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Are fast moving helium nucleus, consisting of 2 neutrons and 4 protons.
They carry the positive charge, and is the heaviest among the three.
Because they are the largest, they can be stopped by a single piece of paper, too... so they have the
lowest penetration of objects.
Alpha rays also have the highest ionizing power; since they carry the positive charge.
They also has a very high diffraction in the air.
They travel at 1/20th of the speed of light.

Beta rays:
Are fast moving electrons, thus they carry the negative charge.
It is not as heavy as alpha, and it is also heavily than gamma rays.
Beta rays are smaller than alpha, but bigger than gamma rays.
They can penetrate more than a piece of paper, though they generally stop penetrating after passing
through an aluminium sheet.
Beta rays have a moderate ionizing power, since they carry the negative charge.
They have a moderate diffraction in the air.
They travel at almost the speed of light.

Gamma rays:
are photons, like light, thus they are neutral.
It is the lightest among the three; since it does not carry any charges/proton/neutron/electron.
Gamma rays has the highest penetrating power, as it does not diffract well in the air.
They can penetrate at a larger area; and can be stopped by a thick lead block.
Gamma rays have almost no ionizing power, as they carry no charges.
Gamma rays travel at the speed of light.
When dealing with monoprotic acids, such as HCl or HNO3 the molar mass is the same numerically
as the equivalent mass. Therefore a 1N HCl is exactly the same as 1M HCl
When dealing with a diprotric acid, such as H2SO4, where 1 molar mass has two reactable
hydrogens, The 1N solution has half the concentartion of the 1M solution
When you deal with a triprotic acid, such as H3PO4. the 1N solution will have 1/3 the concentration of
a 1M solution.

such as polyethene and butadiene. Alkynes Most common use is in welding gases . All the way up to heavy fuel oils.used to be called oxy-acetylene welding The reason that the electromagnetic and gravitational forces are long range is because the particles that mediate the forces are massless (the photon and the graviton). calcium (Ca). at long distances. all are required in relatively large quantities by plants. Kerosenes for heating and aircraft.18. copper (Cu). in theory about C8 alkanes. and potassium (K). molybdenum (Mo). Feed stocks for polymers. methane.18. Relative to the macronutrients. The following statements define the categories more specifically: Macronutrients are divided into two classes: primary and secondary. phosphorus (P). and chlorine (Cl). From the gases. Periodic table = 118 elements 2. the force is a Yukawa force and are exponentially small at long distances. Because they have a mass. micronutrients are required in trace quantities. Its main feature is its resistivity which is constant over a wide range of temperatures. all are equally important. The weak and strong are short range forces because they have massive long range force carriers (the W and Z bosons for the weak force and mesons for the strong force). “Macro” and “micro” nutrient fertilizers refer to the quantity of nutrient needed by plants. and sulfur (S). and not their importance to plant growth. Remember that the words “primary” and “secondary” relate to the quantity needed. Micronutrients are required by plants in far smaller quantities than any macronutrient. Alkanes are our fuels. Exfoliationis involved in the process of all facials.8.18 Constantan is a copper-nickel alloy usually consisting of 55% copper and 45% nickel. are required in lesser quantities relative to the primary category. boron (B).18. The liquid fuel for cars. during microdermabrasion or chemical peels at medical spas. Alkenes. not to theirimportance to plant growth. manganese (Mn). The secondary macronutrients. Other alloys with similarly low . But 1M Mg(OH)2 is double the concentration of 1N Mg(OH)2.8. iron (Fe). The three primary macronutrients are nitrogen (N).The same situation applies to bases: 1M NaOH is exactly the same as 1N NaOH. Centripetal force = mv^2/R Exfoliation involves the removal of the oldest dead skin cells on the skin's outermost surface. Micronutrients required by plants include zinc (Zn). to butane. magnesium (Mg).

Biodiesel is typically made by chemically reacting lipids (e. Advantages o Unlike petroleum. but oil marketing companies (OMCs) are able to do around 2 per cent. vegetable oil. fertiliser run-off and salinity The use of ethanol as opposed to petroleum could reduce carbon dioxide emissions. It was first developed by Edward Weston in 1892. or propyl) esters. ethyl. a by-product of sugarcane.. The cake can be used for fish or animal feed (if detoxified). and 2% nickel. To avoid piling up of surplus sugar stocks next year.Manganin is a trademarked name for an alloy of typically 86% copper. it is compulsory to blend 5 per cent ethanol with petrol. because of its virtually zero temperature coefficient of resistance value and long term stability Individual freedom is not the central tenet of socialism. the official said mills will be asked to step up ethanol output following the 'B-heavy' molasses route to help reduce sugar output by 1. improving upon his Constantan (1887). Normally. producing less carbon (soot) and carbon monoxide o Large amounts of arable land are required to produce the crops required to obtain ethanol.Manganin foil and wire is used in the manufacture of resistors. leading to problems such as soil erosion. but marx differ it Biodiesel refers to a vegetable oil . 12% manganese. deforestation.temperature coefficients are known.g. At present. mills manufacture ethanol only from 'C' (final -stage) molasses. such as manganin (Cu86Mn12Ni2). animal fat (tallow)) with an alcohol producing fatty acid esters The oil from Jatropha curcas is mainly converted into biodiesel for use in diesel engines.or animal fat-based diesel fuel consisting of long-chain alkyl (methyl. It can also be used as a bio-pesticide and for medicinal purposes. o Typical current engines would require modification to use high . particularly ammeter shunts. and per unit of mass) that petroleum Ethanol burns more cleanly in air than petroleum. provided that a renewable energy resource was used to produce crops required to obtain ethanol and to distil fermented ethanol Ethanol has a lower heat of o Major environmental problems would arise out of the disposal of waste fermentation liquors. biomass feedstock to power electricity plants. or as biogas or high-quality organic fertilizer.5 million tonnes annually. ethanol is a Disadvantages o renewable resource o o combustion (per mole. per unit of volume.

Bhabha's ability to think decades ahead was a boon for India's nuclear programme but it came at a point when the commercial uranium reactors were still a theory and thorium reactors were a distant dream.  Atomstroyexports. The Indian prime minister raised the issue of Jaitapur with Areva during his visit to Paris in April 2015 and saw the French nuclear concern sign a pre-engineering agreement (PEA) with Larsen & Toubro. The agreement is significant. Integral Fast Reactors. India did not yet have an operational reactor of any type. water moderated energy reactor. Tarapur Unit I. India's first commercial reactor. Apsara. there was not a single commercially operating nuclear reactor in the world. perhaps more so than one realises.concentrations of ethanol India signed agreements with Australia and Canada for the supply of uranium for its safeguarded reactors. United States. because it involves the transfer of forging technology to L&T to enable it to manufacture reactor vessels for the French EPR reactor in India. Russia supplied both uranium . went critical only in October 1969. Brief Profile of Kudankulam Plant Technology Supplier Voda Voda Energo Reactor (VVER)= water cooled. and thorium reactors such as the Advanced Heavy Water Reactor” .” new technologies such as Molten Salt Reactors. came online in August 1956 for research purposes. The world's first commercial power reactor went critical in December 1957 in Shippingport. When Homi Bhabha envisioned a three-stage nuclear programme for India in November 1954. and India's first reactor.

hydrocarbons. Heavy Water (D2O) is a compound of an isotope of hydrogen called heavy hydrogen or Deuterium (D) and oxygen.8 mole %. Kerala 4. A good neutron moderator like heavy water is a material full of atoms with light nuclei which do not .  Atomstroyexport is a subsidiary of Russian PSU Rosat Type light water reactor Sub-Type Pressurized water reactor software VISWAM Fuel Uranium Beneficiaries 1. and has a small natural occurrence (D/D+H) of about 140 to 150 ppm. All the unallocated electricity belongs to Union government. it has excellent slowing down power and low absorption cross section for neutrons. Heavy Water has great similarity in its physical and chemical properties to ordinary water. 99. as against 1 for normal hydrogen (H) due to presence of an extra neutron in the nucleus. Beryllium and Light water.and the the VVER technology. Moderator is required in a thermal reactor to slow down the neutrons produced in the fission reaction to . So it is necessary to process large quantities of the low concentration feed stock to produce the final product which is enriched to the reactor grade i. Deuterium has an atomic mass of 2. Puducherry NPCIL will sell electricity to them at Rs.3.025 ev so that the chain reaction can be sustained. Heavy Water is an excellent moderator. Tamil Nadu 2.50 per unit.e. Karnataka 3. But its nuclear properties display a significant variation which makes it an extremely efficient material for use as moderator in a nuclear reactor. Deuterium is present in hydrogen and hydrogen bearing compounds like water. Different moderators normally in use are Heavy Water. Graphite.

can be produced from natural thorium. In this process. the processis called irradiation of neutrons. *The uranium nucleus. In sufficient concentration. the most common of which are uranium-238 (146 neutrons) and uranium-235 (143 neutrons). *All isotopes are unstable and uranium is weakly radioactive.easily absorb neutrons. *Uranium-235 has the distinction of being the only naturally occurring fissile isotope. see elastic collision.7202%). fissile means undergoing nuclear reaction by slow-moving low energy neutrons. *Uranium-238 is fissionable by fast neutrons. this neutron is then called a thermal neutron 3 types of nuclear fuel-1)fissile 2)fissionable 3)non-fissile fissile * uranium. but its property of being fissile makes it useful to be converted to Pu-239 by process calledtransmutation. uranium-235 (0. . the velocity of the neutron will be comparable to the thermal velocities of the nuclei.7198 0. Uranium has the second highest atomic weight of the naturally occurring elements. it is NOT naturally occuring. establishing six isotopes (U-233 through U-238). these isotopes maintain a sustained nuclear chain reaction.99. After sufficiently many such impacts. *fissionable is a bigger subset.2752%). lighter only than plutonium-244 *In nature. uranium is found as uranium-238 (99.. More energy is transferred per collision if the nucleus is lighter. enriched-235.. Z=92 contains between 141 and 146 neutrons. actually it being non-fissile cant be used for controlled reactions. *uranium-233. *While uranium-238 has a small probability forspontaneous fission or even induced fission with fast neutrons. uranium-235 and to a lesser degree uranium-233 have a much higher fission cross-section for slow neutrons. some energy is transferred between the nucleus and the neutron. *But u-238 is not useful economically because of it being fissionable. The neutrons strike the nuclei and bounce off. URANIUM is also used for radiodating. Uranium decays slowly by emitting an alpha particle..2739 .

weapon's grade pu. TEL usage was largely discontinued because of the toxicity of lead and its deleterious effect on catalytic converters. it is called WGP. For geological things. *if the concentration of Pu-239 isotope is more than 90%. Republic of Korea. whereas plutonium is a man-made one. in Pyeongchang. India is planning to use Slightly Enriched Uranium (SEU) .. Once a common antiknock additive in gasoline (petrol). which shall be about 1.1% enriched with U -235 in PHWR Another alternative which we are using is using Low Enriched Uranium ( 3-5% enriched).Uranium-233 bred from thorium-232 by neutron capture *uranium is natural element.”. It is still used as an additive in aviation fuel for piston engine-powered aircraft. it is called RGP.The twelfth ordinary meeting of the parties to the convention takes place October 2014. . COP to CBD: Cop11 – in 2012 – in hyd – “nature protects if she is protected” Cop12 – in 2014 . bcoz 239 istope produces powerful blasts compared to other isotopes of Pu. like rocks from moon show their age to be as old as the earth. *if the concentration of Pu-239 is more than 40%. participants adopted the "Pyeongchang Road Map. reactor's grade plutonium Uranium Dating is only used for dating non-living things. Weapon Grade Uranium is 90% enriched.. abbreviated TEL. Iran last year managed to make 20% enriched Uranium for medical purposes. Tetra-ethyl lead. is an organometallic compound with the formula (CH3CH2)4Pb." which addresses ways to achieve biodiversity through technology cooperation. Theme is “Biodiversity for Sustainable Development. *The Pu-240 comes from Pu-239 by the same process.Fissile nuclear fuels are: *Uranium-235 which occurs in natural uranium and enriched uranium *Plutonium-239 bred from uranium-238 by neutron capture (irradiation process called transmutation)Plutonium-241 bred from plutonium-240 by neutron capture. but it releases more energy per unit mass than any other nuclear fuel. funding and strengthening the capacity of developing countries.

Indian defence follows a ‘credible minimum deterrence’ policy which comprises of two important principles: no first use of nuclear weapons and second strike capability. we will know about the ballistic and cruise missiles of Indian defence. India possesses a number of cruise and ballistic missiles developed indigenously and with foreign collaboration as well. It has been proposed as a way to slow the atmospheric and marine accumulation of greenhouse gases. Mexico Carbon sequestration describes long-term storage of carbon dioxide or other forms ofcarbon to either mitigate or defer global warming and avoid dangerous climate change.Cop 13 – 2016 . Based on this principle. Second strike capability means that in the event of a nuclear strike by a enemy country. Difference between cruise and ballistic missiles There are some important differences between cruise and ballistic missiles. These are:  Ballistic missiles follow an arc-like trajectory and are launched from the land or sea  They usually carry a nuclear warhead and are very heavy  They rely on Earth’s gravity to fly down once launched . we should possess adequate response capability.The thirteenth ordinary meeting of the parties to the convention takes will take place December 2016 in Cancun. which are released by burning fossil fuels DEFENCE – INDIAN BALLISTIC AND CRUISE MISSILES In this post.

They are classified into three types: Medium Range Ballistic Missiles (MRBM). That is. Agni V and VI are capable of striking targets in other continents and cover all parts of China as well. Missiles stages can be solid or liquid fuelled. Intermediate Range Ballistic Missiles (IRBM) and Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBM). Name Type Stage(s) Range (Km) Agni I MRBM One 700-1200 Agni II IRBM Two 2000-2500 Agni III IRBM Two 3000-5000 Agni IV IRBM Two 2500-3700 Agni V ICBM Three 5000-8000 Agni VI ICBM Three 10000-12000 The stages refer to the missile engine. Agni V is a road-mobile missile and is in testing phase while Agni VI is still in development stage. They have much larger range  Cruise missiles can also be launched from air and fly within Earth’s atmosphere  They have their own engines and wings to strike the target  They can be supersonic or sub-sonic and are highly accurate  They usually carry conventional warheads although some cruise missiles can also be equipped with nuclear warheads In both cases. if at all. these missiles are guided. . the flight path is predetermined and very small alterations in flight are possible. INDIAN BALLISTIC AND CRUISE MISSILES Agni Missiles These are long-range ballistic missiles that can carry nuclear warheads.

Aakash Missile Aakash is a medium-range mobile surface-to-air missile defence system developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO). It can be mounted on an infantry vehicle.000 m. The weight of the missile is 130 kg. The range of the missile is 12 km and is fitted with a 15 kg warhead. a helicopter launched version will also be available with integration work being carried out with the HAL Dhruv. at altitudes up to 18.Prithvi Missiles Prithvi Missiles are tactical surface-to-surface short-range ballistic missiles (SRBM) Name Type Stage(s) Range (Km) Prithvi I SRBM One 150 Prithvi II SRBM Two 150-350 Prithvi III SRBM Two 350-650 Dhanush– Dhanush is reportedly a naval version of Prithvi which can be launched from ships. top attack missile with a range of 3 to 7 km. The missile system can target aircraft up to 30 km away. Nag uses Imaging Infra-Red (IIR) guidance with day and night capability. Ordnance Factories Board and Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL). Trishul Missile Trishul is a short range surface-to-air missile. It will be structurally different from the Nag missile. A variant of NAG Missile to be launched from Helicopter is being developed under the Project named HELINA (HELIcopter launched NAg). It is an all weather. Nag Missile Nag is India’s third generation “Fire-and-forget” anti-tank missile. . Dhanush can fire modified versions of Prithvi-II or PrithviIII.

will be a Hypersonic cruise missile capable of flying at a speed greater than 5 Mach. air-launched and submarine as well as ship launched.K Missile Series The K family of missiles is a series of submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBM) developed by India to boost its second-strike capabilities and thus the nuclear deterrence. It is the world’s fastest cruise missile in operation. BrahMos Missile The BrahMos is a short range ramjet supersonic cruise missile that can be launched from submarines. it has a range of 600 km and is capable of carrying a payload of one-tonne conventional or nuclear warhead. It carries a ring laser gyroscope for high-accuracy navigation and a radio altimeter for .8 to 3. Nirbhay Missile Nirbhay is an all-weather low-cost long-range nuclear warhead capable cruise missile with stealth and high accuracy. aircraft or land.0 and has a maximum range of 290 km. The missile has a range of more than 1000 km. BrahMos missiles come in three variants: surface-launched. The three missiles current under development/testing under this series are K-15. Capable of hypersonic speeds. It is a joint venture between the Russia and India who have together formed BrahMos Aerospace Private Limited. The missile travels at speeds of Mach 2. BrahMos II. K-4. Information about this family of missiles has mostly been kept classified. Shaurya Missile The Shaurya missile is a short-range surface-to-surface ballistic missile developed for use by the Indian Army. currently under development. and K-5. It weighs about one tonne and has a length of 6 metres. ships. These missiles are intended to be armed with Arihant-class submarines.

It is capable of being launched from multiple platforms on land. 44 km when fired from an altitude of eight km and 21 km when the altitude is sea-level . Nirbhay is being adapted for the Indo/Russian Su-30MKI. Your feedback in the comments below is most welcome. It is 3. when attacking a maneuvering target. It will have an active homing range of 25 km. and Air Force. The propellant used is HTPB (solid-fuel). sea and air and will be inducted into Indian Navy. Astra is designed to be capable of engaging targets at varying range and altitudes allowing for engagement of both short-range targets (up to 20 km) and long-range targets (up to 80 km) using alternative propulsion modes.the height determination. The maximum range of Astra is 110 km in head-on chase and 20 km in tail chase. The missile can reportedly undertake 40 g turns close to sea level. The warhead is a 15 kg HE (high-explosive) which is activated by a proximity fuse.8 metres long and is narrower in front of the wings. . The missile’s maximum speed is Mach 4 and can attain maximum altitude of 20 km. The article will be updated as and when new developments take place. I hope you found this compilation of Indian cruise and ballistic missiles useful. Astra Missile Astra is an active radar homing beyond-visual-range air-to-air missile (BVRAAM). Army. The missile could be launched from different altitudes – it can cover 110 km when launched from an altitude of 15 km. In particular.