'to this, there is a difference intheaspect ratio (width to depth). In the former casethis
ratio is 3.85, while inthe latterit is 5.678 andthis inequality could give rise to different
streamlines. Asa result, thevalues of Cd and C1are bound to be different inthesetwo case
studies also.
4.4.3. Inferences from Model Studies at lIT, Mumbai for Chambal Bridge on NH-3.
(i) The IndianInstitute ofTechnology (liT) Mumbai carried outmodel studies byadopting
geometric scale of 1:25,with model Reynold's Numberof about 1xl O' which is
58

IRC:SP:82-2008
considered close tohydraulically unsteady zone. Therefore, it was necessary toadopt
more appropriate scale.
(ii) In lITMumbai model studies, the variation in values oftotal drag was very small.

Maximum Cd total is 1.79 and minimum C,total is 1.55 for normal flow. Also, there
is no substantial difference in valueof Cd total' under oblique flow. However, the
values of Cd obtained are more than 1.5, thevalue as recommended by the Indian
Roads Congress forsuperstructure.
(iii) Variations incoefficient oflift (C,) obtained under different conditions arevery large
giving its values from 0.04 to 2.10. As a matter offact, these values giveriseto an
apprehension thatsuch streamlined shaped bodies arelikely to beunstable against
flowing water and, therefore, should beused with caution and need extra anchorages
to prevent lifting up of the sub-structure, are to be provided (as done in case of
Chambal bridge atDholpur).

4.4.4. Inferences from Model Studies at CWPRS Pune for Bhima River Bridge­
Maharashtra
The graph of Cd vs. obtained in model tests carried outat CWPRS, Pune, gives higher
values ofCd for rectangular shape box than stream line box under maximum submergence.
Asfor condition for water level atdeck level, coefficient ofdrag for rectangular box section
is less than the
line section. It isdifficult to explain why C, islower forrectangular
shaped box compared toAerofoil shaped box.

59

IRC:SP:82-2008

5. WATERWAY AND AFFLUX

5.1. Waterway
5.1.1. General

Thearea through which the water flows under a bridge superstructure isknown asthe
waterway of the bridge. The linear measurement of the waterway along the bridge is
known as linear waterway. The linear waterway isequal to thesum ofthelength of allthe
clear spans. The natural waterway is theunobstructed area offlow ofthe river/stream at
thebridge site.
The waterway adopted should be adequate to passthe design flood of specific Return
Period. Theopening hasto be capable of passing thedesign-flood without overtopping
thedeck in case ofhigh level bridges, and thedesign :floods estimated upto a level at which
thedeckis fixed in case of submersible bridges, without endangering these structures.
5.1.2. Fixingdecklevel of submersible bridges

(i)

Specific number ofovertopping thedeck ispermitted during annual floods in case
of submersible structures, which areprimarily low cost and economical solutions
compared to high level structures. It is, therefore, necessary to first decidethe
permissible duration andfrequency of such overtoppings.

(ii)

Generally, ithas beenobserved that high flood occurs threeto four times during
monsoon, butwater level rises sofast andfalls again sorapidly thatthepeaklevel
of these floods lasts only for a short time. Iflevel offloods is plotted on vertical
axis and dates offloods onhorizontal axis, thenonecaneasily decideaboutthe
deck level as seen from Graph 5.1 which is a typical example ofyearly floods in a
river during monsoon.

(iii)

Based an the flood dataduring monsoon season, the deck level of submersible
bridge is so fixed that the facility will satisfy the criteriaof frequency and time
period of interruptions to traffic as specified byuser Authority and as indicated in

­

25

30

10

15 20 25

30

5

10 15 20

25

5

10 "5 20

25 30

5

10

15 20

OCTOBER

__

Graph 5.1
60

IRC:SP:82-2008
Table 3.1 ofthese guidelines. The concerned Department hasto collect flood data
for a representative monsoon season and decide theOFL above which deck level
ofsubmersible bridge is sofixed thatit satisfies thecriteria of frequency and time
period ofinterruptions oftraffic.
5.1.3. Constriction of waterway
(i)

Any constriction of waterway either laterally or vertically reduces the natural
waterway ofstream which results inchange innormal flow pattern from thatexisting
before the constriction and inafflux onupstream. Higher theconstriction ofnatural
waterway, higher will betheafflux and the velocity of flow through the vents. It is
therefore, desirable to keep theconstriction ofwaterway to theminimum inorder
toreduce expenditure onproviding raised face walls and protection ofbed. However
constriction to varying degrees becomes unavoidable, depending onthe type of
structure thatmay be selected foradoption based onvarious othertechnical and
economic considerations. The constriction of waterway that canbe permitted in
any particular case depends onseveral site specific conditions the more important
ones being the nature of soil in the river bed and the adopted RoadTop Level
(RTL) inrelation tothedesign HFL.
(a) If the bed material is easily erodible, it wouldbe desirable to avoid high
constriction tokeep thevelocity offlowthrough thevents within manageable
limits.
(b) Similarly, higher constriction can be provided for low level submersible
structures like causeways but, ifthedepth offlow below RTL inrelation tothe
depthbelow the design HFL is high as would generally be the case when
higher submersible bridges are provided, theconstriction must bekept low so
asto keep the hydrostatic forces onthestructure within manageable limits.

(ii)

1

Several States inthecountry, which have been constructing submersible structures
for a long time, have their own practices with regard tothepermissible constriction,
basedontheirexperience andsiteconditions prevaIlIng In the respectIve States.
These practices may vary from State to State andit isrecommended thattheStates
maycontinue to follow theirsuccessful practices inthisregard. Alternatively, the
following recommendations may befollowed:
(a) For lowlevel submersible structures likecauseways, provide a ventareaof
about 40percent butnotless than 30percentoftheunobstructed area of the
stream measured between the proposed roadtop level andthestream bed. In
scanty rainfall areas where annual rainfall is less than 600 mm, thevent area
canbereduced upto 20percent to30percentofunobstructed area. However,
the available areaof flow under design HFL condition should always be at
least 70per centof the unobstructed areaof flow between the design HFL
and thestream bedi.e. theobstruction under design HFL condition should not
be more than30 per cent.
61

5.4 of Chapter 6. which would generally beprovided with relatively higher road top level.5 2. Typical values of safevelocities for different bed material are as below: Type of Material Loose clayandfine sand Coarse sand Fine gravel. sandy orshift clay Coarse Gravel/Weathered rock! Boulders upto 200 mmsize Larger boulders (200 800mmsize) or rocky strata (v) SafeVelocity (m/sec) upto 0.2. (iv) The increase invelocity under thebridge should bekeptbelow theallowable safe velocity forthe bedmaterial.0 upto1.0 In casethe velocity exceeds the above specified values for scourable beds.1. The greater theafflux greater willbe thefall of water level from upstream to downstream and therefore greater 62 .5 upto2. (ii) Afflux governs thedynamic action of water current. theavailable area offlow under thestructure should not be less than 70 per cent of the unobstructed area ofthe stream measured between the stream bedprofile andthe proposed roadtoplevel.IRC:SP:82-2008 (b) Forsubmersible bridges.5 upto 1.2. Afflux 5.5 to 6. due to the obstruction of piers and projecting abutments as indicated in Fig. then maximum depth of scour should be calculated carefully anddepth offoundations beprovided accordmgly. It is caused when the effective 'linear waterway' through thebridge isless than thenatural width ofthestream immediately upstream of obstruction. A typical arrangement of floor protection works is given in Fig.2. Hence RTL should bekeptaslow as possible. (vi) Inthepost protection works. Afflux canalso becaused incase of a bridge where there is reduction inoverall width ofthe waterway over thenatural width of stream. If a flooring is not provided. then bedprotection consisting of flooring with proper cut-offwall should be provided on bothupstream anddownstream side onthebridge as discussed indetail in para 6. General (i) Affluxcan be defined as a rise/heading up of water surface above normal water level on the upstream side of a bridge. 5. Thedepth of drop wall should besuch thatit does notget undermined.1. (iii) RTL should notbeabnormally high over vent opening asthiscauses heading upof water onu/swhich intummay result inhigh velocity (itcaneven beinthe range of hypercritical) tofailure and outflanking. thevelocity offlow under structure should notexceed 2 rn/sec. 5.

..J . BOULDERS.1. ...• ..- I lJ/S ! I Dis . I TH. ·...... .. "..·COLLAPSIBLE RAILING - -.C. - •.0".. .. 7500" ....··•. :3:6 .• "-'. 5... ....-J'300··. STON PAVING IN 1:4 CONCRETE BLOCKS (M-20 GRADE) C.......:" ... . 500mm TH.-_ _ _I .. ...•. Typical Section through Bridge Floor 00 I 00 .. ... :. o: APPRON.. ... 8' TH.. BOULDERS (ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN mm) Fig.

Anestimation ofafflux isnecessary (i) for fixing thebottom face-line ofthebridge deck afterallowing foradequate free board..2.constricted areain sq. (ii) forfixing levels ofthe approach road (iii) for determining the increased velocity as required for designing the foundation andbedprotection works... h = V -­ A a = = aftluxinm velocity ofapproach inm/sec natural waterway areaof the . (iii) 5. 64 (5.m. 5.Afflux caused by obstruction of Piers & Abutments will bethe velocity offlow onthe downstream side leading to greater scour.2. Molesworth Formula the afflux atbridge constrictions: isgiven below is usually adopted to estimate 1 0015 Where. in sq. Estimation of aft1ux for non-scourable bedsmay be computed approximately by use of empirical formulae given below: (a) Molesworth formula (b) Rebbock's formula (c) formula However. thereby requiring deeper foundations.m.2.IRC:SP:82-2008 \ I FlUX­ i : I \ °d __ . _ _ __ ) 1 __ Fig.1) .

. u··---···-····--· I I i _..... coefficient to account forlosses infriction upstream waterdepthand Dd = Downstream water depth Cw DII = = head dueto velocity of approach 2g The parameters areindicated in Fig. y_.- - X . r ­ - <._-_ .... . . (a) Broad Crested Weir Formula" Theweirformula asgiven below applies only when standing waves areformed i. 5. Toestimate afflux wemustknowthe discharge (Q)in the channel.Determination of Afflux by Broad Crested Weir Formula i z --' . 5....... ........ X _--_.IRC: SP:82-2008 5... Sincedownstream depth (Dd) is not affected bythe bridgeobstruction as the same is governed by the hydraulic characteristics ofthe channel downstream.. Greater the reduction in linear waterway. solong as the afflux is not less than D Q = U2J 3/2 1.ter the bridge construction. the greater is the afflux... the value ofD d' value of Wand L..... _----_..•. - - rA ­ ENERGY LINE - - . it can be safely assumed thattheupstream (uls) depth which prevailed before thebridge construction is same as the downstream depth (Dd) that prevails eveL....706 C L D + II 2g (5. ._. BED Dd 1c i I I t 2 Fig.. Hence(Dd) is the depth thatprevailed at bridgesitebefore the construction of the bridge.2) W Where. Estimation of afflux by broad crested weirand orifice formulae The afflux(h).--PIER z..... ...e.3.3... the discharge (Q)the unobstructed stream width (W)andthe linear waterway (L) areall interrelated.... then afflux canbe calculated by applying weirandorificeformula as given below.2.. 1 H B - - - .3.

.4... -. so afflux is more in caseof submersible bridge than that ofhigh level bridge. d DI 2 Fig. x l I - - h -". -_. Ina submersible bridge theentire cross-sectional area ofthe superstructure also obstructs natural waterway. 5.z -- - WATER SURFACE -_.. Anexample of calculation ofafflux using thebroad given in 5.3). Precautions to be taken in the design for reducing afflux and its effects on the submersible bridge and approaches.2 and 5. Bridge* openings with or without floor 0.2. I i BED I I . u I 1 L fD' .. Wide Bridge openings with floor 0.1.. weir and orifice formulae is 5.96 3.. Wide Bridge openings with out bedfloor 0.98 * when span is less than downstream depth (b) The Orifice Formula: The Orifice formula givenbelowwill beapplicable with suggested values ofcoefficient Co & e. .4. 5. I 'PIER / ENERGY Z j.4.3) Theparameters areindicated in Fig. 66 . Du-Dd isless than D d' Q C LD d o r h + (I + . 2g (5._. ...1 below: Table 5. Value of Cw Value ore 'Type Bridge Opening ].94 2.IRC:SP:82-2008 Values of Cw for different types of opening are given in Table 5. When downstream depth ismore than 80% ofupstream depth. Determination of Afflux by Orifice Formula The values of coefficient Co and 'e' may be taken from curves given in Graphs (5.1.

3 ELEMENTS OFTHEHYDRAULICS OFFLOW THROUGH BRIDGE 67 ! i i 1. 1 I I / I I I .00 I I i .7 0. L = SUM OF BRIDGE SPANS W = UNOBSTRUCTED WIDTH OFSTREAM = AREA OFFLOW UNDER THE BRIDGE A = UNOBSTRUCTED AREA OFFLOW OFTHE STREAM I I I 1 i I I' i i 11 I i I i I I i 0.7 I 0.8 0.. .1 1.I II I I I 'I I I I I I i .0 . ! I I i.9 L Orifice Formula Coefficient "C n Graph 5.8 0.85 ! i I i I I c. I !.5 I I i I I I i I ! :1 I 0.0 0.2 L = SUM OFBRIDGE SPANS W = UNOBSTRUCTED WIDTHOF STREAM = AREA OFFLOW UNDER THE BRIDGE A = UNOBSTRUCTED AREA OFFLOW OFTHE STREAM 0.: I i . I i i i .95 I I i ! I i I ' .90 I I .6 0.1 0.9 Orifice Formula Coefficient "e" Graph 5.6 0. ' Ii I I r i I ! . " ! u .80 0.i i :!i I I . 0. II Ii i I ! I I I I I i I i I .2 1.0 0.I I.5 0. I i : I i I Iii .9 I • 0. 0.IRC:SP:82-2008 1. I i I I I .4 0.6 e 0. I ! . ! I Ii I I :! i. I . i i I !I I 0.7 A' W .5 0.:i I I I 0.8 0.3 0.

water level including afflux istouching top ofdeck ofthesubmersible bridge. sothattheroadsurface becomes dryas quickly as possible for thepassage ofthe traffic. In a river with gradually increasing andsustained floods. (iii) The percentage ofobstructions totheflood discharge ismaximum when the flood rises justupto the top level ofthe submersible bridge. Ifthedeck level is kept i. It hasbeenobserved thattheafflux upstream of Mokarnah Bridge on Ganga River which hassustained floods. in short. 68 .e. near the HFL where velocity of flow isthe highest. following precautions are to be taken: (i) Thedeck level ofsubmersible bridge should bekept low.e. The co-efficient ofdischarge through normal kind ofvents used incauseways/submersible bridge is of the order ofabout 78to 80 percent but experiments have indicated thata provision of bell-mouth entries for the ventson the upstream side increases the co­ efficient to about 88percent. Therefore. it is to adopt methods as suggested below so astomaximize thedischarging capacity ofthe causeways/submersible bridge for agiven afflux: (a) Increasing the coefficient ofdischarge ofthevents. thengreater afflux is created and moments due tohydrodynamic forces are more severe atthefoundation level. (ii) The bed erosion and afflux are interlinked and dependeaton one hand ontheamount of constriction and obstruction caused bythe bridge and approaches and also on the other handonthe typeof hydrograph for the riverobtained. In order thatexcessive afflux and thereby hypercritical velocity are notcreated. It iswell known thatpercentage of 0 bstruction toflood water goes ondiminishing astheflood water rises above the submersible bridge. since thearea obstructed remains constant andat anyfurther higher floods thepercentage ofobstruction becomes much smaller. was much lessthan the afflux created on upstream of the bridge on Luni River in Rajasthan with predominantly sandy beds butwhich hasflash floods. Obviously the conditions causing erosion ofbanks and subsequent outflanking arewhen theafflux ismaximum i. (iv) Inorder toensure thattheactual afflux ascreated remains lowanddoes not exceed the calculated value. thefull bed scour would develop giving negligible afflux while inflashy rivers thetime forbedscour may notbe adequate thereby causing very high afflux.IRC:SP:82-2008 Further highafflux increases velocity which causes high moments onpierfoundations. thisis oneofthe critical conditions forthe design of submersible bridge. (b) Similarly theupstream edges oftheapproach roads under submergence should also berounded offto ensure streamline flow andenhance the discharging capacity.

IRC:SP:82-2008
(c) Inalluvial bed, even where rigid flooring isnotprovided, suitable reliefdue to
scouring ofbed maynotbeconsidered inthecalculation of area of flow and
afflux.
(d) The size ofvents should befixed such that theobstruction to the flow ofwater
atthe stage when it touches thetopofdeck slab, is less than60percentor at
the most70per cent.

.69

I

IRC:SP:82-2008

i

I •

II

Appendix 5.1

\

AN EXAMPLE OF CALCULATION OFAFFLUX USING BROAD CURBED

WEIRAND ORIFICE FORMULAE

I

Example: Abridge, having a linear waterway of25 m, spans a channel 33 m wide carrying
a discharge of70
Estimate the afflux when thedown stream depth is 1m.

Dd
=lm'W=33m'L=25m
'
,
Discharge through thebridge bytheOrifice Formula
L n,

Q =
L

W

=

[h + (I + e)

25

33

= 0.757

Afflux corresponding to this, Co = 0.867, e = 0.85, g = 9.8 m/sec?

J

70 = 0.867 x 4.43 x 25 x 1 [ h +

1/2

h + 0.0943 u2= 0.53

..... (i)

Also, just upstream of the bridge

Q= W (D 4 + h) u
70 = 33 (1 + h) u
. h=

70
-1
33u

..... (ii)
..

Substituting for hfrom (i) in(ii) and rearranging

u=0.0617u3 + 1.386 (u= 1.68m/sec)

Substituting for uin(ii)

h=0.263 m

Alternatively, assume that h is more than

Q = 1.706 CwLH3/2
70 = 1.706 x 0.94 x 25 x H3/2
H=1.45m
H=D u +

=

2g

Du (approx.)

Or; Du = 1.45 m (approx)

70

D and apply the Weir Formula

IRC:SP:82-2008

Now,

Q=WD u

II

70 = 33 x 1.45 u

u = 1.46

=

2g

0.1086 m
UZ

H=D + -­
2g
II

i.e 1.45 = D + 0.1086
II

D

II

=

1.3414 m

h=D

II

-

Dd = 1.3414 -1.0 = 0.3414 m

Since "h"is actually more than1/4 Dd' thevalue of afflux arrived bytheWeir Formula isto
be adopted.
Therefore adopt h = 0.34.14 m.

71

The deepening ofbed (extent ofscour) mainly depends oncharacteristics of watercourse and its bed (e..1. SCOUR AND FOUNDATIONS 6. Scour 6. • OJ ' 72 i .. The main reason for this istheincreased obstruction inthewaterway due to submergence ofsuper structure which increases both thevelocity of flow and itsturbulence andthedifference islikely tothemaximum when the flood level isjust about to overtop the deck. Thevalues of increment to be adopted for different ranges of catchment areas aregiven inTable 6. Design discharge for determination of scour depth 6.1.1. velocity ofwater during floods. ! . flood leveljust touching the deck level and HFL to determine thedesign scour depth.. the scour will bemore thanthatfor a high level bridge for any particular valueofdischarge. type. Incaseof submersible bridges in erodible bed. be carefully determined keeping inview thesiteconditions.g. In orderto provide for anadequate margin of safety. Thescouring action in natural watercourses is alsonot generally uniform throughout thebed width and it inter aliadepends on concentration offlow and constriction caused bythestructure. Ordinary Flood Level (OFL). longitudinal slope. however happen only ifthe duration of the flood corresponding to the deck level. The scourunderthe submersible structures especially around pier foundations can. The scour isanimportant parameter forfixing thesize.2.1. straight/meandering reach.1 for ready reference. becontrolled either bysiting thebridge where rock isavailable atshallow depth or bythe provision of suitably designed floor protection around thestructure. deep pools. Unless otherwise specified byDesign Engineer.e.2. t . Thiswill. particle size ofbed material. depthof foundations and alsospanarrangements of a submersible structure and should therefore. observed values of normal scour inthe unobstructed reach ofwatercourse and maximum observed scour around thefoundations of structures in thevicinity on thesame watercourse etc. General Scour isthe erosive action offlowing water and carrying away ofthe resultant loose material from the watercourse bed.1.1. if required. weeds. the percentage of obstruction withrespect to the total cross­ sectional area of the channel reduces appreciably as may be seen in a worked out exampleat Appendix6.) and duration of floods. 6. stones/boulders. After this level. IRC:78 recommends that the scour for foundations (except raft foundations) should bedetermined based on a discharge larger thanthe design discharge determined as perChapter 4 of these guidelines.. Thescour depths for submersible structures should therefore. is longenough to scour thebed and transport thebed materials. becalculated under different flood levels i. resistance of bed to erosion etc. bends.IRC:SP:82-2008 6. these values may beadopted in caseof submersible structures. presence of rifts. The scour isdeeper inthe vicinity ofthepier foundation because thevelocity and turbulence offlow around piers and itsfoundation ishigher thanthe average velocity offlow.1.

4) Where.1. According to Lacey. 6. 6. 111 Thebasic parameters arecalculated from thefollowing expressions: (i) Wetted Perimeter (P) = C (6. However. Themean scourdepth below designed flood level for natural channels flowing overscourable bedis generally calculated from the following equation: dSin = 1.76 Where d is theweighted mean diameter ofthe bedparticles in millimetre. value of4 . However.3. 6. intheabsence ofany other recommendations based onfurther research work/experience gained.3. * 73 .1.1 Catchment area in km2 Increase over design discharge in per cent 0-3000 * \ 30 3000-10000 30-20* 10000 ­ 40000 20-10* Above 40000 10 increase overdesign discharge for intermed iatevaluesof catchment areas may be worked out by interpolation. Mean depth of scour 6. Asregime conditions seldom exist in natural streams andbecause oflimited duration of any Hood. width (W) is assumed equal to the wetted perimeter (P) andnormal depth ofbed(normal scour depth) belowwaterlevel equal to 'R'.1.1.1) KSf = 1.IRC:SP:82-2008 Table 6.1.3.4.1. Db = Design discharge forfoundation permetrewidthof effective waterway. (ii) Hydraulic meanradius(R) = 0.2) Where Q'isdischarge during floods and C is a constant dependent on local conditions and mayvary from to 6. Normal scour 6. these relationships arewidely adopted to getanideaof expected scourand the samemay also be adopted in caseof submersible structures.34 [ Db 2 I Ksf] 1/3 (6. is the level of the'scoured bedthat is likelyto occurduring design floods.2. Normal scourlevel.473 (QI Ksf) 1/3 (6.3.4.3) In case of wide alluvial streams.1. the relationships givenby Lacey for alluvial streams are not strictly applicable. the scour parameters in caseofalluvial streams depend only on discharge (Q) andsiltfactor (Ksf)' Thevalue of siltfactor depends on sizeandlooseness ofthe grains ofthealluvium andmay bedetermined bythefollowing expression: (6.

4.233 to 0. Table 6. Findings ofsuch soundings are bestwhen takenduring or immediately after a flood before the scour holeshave hadtimeto siltupappreciably \ (b) The design discharge being greater than the Hood discharge at the time of taking soundings (c) Theincrease in velocity dueto obstruction to flow caused bytheconstruction ofthe bridge.0to 2.2 may beadopted for estimation of scour depth for thepreparation ofpreliminary project reports.25 Coarse sand 0.00 2. soundings for thepurpose ofdetermining the ofscour should betaken inthevicinity ofthesite proposed for thebridge.2.1. approaches.= Siltfactor for a representative sample ofbedmaterial obtained upto the level of anticipated deepest scour. the values of Kjfor various grades ofbedmaterials as given in Table 6.4) The weighted mean diameter ofparticles for a stratum may beworked out asperprocedure illustrated inAppendix6. 6. however be based onthe sieve analysis of different strataupto the anticipated deepest scour likely to be metwith at the site. Inthisregard thefollowing aspects may bekept in view indeciding themaximum scour depth: (a) Wherever possible.5 to 0.04 0.75 1. bedprotection. and (d) The increase in scour depth intheproximity ofpiers andguide bunds.081 toO.5.5 Fine bajri and sand 0. In In * The discharge permeter width may becalculated from thefollowing two conditions­ (i) When theflood level touches thetopofthewearing coat (ii) During floods.2 Typeorbed material- dIn Ksf 0.42 Coarse silt Heavy sand 6.76 ] and d isthemean weighted mean diameter inmillimetre.35 Silt/fine sand 0. given by the Expression 6.988 1. training works etc.7 Medium sand 0.1 [1.1.1. Thedetailed designof foundations should. Theanticipated maximum depth ofscour should bedetermined after considering all therelevant local conditions over a reasonable period oftime.158 0.725 1. In the absence of sieve analysis of the bed material of different strata upto anticipated deepest scour. based on the width of compartments of the flow area under consideration and thecalculated discharge for the same (As described inpara 4.85 to 1.29 to 2.2.505 0. 74 .

thefollowing theoretical calculations for determining thevalue of siltfactor (Ksf) for clayey bedmaterial may beadopted: (i) Incase of soil having (angle ofintemal friction) <15° and c (cohesion of soil) >0. Following flood conditions should beconsidered fortheassessment of maximum depth of scour for design ofpiers and abutments. like wide variation inthetype ofbed material across the width ofchannel. c is in kg/ern' F = 1.75 for 0 > 5° and < 10° 2.5) Where. scour depth may be determined byactual observations and mean scour depthfixed based on suchobservations andtheoretical calculations.2.2. 6.2.1. Themaximum depth of scour below thedesigned flood level for the design of piers and abutments ofsubmersible bridges having individual foundations without any floor protection 75 .4 and maximum depth of scour indicated under para6.1. 6.lRC:SP:82-2008 (e) If there is any appreciable concentration of flow inany partofwaterway due to bend of the watercourse in immediate upstream or downstream or for any otherreason.F.00 mm) is available.L. (iii) L.7. (i) Flood level equal to deck level and (ii) H. Maximum Depth of Scour forDesign of Foundations 6.l. Ksf = F(1 (6. the theoretical expressions for dsm derived from equation 6.1.00 for <5° (ii) Soilshaving 0> 15° may be treated as sandy soil even if value of c is more than 0.W.2.1. thewaterway may be divided intocompartments as perthe concentration of Bow and the mean scour depth may be calculated separately for each compartment.1. 6.2.L.20 kg/ern' andsilt factor worked out asperExpression 6.2 kg/ern'. No rational formula ordata for determining scour depth forbedmaterial consisting of gravels andboulders (normally having weighted diameter more than2.2below should notbe applied and maximum depth should beassessed from actual observations.50 for 0 >'10° and <15° 1.For piers and abutments 6.6. (f) If the watercourse is of a flashy nature andbeddoes not lenditselfto the scouring effect of floods.1. 6. In suchcases. Similarly intheabsence ofany established relationship for determining thevalue of Ksf or scour depth inclayey bed.

(6. (iii) (i) Ina straight reach andina bend with angle of deviation oflessthan15° (ii) Ina bend with angle ofdeviation (a) between 15° and 45° (b) between 45° and 60° (c) between 60° and 90° 1. it is 76 .4ofthese guidelines.15) (6.27d 5111 1.00d S111 Sill .18) ForCutoff/Curtain walls Cut off/Curtain walls aregenerally designed as fully protected against scour by flexible aprons.75d 2.0d sm For abutments (a) 1..80dsm (6.27dsm with approach retained or lowest bedlevel whichever is deeper (ii) (b) 2.0 16dsm with approach retained in frontor lowest bedlevel whichever is deeper (b) 1. However.16) (6.2..14) 6.143dsm with approach retained in front or lowest bedlevel whichever isdeeper (b) 1. may bereduced bymultiplying factor of 0.8 as given below: (6.2.50d sm 1.6) Flood withseismic combination: The values ofmaximum depth ofscour around piers and abutments under flood conditions given in (I) above. (6. maximum scour below designed flood level for thedesign of floor protection works for raft or open foundations may be based on following However forraftfoundation dsm may be based on design discharge without any increase. (I) Flood without seismic combination: (i) Forpiers 2.9 as given below: (i) Forpiers 1.17) (6. thevalues given under (I) above.9) (ii) Forabutments (a) 1.60dsm (ii) Forabutments (a) 1.8) S111 (II) (6. The depths of cut-offwalls aredetermined basedon safe exit gradient (creep theory) explained in para6.lRC:SP:82-2008 may be considered asfollows.10) (6.12) (i) Forpiers 1.80dsm with scour all around (6. Forfloorprotection Intheabsence of actual observed data onsimilar structures inthevicinity ofthe proposed site. may bereduced bymultiplying factor of 0.11) (III) Lowwaterlevel orwithout flood condition with seismic combination: The values ofmaximum depth ofscour around piers and abutments under low water level orwithout flood condition with seismic combination.60dsm with scour all around (6.7) (6.13) (6.0d with scour allaround.

5.1.27d (6.24) 1.50dsm thengradually reducing.3. such as the following are encountered: (i) thesitebeing located ina bend ofthe river involving a curvilinear flow. or excessive shoal formation. Special studies for the increased discharge calculated as per para 6.00dsm (6.20) $111 Straight reach including tail ondown stream side 6.19) 1. theabove-mentioned lengths should be reckoned beyond theedgeof the flooring.2. innext5 percent of length of submersible approach (L). flank protection around abutment) then gradually reducing in next20per centofL to 1.2. are existing orbeing proposed inducing heavy local scours.50d (ii) For next30 percent of the length of submersible approach 1. (6.27dsm .2. (6..Forsubmersible approaches (a) Downstream side embankment slope and apron (i) (ii) Around abutments andfor 30percent ofthe length of submersible approach (L) subject to minimum of 15 mfrom the abutment thengradually reducing in next 10 per centofL to 1..50dsm 2.2. (6..50d sm (6.to 1. S111 (6.27dslll .Forguide bunds/guide walls (a) Upstream curved mole head (b) 2.27d· (iii) Balance portion up to bank reducing to 0 nearbank (c) In case ofstructures with flooring (bed protection). 6.. shouldbe undertaken for determining the maximum scourdepth for the designof foundations of major submersible bridges in all situations where abnormal conditions.22) (iii) For next20per cent of the length of submersible approach 1.00d -2. or 77 .27d S111 6.27dsm (b) Upstream side embankment slope and apron (i) For 30 per centof the length of submersible approach subject to minimum of 15 m beyond the portion covered under (a) (i) above (i.21) For next 30 percentof the length of submersible approach 1.50dsm.4. or (ii) where the deep channel in thewatercourse hugsto oneside or (iii) very thick piers/arch structures.IRC:SP:82-2008 advisable tofix thefoundation level ofthecut-offwalls below theanticipated scour level.23) (iv) Balance portion upto bank gradually reducing to 0 nearbank 1.25) 1.e.

usingExpression 6. ForSubmersible bridges.D2andD3. General As mentioned in Chapter 3 ofthese guidelines.3. 6.1. (v) Determine maximum depth of scour asperpara6.2 above. e .IRC:SP:82-2008 (iv) where theobliquity inthewatercourse is considerable. submersible bridges shouldnormally be sitedwhere rocky or firm stratais available at relatively shallow depths andconstruction of high embankments in submersible portion ofimmediateapproaches is not involved. thescour level isdetermined forthe following twoconditions (i) When the flood level is at thetopofthebridge withliveloadon it. arelikely to occur.e. 78 . vented causeways inexisting structures inthevicinity ofproposed site D3 SI11 (n) (iii) (iv) Select the highest value among theD1. the bed is protected against scour by provisionof suitably designed flooring with cut offwalls and launching apronson either side. or (v) siteis inthevicinity ofa dam or weir.2. Foundations 6.2) or Table 6. As suchthese structures would generally have shallow foundations. In case of bridgesicauseways on erodible bed. barrage or otherirrigation structures where concentration offlow.1) and Ksf from sieve analysis (Appendix 6. 6. (In case ofraft foundations d may bebased onthedesign discharge without any increase) Dl Find outthedepth ofscour holes ordeepest bed level from the cross sections taken at different locations (i.4.3.6.2.ppendix 6 1 It that the level former condition different thanthe later (HFL) case. aggradation! degradation of bed etc. dis andatsite) D2 Maximum depthof scour holes away from piers. In case of sandystrata or soft soils requiring deeper foundations. Steps for determination of anticipated maximum scour level (i) Calculate the value ofdsm based onincreased value of discharge (as per Table 6. well or pile foundations can be adopted. rendering openorraftfoundation suitable. (ii) When the flood level isHFLwith nolive load. A worked outexample ofdetermination ofanticipated maximum scour depths for a typical case is given in A. uls.

(ii) Raft foundations: Foundation block covering the entire length and width of the proposed bridge structure iscommonly known asraftfoundation.2. and adaptability todifferent subsoil conditions/difficult site conditions like deep standing water andavailability ofgood founding strata at large depths etc. if sub soil isporous and water table ishigh this type offoundation would befeasible only upto 3 to 4 m below the bed. IRC: SP: 82However..2.3.3. Foundations canbebroadly divided into two categories viz. 6. Another economical alternative insuch situation isthe adoption ofmultiple continuous box type structure using full box section asa beam dation.2. shallow foundations are adopted byrestricting thescour tothetopof suitably designed bedprotection. Deepfoundations If suitable founding stratum is available only at a depth greater than 6 m withsubstantial depthof standing water andlarge scour depth thenexecution of open foundations and the bed protection works becomes difficult. oftopstratum is less than 100 kN/m2• The concrete raft serves to distribute pressure evenly to the sandy surfacel clayey strataandalsothe arch actionof the foundation block helpsin distributing the loads evenly. Shallow foundations Shallow foundations areadopted where suitable hard stratawhich is not erodible and having adequate safe bearing capacity (SBC) of about 150 kN/m2 ormore is available at shallow depth belowbed levelof the watercourse. Shallow foundations are categorized into following types: (i) Isolated open foundations: Isolated openfoundations aregenerally adopted where the safe bearing capacity (SBC) ofabout 150 kN/m2 ormore is available at shallow depths.3. It isadopted when good founding strata is notavailable within reasonable depth orSBC. Shallow foundations arepreferred for submersible bridges because they areeconomical andeasy to execute. . Types of foundations Choice oftype of foundations for the selected type ofstructure and span arrangement has tobebased onthe sub-soil investigations and data ofexisting structures inthe vicinity. dueto various reasons like simplicity. However.1. in casethe bed protection is not feasible or economically viable. Insuch a situation it is advisable to adopt well foundations or pile foundations (a) Well Foundations: Thisis one of themost popular types of deep foundations in India. In case ofsandy stratum extending to considerable depth.2. deep well or pile foundations arealso adopted. shallow foundations and deep foundations. 6. requirements of very littleequipment for execution. 79 . 6.

However the minimum depth of openfoundations shallbe as follows: (i) In erodible strata .5 m 6.Pilefoundations are also viablealternative. : 0.0 m belowthe scour level or the protected bed level. especially on the downstream side.(b) Pile Foundations: . eli) In Rock (a) Forhard rock. where adoption of shallow foundations becomes economical by restrictingthe scour. IRC:78 andChapter 7 ofthese guidelines. with anultimate crushing strength of 10MPa or more. 6. The work of bed protection shouldbe completed simultaneously along with the work on the causeway or foundations of the structureto prevent anydamage due to unexpected floods evenduring the construction stage. Thebed/floor protection consists ofthe following components: (i) upstream flexible apron. Largediameter piles some times prove tobea good alternative toconventional welltype foundations. (iv) downstream cut-offwall and.3. The length of flexible apron is fixed keepingin view the shape of apron in launched position to protect the foundations of cut-offwallsas well asmainfoundations of the structure from beingundermined. The bed protection is provided to guard against scourandundermining (washing away or disturbance by piping actionetc. (ii) upstream cut-offwall.not be less than 2. However. General In case of causeways and submersible structures.1. Minimum depth of foundation Foundations of anystructure includingcut-offwallsshouldbe deep enough and safe to transferloadsand force transmitted through sub-structure under worstcombination of loads and forces specified in IRC:6. arrived at afterconsidering theoverall characteristics of the rocksuch as fissures. for first few floods after construction and remedial measures should be taken immediately in the formof replenishment of boulders disturbed during the floods. it is essential that the performanceof rigid flooring and flexible apron is kept under watch. IRC:78 maybe referredfor detailedinformation with regardto various types of pilefoundations and theirsuitability. beddingplanes etc. it may become necessarysubsequently to increase the length of downstream apron in case the performance proves it to be inadequate. 80 I I .bed (floor) protectionto the structures has to be provided. Bed Protection or Floor Protection for Shallow Foundations I 6. In extreme cases. (iii) rigid flooring.4.4. Thesizes of various components of bed/floor protection arefixed onthe basisof experience of previous suchworksandthenchecked for theadequacy forthe proposed structure.) which can be quiteseverein the case of vented causeways andsubmersible structures.6 m (b) All other cases : 1.3.

5 m on down stream side. 6.1 in Chapter 5 and Fig. The floor protection shouldbe properly designed as perthe detailed guidelines contained in IRC: 89. are indicatedin Fig. Incase ofwell designed raftfoundation with upstream and downstream cut-offwalls. (ix) Typical arrangements of flooring with cut-off walls etc. In caserequired size of stones arenot economically available. In case of streams carrying abrasive particles with velocities higher than 4 mJsec.IRC:SP:82-2008 6. (vi) Flexible apron 1m thickcomprising ofloose stone boulders (weighing notless than40 kg) shouldbe provided beyond the curtain/cut-offwalls The length ofarren on the downstream side should be adequate tolaunch upto thedesigned maximum scour level in a slope of2 horizontal to ] vertical and the length ofapron ontheupstream should not be less than about 0. Horizontal/verticaljoints incurtain/cut-offwalls should be avoided.7 times of the same on downstream side subjectto a minimum lengthof 4 m on upstream side and6 m on downstream side. the depth ofcut-offwalls and length of flooring (apron) could be suitably changed depending onthesuccessful practice followed in the State. However theminimum specifications for floor protection are given below for guidance. The cut-off/curtain walls should be in cement concrete MIS grade/brick/ stone masonry in cement mortar 1:3. the flooring should extendupto the line connecting theend ofthe wing walls oneither sideofthe structure. (vii) Cratedboulder apronsshould alsobe preferred at sites near inhabited areas so as to discourage removal of stones byanti-social andunscrupulous elements. (iii) The topofthe flooring should bekept 300 mmbelow the lowest bed level to prevent the flooring from acting as a weir when retrogression of levels take place. These may be adopted in the absence of any other more rigorous requirements/rational design. 5. (iv) Theflooring may consist of 150 mm thick flat stone/bricks onedge in cement mortar1:3 laid over 300 mm thick cement concrete MIS grade over a layer of 150 mm thick cementconcrete M1O. However if splayed wing wallsare provided. Spacing ofthe joints should be limited to about 20 m.. (viii) It is essential thatthework ofbedprotection issimultaneously completed along with the workonthe foundations ofthe structure to prevent anydamage to the foundations.4. 81 . stones in wirecrates or cement concrete blocks maybe used in place of specified stones. (i) The post construction velocity under the structure should not exceed 2 m/s and the intensity of discharge is limited to 3m3/m except in the caseof properly designed raft foundation with adequate protective works. (v) The rigid flooring should beenclosed bycut-off/curtain walls (tiedto thewing walls) with a minimum depthbelow floor level of2 m onupstream side and 2. Therigid flooring shall be continued overthe top width ofthecut-offlcurtain walls.1. (ii) The rigid flooring underthe structure should extend for a distance of at least 3 m on sideand 5 m on downstream side of the structure. analternative specification offlooring comprising of450 mmthick concrete layer in M20over 150 mmthick concrete layer in MIS grade canbe adopted.2.

. -." '." .1. • L u " .::.j .~ .• .. -. CEMENT CONCRETE 1:2:4 OR E CONCRETE OR CEMENT CONCRETE (1:3:6) OR M10 -CUT-OFF WALL DESIGNED AS RETAINING WALL FOR 00 LIME CONCRETE-'l-- I EARTH PRESSURE ON ONE SIDE AND WATER PRESSURE ON OTHER SIDE 2.C.WEARING COAT . 6. 00 HIGH FLOOD LEVEL HFL __ ----- LEVEL -.' . e e' .-CEMENT CONCRETE 1:2:4 OR M15 L--'L1ME CONCRETE OR CEMENT CONCRETE (1:3:6) OR M10 Fig. '.-e 00 WEARING COAT RoC.:.." . Typical detail offlorring with apron ..". ! I I i' I. EARTH PRESSURE ON ONE SIDE AND NO PRESSURE ON OTHER SIDE .' ..:.

Design 6. (Minimum values ofpressure head forsubmersible bridges/vented causeways and flush causeway may be assumed as 1. vertical cut-offs are twice as effective as horizontal flooring incontributing tocreep length andtherate ofhead loss along thecreep length is assumed to be linear. difference of depth of say1m may be assumed between theupstream downstream sides of submersible bridges andvented causeways with floors and500 mm incase offlush causeways which generally spanthe whole waterway.) L = Total length ofallhorizontal contact surfaces ofwater path. taken as equal to depth ofwater onupstream sideincluding aft1ux (-) depth of water on downstream side. When a rigid (Pukka) floor is provided.1.2.IRC: SP:82-2008 6.4..3. thewater in addition to flowing over the floor also creates a path for itselfalong the surfaces ofthe upstream cut-offwall andtheunder side ofthefloor protection to finally emerge onthedownstream side.26) Where. thedimensions oftherigid flooring have to be such asto keep theexitgradient quite low.00 m and 500 mmrespectively. (6. To prevent thisfrom happening. The salient points useful for thedesign ofcut-offwalls and aprons for fmding outthe hydraulic gradient at exitforthe flooring are given below for ready reference andguidance. (i) Bligh's Creep Theory: Asperthis theory thetotal equivalent length ofwater path (creep length) is given by . 83 . There are three methods ofchecking theadequacy oftheproposed sizes ofdifferent components ofbedprotection. The theories used fordesign ofweirs onalluvial soils are generally used for checking theexitgradient ofwater under therigid flooring ofthebridge. However. for purposes ofdesign. Thisleads to piping action. H = Pressure head.. = depthofupstreamcut-offwall d.4.3. viz: (i) Bligh's creep theory (ii) Lane'sweighted creep theory. However. difference indepth ofwater ontheupstream sideanddownstream side(pressure head) is only dueto theafflux. = depth of downstream cut-offwall (According to Bligh'stheory. incase of causeways/ submersible bridges.4. d. which can cause progressive loss ofmaterial from under thefloor resulting finally indamage or collapse ofthe floor. ) C = a constant called creep coefficient.3.3. Since a large value of afflux cannot be permitted in thedesign of submersible structures. Iftheexit gradient ofwater when it emerges is high thenit would becapable of carrying soil particles with it. 6. and (iii) Khosla's method ofindependent variables applied to potential theory. thepressure headis very small when compared with thedepth ofwater ondownstream side. The values of C fordifferent soilsareasgiven in Table 6.

Incase offloor protection with cut-offwalls oneither end. This ishowever. inorder to provide adequate factor ofsafety. only thedepth ofdown-stream cutoffwall is considered) L = length ofthefloor = To safeguard against undermining. 84 .4.0 Gravel and sand 9 3. IRC:SP:82-2008 Table 6.0 Coarse sand 12 5. Khosla's method of independent variables applied tothe theory ofsub-soil flow isthe most reliable.5 Boulders. gravel and sand 9 2. (6.50 m as the casemaybe) d. . (6.5 to 3.0 (ii) Lane's Theory:This is based onstatistical study ofperformance of actual structures on permeable foundations. AsperKhosla's theory. still has the limitation ofanempirical method.5 Fine sand 15 7. Thecreep length (equivalent length of water path) works out to be CjH = 1/3 L + (d. (6.27) Where C1 = weighted creep coefficient as given in Table6. thedepth ofup-stream cut offwall does not haveany effect onexitgradient assuch.. However. Lane's approach.. thedimensions ofthe cut-offs and floor should be selected insuch away that theexit gradient does notexceed thepermissible values indicated inTable 6.6to 3..28) Where.3: Creep Coefficients Material Bligh's Creep coefficient (C) Lane's weighted Creep coefficient (C\) Very fine sand and or silt 18 8. commonly used to cross theadequacy of theproposed designs based on Bligh's Creep Theory.) . = depth ofdownstream cutoffwall... + d.. a greater weightage is given tothevertical cut-offs than horizontal water contacts and is assumed intheratio of3:1. theexitgradient (G E) isworked outbytheExpression: H x 1 .0 Clayey soils 4 to 6 1.3. though animprovement over Bligh's creep theory..0to 3..29) 2 L1d2 H = headofthe water (1 m or 0. exit gradient should notexceed thenumerical value ofunity. (iii) Khosla's Theory: When thesubsoil is homogeneous.

IRC:SP:82-2008 Appendix 6. F.2 m a.61 m/sec (b) at Flood Level (10 years) 2.1 21 % (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) 9500 sq.L.0m/sec Discharge worked out as perprocedure outlined inChapter 4 ofthese guidelines (a) At HoF.F.rr.F.quasi alluvial III.6 m Lowest bedlevel (LBL) RL 83. 12625 cumecs Percentage increase over design discharge for calculations offoundation design as per para 6. RL 95. Water Spread at H.L.2. II.F. RL 84. 15276 cumecs 5659 cumecs 2870 cumecs 550 m 390 m 250 m Bed Material Medium/coarse Banks .2 m Velocity (a) at H. (with return period of 50years) (iii) Flood Level (Return period of 10years) RL 92.L. Proposed Structure 22spans of 18 mc/cwith following salient details: (i) Deck level RL = 9200 (ii) Depth ofsuperstructure = 1.6) WORKED OUT EXAMPLE OF DETERMINATION OF ANTICIPATED MAXIMUM SCOUR DEPTH I.2.22 m .L. 4.1.'Design discharge = 1.L. (c) Design discharge at a.L.1 Table 6.L.0 m L. km.L.1 (Reference Para 6. RL 89.L.F.L (10 years) o.F.F. 2.W.80m/sec (c) ata. Hydraulic Data (i) (ii) Catchment area H.F.21 X 12625 = (b) Design discharge at M.0 m 86 .

of floor.4.3. v d mean design velocity inm/s = equivalent diameter ofstonelboulder inm.0 38 76 3. Upto 2. 6. Worked out example for investigating the adequacy of bed protection.No. To find the required thickness. Table 6. 3. 4.4. Material Permissible ExitGradient I.3). Fine sand 1/6to 1/7 4. Shingle 1/4 to 1/5 2. 3. Where required size stones are not economically cement grade) 01 stones in wirecrates or blocks and stones in combination may be used in place of isolated stones of equivalent weight. be preferred wherever possible. 4. depthof cut off walls is given in Appendix6.0 67 417 5.4: Permissible Exit gradient for different materials S.0 104 1561 Note: No stone weighing less than 40 kg should be used in apron. The size and weight of stones/boulders required forlaunching apron to resist mean design velocity (average velocity) is given bytheexpression: v = 4. Coarse sand 3.5 30 40 2.5forreference andadoption.3.4. Beyond the rigid flooring.5 S.5 85 852 6.IRC:SP:82-2008 Table 6.893 (d) 'I. Cement concrete blocks should however.65 and are given in Table6. thevalues recommended in'DesignofWeirs on Permeable Foundation' Central Board ofIrrigation Publication No. Where. 85 .12 are generally adopted (Relevant Table and Graphs arereproduced at Appendix 6. theuplift pressures at salientpoints are calculated and thethickness necessary to counter this uplift pressure is determined. Mean design velocity Minimum size and weight of stone/boulder (m/s) Diameter (em) Weight (kg) I. To investigate theadequacy oftheproposed thickness offlooring.No. 5. the pressure atthebase ofthefoundation should be well within the safe bearing capacity ofthefoundation material.5 51 184 4. In allthe above cases.4. flexible aprons of designed length are provided on either side to keep thescour holes atsafe distance. = The weight ofthestonelboulder can bedetermined by assuming thespherical stone/boulder having theaverage specific gravity of2.3. Clay 1/3 to 1/4 to 1/6 6. .

61) x depth of flow] 2 Water spread at R.2 formedium/coarse sand from Expression 6.9) 655. 93. say 8700 cumecs Step II Assessment of scourdepth at H.473 \.22 + 92.61/14.6 + 6.L.22 = 37.IRC:SP:82-2008 (iv) (v) Height ofdiscontinuous kerb Width of piercap Width of solid pier = 0.50 2 2v at R. scour depth (hydraulic mean radius-R) andvalue ofK.8 sq m say 656 sq m = = 87 .61 = 472. from Table 6. 93.2ofIRC:6) 2v2at R.2 x 0.L.L.L.L.3 m =l. QI Q1 = Design discharge discharge likely to flow over thebridge deck(i.0 = 93.9m Step I Assessment of discharge at bridge decklevel(RL92.F. 95.34 m/sec Q1 = 15276-472.F.8 x 0. of piers(area of pier cap + pier shaft) = 394 x 1.[(Length of waterspread x velocity offlow at R.F.3 = 0. withbridge in submerged condition Assuming wide alluvial stream. 95.22 = 2 x 42. between RL 95.22 = 15276-6603 = 8673 cumecs.0)during H.50 X 12.22 and R.L.473 Unobstructed natural area offlow at H.F.34 x 3. 93.e.69 v= = 4.61 (Refer clause 213.0) = 15276. 92. = Areaof superstructure between the faces of abutments + No.L.2m =0.L.61 = 42.30 + 21 (1.50 m Calculation ofvelocity of flow at R.3 Scourdepth 0.5 x 4.L Obstructed natural area of flowat H.L.

L.61 = 12.0 Scourdepth = 0.80 v 2411 ) 0.47 m = RL 82. 92.61 3314 JO.3 m Unobstructed natural area Q of flowat R.47 Step III Scourdepthwhenflood level is at R.3 ( = 10.25 = 8. 83.61 Increased scourdepthdoneto obstruction = 8.90 Unobstructe d area Net area = Modified scour depth 0.L.L.IRC:SP:82-2008 10.22 usingExpression dSIn Effective linearwaterway is assumed aswater spreadat H.2 88 27.77 cumecs/m say28 cumecs/m .473 1.0 6750 = = -­ 2411 sq m 2.9 Second Method Scour depthduring flood level ofRL 95.22-12.L.1 m Scour levelfor flood levelat R.75 Scour level = RL 95.34 1/ Scour level = R.F.L.0 = RL RL 81. is 550 m Q = Water spread 15276 -------­ 550 = 3 d SIn = 1. 92. 92.75 sayDeepestBedLevel (DBL) RL 83.

34 17.RL83.L. 89.0 Effective waterway as perClause 104ofIRC: 5 =394 21 x 0.61 Net area Sin 11.B.0-4.25 With reduced ventarea J Scourdepth = 8.L.e. i. R.32 [2651 1748 Scour level = R.20 At O.L.00 During flood level at R.27 Above calculations indicate thatscour is more when theflood level is atdecklevelrather than whenit is at H.2beingon conservation side. s: Scourlevel may be assumed as under During flood levelat R.L.73 m 81. i. 0.61 R.F.F. 92.47 (3314/2658) =13.65 2/L25)\=4. 95. 89 .2 say 375 m Db dsm = 2870 375 7.9 = 375.22 RL 82.65 cumecs/m =1.14m = Scourlevel at H.L.0 Scourdepth during flood levelat RL92.00 RL 81.31 cumecs/m =8.2 Assume scourlevelas D.34 (7.L.IRC:SP:82-2008 With submerged structure d Scour depth 0.F.08 say RL 82.L.61 10. 82. (b) 0.L.83m Scour level> 89.17 Deepest BedLevel (DBL) = RL83.L.83 = RL 84.32m 1/3 1.e.0 Effective linear waterway 390m Db 6750 390 dSIn=1.

34 Around Abutments Expression 6.2-81.B. 68.23 L.L.62 dsm 2[95. AtF.0m 2 x 4.L.22] = 26.L.F.8 68. (10 Years) At O.L.27 dsm 78.20 90 .34 Expression 6. 83.41 78.7 1.44 m 2[92.22-82.20 79.66 m R.IRC:SP:82-2008 Maximum Scour AtH. Around Piers Expression 6.78 70.0= 13 .78 70.2]= 22.83 = 9.L.20 79.F.

X 0.425 1. Table 6.2 (Reference Para 6.0375 0.JVL. w 4. P6 w7 Wi (Total weight 0.80x PI 3.80 w3 1.127 0. 425 micron 180 micron P 0. U.60+4.80* 4.00 2 3 4 5 6 5.IRC:SP:82-2008 Appendix 6.4..40 3.60 SayO 0 - 0 4.00 2.80 1.00 2. Sieve Openings (mm) Weight of soil retained (gm)(w) y= [Col (5)1 Percentage of Average size percentageof weight retained ofopening (mm) weightof material (p) = col(3)x (Total retained on the next small size sieve] weight ofsample) x ICol(4)j I I 1 5.jUL..00)/2 = 4.6 Sieve Designation .127xP 6 0.40x P.712 P4 Ws 75 micron 1.(rounded off to two decimal places) 100 91 .1.60 4.6.90 x P3 PJ w4 0.00 -.90 P7 100 YI of sample) * (5.712xP4 Ps w6 < 75 micron in Pan 0.180 V •.1) PROCEDURE TO WORK OUT THE WEIGHTED MEAN DIAMETER OF PARTICLES FOR A STRATUM The weighted mean diameter ofparticles for a stratum may be worked outaspermethod illustrated inthe Table 6.80 mm and so on dm .0375 x P7 P.

a 79 102 109 117 117 124 132 37...9 28. _-....-_ . C. 71 .9 (10.5) Sand classification Thickness of stone pitching in (em) Very coarse 41 Coarse 58 Medium 71 Fine 86 Very Fine 102 71 SO 48 71 109 86 102 88 79 ... .7: Thickness of Slope Patching for various Grades of Sand and Slopes of Rivers 4. .- .2..•...3 (Reference: para 6..3..2 Fig.0 "...73 BedSlope 14.lRC:SP:82-2008 Appendix 6.. --_ __ 85 ..... 102 117 _-...•.... .2 18..._.•. .3) Table 6....4.. '0 • ConI:)•" •.9 -. _ .. ... or ··23. .. .. Showing Pressure Distribution under Floors with different Slopes 92 .4 37. 6. -.• ... 10 2/1 " 5/3 . . ...'. .. .

0m) = 2.e.2 (ii) refers} (Minimum required as perIRC:89 is 2.50m Depth of downstream sidecut-offwall = 3.4.50 Creep ratio C 1= 18/1.0 93 =18.50m) (I) As per Bligh's Creep Theory Total lengthof water path =2 x 2.0m/s = 675 m' (Maximum permissible velocity as perIRC:89 is 2.1 against value ofafflux of500 mm.0= 18.4. Hydraulic gradient = 1.0 {Para6. 1 in30 As the gradient of 1in30 is far lessthaneventhe flattestpermissible gradientof 1 in 18 (value of creep coefficient forvery fine sand or silt).0m as perPara 6.0 + 5.0 + 3.70 Discharging capacity = 675 x 2 1350 cumecs > 1000 cumecs Hence OK = = 10. asper Table 6.0m/s) Areaavailable for discharge = 250 x 2.50 = 30.50 +18 + 2 x 3.0 i.IRC:SP:82-2008 Appendix 6.4.3.0 m .50m Width ofthe foundation LengthofflooringasperIRC:89 = 10.0m Meandesigned velocity = 2.thelength offlooring provided is adequate.50 + 2 x 3.0+ 2'x'2.0m 18. r (ii) As per Lane's Weighted Creep Theory The equivalent length Lw = 1/3 x 18.4 (Reference para DESIGN OF BED PROTECTION (Worked out example) Given Data: Design discharge = 1000 cumecs Total effective waterway = 250m Depth of flow above floor level at designed flood level = 2.70m = 500mm Width ofthefoundation = 10.0m Depthof upstream sidecut-offwall (Minimum required as per IRC:89 is 2.0 m Assume difference of headbetween upstream anddownstream sides as 1.0/30.

= = 3. 7 % Loss ofpressure from bottom of U/S cut-offwalls to beginning offloor = 12.50/18.0=0.38.5 1 x = = = = 1.42 The exitgradient is within thepermissible values (Table 6.1xO.5 mare adequate.50m 18m 5.5) Hence the proposed length of the floor as 18 m and depth of cut-off wall as 3.2 (iv): 150mm thick cement concrete levelhng course (M1 0) + 300mmthickcement concrete (M 15) + 150 mm thick brick masonry incement mortar 1:3.31 and 6.12 = 1/19. Hence flooring length provided is adequate.07 % . Pressure atthebottom ofthe cut-offwall onthe u/s side = 100 = 100 .26.6 3.50 = 1 + (1 2) 2 Exitgradient (G E) = 1 ---- 3.0m 3.e.1 % Correction forthickness offloor = 12.8 % Pressure atpoint ofbeginning ofthefloor onthe U/S side = 100 - = 100 .IRC:SP:82-2008 Thus the creep ratio ismuch higher than the requirement (Table 6.14 = 3. (iii) As per Khosla's Theory Using Expressions 6. Check for adequacy of the thickness of the proposed flooring by Khosla Theory Assume thefollowing composition oftheflooring asperPara6.32 for exitgradient i. H 1 x = Where = 1 + (l+a 2 ) and ------ 2 H is theheadof water d2 isthedepth ofdownstream cut-offwall Listhelength offloor = 18.4.194 From Khosla'sgraph.2 = 73.5 = 2.0/3.4 refers).3 = 61.

56 % Average densityof floor = [0.6656 xl == 1.IRC:SP:82-2008 Correction for interference ofdis cut-offwall Where.5 = 18 2.125 t/m' Densityof floorallowing for 100% buoyancy == 1.79 = 66. = depth of dis cut-offwall L' = distance between thetwocut-offwalls L = length offloor As cut-offwalls are proposed at the endof flooring therefore L = L' C = 3.592 m againstproposed thickness of 0.2 + 0..6 m.125 t/m' Thickness offloorrequired = 0.9] 0.450 (concrete) x 2.5+2.5/l8 x 3.07 + 2. HenceOK . 95 .6 = 2.7 + 2.125 0.15 (brick masonry) x 1. d) = depth ofu/s cut-offwall and d.79 % Corrected pressure at underside of floorwhere it begins == 61.

1.1. traffic intensity. The siteinspections should be carried outbyexperiencedbridge engineers asthese form thebasis for arriving atthebasic design parameters for theproject.2.e. decision making andfinancing.1. Types of site inspections Based onthe stage oftheproject. SHIMDR/RR/E&I road/industrial road/link road etc.3. bridge) length.3. if any. land marks and broad features for the crossing etc. 7. site inspections canbe classified as under: I Pre-construction stage inspection (i) (ii) (iii) Pre-feasibility stage inspection Feasibility stage inspection Detailed engineering stage inspection II Construction/Implementation stage inspection III Post construction/Maintenance stage inspection 7. intended project andin general inter-alia cover thefollowing: (i) (ii) Requirements oftheuser authority incharge oftheroad anditslimitations.). flush/vented causeways. present arrangements of crossing. Category ofroad (i. DESIGN 7. regarding availability offunds for theproj ect. The inspection report at this stage should give broad idea of area. Assuch. site conditions. utility. Broad ements of site inspection 7.e.1. 96 .1. nature ofthecrossing. importance ofthecrossing etc. General Site inspections play an important role right from the conception stage to the endof pre­ construction stage for successful implementation of any project.1. The number ofsite inspections depend upon the type of proposed submersible structure (i. Pre-feasibility stage inspection A reconnaissance visitto the areaoftheintended submersible structure siteis generally sufficient to examine the general area and to identify theproject.lRC:SP:82-2008 7. each inspection shouldbe carefully planned keeping in view the requirements of the user authority and to aid judgments for most economical and feasible solution.1. Site Inspections 7. its requirements. The purpose of site inspection ranges from identification ofdata needs and collection ofraw data atelemental level to anoverall appraisal oftheproj ectto aidinanalysis. especially incase ofsubmersible structures andimmediate approach roads which are subjected to frequent submergence.

The details should include. quasi-alluvial. motorized ferry etc). scourable or non-scourable etc. availability of alternative route andlength of detour etc. boats. adequacy or otherwise of waterway withspecial reference to siltedup spans or signs of under scouror attacks on abutments and approaches in case of bridges etc. passenger cars. debris! branches of trees andtheir approximate size (x) Condition ofbanks (i. flashy. number of lanes. if any.e. tongas etc. slow moving vehicles e. formation width.e. heavy/light commercial vehicles. steady. whether low orhigh.e. clear waterway. presence of bigboulders affecting thevelocity of stream. carriageway width. for immediate approaches (xviii) Broad details of existing CD works (bridges or causeways) onthe same channel inthevicinity. erodible ornon-erodible) (xi) Present arrangement for crossing during dry season and floods (i.g. Perennial.e. type of surfacing.e.) (ix) Approximate velocity of stream andmaterial likely to float down inthe channel during floods i. their slopes.bullock carts.) (vii) Present traffic intensity including broad breakup (onrough percentage basis) of traffic i. ifany (v) Salient details ofthe existingroad i.) (xiv) Presence of rocky strata (xv) Possible location of submersible structure withrespect to the most suitable site for the high level bridge (xvi) Period of'cut-offofthearea with duration atatime and number ofsuch interruptions in a year and population affected (xvii) Expected land acquisition problems. condition of the road.IRC:SP:82-2008 1 (iii) Population ofthe area likely to bebenefitted with theconstruction ofthe proposed facility (iv) Existing alignment ofroad indicating deficiencies/constraints. 97 . approximate rateof riseof flood leveletc. (xii) Approximate depths of water andwater spreads during dryseason andfloods (at HFL OFL and LWL) (xiii) Characteristics of riverbed(i.e. (vi) Type of terrain. (a) description liketype. distance from the proposed site etc. (b) approximate lengthand depthof submergence and frequency (including duration) of interruptions peryear totraffic (c) number and length of spans/size of vents. (viii) Nature ofthe water channel (i.e.e. type of present traffic (i. seasonal. shoulders etc. alluvial. slow moving/ fastmoving etc. (xix) Broadjustification forthe project and (xx) Any other aspect considered important bythe inspecting officer.

flush orvented causeway orsubmersible bridge anddetailed engineering. 7. deck level. dueattention is to bepaidto the analysis ofthe data. Incase of a flush causeway. The assumptions made in analysis.D. length. quality assurance measures.W.3. or any other agency) of the finally selected site and approach alignment should invariably be conducted in case of important submersible structures having length more than 60 m to avoid revision/modifications inthe proposal atalater date i. billofquantities and rates for realistic cost estimation. datacollection forproper identification of sources for materials. Detailed engineering stage inspection Frequent inspections during this stage arerequired to be carried outto ensure adequacy andaccuracy of investigations.1. of submersible structure. oneor two sitevisitsmay besufficient.e. detailed specifications for different items ofwork. Ajointinspection bya team ofofficers ofuser authority and theexecuting agency (P.e.1. to identify the data required to be collected pertaining to the items mentioned under para 7. 98 i \ . should becollected in line with theprovisions of IRC:5. preparation ofworking drawings for thestructure atthefinally approved site along with geometric parameters withrespect to the needs oftheproject anduser authority. 7. recommendations ofthe inspecting officers from field aswell asfrom design wing form thebasis offinal selection of the site. length ofthebridge. 'I At leastone visitshould be carried outin the beginning ofthis stage. This stage isconsidered very important asthe review ofthe data collected. However. their spread.1.4. most importantlytype ofthe structure i.3. higher number of inspections for site data/conditions atvarious stagesshouldbe planned to avoidmajor changes in the proposal at a laterdate.IRC:SP:82-2008 7. alignment. in caseof vented causeway and submersible bridge. Since theselection ofsubmersible structure. data in general.3. IRC:78 & IRC:SP:54 (Project Preparation Manual) toenable thecontrolling authority to takea decision about thetype. Officers from design office should also inspect sites andreview the adequacy ofthedatacollected.3. foundation etc.1. itsdesign i. during detailed engineering orexecution stage. to remove bottlenecks/constraints for successful timely completion ofthebridge project.3.1 above in various stages andto establish coordination with different departments responsible forsupply of dataetc. Feasibility stage inspection During thefeasibility stage. subsurface investigations.e.2. Construction/Implementation stage inspection Siteinspections are carried outto ensure thatassumptions made during thedetailed design arerealised at siteand to give further instructions to analyse theadditional datacollected during actual execution/effect modifications intheworking design drawings. design of approaches mainly depends onthe correctness ofthe flood levels. results andrecommendations should have theapproval ofthecompetent authority.

5" Post construction/maintenance stage inspection Regular inspections of submersible structures should be carried out as per the guidelines given inIRC:SP: 18 (Manual for Highway Bridge Maintenance Inspection).2.2. (a) The reachof the watercourse on bothu/s and dis ofthe proposed site shouldbe uniform distribution of discharge and velocity. Thelocationof causeways should generally be governed bythe approach roads alignment except indifficult site conditions. 99 .2. 7. Site Selection 7. 7. Thedistance between the finally selected sitefor the submersible bridge from themost suitable sitefor thehigh level bridge should be at least equal to the tentative length for the high level bridge at that site.3. Curvature in the watercourse especially on U/S sideleads to concentration of flow andhigher scouron concave side.3.2. Submersible bridge should generally beproposed ontheupstream side ofthe existing causeway so as to ensure thatthe afflux caused bythe construction ofthe submersible bridge doesnot reduce the functioning oftheexisting causeway.e. washing away of approaches. theselected site should represent themost desirable mix oftheattributes consistent with overall economy.2. (b) The watercourse should not havethe history of meandering i. Box girder sections of submersible bridges shall be cleared of siltdeposit aftereach flood season. (This can be ascertained from the past maps prepared over a longtime). but not less than 50 m in any case.1. Though it may notbepossible to satisfy allattributes simultaneously. Ifthe bank ontheconcave side iserodible thenit may leadto heavy recurring expenditure inprotecting the abutment andapproach onthat side. outskirting the structure etc. 7. bank erosion.IRC:SP:82-2008 7. (c) Thebridge siteshould be sufficiently away from confluence oflarge tributaries. changes in the course at the site. where turbulence andobliquity offlow can be expected whichresults in higher unpredictable scour andwater current forces onthesubmersible structure. Factors affecting site selection Someofthe important factors requiring dueconsideration in the selectionof a site are listed below. Thesiteforsubmersible structures should generally beselected downstream side of the most suitable site forthe high level bridge sothatthe same serves as diversion during the construction of high level bridge ata later date.1. IRC:SP:35 (Guidelines forInspection and Maintenance ofBridges) and MOSRT&H Manual forMaintenance of Roads 1983.

(e) The watercourse should benarrow to ensure large average depth offlow compared to maximum depth offlow insome reaches.1. Collection and presentation of design data Collection andpresentation of design data should be done aspertheprovisions contained in IRC:5. deck level.e.2. deeper scour as compared to highlevel bridges. portions of approaches are submerged during floods withpossibility of breachesor excessive damages/washing off and require heavy andproperly designed protection works with proper drainage system.3. preferably non-scouring type (i. Correct andproper presentation of dataenables thecontrolling authority toaccord expeditious approvals tothe details like length ofthesubmersible structure. Some of the essential maps andplansto be prepared and design data to be collected is listed inAppendix 7.3. Similarly. bedandslope protection to the approaches etc. Essential Design Data 7. As sucha dedicated team of officers and workers should beassigned the job of collection of essential datain caseof submersible structures to avoid major changes inthe proposal at a laterdateor heavy recurring maintenance cost. (i) The site should notinvolve construction ofhigh embankment in submersible portion of approaches and/or overexposed rocky strata. approaches.3. (f) Thesiteshould offer possibilities of constriction in thewaterway inthe range of to ofthe waterway required for a high level bridge. type ofthe structure. 7. (g) The bed conditions should offer good foundation conditions. 7. foundations. (h) Thesiteshould offer straight approaches andsquare crossing. IRC:78 andIRC:SP:54 onthe subject. 100 .1 for guidance.lRC:SP:82-2008 (d) Thebanks should bewelldefined and fairly high atleast for the OFL. Hydrologic dataandriver characteristics playan important role in deciding the salient details of submersible structures asthese are subjected to frequent submergence with possibility of washing off/dislodgment ofsuperstructure from thesubstructure/excessive damage tosub structure andfoundation because of higher waterforces. General Dueattention should be paidto the collection and analysis of dataandfixing of salient design details of submersible bridges to avoid major changes intheproposal during execution or excessive maintenance problems during service. rocketc).

The height ofvented causeways may berestricted to 3 m above the deepest bed level (vi) Areaof vents in caseofvented causeways andwaterway of submersible bridge maybe worked outas perprocedure explained in Chapter 5 of these guidelines. i \ (iv) RTLIdeck level should be aslow aspossible in order to haveeconomical design. 7.IRC:SP:82-2008 7. extensive recurring maintenance/ repair costsetc.2. RTL incase of flush causeways/fords may bekept atbedlevel and may follow the cross-section ofthechannel to theextent possible . 7.4. DesignProcedure for Causeways A design procedure anda worked outexample ofvented causeway is given inAppendix 7.5. minimum heading upofwater of500 rom to generate velocity and minimum concrete cushion of 300 mmover hume pipes. level of deck may be fixed so that the structure serves asahigh level bridge during OFL buttobeover topped during higher floods. change ofcourse ofactive channel. Fig. 101 . annually/5 years etc.e. Deck level of submersible bridge isthen arrived atkeeping inview two aspects i.e. (i) Flood level during which thesubmersible bridge isto serve ashigh level bridge. otherwise theapproaches may be breached resulting in major portion of flow to pass through breaches in place of the main structure. (v) RTL incase ofvented causewa s rna beke t kee in . . In absence of any other guidelines following criteria may be adopted. sizeof ventas 1000 mm preferably 1200 mmfor proper maintenance. (i) Number andduration of interruptions to traffic may be reckoned from the flood level 200 mmabove RTLIdeck level. Design Flood Level. (ii) In case of submersible bridge.1 shows cross-section of a typical vented causeway. (iii) The deck level ofthesubmersible bridge should not behigherthan RTL ofapproaches likely to be' submerged during floods. Road Top Level/Deck Level Design flood level is fixed based onthe number and duration ofinterruptions totraffic ina year or inspecific period i. depending onthepresent volume oftraffic and importance of road. (ii) Flood level (with specific return period) during which thestructure is over.topped but depth of wateroverthe deck is safe for vehicular traffic say 200 mm with number of andduration of interruptions to traffic notexceeding the permissible values.

"_ . ".H._. 7.•••••• 00 I ROAD TOP LEVEL 00 -rACE WALL I I I I I ._. •• _. •••. .L. . • __ . .F.1 Typical Cross Section of Vented Causeway . Ii I Ii'i I i I I I 1 Ii If II I 7 PIPES 1200mm ig. ' •.

Such anarrangement avoids construction of 103 . always advisable that bridge engineer strikes a balance between thecostof the structure andprotection/training works onthe onehand andthe expected recurring costofmaintenance on theotherhand. (i) The length ofsubmersible structure across a watercourse with regular pathshould normally beneither lessthan water spread at designed flood level (which isbased onreturnperiod) plus2 m.3. 7. Inother words.2. where torrential velocities prevail. without creating major maintenance problems. Therefore. (iii) Abutments should notbe located inactive channel ofthewatercourse.7. which are expected topass through the structure andoverthe approaches without damaging the structure or appurtenances. Single span arrangement avoids construction ofpiers anditsfoundations in the middle ofthewatercourse (stream) where thewater is the deepest. From economic andaesthetic point ofview. while thisapproach eliminates the costof piers and its foundations. Single spanstructure. However.IRC:SP:82-2008 7. if feasible should be preferred especially in mountainous regions.7.6. Smaller length ofthestructure with less initial cost generally requires extensive protection! training works inaddition to increased recurring cost ofmaintenance and repairs andassuch may notbe economical for all situations even with protection works. (ii) The deck level of the structure should be as low as possible in order to have economical design ofsubstructure and foundations. I Length of Submersible Structure Length of a submersible structure is dependent onthe water spread at design flood level based onreturn period and oftotal discharge. 7.7. Asanyobstruction to free flow ofwater in watercourse affects the flow pattern. Following criteria may beadopted while selecting thelength ofthe submersible structure.3. This would have theadded advantage oflesser number of expansionjoints and bearings. which beable topass the maximum flows that areexpected without endangering the structure and appurtenances byscour. the proposed structure should preferably have oddnumber ofspans (1. it requires a stronger superstructure of bigger span andthe totalcost ofthe project may remain unaltered. (iv) Afflux atHFL (with return period of isnot abnormally high and unacceptable from environmental considerations orendangering the safety ofpeople orproperties. This also alleviates thechances ofwashing away ofpartly constructed foundations andsubstructure in case of watercourses of flashy nature. SpanArrangement 7.1. without causing unacceptable backwater effects upstream or affecting thelegitimate interests of thelocal people to unacceptable limits. economical length of a submersible structure isthe length.) ofequal length. Thelength should also beable topass through likely quantities ofdebris Qr logs orrolling boulders without endangering the structure orother property/locals as a result ofaccumulation. the number ofpiers (intermediate supports) should beas small aspossible because thesecause obstruction totheflow.7.therefore.5 etc. thearrangement selected should have minimum number of spans. It is. 7.

theusual practice is to adopt multiple span arrangements with small span lengths of equal length involving simple design. 7. Such arrangements generally do not cause major time/cost overrun. may prove more economical. span arrangements withvarying span lengths.8.7. repetitive operations. Span/vent arrangement should beevenly distributed inthe active channel portion to ensure that it does not cause the water toflow parallel to thecarriageway i. along theapproaches under normal conditions offlow. top ofbedprotection for a majority ofsubmersible structures) and solid wall type piers. 7. Inthecase ofcircular vents the clearspacing between thevents should beatleast halfthediameter ofthevents.6. 7.8.e.8. Some typical span arrangements andcross-sections successfully adopted in the pastfor submersible structures.7.4. 7.e. maximum utilization oflocal resources. easy in construction and rectificationsl modifications during execution stage.7. depending onsite conditions.4.2.IRC:SP:82-2008 pier foundations inthe middle ofthe active channel ofthewatercourse having maximum depth of water. 7. However. 104 . In the caseof submersible structures with raft foundations or isolated open foundations withfounding level not deeper than say 4 m below the anticipated maximum scour level (i. higher velocity offlow andthus reduces thecostofsubstructure andfoundations. 7. Therefore.8.5 x total height ofsubstructure from bottom of itsfoundation in metres.4. Selection of span length depends onthematerials to beusedin substructure and capacity ofthe founding stratato carry the loads and forces likelyto be transferred from the substructure and superstructure. onomica esigns wou genera y e given yeo owmg expressions: (i) Masonry arch structures Span = 2 x total height of substructure (upto introdos of thekeystone) frombottom of itsfoundation inmetres. 7. 7. areshown inFigs. heavy scouring occurs onthe sides due to high velocity jets reaching onstill water region. length of span (even in case of vented causeways) should preferably not beless than 1.8.3. When vents are concentrated at the central portion of causeway. preferably 1200 mm. (iii) Typical arch span arrangement ofsubmersible bridge is shown in Fig.1.5.5 mand internal diameter ofhumepipe not lessthan 1000 mm. Inthecase ofsubmersible structures (except formajor bridges). Span Length 7.7. 7. Fromthe pointof view of proper maintenance. (ii) Reinforced Cement Concrete slab structures Span = 1. the vents should beuniformly distributed all along the length ofCauseway.2 to 7.

.45-11. •• .. . _.. DE ­ ...L.f...­ .99 226.... I I 7 2 . 1 RCC RIGID 00 I Fig..63 ROAD TOP ARRANGEMENT RIGID f'ROM-9. - __.. .. 7. AT HARMANGHAT ON NARMADA LENGTH - H. SAGAR +-__.69-1 TOUGH SLAB NOS RCC ARCH 1 M CLEAR SPAN.. Span of Submersible Bridge at Barmanghat on Narmada 00 ..2.362. . aa H.­ ._________________________ ..._. ._ .F.. .L ._._ .

-- 175 :( --_.200 i .•• MANJ)LA . .. ... TROUGH SLAB _ 175 J30X 16 NOS. 7.. Typical Continuous Deck with Precast Elements . -.. SECTION ! ..•.-.Jl!(L 150 1----.3. Fr­ .. _-_.. ._---_... --- . I 00 I 00 Rec RIGID FRAME .- _. ___ i .... 13590 .. { . .... ­ DJNDO . o .. 1 I . .._-_. _____ I CROSS... ----_1 -. I I ..

.5m FOR FOR IlDE AAOl THE THE Of IS Of • / • BE AS PER 11/8/1971.. 10 . i I . II II i C/C c/C F. L.C-C. . 1..I -. -..j 12... I. lIE 10. UP TO 750m 11._. I.) d) I I - I .I o I I.Jo::. I U __ . IIOT1011 l00f)rnm C/C ... I __ F . THERE ! KERB 8.' .I 1 .2-10' CVT:::QfL WAH -e 00 I 7. 0) . .4. ··--r-----­ - --- " • . . NO. R. II I . - J ' . . '" _ .--.. '.1 I 415-Ornm • I . Arch Type Vented Causeway (Single Lane) 00 . F . I ..:.1 . .. ' I I " .. I ! . a . .. 1J1-8 (3) OF BE PRlMDED IN c/C 8.. .. TO __.Y Of 1. IS 7.__ - - -.• I. SHAlL BE PRlMDED.... .

I CURTAIN WALL .. 00 ..LENGTH OF 89 10m / . BRIDGE WITH RAFT F'OUNDATlON ON SANDY BED 7.5.. Submersible Bridges on Sandy Beds .C... WITH RCC ON SANDY .. ...•• 1500 \ (b) l C.' . - J ..' v (a) 00 BRIDGr.

. .. 7.. Cross Section of Typical Voided and Solid Slab Type Submersible Bridges 00 .. _ . I I ._­ ------- CROSS SECTION I . STEEL PIPE 'mm' 25M SPAN SUPPORT xo 00 I Fig... __. ..·_····· SLA13 I fiM __ -I __ ... . .... . . OF' !{CC CONTINUOUS SPAN ·... 0 0 I • ) SECTION IAT MID SPAN SIMPLY SUPPORTED . . . . 0 .. . ...•.. ". _ w.. . . . . . ..". _­ . ._. ... . ....6... . . . 7500 450 I "" - 000 0 m" •• _ . -. .

I I I I L_OPENING AT 3. requirement ofspecial type ofmachinery/technology/supervision. aesthetics and requirements.0m I c/c I I 1 i o! .0m I c/c 6000 (a) CROSS SECTION OF PRESTRESSED CONCRETE BRIDGE ON SHABARI (30m SPAN) 8400 450. Types of Superstructure 7. Each type has limitations with respect to economy.1. Cross-Section of Typical Box Type Submersible Bridges (Note the Surge Holes) 7. Since themain consideration in adoption ofsubmersible structures inplace ofhigh level structures is initial low cost.9. 7500 250J o 225 1200. Thetype of superstructure to be adopted should be selected keeping in view the economics. 110 .7.IRC:SP:82-2008 -_ 300 SURGE HOLE AT 3. 150 i iI I -­ _ (b) CROSS SECTION OF NARMADA BRIDGE AT PUNASA (50mSPAN) Fig.9. it isnecessary to adopt the mostsuitable andeconomical type of superstructure for submersible structures. 7.

10.5 to 6. cast in-situ construction may pose some problems due tohigh velocity ofstream and assuch.9. forces dueto water current forces spandrel archor circular corrugated/hume pipe openings may be provided in the spandrels. Iii order to reduce horizontal .8.7.9. Type of superstructure 1.9. multi-cell boxstructures should be preferred forsubmersible structures. arches.5.0 m have been extensively constructed in the past. 7. Inorder toreduce water current forces onthe superstructure and turbulence.9. 7.No. Table 7. it is advisable that the shape andtype of superstructure is selected basedon the model studies forthe proposed site. 7.IRC:SP:82-2008 7. 7. 7.0 Remarks Segmented or semicircular arch structures with short height of substructure and raft foundations upto 4. The floor can be either horizontal slightly thedeepest bedlevel or inverted shaped arch (such type of construction is most suitable for the sites having low safe bearing capacity say 150 kN/m2• Series of arches may be used with 3rd or 5'h pier designed as abutment pier. III . 7. 7.20 m (vertical) forproper maintenance.3. suspended spanor light/steel truss type superstructure are unsuitable for submersible bridges andshould not beprovided.6. Use of stonel brickmasonry arches may be restricted to seismic Zones II andIII with height of substructure not exceeding 6m above foundation level.9.2. Executing agencies (Contractors) generally prefer the type with minimum construction time. not requiring specialized skilled labour and supervision. Inthe case of structures inmountainous reaches. Slender sections with complicated formworks requiring special precautions/ supervision for proper compaction ofconcrete orinvolving stage concreting orwhich are likely to bedisplaced during floods or cause higher hydrodynamic forces onsubstructure and foundations should beavoided.9.9.9.4. For major bridges over rivers with high velocities during floods or meandering nature.1 S.50 m(horizontal) and 1.9. arrangement with beams cast incasting yard at siteand launched in position may bemore appropriate.1 for ready reference and guidance. Different types ofsuperstructures with suggested span range suitable for submersible structures are shown in Table 7. I I 1 Masonry Arch Suggested Snan ranze (m) 1. Balanced cantilever.9. 7. Integral bridges vizframed structures. aerofoil type cross section ofthe superstructure should be adopted. Vent size ofthe arrangement should not beless than 1.

4.C.C.C. 9.C. R. Simply supported R.0 May be preferred to box type superstructures. Prestressed Concrete simply supported voided slab (precast and pre/ post.C.0t045. Box Cell type structure l.1.IRC:SP:82-2008 . arch 3. closelyspaced T-beam and slab 10. Piers and Abutments 7.. General Location ofpiers inthe middle of active channel and abutments inactive channel should be avoided. Prestressed Concrete simply supported box girder (cast-in-situ and post tensioned) 30.0t025. 7.tensioned) 15.C.Box Girder 20. spandrel arch or circular corrugated/hume pipe openings may be provided in the spandrels.0 to 20.0t025.tensioned) 15. voided slab 12. 10. May be considered in view of reduction in expansion joints and bearings provided a rocky stratum is available at shallow depths 7. 3. R.0 to 25.0 Should be preferred overT-beam and slab arrangement or R. Prestressed Concrete simply supported voided slab (cast-in-situ and post. 8.C. .CC.2 m for propermaintenance. solidslab 1. Simplysupported R. .C.C.C.C.0 Most suitable for sites where rocky stratum is available at shallow depths.C. 6.C.0 to30.5 to 10. 5. boxgirder type.10.C.0 The spacing of the longitudinal beams is to be closer in case of superstructures for submersible bridges (say not exceeding the depth of the girder) so as to reduce the depth.0 Suitable for sites with founding strata having low safe bearing capacity say below 150 kN/mi .0 m requiring deep foundations may be proposed only ifrequired bytheclient. 2.0 Larger span (not largerthan 15.0t030. Rigid -Frame or Portal type3-4 continuous spans 10.0 Minimum inside height of the cell should not be less than 1. 3 to 4 span continuous R. R.10. type being submersible structure.0to 15.0 Very suitable for submersible structures on account of ease of constructions as these are generally located in isolated places.0 To be considered in case of watercourses with high velocities. Simply supported castin-situ R.5t05.C.0 Prestressed concrete construction should be preferred to R. In orderto reduce horizontal forces due to water current forces.C. 112 li .0 m in seismic Zone V) say upto 35. 11.

Abutments Open or spill through abutments though economical. Therefore. Alternatively. the same could be converted to the similar shape as pierat a date. carrying large amounts ofdebris. 7. are notrecommended for submersible structures over watercourses ofhighvelocity.3. In case it is notpossible at a particular site. Size of substructure (piers and abutments) and foundations depends onthematerial used.10. it is necessaryto provide straight return walls in full length ofembankments (anchoring inbanks). This type is economical for smaller heights upto 4. closely spaced reinforcement cage and precautions during concreting forproper compaction. are notrecommended for adoption for submersible structures. Hollow type piers though economical for larger heights. Single column or multicolumn arrangements connected bydiaphragm walls are economical for watercourses requiring higher substructure.e. require complicated form work. 7. Abutments should preferably be located inbanks to avoid embankment forapproaches. Abutments ofsubmersible bridges should bedesigned asabutment piers sothat ifrequired.10.2. the piers/ abutments should beas short aspossible with maximum possible span for a site.0mand most suitable for watercourses with orwithout floating debris. 113 . Forlarger heights either boxorcounter-fort type are economical. side pitching and toewall/flexible apron'aspertheprovisions ofIRC: 89applicable forspurs to avoid excessive damages/washing away/ maintenance cost. floating bigsizestones etc. capacity ofthe founding strataandheight of deck from foundation level. However ifthe stream carries floating debris the diaphragm walls connecting thecolumns would have to beoffull height soasto avoid the possibility ofthe debris getting entangled between thecolumns.0m.IRC:SP:82-2008 . embankment ofapproaches likely to be submerged during floods should beprovided with suitably designed protection work i. Solidwall type abutments are mostcommon because of easy construction and simple formwork and areeconomical for small heights say upto 4. The only disadvantage in both types is complicated formwork and more construction time when compared with solid wall type abutments Boxtype provides opportunity to design engineers to reduce the length of cantilever return wall. Piers Solid wall type piers arevery common being simpler indesign and construction. Piers should be provided at bothends (upstream and downstream sides) withsuitably shaped cutand ease waters extending upto full height.

11.2. Following pressures may beconsidered atthecritical condition: (a) Pressure due to static head due to afflux on upstream side and trough of standing wave on downstream side: The pressure due to static head can becalculated as follows: The pressure due to static head will be zero at the surface of water and will increase linearlyto PI = what depth 'h' from the surface.2.2.1.11. Design live loads The design live loads for submersible bridge should beinaccordance with relevant provisions ofIRC: 6.11.11. and there is a trough of standing wave onthedownstream sidedue to high velocity through vents. Structural Aspects 7. 7.1.11.2. 7. Where. Forces 7. Generally the critical condition for a submersible structure is when the affluxed flood level on upstream side of superstructure is just atthedeck level or RTL. Adequacy/stability ofthe structures needs tobeinvestigated for critical condition. Top level ofdeck Soffit level ofdeck Scourlevel 11 wh II 114 .IRC:SP:82-2008 7. w = unitweight ofwater h = afflux or depth ofsuperstructure (including wearing coat) whichever is more. below whichit will be constant as indicated inthesketch below. depending onthe width of carriageway.

(c) Pressure due to eddies P3 (Pressure dueto eddies) = w (V v 2g Where. Vv V = velocity offlow through thevents = velocity of approach 115 . g = Acceleration due to gravity) (d) Pressure due to friction of water against piers and bottom of slab P4 (Pressure due to friction) = f p (C x V Where. Vv = velocity of flow through thevents V = velocity of approach (w = unitweight of water. Vv = velocity offlow through thevents (m/sec) C = valueof constant generally taken as 10% (e) Force due to uplift bead under superstructure Thisforce actsvertically upwards andis given by Upliftforce = wh x Asp Where. Asp h areaof the superstructure m plan = the upliftheadunder the deck slab which may be taken as higherof the following two values: (i) Afllux (ii) Thickness of superstructure including wearing coat. f p friction coefficient = 1 = massdensity of water (wig) = To obtain different force effects.2.IRC:SP:82-2008 (b) Pressure due to velocity head Thepressure 'P 2' dueto velocity head shall bedetermined as detailed 'inpara4.headlossdueto increase in velocity through vents (Vv) Head loss duetoincrease invelocity through thevents iscalculated byfollowing expression Where.2. theindividual values of pressure (Pl' P2' P3' P4) areto be multiplied bythe surface areaof pertinent bridge components (of Superstructures and Sub-structures) normal to thedirection of flow.

11. 116 . Anchor rods ofstainless steel bolts should be provided between thedeckslaband thePiers/abutments to prevent upliftofthedeck. Thesum total of allthehorizontal forces may betaken as acting atthetopofthe pierto testthestability ofthestructure against overturning.2. Structural adequacy of substructure andfoundations should be investigated for all combinations as specified in Clause 706 ofIRC:78.3.11. 7.1.3.3.3. 7. Inabsence ofmodel studies.11.11. 7.3.4. for superstructure.3.2. All loadcombinations as specified in IRC:6 should be investigated under the following flood conditions: (a) Flood level just clear of soffitof the superstructure when the structure is to serve as high level bridge (b) Flood level at deck level (c) HFL (d) LWL (for design ofabutments only) 7. wind and seismic effects aspertheload combination given inIRC :78 ignoring friction. effect of buoyancy should also be considered while working outstresses likely to develop inthesuperstructure during Hood conditions.8.11.6.11.5.Combination ofloads and forces and additional design considerations 7. Additional load of 150 mmthick siltwith density equal to 15 kN/m3 spread over theentire soffit (incase ofboxgirders) anddeck slabs ofalltypes ofsuperstructure should also be considered: 7.12. 7.11. 7. Restraining devices/stoppers should bedesigned to cater fortheentire horizontal forces dueto water currents.3.12.2. Reliefdueto ventholes provided indeckslab/Tbeam girders/soffit slabof box cell type superstructure and in spandrels of arch stmctme shollld he ignored 7.IRC:SP:82-2008 .3.7.12.5. 7.7.11.11. horizontal forces due towater currents onsubmerged superstructure as per Clause 213 ofIRC:6 should be based on the value of 'K' as 1.11. 7.11.3.3.3.12.8 above shallbe provided on pieri abutment caps toavoid sliding of superstructure intransverse direction. Properly designed stoppers as perpara7.3. In caseof pre-stressed andarch type super structure. Effects ofbuoyancy should be considered inthedesign of abutments assuming thatthefill behind abutment hasbeenremoved byscour (with scour allaround) 7. Structural members should be designed forsevere conditions of exposure. Other Design Precautions 7.1.3.

7. bearings. Vent holes of 100 mm diameter spacing notexceeding 3mcentre tocentre inhorizontal direction and 1mcentre to centre invertical direction should beprovided in thespandrels of arch bridge. Inorder tocater for any possible relative longitudinal undue movement ofbearings over theabutment resulting insuperstructure ends jamming against thedirtwall. a larger gap may beprovided between thesuperstructure endand thedirtwall. 7. (iv) Copper bearings with copper. Inparticular the 117 . (vi) PTFE bearings with stainless steel components and with galvanised anchorage may be considered for longer spans than25 m. though adopted in past involve complicated detailing of reinforcement. 7.4. more construction time. Sufficient number ofvent holes of 100 mm diameter.4. General: Bearings are vital components ofabridge since these allow longitudinal and/or transverse rotations and/or movement of superstructure withrespect to the substructure (thus relieving stresses due to expansion. tin and iead in ratio with proper anchorage system may beconsidered between 10m to 20 m.5. Superstructure andsubstructure should be given stream lineshape on upstream and downstream side. should beprovided inthe deck and soffit slabs and webs ofT-beam/box type superstructure to improve stability during floods. All bearing assemblies should be installed in accordance withthe instructions contained inIRC codes and specifications and shown ontheapproved drawings. Bearings 7. minimum three numbers per span orat a spacing of3 minthe longitudinal direction.13. (ii) Metallic bearings (mild/cast steel) are not suitable for submersible structures which are subjected tosevere conditions ofexposure during floods and should beavoided. formwork. (v) Elastomeric bearings with central anchorage may be considered for span range of 10mt030m. be exercised in selection oftheright type ofbearings for submersible bridges based onthefollowing guidelines: (i) Solid Slab Superstructure with span Iength upto 10m may generally beproposed to restdirectly onunyielding supports (pier/abutment caps) without any bearings.12.1. (iii) R. contraction and rotation) andeffectively transfer loads andforces from superstructure to substructure.13. Adequate care should therefore.IRC:SP:82-2008 7. 7.13.12.3. (vii) Minimum 3number ofbearings should beprovided ateach endofthe superstructure from stability considerations.C.13. special precaution/supervision for proper compaction ofconcrete and are difficult to repair/replace if required at a later date and as suchshould be avoided.2.C.13. 7. The design of elastomeric and PTFE bearings should be in conformity with IRC: 83 Part II andIIIrespectively.

it is desirable to 118 . 7.14.IRC:SP:82-2008 following important points should notbelost sight of: (i) All bearings should be set truly level so as to have full and even seating. (ii) The bottoms ofgirders resting onthebearing should beplane and truly horizontal. Expansion Joints 7. Thin mortar pads (notexceeding 12 mm) may beused to meet thisrequirement. General: The primary requirement ofanexpansion jointisthatitshould becapable of accommodating all movements ofthe deck viz.5 mmfrom a straight edge placedin any direction across the area. expansionjoints should berobust. (v) Placing ofbearings ofdifferent sizes next to each other to support a span should be avoided.14. The protection should be such thatit canbe dismantled after theconstruction is over without disturbing thebearing assembly. suitable for all loads and local actions under allweather conditions anddurable. Forthis. The replacement of allwearing parts should be possiblein a simple way. the concrete surface should be level suchthat the variation is not more than 1. pedestals. The replacement ofanexpansionjointalways involves traffic interruption. (ii) Cause noinconvenience/hazard to theroad userandoffer good riding comfort. it must notcauseunacceptable stresses either inthejointitselfor inthestructure byway ofrestraint and impact. (vii) The bearings should beso protected while concreting thedeck insitu. translation androtation and inthe process. (iv) Forspans in grade. (iii) Should becapable ofwithstanding thetraffic loads including dynamic effects. (viii) Special attention should be given to thetemporary fixtures to be provided for the bearings during theconcreting ofsuperstructure inorder toensure that thebearings do notgetdisplaced during the initial installation itself. (vi) Installation of multiple bearings onebehind the other for a single line of support should notbe permitted.C. thebearings should be placed horizontal by using tapered sole plates or suitably designed R.1. the expansion joints shouldperform the following basic functions: (i) Should permit theexpansion/contraction ofthespan/spans towhich itisfixed without causing any distress or vibration to thestructure. specially for submerged conditions. Thetemporary fixtures should beremoved as soon asthesuperstructure hasattained itsrequired strength. In general. (ix) Bearings provided at any end of superstructure should be alonga single line of support and of identical dimensions. (iii) For elastomeric bearing pad. Therefore. sothatthere isnoflow of mortar or any other extraneous matter into thebearing assembly and particularly ontothebearing surfaces.C. (iv) Bewatertight and becapable ofexpelling debris without clogging/without imparting higher force onthestructure than what it is designed for.

7.16. 20 mmthick pre-mouldedjoint filler andjoint sealing compound.oint arecorrugated copper plate (minimum 2 mmthick). 7. cement contents (kg/cum) and maximum water cement ratioshould be as suggested in Table 7.5. wearing coat(notmonolithic withdeck slab) in concrete gradeof minimum M 30 andwatercement ratio not exceeding0.16.14.4. (vi) Ensure accessibility forinspections and easy maintenance with allparts vulnerable to wearbeing easily replaceable. 7.2. 7.3. \19 . the following additional criteria may also beconsidered for adoption. In view of the likelihood of the structure gettingsubmerged during floods. 75 mmthickR. 7.4 shouldbe considered for submersible structures. Compression sealjoint consisting of galvanized steel armoured nosing at two edges of the joints gap. However. Wearing Coat Unless otherwise specified.C. Nojoint is needed fora movement upto 6mm as such openjointwithappropriate edge/nose protection andjointfilermay be considered. 7.16.14.2.14. Expansionjoints should be designed as per provisions ofIRC:SP:69 and steel components glavanized prior to installation. compressed and fixed into the jointgap withspecial adhesive binder may be considered for movements upto 40mm. Filler joints are suitable for movements upto 10 mm or a span of 10 m.1.15. (v) Surface exposed to traffic should beskid free andresistant to polishing. (i) Minimum strength of concrete. The components ofthis type ofj.14.IRC:SP:82-2008 have expansionjointextending for full width including the kerb aswell as in footpath portion. specifications ofjointsprovided in footpath and kerb may be different thanthatprovided inthemain carriageway portion. 20 mmthick compressible fiber board to protectthe edges. suitably anchored to the deck concrete and a pre-formedchloroprene elastomer/ closed cell foam jointsealer. Materials used inconstruction ofsubmersible structures shall conform to relevant IRC Codes.C. Material Specifications 7. 7. The reinforcements placed atthe middle depth ofthewearing coatmayconsistof 8 mmdiameter bars @200mm centres reducing to 100 mmcenters in both directions over a striponoo mmneartheexpansionjoint.2.

Annular space around foundations inrock should befilled with cement concrete of minimum grade ofMl5. the substructure should be provided withanadditional sacrificial cover andricher concrete. 7. the cement content shall be increased by 10 per cent.5 or 10mm sizeaggregates.mwhichever is higher.m whichever is lower.3.45 Reinforced Cement Concrete members (RCC members) M25 360 0.16. it maybe reduced suitably but the reduction should not be morethan 10per centor 30 kg percu. 7. For larger size aggregates. Use ofthermo-mechanically treated (T.2 Structural Member Minimum strength of concrete Minimum cement content (kg/cu. (ii) Hand mixed concrete shall be avoided but if unavoidable for small isolated causeways.6. 7. 7.5.16. In case of streams carrying abrasive particles and velocity higher than4 m/sec. Brick/stone masonry work should be in not leaner than cement mortar of 1:3. (iii) Leveling course for masonry abutment. M35 400 0.4.16.M.m) Maximum water cement ratio PlainCement Concrete members (PCC members) M20 310 0. (iv) Concrete for piers should not be leaner than M30.40 Prestressed Concrete member (pSC) .40 Notes: (i) Theabove minimum cement content isbased on20 mm aggregate (nominal maximum size).IRC:SP:82-2008 Table 7.T.16. it shall be increased suitably but the increment should not be less than 10per cent or 40 kg per cu.) barsconforming to IS: 1786 should be preferred. For 12. return/wing/toe wall should be M15. pier. 120 .

thelength ofroad alignment shown should not be less than500 m on either sideof the submerged portion of approaches.3. possible sites for submersible structure along withalignments of approaches. nearby important townsl villages.1 (Reference: Para 7. Table 7. In case ofstructures with length more than 60m. \ 121 . (c tosufficient lengths indicating the portions likely tobesubmerged during Hoods.3 Distance to which survey planto beextended (m) Scale (km') I.No . 3 150 1emto 10 mor 111000 2.000) should show thenorth line. location ofthe project area. . Not less than 1 emto 50 m or 115000 To be decided by an experienced design engineer (streams) (iii) I A site plandrawn to a suitable scale should extend at least100m uls anddis from the centerline ofthecrossing or atleast two loop length on U/S and disofthe proposed sitein case ofmeandering watercourses and should show thefollowing details: (a) sites considered and site selected for the submersible structure along with the chainages. 3 to 15 400 3. structures onthe watercourse inthevicinity. plans and topographical features (i) Anindex map (toposheets in scale one emto 500 mor 1/50.2) COLLECTION AND PRESENTATION OF DESIGN DATA Some of the essential maps and plans to be prepared and design datato be collected and presented in the report arelistedbelow for ready reference and guidance I. name ofdistrict and state.5km or width between the banks whichever is more 4.3. The distances to which the contour plan should extend depends ontheextent of catchment area and should beslightly more than the coverage in siteplan(vide subpara3 below) asgiven in Table 7. north line and latitude and longitude ofthe siteas measured from the survey ofIndiamaps. some landmarks for easy identification during reconnaissance etc.IRC:SP:82-2008 Appendix 7. Maps. (ii) Acontour survey planofthewatercourse showing topographical features and extending uls anddisofthe sites for submersible structure considered and also most suitable site for high levelbridge (tobe constructed lateron). (b) mostsuitable siteforhigh level bridge (tobe constructed at a laterdate). >15 1. Meandering watercourses Catchment area S. overall road network.

road. (d) . location. at/near the proposed siteof thesubmersible structure anda Cross-section oft] cross-sections at suitable distances as given in Table 7. (1) existing crossing structures onthesame watercourse.OFL and HFL. services.distance from theproposed siteforthecrossing. In casethe catchmentarea ofthe watercourse is restricted area. nature andneeds ofeach submersible structure. (k) location oftrial pits/borings withtheir identification number. (f) name of watercourse. (iv) Catchment areamapprepared from thetoposheets/ contour survey plan. Theidentified catchment should also include thecontour. 122 I . with reference tothetemporary benchmark andground levelsforsufficient distance beyond the edge ofthe channel. alignment ofapproaches. location ofcross-sections (CS) ofthe stream taken within the areaof the plan. places of worship. marshes. watercourse. Thecatchment areaof a submersible structure should be identified andmarked clearly on the topographical map.L. (i) location and reduced level ofthetemporary bench mark used as datum location of the longitudinal section (LS) andcross sections (CS). cultivated land. rockout crops.IRC:SP:82-2008 (d) private land boundaries. if any near to theproposed site which may affect the approach alignments. (m) any otherfeature considered necessary bythe survey party.tothe extent possible. wells.4. name offerry. permanent buildings. ofpermanent station/ bench marks/GTS benchmarks ifavailable. existing landusepattern likeforests. (e) location ofthetrialpits/bores. direction offlow during HFL and OFL presence of islands if any. natural andartificial storage areas etc. The scale andsizeto be. both upstream and downstream drawn to a horizontal scale notless than 1emto 10m or 1/1000 andvertical scalenot lessthan lcm to 1m or 1/1 00should indicate: (a) name ofproject. slope bothin longitudinal and crossdirections. graveyards etc. (h) reference and R. ponds. location of deep channels. the concerned department should makeeffortsto obtain the toposheets forthe project. (c) LWL.used in the catchment areamap depends on size. (b) bedlevels at close intervals depending onthe cross slope ofbed inthe channel and banks.. bank lines. desert. (g) names ofnearby town/locality and road leading to the site. villages/localities oneither side. (e) course/(s) ofthewatercourse.barrenland. angle of skew/square crossing. is required in orderto assess the basic parameters of discharge etc.

Hydraulic datacollected for the purpose ofthe preliminary projectreport (PPR)hasto be good enough forthe detailed engineering also.waterspread at H F L) l. In case an existingroad or cart track crosses the watercourse at the site selectedfor the submersible structure. (vi) \ i I II. decklevel for theproposed structure andheight ofimmediate approach embankment. Threenumbers of cross-sections (one atthe proposed sitefor the submersible structure and oneeach at u/sanddisofthe proposed site) aregenerally sufficient to yield necessary data for the designof waterway. the cross section should betakenat a shortdistance onthe d/s ofthe selected site. if anyconducted for 123 . duration. A longitudinal section ofthechannel along theapproximate center lineoftheactive (deep water) channel between the boundaries of the survey plandrawnto suitable horizontal scaleandvertical scale.W. approach portions. lengthof the structure. locationof piers/ abutments. the cross sectionshould not be taken along the centerline ofthe road/track asthe same willnotrepresent the natural shape andsizeofthe watercourse.IRC:SP:82-2008 (f) nature ofthe subsoil in the bed. Size of watercourse/channel (Ws .No.L. In suchcases.4 S. Hydraulic data andwatercourse characteristics The basic purpose of collectinghydrological data is to studythe rain fall pattern like intensity. Very small (Ws<30 m) 50 2. frequency andrun-offcharacteristics ofthebasinunder consideration andthereby assess the likely discharge through the watercourse. should show: (a) Locationsoftheproposed sitefor crossing and cross-sections taken.L. Small (Ws>30 mbut<60m). L. (g) outcrops of rocks. (b) H. depth of trialpits/bores withproper identification number andtype of sub-soil strata.F.F. O. 100 3. No separate hydraulic data collection is envisaged fordetailed engineering except thatfor model studies. banks. (c) Bedlevels at suitable intervals and (d) Name ofthe project andchannel if any.L. not less than 1 em to 10m or 1/1000.. pools/dips if anyin the approach portion and Table 7.. Medium (Ws>60 m but<300 m) 300 4. Large (Ws>300 m) 500 Distance in m(upstream and downstream of crossing) at which cross-sections should generally be taken unless otherwise specified by the Design Engineer/fixed after site inspection..

welldefined. (viii) Rainfall data indicating (a) (b) (c) (d) Maximum precipitation inone hour and 24hours Rainfall distribution incatchment Duration andfrequency offloods Rain gauge data ofstorms for which corresponding watercourse gauge datais available (data for unit hydrograph) (e) Average annual rainfall characteristics supported with relevant meteorological records. should beascertained correctly. theextent of such afflux beascertained for arriving attherough assessment of discharge. high or loworflat. debris) andartificial (dams/ weirs /spurs andbridges etc. if any. cross-sections and longitudinal section prepared aspersub­ paras (iv) to (vi) of! above respectively. (v) In case a causeway ortheexisting bridge is of insufficient waterway resulting in afflux. bends. (vii) Skew angle of crossing. HI. The hydraulic data collected should include: (i) Catchment areamap. (a) Seasonal orperennial (b) Braided. (d) Conditions of banks i. weeds etc. Degradation ofthe watercourse channel may invite higher flood discharge whereas aggradation may result inhigher flood levels and bank spills. rapids. Skewangle should be measured in relation to thedirection of at/near designed flood level (i. HFL ascertained from watermarks if any onthe permanent objects on the banks supplemented by local enquiry from nearby inhabitants as to the highest flood levels reached during their living memory. during floods from local enquiry. OFL) and not in relation tothebank line.IRC:SP:82-2008 structures across large rivers. . Velocity offlow should preferably beascertained during floods bytheuseof floats bydetermining thetime to traverse two fixed points at measured distance apart. natural (drops...e.e. erodible ornon-erodible. I 124 I . (iii) OFL and LWL ascertained with reference to watermarks if any onthe permanent objects onthebanks supplemented bylocal enquiry from nearby inhabitants. flashy. meandering orstraight (c) Other classifications like bouldery. (ii) I I (vi) Names and approximate discharges of all tributaries joining the river within a reasonable distance u/softhesite under consideration. Watercourse/channel/river eharaeteristies: (i) Alldetails ofconfiguration ofthewatercourse asmay berelevant to hydrological analysis (given below for readyreference) may be obtained from ground survey. All controls. khadir width (e) Sediment load aggradation ordegradation behaviour. (iv) Velocity offlow and presence offloating debris etc. presence of pools. These factors have direct bearing ondesign of waterway clearances andapproaches andstructure.) should beidentified and effect onthedischarge atthesiteshould beassessed.

deck level ofthe structure andheight of embankments etc. additional/confmnatory explorationsiscarried out.IS:2131. functioning of the existing bridges onthesame stream inthevicinity ofthe proposed sitehelps in fixation ofdesign data. frequency. (iii) Data regarding existing bridge structures: Data regarding flood records. high level orlowlevel structure). OFL ascertained from records or marks on substructure. identification ofadditional datarequired tobecollected andplanning of theproject in a systematic manner. waterway.(GAD) indicating the salient hydraulic data. based on whichdesign wasmade and to affect suitable modifications to suittheconditions metat specific foundation locations.e. (c) Length and depth of submergence. IS: 1888. HFL. OFL influence of afflux onproject areas etc. Guidance forsubsoil investigation may betaken from theStandards listed below: IS:1498. ifany. clear waterway. scour observations. j e preliminary and detailed However. (d) Number andlength of spans.IRC:SP:82-2008 (ii) Flood flow data A reliable and correct collection of flood dataforms the basisof decision about thetype of structure (i. Thesub-surface investigations are carried outintwo stages. Sub-soil data (a) The mainaimof sub-surface exploration (investigations) is to collectsub-soildata in order to determine the suitabilityor otherwise oftheavailable soilor rockandthedesign parameters for foundations ofsubmersible structure. in of structures with multiple (more thantwo) spans ofmore than 15 m orwell/pile foundations or availability of suitable foundation strata at varying depth below bed level with abrupt changes inthickness. number and sizes of vents. Themain objective of additional exploration during execution is to confirm the characteristics of sub-soil materials established during detailed exploration. and frequency (including duration) ofinterruptions to traffic in caseof causeways/ submersible structures. IS:4968 (Parts 1 to 3) IRC:75 and IRC:78 125 . IV. adequacy of otherwise of waterway with special reference to silted up spans or signs of unde scour or attacks on abutments andapproaches in case of bridges and (e) Observed afflux. (b) Observed HFL. Allin-situ tests should invariably besupplemented bylaboratory investigations. Historical andflood data records maintained bythe irrigation orother authority helps in arriving at a realistic assessment of likely discharge. IS:2720 IS:4434. The data should include thefollowing: (a) Description withsketches showing relevant dimensions or general arrangement drawing. IS:1892. IS:2132.

The flow conditions are analyzed with reference totop oftheprotected bedand ifthepercentage obstruction to flow attheRoad Top Level (RTL)/deck level is keptbelow 60% andatthe most 70%. raised face walls and pavedroad surface. Internal diameter of circular corrugated/RCC hume pipeshould not be lessthan 1. I. (ii) Collect hourly/ daily record offlood levels fora representative monsoon period andplot it ona graph asexplained inpara 5. etc. Step by step procedure: (i) Collect normal hydraulic data. (iii) Plotdefined cross-section inthevicinity of proposed siteto a natural scale.1 of Chapter3. HFL.However. Thecritical conditions for design are: (i) (ii) When theflow is at RTL When the flow is at HFL I II.2 m vertical. Atflood levels higher than the road toplevel.2 ofChapter 5.0 m or 1.1. the ventsize should not be lessthan mhorizontal and 1. then normally nooutflanking would take place. (iv) Plot conditions. Important components of a vented causeway arevents.1 IRC:SP:82-2008 Appendix 7. catchment area. siteplan.2m preferably. (vi) FixRoad Top Level (RTL) keeping inview following guidelines:­ (a) of crossing at proposed location to the natural soil It should be aslowaspossible buthigher thanthelowest RTL determined vide step (v) above. L­ section. determine thelowest required Road Top Level soas to satisfy the requirements of frequency and duration of submergence indicated in Table 3. (b) In case of boxor simply supported slab/arch type structures. such as. bedprotection. if decided bythecompetent authority. this step be skipped in thecase ofless important crossings withlength of causeway lesssay 30m. tidelevel. which together ensure stability and preventoutflanking. (v) With thehelp ofthegraph (ii) above. (c) Cushionoverthe structures should not be less than thickness of proposedroad pavement subject tominimum 300 mm. 126 I I . thepercentage obstruction goes onreducing andthe structure will be safe.5) DESIGN PROCEDURE AND WORKED OUT EXAMPLE FOR A TYPICAL VENTED CAUSEWAY I I. annual rainfall. A simple approach fordesigning typical vented causeways is given below for the guidance of newEngineers.2 (Reference: Para 7.

====== -1::------------- WAll -- ELEVATION :.' -s. . Details of Vented Causeway (Appendix 7. . . ..• .7...1:100 D/S r-------r------------I I I I L 0 0 0 0 0 o .HIGH . .• '<. .' STONE PITCHING 600 o: 00 I ig.. _ 1 IN 1 IN 7500 7500 I ------ . . ." . _ I I I I r I I / r------------f IL f _ f = .. 0 0 0 j i 0 . ... U/S 00 D/S U/S 75mm . ..8.._.. --f=======-=-.... o : . . ... 0 ..... '\ IVf1MNG AS PER ( -10) ' WIDE x .2) 00 ..-.

(ix) Calculate areabelowRTL at thedefined cross-section. for which conditionthe percentage obstruction should be less than30%. withpercentage obstruction (xviii) This should be checked for Hood levelat design Hood level. (xi) Determine number ofpipes/ number of spans andspan length ofvents. (xii) Fixlength ofhorizontal portion oftheface wall and length of rising face wallkeeping in view following guidelines: andminimum (a) Length of horizontal portion should be equal to bed width of the channel plus minimum4m. (xiii) Calculate the unobstructed natural areaofflow atthedefined cross section between the AI bed level and the proposed RTL = (xiv) Calculate the areaof How available at vented causeway uptoprotected bed A2 (xv) Thepercentage obstruction to flood water is calculated byfollowing expression. innormal rain 20% in case of scanty rainfall areas. (b) Gradient of rising face wall should bebetween 1: 15 to 1:30. A-A == 1 2 X 100 AI (xvi) If the obstruction is notless than 70per cent. (viii) Transfer RTL fixed as above tothedefined cross-section as first trial. if it isdecided bythecompetent authority to skip fixing ofthe lowest required Road Top Level asperrigorous method vide step (v)above.6cumecs 42m 102.42 m 98. (vii) Inthe case ofless important crossings.5 mmay beassumed between RTL andPBL. III. Worked out example than 70per centisthenfinalized. thensteps are repeated by increasing the RTL by200mm. (x) Fix vent area i. (xvii) Theproposal. (e) TheProtected Bed Level (PBL) may bekept equal to the silllevel of vents. Determine water way required for thefollowing conditions: Design discharge Bank widthat defined cross-section HFL LBL 128 = = = 682. for'first trial a level difference of say 1. about 40% butminimum 30 percent.905 m .IRC:SP:82-2008 (d) Sill level of vents should be 300 mm below the lowest bed level (LBL) with longitudinal slope (in thedirection offlow) nearly same asthat ofstream bedsubject to minimum of 1:100.e.

Percentage obstruction = 51. of 1m internal dia pipes cannot be accommodated in a bedwidth of34 m available atthe RTL.905) x 2/3 = 36. Theouter diapipe is 1150 mm(i.345/36.6 m Length of End portion oneither side (for safety)= 2. Number of 1000 mm internal diameter pipes required = (14. m.605 m (ii) Assume 1 m dia pipes and RTL of 100. Therefore total available areafor flow = 175.0)2]= 13.605) 13J45 = 51.65 m As 19Nos.15 sq. = 34 x (100.0m Total length = 19 x 1.872 sq.872 + 13. Areaavailable for flow above RTL =[(149.085/ 189. 1.217 sq.5 .92%.46)/[(p/4)x(1. This is a little less Check for obstruction when flood levelis at HFL Assume anapproach gradient of 1:30 oneither side. the number of pipes need tobe reduced.42 say 19Numbers Trial (i) with19 no.15= 36.345 = 189. Area of obstruction = 34 (l00.15+ 16xO.5-98.m.0 = 33.K.OJ = RL 98.2 m.46 sq.085 sq.905. Trial (ii) with 17 pipes of 1000 mm dia.42-100. 7.2 +34)/2] x1.6 + 2 x 2. WidthofstreamatHFL = 34+2x 30 (102. Percentage ofthearea offlow below RTL= 100x13. (iv) Provide a ventarea of40% to the causeway = (v) (36. Total length = 17x1.217 x 100 = 27 % Less than 30%. of pipes of 1000 mm inner dia.IRC:SP:82-2008 Design (i) Assume sill level ofvents andPBL at RL 98.0 = 36.0?]= 18.15 m) Clear spacing between adjacent pipes shall be 0.m.345 sq.m.5 m which provides for more than adequate cushion over thehume pipes. Available ventarea= 17x [(n/4) x (1.15 m This canbe accommodated withtheavailable 34m. m. Hence O.92 = 175.5) = 149.e.98.8 fordetails ofworked outexample. 129 .6+ 2x2.15 x 40)/100 = 14. (iii) Area offlow atdefined cross section below RTL (assuming parabolic profile of bedand channel width of34 m at RTL). SeeFig. m.15 + 18 x 0.

Thelining may be either stone or brick orconcrete. PROTECTION WORK AND APPURTENANCES 8. Wherever steep side slopes areprovided for theapproaches incutting it isexperienced that theslopes slip over theroad pavement and itbecomes a recurring problemto clear it. may resultin sharp curves in the approaches.2. Incutting. 8.1 I Vertical 1: 1: 1: 1: I Horizontal 2 1 1 Lined drains on eithersidealong the side slopes should beprovided. it is desirable to provide properly designed vertical curve at thejunction of thetwo grades from considerations of user's comfort. This. Similarly wherever there is a change of grades.1. 8. (ii) It is preferable to have theapproaches in cutting astheembankments areliable to bewashed away during floods. Thevalues of safe side slopes for the different types of soil under submerged condition are given in Table 8. afterevery flood. however.L.however. The side drains should meetthe stream proper atleast 10m away from theedge ofthe main causeway junction asthe flow of water in the drains would erode the banks forcertain length in collrse oftime Fig. This would avoid scouring of the sides of cutting and consequent silting oftheapproaches. Incase ofstraight return walls.IRC:SP:82-2008 8. Approaches 8.1.C. minimum 3 mlong walls perpendicular to thereturn walls should beprovided to avoid undermining offoundations ofreturn wall orland abutments.General (i) Theapproach roads to Causewaysl Submersible Bridge should preferably be in cutting with theapproach gradient notsteeper than 1in30. Typeof soil (i) Soft soil (ii) B. soil (iii) Softmururn (iv) Hardmurum (v) Table 8. there may betheproblem of silting butthesame canbeappreciably reduced ifthe approaches arealigned at a slight angle to the line ofthebridge sothat the gradient falls inthedirection of the riverflow.F. The sides of cutting should be protected bystonerevetment upto at least 1 m above the affluxed H.1.1. (iii) The approaches incutting would getsubmerged for a considerable period therefore these should beprovided with safe side slopes considering the submerged condition. APPROACHES. The sloping portion of theapproach should merge into level portion ofthe causeway inthearc ofa properly deigned vertical curve in order to eliminate bumping as illustrated in Fig. Further. deep cutting (say more than 4 m)should invariably beavoided.1 for reference and guidance: . 130 I I . Straight approaches arealways preferable from thepoint ofview oftraffic and also ease in construction of wing wall and in actual practice the amount of silting in a well designed submersible bridge with straight approaches may notbe excessive.

NATURAL SURFACE LEVEL o o F.50 30 I 0 o o s 23 11.L. OF ROAD I I I 46 .u 1/ " 46.50 o 11. 8.1.0 Fig.0 34.50 46.50 23 34. Vertical Curve of a Causeway I .

......... .. Fig._. 00 '1 I I ! \ PROTECTED FLANKS . __. a.. I. 450 .. . o o ...._...- .--..-. . E I-sANKS OF l'SANKS OF ACTIVE CHANNEL ACTIVE CHANNEL CURTAIN WALL »...

2. 8. therefore a modified shape in form oftrapezoid may beadopted. Therefore the roadway should be paved in a similarmanner to that of the maincauseway/submersible Bridge.IRC: SP:82-2008 (vi) In case of submersible bridges founded on sandy beds. (ii) Length oftheremaining approach roads in cutting.4. Incase theapproach roadis notin cutting than unidirectional camber (d/sside) should beprovided. and (c) 200 mmthickcementconcrete slab ofM30 grade. beyond spread ofthe affluxed highest flood. (a) 200 mm thick compacted moorarn/gravel/crushed stones. Face walls/cut-off walls for causeways (i) A substantial portion of theflood water has to passovertheseface walls/cut-off should be strong enough to avoid damages during floods. This isachieved bykeeping the central portion of the wallsat onelevel and raising theirlevels in the flank portions as shown in Fig.1. (b) 150 mmthickwater bound macadam. Similarly thetotal length offace wall will be equal thewidthof the stream at OFL + 2to 5 m. (ii) In order to ensure as streamed lined flow as possible and there by restrict the velocities and turbulence onthe D/S side todesirable limits and toavoid out-flanking. .1. may beconstructed with the usual type ofpavement with theexception thatthe metalled surface should beprovided forthe full width ofthe roadway.3. 133 . It will be provided for full height ofthe approaches on either side. theelevational profile adopted for these walls should beas close aspossible to that of the natural hyperbolic cross section of the watercourse.. The paved approach roadway in cuttingneeds to be confined between anchor-walls as shown in Fig. 8. In caseof soft soils banks it is preferable to provide this with the anchor wallsand sidedrains Fig.8. extraction of sand/soft material beyond apron and curtain wall should notbe done asthis mayendanger thesafety ofthe structure.3. (iii) Composition ofPavement l t i Following minimum pavement composition forapproaches to causeways may be adopted unless otherwise required from design consideration. Pavement for approaches I (i) Length of approaches upto the spread of affluxed highestflood is subjected to repeated inundation andis always prone to outflanking. (iii) It isdesirable toprovide length ofthelevel portion offace wall equal to width ofthe stream atRTL + 2to 5 m oneither side. in road geometry it may bedifficult to adopt such a section. However. 8.3. 8.

8.. Cross I I RUBBLE PAVED DRAINS of Protected Flanks ._ . CC M-10 ANCHOR WALLS Fig.-e 00 I 00 450 7500 200mm THK... WBM i 200mm THK. CC SLAB (M35) THK.' . COMPACTED MURUM OR GRAVEL I CRUSHED STONE .3.. I r- RUBBLE PAVED DRAINS i .. . 7"" ' ••• " Jr Jr . ·1·'.

! . BANKS . l' l I.r4LANKS LOW LEVEL WATER COURSE 2 CRITiCAL AFFLUXEO FLOOO LEVEL ON U/S SIDE WHEN FLOOD RISES UPTO TOf' OF MAIN CAUSEWAY CAUSEWAY 00 I 8. _ I I I ________ I = I : I.____._ ~ j I. TERRAe E BED SPATE WIDTH OF STREAM (HFL SPREAD) I OVERFU JW.4. Defined (Virgin) Cross Section of Stream 00 . L' L..

holding down Stainless steel anchorages areprovided as shown in Fig.6 (b). Typical cross­ sectional details of approaches are shown in Fig. 8. Streamlined guard-stones at 1. 8. Dressed stones canalsobe used as guard stones if suitable size of stones (say 225 mmx 225 mm x 400mm) areavailable. Protection Work (i) If it becomes necessary to provide the approaches in embankment than proper protection of approaches is to be done with stone pitchingetc.3. the useof guard stones should be restricted to the approaches. (b) and (c). These arediscontinuously provided overthe deck & approaches within the zone oftheaffluxed HFL andshould becastmonolithically withslabover headwalls so as to form a firm grip (Fig. (ii) aesthetics andarchitectural pointof view.As a protection measure. (a) For stability against uplift forces acting onhollow boxes superstructure. thefollowing arrangements are usedto withstand safely the effects of watercurrent forces in caseof hollow boxtype superstructure. (b) For stability against dragforces.7 (a).8). Appurtenances Appurtenances have their own value for (i) safety.6(a) and 8. Anchorages and thrust-blocks for submersible-structures Inorder toresist thewater current forces intheform ofdrag and uplift forces it is advisable to anchor the deck slabs with pier/abutment caps incase ofvented causeways/submersible bridges. 8. 8.5 m c/c are generally provided on vented andnon-vented causeways (flush causeways). andrailing aregiven below: 8.4.3. Full width of the roadway of approaches likely to be submerged shouldbe paved.IRC:SP:82-2008 (iv) The foundation ofthelevel portion and 1to2mraised portion ofeither sideofface wall should betaken sufficiently deep toavoid exposure dueto scouring as shown in Fig.2. it is desirable that batter offace walls should beprovided onthe outside faces.C. (v) For the structural stability and betterhydraulic performance.5 (a).7 (b). arerequired to be made.1.2.1. General detail. (i) For solid deck slabs . to anchor the deck to the pieri abutment (with stainless steel anchor rods) against uplift orlateral thrust andat the same time toallow longitudinal movements due tocontraction and expansion because of temperature effect. 136 . 8. guard stones. In the caseof other submersible structures. 8.C. 8.Special arrangements. Typical detailsof anchoring and thrust block are shown in Fig. R. reinforced cementconcrete thrust blocks either alone or in combination withsideelastomeric pads areprovided over pier/abutment cap as shown in Fig. 8. 8.girder superstructure: . (ii) For hollow box .

1SOmm r . j SPALLS. 1:3:8 KERBING.. NOTE 1 BELOW) USING SIZE USING OVER SIZE OR 150x300.__... 8. .1 ---- - Fig.C.. ! 200x300 KHANOKI OR C.L -DiS ---------------------_...u /sL......-------oo WEARING SURfACE . 8..._-.·--·-·"··-"· 150mm THICK QUARRY SPALLS. ' 1:3:8 300mm THICK STONE PITCHING.. _1000 !­ j . 225mm THICK STONE PITCHING. -.-----_. - 150mm 200mm . 150mm TH'CK QUARRY SPALLS..C...•._--------------------------­ ._ . _ -H.. C.5 (b) ... WEARING I II j I (SEE NOTE 1 BELOW) USING SIZE USING OVER SIZE ! I I ROADWAY 225mm THICK STONE PITCHING.f...5 (a) ."-i 600mm THICK STONE PITCHING 300mm THICK .. 150mm THICK RUBBLE TOE WALL RUBBLE TOE WALL 0' .. Fig.-----.. 00 I 00 .

E

.

.

1

__

.

E
0,
..

..

-------. WEARING SURFACE (SEE NOTE 1 BELOW)

I

150mm W.8.M. USING SIZE
200mm W.8.M. USING OVER SIZE METAl.
ROADWAY

.

KHANDKI
C.C.
OR
, :.3:6 KERBING.

.i .

JOOmm

STONE PITCHING.

I

:--i

0 -,30,m
'-O.50m

CROSS SECTION FOR SUBMERSIBLE .APPROACHES IN CUTTINGS.

Fig. 8.5 (c)
SURFACE: : FULL WIDTH OF ROADWAY SHALL BE BLACK
TOPPED. IF RAINFALL IS >'OOOmm/YEAR 50mm FULL GROUT
WITH SEAL COAT SHALL BE PROVIDED. iF RAINFALL IS <1000mm/
YEAR 20mm PREMIXED CARPET WITH SEAL COAT SHALL BE
PROVIDED. IT SHALL BE DESIGNED AS PER RELEVENT IRC
2 THE SLOPE OF CUTTING SHALL GENERALLY BE ,: 1 EXCEPT
1. FOR HARD
FOR VERY SOFT STRATA WHERE IT SHALL
STRATA SUITABLE USUAL. STEEPER SLOPES SHALL BE PROViDED.
THE SLOPE OF
SHALL
2: 1.
FOR CROSS SECTION. IN CUTTING THE BERMS
EITHER SIDE
0.50m. WIDE. HOWEVER IN CASE
OF THE GUTTER SHALL
VERY SOFT STRATA THE BERM ON CUTTING SIDE SHOUl.D BE
1.00m. WIDE. KEEPING
ON ROAD SiDE
0.50rTl.
4

THICK STONE PITCHING WITH CEMENT POINTING (1 :3)
SHALL BE PROVIDED FOR GUTTER. THE BERMS AND THE
SLOPES OF THE CUTTING IF STRATA IN SOFT OR VERY SOFT.
THIS STONE PITCHING SHALL EXTEND UPTO A LEVEL O.30m.
ABOVE H.F.L. THE PITCHING IS NOT NECESSARY WHERE
STRATA IS

5 TYPE CROSS SECTION SHOWN ARE FOR SUBMERSIBLE
APPROACHES IN CUTTING OR EMBANKMENT !N FLOOD ZONE.
6 PROPERLY EMBEDED KERB STONE AT U/S AND D/S EDGES MADE
OUT OF KHANOKI STONES OF
OR 1
OF
BE
PROVIDED, THIS. WILL PREVENT CAVITATION AND DAMAGE TO EDGES.

..

-

lRC:SP:82-2008

6mm CARD BOARD SOAKED .--.

IN TAR OR FELT PACKING
WEARING COAT--

M.S. BAR

R.C.C. SLAB--·-BEARING ---------

of M.S. rod 1200mm bent to shape as shown built

2

in the piers to hold down the slab against uplift.
allowance for expansion & contraction has to be
mode by inserting card board soaked in tar or felt
as shown in section

Fig. 8.6 (a) Thrust BlockAnchor

TAR PAPER OR
PREMOULDED FILLER

65mm THK. W.

I

R.C. SLAB

i

TAR

30mm DIA PIPE

BED
OF C.C. (1:3:6)

MASTIC FILLING

I

-ANCHORAGE BOLTS
75mm DIA e ABOUT
750mm CRS

i

0'

I

I
i

:\

.....

u
--·M.S. PLATE
-··-NUT

PIER OF------·­
MASONRY OR
MASS CONCRETE
_...•

Fig. 8.6 (b) Deck Slab Anchorage
139

IRC:SP:82-2008

_

_,

-

..7500

__

..­

_..__

-

---------.

..

._ .

_._

__

__

o

o

o

o

o

o

--CAP

TYPE 2

··-S.SROD

_ PIER

TYPE 1

L

(a)

----------­ -­ -­

__ m .

BEARING
7500

--------­

--­

6600

!

o

o

o

o

o

o

BEARING PAD

PIER CAP
PIER

­

..

..

..

(b)

_--.----­

WITH STOPPF:R

Fig. 8.7. Protection Measures from Water Current Forces
8.3.2. R.C.C. kerb

Discontinuous kerbs with 300 mm wide gap @ 1800 mmcentre to centre (1500 mm
continuous length ofkerbs) should beprovided with gaps ofopposite kerbs kept inalignment with
the flow forstreamlining offlow.
-,
I

8.3.3. Railings
8.3.3.1. Pipe railing: Typical details for pipe railing forsubmersible bridges areshown in
Fig. 8.9(a) for reference andguidance.

140

8. Details of Guard Stones 141 . __L t 12 mm i 01 Nl 6 mm AT 100 OF ROADWAY i ! . I Fig.I 0.IRC:SP:82-2008 BARS 12 mm FLOW 6 mm BiNDERS_ AT 100 TOP OF ROADWAY·­ R C C ROADWAY SLAB SECTIONAL ELEVATION SECTION A B 6 mm BINDERS r \ 1 12 mm (6 NOS) __ o SECTIONAL PLAN . 8.

This will allowa lot of debris to passthrough the bridge. debris arresters should beprovided onupsteam ofthebridge site so that there is free flow of floodwater through the bridge. However. Thephenomenon is more pronounced in the caseof bridges in forest areas where the floods carrya lot oftrees and branches.7.6.3. Generally the banks getout if the structure is strong enough to withstand water current forces. Surge holes and inspection holes (i) Surge holes are provided in thedeck slab and in thewebs of submersible bridges to relieve uplift under risingflood waters (See Fig.therefore. depth ofwater during annual floods.8. 8.2.4. These can becollapsed flat when flood level approaches the kerbs.10 (a) and (b) showtypical details of concrete andsteel type debris arresters.3. Fig. Ifthe spans are smaller in comparison to thesize of debris. 7. desirable to resort to spans ofminimum 8 m or so. Collapsible railing: The railings are also ofsteel section. This causes damages to structure and obstruction to flow ofwater.3. (iv) Silt accumulated inside the boxtype of to beremoved or by waterjets at the end of eachflood season. Thisdebris gets obstructed bythepiersandthe superstructure.7). limits ofsubmergence should beinstalled 142 . 8. The minimum required area ofallother openings is calculated considering riseinflood level @ 300 mmperhour. This situationcan be quite dangerous for smaller spans. (iii) Some openings inwebs/diaphragms ofboxgirder superstructures across large rivers would also serve the purpose of providing access for inspection. Flood gauges Forsafety ofroadusers. Debris arrester During monsoon particularly during the couple of rains a lot ofdebris is carried by floods.3.9 (b) shows the typical details of such type of railings. 8. 8. speed limit.3. 8. holes in the deck slab should be avoided asthese would endanger traffic safety andaffectthe riding quality ofthedeck. Thetop of the soffit slab of the box girders may be provided with mild cross slope notexceeding 4%to facilitate theremoval of siltbyjets. (ii) Such openings are also provided in the bottom slab (soffit) of box sections to maintain equal level offlood water bothinside andoutside.3.5. 8. It is. Informatory/warning sign boards Advance warning/cautionary signs giving information about theproximity ofthesubmersible structure. flood gauges conforming to IRC:67 at about 15 m c/cto indicate the depthof water over the roadsurface/deck alongwith danger levelshould be installedon all submersible structures andapproaches likely to be submerged. Suchopenings should therefore beofman-hole size. Fig.

2:4. 25mm 0..Smm i I " L • . . . J ----. L clC 0 PIPE I .. RAILING BRlDGES 8. BOLT _ i .-----.. . • 11....._.C DETAILS 37.J7. PIPE _ 7. --. ... --emm 0'" CS' 90LT clc . .. FULL Of 1WlS NIE NaT Of FOR OF IWl AS IN FD TO lIE .. lOmm C.10 0 -.. --' . __ . PIPE. .. mm 0 00 I 00 .9 (a) Pipe Railing for Submersible Bridges IN mm : mm IRON: 75 mm X 75 mm SCHEDULE CUIDE..10 KG/II i ­ DETAILS OF JOINTS ­NOTES:­ 1.-----------­ . I I II I 1 r i L 0 2QOOmm clc 0 11.Sm • •m / IIOIl£ PIP[ -. 1.

>+ NOT SHOWN BOTTOM CHANNEL "_._-_. • 1 -e 00 SIDE I" POST • j LA .. SOX50X8mm DIA LOCK KEY LONG -..­ I .. 50X75Xl /20"'''' .TOP ANGlE RIVET II '-l--'-­ DETAIL-A (SHOWING ARRANGEIllENT OF SlOE CHANNEL POST) 12 2550 2600 _.1 . .-_... (WHEN UP) SIDE .----I I I I 00 1 .. 0 12mm FlXED \.1. LONG I • FOR SLIDING "10mm BINDERS o 150mm... ··CHANNEL --HOLE FOR XEY 'T ._ 2410 l...' 65 SEE DETAIL A . . o HOLE fOR . • ···20mm GROOVES fOR 5UDING A-B _SECJION_C-O (WHEN UP) LOCK KEY LONG - ____ .. !SOmm LONG 1 SLOT fOR SLIDING IRON WIDE I SLOT 1= I I 2410 ELEVATION I... . Fig] 8...'" LONG WASHER I 20mm HOlOFAST·--· 751'40". our -." 501'101'2".. . . . . ..9 (b) Collapsible Railing for Submersible Bridges ..1 •• 20mm / .

10 (b) on either side of submersible structures. 145 ." . Rumble Strips alongwith cautionary signs asperIRC:99 shallbe provided at 30 m aheadof the submersible bridge on eitherapproach road.3. .8. Two number of advance warning informatory signson either approach of the submersible structure one at about 200 m from the start of submerged portionof the approach andthe otherat 50 m fromthe start of submersible structure. The signs should contain thefollowing warnings: " (ii) "Dead Slow Submersible Structure 50 mAhead (iii) "Do not Cross when Flood Water Overtops the Carriageway" 8.".: Fig. 8.10 (a) Fig. 8.IRC: SP:82-2008 . .

. Section-IX-Bearings. IS. Part II . At the time of publication. IRC:6 Standard Specification and Code of Practice for Road Bridges. IRC:78 Standard Specification and Code of Practice for Road Bridges. Section-Ix-Bearings.. 1. the editions indicated were valid. Section-II . IRC:99 Tentative Guidelines on the Provision of Speed Breakers for Control of Vehicular Speeds on Minor Roads 14. PIN and Metallic Guide Bearing 11. IRC:86 Geometric Design Standards for Urban Roads in Plains 12. IRC:89 Guidelines for Design and Construction of RiverTrainingand Control Works for Roads Bridges (First Revision) 13. POT-cum-PTFE. IRC:38 Guidelines for Design of Horizontal Curves for Highways and Design Tables (First Revision) 4. Part III Part III . All Standards and Guidelines are subject to revisions and the parties to agreements based on these guidelines are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of standards indicated below: CODE OF PRACTICE A.Loads and Stresses (Fourth Revision) 3. IS:1786 Specification for High Strength Deformed Bars and Wires for Concrete Reinforcement 16. IRC:67 Code of Practice for Road Signs 6. IS:1892 Site Investigation for Foundations for Investigation and Collection of Data Standard Specification and Code of practice for Road Bridges. Section-VIl ­ Foundations and Substrcuture (Second Revision) 9. IRC:5 Standard Specification and Code of Practice for Road Bridges. CBIP and others have been made. IRC:73 Geometric Design Standards for Rural (Non-Urban) Highways 7. . IS:] 888 Method of Load Tests on Soils 17.Elastomeric Bearings 146 I .IRC:SP:82-2008 REFERENCES In this publication reference to the following Standards of [RC. IRC:75 Guidelines for the Design of High Embankments 8. IRC:83 Part II 10. Section-I . IRC:52 Recommendations about the Alignment Survey and Geometric Design of Hill Roads (Second Revision) 5.General Features of Design (Seventh Revision) 2. IS:I498 Classification and Identification of Soils for General Engineering Purpose 15. IRC:83 Standard Specification and Code of practice for Road Bridges.POT.

18. IS:2131 Method for Standard Penetration Test for Soils 19. Johnson Victor JURC Vol. 1959 147 . Pocket Book for Bridge Engineers Ministry of Road Transport and Highways. Investigation. IS:4434 In-Situ Vane Shear Test for Soils 22. IS:2132 Thin Walled Tube Samples of Soils 20. IS:4968 (Part Method of Cone Penetration for Cohesive Soils B. 12) 4. Part I. Central Board of Irrigation and Power Design of Weirs on Permeable Foundation (Publication No. 1990 (Panel Discussion and Important Papers) 2. Design and Construction Practice of Submersible Bridges and Causeways . IS:2720 Methods of Test for Soils 21. Design and Construction of Submersible Bridges D. IS:4968 (Part 1 & 2) Method of Dynamic Cone Penetration Test for Cohesive Soils 23. PUBLICATIONS 1. 2000 3. XXIV.Indian Roads Congress.