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Name: Kerim


ID:18785 -PE

Question 1
Sediments can be deposited into 3 environments which is continental, marine and
transitional. Under continental contains Fluvial,Alluvial,Eolian,Lacustrine and
Glacial. Under transitional environment there is deltas, beaches, lagoons and
barrier island. Under marine environment there are 2 which is shallow marine and
deep marine.
For alluvial fans the geometry of the reservoir rock is they typically contain coarse
boulders and gravels and are poorly sorted. Fine-grained sand and silt may be
deposited near the margin of the fan in the valley, commonly in shallow lakes.
As for fluvial it can be divided to two which is meandering and braided deposits. The
geometry of deposits of meandering and braided deposits are quite different and
have a strong significance in their value as petroleum reservoirs. Meandering rivers
tend to stay in narrow meander belts, building cyclic facies sequences of point bar
and flood plain deposits, that result in a ribbon-like geometry of sandstone bodies.
Braided river deposits tend to have a far higher sand to clay/silt ratio, with
sandstones (and/or conglomerates) having a greater lateral extent.
As for Lacustrine Environment, they are diverse, they may be large or small, shallow
or deep, and filled with terrigenous, carbonate, or evaporitic sediments. It usually
contains sandstone, mudstone, fine- grained limestones and evaporates. The
texture is that the sands are moderately well sorted and often is thin bedded and
has wave ripples and very fine parallel lamination sedimentary structure.
Eolian is sediments deposited by wind. Gravel is left behind and dust-sized particles
are lifted high into the atmosphere and transported. Windblown sand forms dunes
that are characterized by fine to coarse sandstones, well sorted, well rounded,
grains showing large-scale cross bedding. Grains will move by saltation forming a
thin carpet of moving sand grains .Irregularities in the surface of the sand and the
turbulence of the air flow will create patches where the grains are slightly more
piled up. The result is a series of piles of grains aligned perpendicular to the wind
and spaced equal distances apart. Eolian dunes are bedforms that range from 3m
to 600m in wavelength and are 10 cm to 100m high. They migrate by the saltation
of sand up the stoss (upwind) side of the dune to the crest.
For Glacial environment, the glaciers do not efectively sort the materials that they
transport. Common type of resulting deposit is an unstratified accumulation of
boulders. The general term for all deposits directly deposited by ice is till if it is
unconsolidated or tillite if it is lithified
For delta environment deposit, the rock type is sandstone, siltstone ,shale and
coal. The grain size is from clay to sand which is coarsening upwards. For fine
grained delta, The deposits on a delta will include a high proportion of fine-grained
material if the fluvial system supplying it is a mixed-load river. Large rivers like
these carry sediment that is delivered to the delta as sandy bedload and a large
suspended load of silt and clay .Sand deposition on the delta top is concentrated in
the delta channels and on adjacent levees, while the bulk of the delta plain and
any interdistributary bay areas are regions of mud accumulation. For coarsegrained deltas, They form adjacent to areas of steep relief, faulted margins of rift
basins. The delta-top environment and hence the facies deposited are those of a
coarse braided river or an alluvial fan. Progradation of a coarse-grained delta
across a shallow lake or sea floor results in a coarsening-up succession.

For Shoreline includes beaches, barrier islands and lagoons. Beaches, bars, and
spits commonly develop along low coasts and partly enclose quiet-water lagoons.
Such sediments are well washed by wave action and is typically clean, well-sorted
quartz sand. Behind the bars and adjacent to the beaches, tidal flats may occur
where fine silt and mud are deposited; evaporites may be present locally. Grains
typically compositionally and texturally mature. Barrier islands range in size from
less than 100m wide to
several kilometres and their length ranges from a few hundred metres to many tens
of kilometres.
For shallow marine, sediments deposited in these shallow marine waters from
extensive layers of well- sorted sand, shale, limestone, and dolomite, that
commonly occur in a cyclic sequence as a result of shifting depositional
environments related to changes in sea level. When the rate of evaporation
exceeds the rate of water supply, chemicals dissolved in the water may be
concentrated and precipitated as beds of gypsum, halite, and more complex salts.
For deep marine, a considerable amount of sediment is transported from the
continental margins by turbidity currents. The size of grains grade from coarse at
the base to fine at the top. Such deep-sea deposits are characterized by
sequences of graded beds of these "turbidites". The bed geometry is mainly thin
sheet beds, except in submarine fan channels.

Question 2
There are 3 types of reservoir rock properties.The first one is porosity followed
by premeability and lastly fluid saturation.These properties are often influenced by
diagenesis and also by the depositional enviroment.
Diagenesis is the procedure by which sediments are lithified into sedimentary
rocks to the aggregate of physical and synthetic changes that happen during burial.
Diagenesis includes physical compaction of segments because of weight increment
on internment, the precipitation of mineral concretes from pore liquids and stage
changes of mineral components.
Compaction of sediments prompts a decrease in porosity, and can bring about
weight arrangement and interpenetration of grains. Fracture of segment grains can
likewise happen during compaction. Burial brings about compaction because of
expansion in lithostatic weight, in any case, syn-depositional tectonic anxieties can
likewise prompt compaction.
Precipitation and dissolution of stages by pore liquids additionally happens
during diagenesis. Precipitation prompts the arrangement of a concrete that
lithifies the sediment and bind together segments.This further reducues the pore
size thus reducing the porosity. Quartz, feldspar, earth minerals, zeolites and
carbonate minerals all structure basic concretes. Dolomitisation is a diagenetic
procedure occuring in carbonate rocks including the change of calcite to
The change of stages in light of changes in pressure and temperature adjusts
the mineralogy of sediments. Clay minerals experience changes during
internment, frequently with the development of illite. Simultaneous arrangement
of dirt minerals in mudrocks prompts the development of a fissile fabric and
produles shale. Aragonite experiences change to calcite and organics experience
development to more unmanageable natural mixes.Also known as replacement,
it tends to plug the pore holes reducing the porosity.

There are 3 main types of depositional enviroment which are continential,
transitional and marine enviroment.These 3 enviroment have 13 subenviroments. In continental we have swamp,glacial deposits,alluvial fans,sand
dunes,fluvial deposits,lake and river. For transitional we have, tidal
flats,beach,spits,barrier island,lagoons and deltas. As for marine we have shallow
marine and deep marine.
For continental, taking alluvial fan as an example,they develop in areas of high
relief, where there is abundant supply of sediment.They typically contain coarse
boulders and gravels and are poorly sorted.Fine-grained sand and silt may be
deposited near the margin of the fan in the valley, commonly
in shallow lakes.They are of limited economic significance, due to poor
permeabilitiesand porosities; the sands and conglomerates are generally very
For transitional, delta for instance,deposits a whole consists of a thick
accumulation of sand, silt, and mud. Deltas are now commonly classified in terms of
the dominant grain size of the deposits and the relative importance of fluvial, wave
and tide processes. The porosity decreases as the water comes
closer to the marine enviroments. The closer they get to the marine enviroments
the finer the grains become thus decreasing porosity.

For marine enviroments, shallow marine are widespread along continental margins and were
even more extensive during many periods of the geologic past. Sediments deposited in these
shallow marine waters from extensive layers of well-sorted sand, shale, limestone, and dolomite,
that commonly occur in a cyclic sequence as a result of shifting depositional environments
related to changes in sea level. The deep oceans contain a variety of sediment types. Adjacent to
the continents, a considerable amount of sediment is transported from the continental margins by
turbidity currents.The resulting deposit is a widespread layer of sediment in which the size of
grains grade from coarse at the base to fine at the top. Such deep-sea deposits are characterized
by sequences of graded beds of these "turbidites".

Question 3
From the moment the sediments are deposited they are subjected to physical, chemical and
biological effects. The combined effects of burial, bioturbation, compaction and chemical
reaction between the rocks, fluid and organic matter will greatly determine the reservoir quality
that is increase or decrease in permeability. This paper focuses especially on the biological
effects (bioturbation) on reservoir quality. Bioturbation is a process in which sediments are
disturbed by biological effects, activities such as burrowing, boring, crawling and sedimentingestion take place due to organisms rework at or near depositional environment, thereby
affecting reservoir quality. Moreover there are other effects accompanied when we talk about
reservoir quality (permeability and porosity) such as reservoir calculations and fluid dynamics.
Bioturbation can increase as well as decrease reservoir quality according to Smith (2010),
“bioturbation enhances porosity and permeability by creating new pathways for fluid
movement”, being the presence of burrowing the main cause. Therefore, the study of
bioturabation and its effects on reservoir quality is necessary for a better understanding of our

The effects of biological activities on reservoir quality
Bioturbation can destroy or enhance permeability, when holes burrowed into a firmground are
filled with contrasting usually coarse grained they tend to increase porosity and permeability.
Researchers at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Canada, have studied the porosity and
permeability effects of bioturbation. They see the greatest effects when burrows in dewa-tered,
firmground substrate are filled with coarse-grained sediment Burrows of this type can reach areal
densities of 2,500 burrows/m2[250 burrows/ft2depend on burrow connectivity, depth of penetration and permeability contrast between matrix and burrow fill. The permeability-enhanced zone
may be up to 3 m [10 ft] thick and is generally limited to areal extents of 1 km2 exhibiting this
type of bioturbation have beenrecognized in several oil fields. ] refer to figure 1.1. The effects on
permeability [0.4 mi2] smith (2010). According to Bromley and Ekdale (1986) Ophiomorpha
burrows reduce permeability relative to the host sediment. Conversely, less conspicuous unlined
burrows of Thalassinoides show enhancement of permeability. Sorting is a fundamental control
on primary porosity and biogenic sediment reworking can modify grain size sorting. Results
demonstrate that intra-burrow porosity increases in open burrowssuch as Thalassinoides, where
burrow fill is commonly coarser than matrix, although the converse relationship is true when the
burrow-fill is mud-rich. Intra-burrowporosity is low in Ophiomorpha burrows, where thick mud
and organic rich burrow fills and linings exist. Inter-burrow (matrix) porosity is commonly
enhanced in highly bioturbated fabrics, where mud grade material is removedfrom the matrix and
incorporated into burrow linings and fills. In sparsely bioturbated facies, mud-rich inter-burrow
porosity can be highly dependent onthe behavior of the trace making organisms and intensity of
bioturbation Complex relationships exist between bioturbation and petrophysical properties in
the studied material. Bioturbation can enhance or reduce porosity/permeability, dependent on
trace fossil morphology, composition of burrow linings/fills, burrow size and bioturbation
intensity Bromley & Ekdale (1986). Bioturbation is also accompanied by processes like
phycosiphoniform burrows which contributes largely on permeability and fracturability of the
reservoir. Phycosiphoniform trace fossils are unified by their small size, commonly less than 5
mm in diameter, with a quartzose halo of silt-grade material around a clay-rich core (Bednarz

and McIlroy, 2009). Threedimensional reconstruction of field samples of such burrows has
revealed a considerable variability within this group of trace fossils. Recent work has shown that
the distinctive frogspawn ichnofabric commonly attributed to Phycosiphon (sensustricto) can be
produced by other similar taxa (Bednarz and McIlroy, 2009). Changes in rheologyand
petrophysical properties associated with these burrows are of fundamental importance to shale
gas reservoirs. The impact of the burrows on reservoir quality can only be meaningfully
assessedin the light of 3-D morphological understanding.We consider that all phycosiphoniform
burrows are likely to significantly increase the heterogeneity of otherwise ultra-low–permeability
mudstones, increasing fracturability (by creating quartz frameworks) and porosity (where no
quartz cementation during diagenesis is observed). In sandstones, thesame trace fossils have been
found to reduce porosityand permeability by approximately 33% (Tonkinet al., 2010).Shalepetroleum facies are typically subject to compaction, which is variable in intensity depending on
the burial history. Compaction affects the geometric relationships within ichnofabrics of shale
gas facies, with the smallest compaction being observed in reservoirs that produce biogenic gas.
In this study, we do not analyze the degree of the compaction of the bioturbation and its impact
on the geometry of the burrows. The influence of compaction and thus progressive change in
burrow morphology was not considered herein. If our data on volumetric relationships were to be
applied to reservoir units, the calculated percentage relationships of volumes would have to
account for compaction. The degree of compaction could perhaps be estimated from the aspect
ratio of the burrow core, which is typically found to be circular in cross section. The quartzose
parts of phycosiphoniform burrows (the halos)
are likely to have less potential

Diagenic processes have great impact on reservoir quality both porosity and permeability. This
processes include biological effects in this case bioturbation which is the disturbance of
sediments due to organic matter. Activities such as burrowing, boring, crawling and sedimentingestion take place due to organisms rework at or near depositional environment, thereby
affecting reservoir quality. According to various geologists burrowing of sediments play a
crucial role increasing and decreasing permeability by creating pathways for fluid movement.
Moreover this is not the only factor phycosiphoniform burrows also contribute a lot on
permeability issues and fracturability.

Bromley, R. G., and A. A. Ekdale, 1986, Composite ichnofabrics and tiering of burrows:
Geological Magazine, v. 123, p. 59-65
Cannon, S. J. C., and S. Gowland, 1996, Facies controls on reservoir quality in the Late Jurassic
Fulmar Formation, Quadrant 21, UKCS, in A. Hurst, H. D. Johnson, S. D. Burley, A. C.
Canham,and D. S. Mackertich, eds., Geology of the Humber Group: Central Graben and Moray
Firth, UKCS: Geological Society (London) Special Publication 114, p. 215-233
Smith, M. (2010). Bioturbation and reservoir quality. (4


ed). Venezuela: review winters

Crerar, E. E., and R. W. C. Arnott, 2007,Facies distribution and stratigraphic architecture of the Lower
Cretaceous McMurray Formation, Lewis Property, northeastern Alberta: Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum
Geology, v. 55, p. 99-124