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Mohammed Abdalla Ayoub

Lesson Outcomes

To explain the primary reservoir characteristics.

To describe the linear and radial flow behavior of the

**reservoir fluids in porous media.
**

To understand the mathematical relationships that are

designed to describe the flow behavior of the reservoir

fluids in porous media.

Introduction

Flow in porous media is a very complex phenomenon

**and as such cannot be described as explicitly as flow
**

through pipes or conduits.

Measure the length and diameter of a pipe and

compute its flow capacity as a function of pressure; in

porous media, however, flow is different in that there

are no clear-cut flow paths which lend themselves to

measurement.

The mathematical forms of these relationships will vary depending upon the characteristics of the reservoir.Objective To present the mathematical relationships that are designed to describe the flow behavior of the reservoir fluids. The primary reservoir characteristics that must be considered include: .

Types of fluids in the reservoir Flow regimes Reservoir geometry Number of flowing fluids in the reservoir .

Types of fluids The isothermal compressibility coefficient is essentially the controlling factor in identifying the type of the reservoir fluid. reservoir fluids are classified into three groups: Incompressible fluids Slightly compressible fluids Compressible fluids . In general.

the isothermal compressibility coefficient c is described mathematically by the following two equivalent expressions: In terms of fluid volume: -------------.(1) .

. In terms of fluid density: -------------. respectively.(2) where V and ρ are the volume and density of the fluid.

i.e.Incompressible fluids An incompressible fluid is defined as the fluid whose volume (or density) does not change with pressure.: .

The changes in the volumetric behavior of this fluid as a function of pressure p can be mathematically described by integrating Equation (1) to give: . with changes in pressure. or density.Slightly compressible fluids These “slightly” compressible fluids exhibit small changes in volume.

ft3 pref = initial (reference) pressure. psia Vref = fluid volume at initial (reference) pressure. p = pressure. where. ft3 -------------.(3) . psia V = volume at pressure p.

The ex may be represented by a series expansion as: -------------. the ex term can be approximated by truncating Equation (4) to: -------------.(4) Because the exponent x [which represents the term c (pref−p)] is very small.(5) .

(7) where V = volume at pressure p ρ = density at pressure p Vref = volume at initial (reference) pressure pref ρref = density at initial (reference) pressure pref .(6) A similar derivation is applied to Equation (2) to give: -------------. Combining Equation (5) with Equation (3) gives: -------------.

Compressible Fluids These are fluids that experience large changes in volume as a function of pressure All gases are considered compressible fluids. as given by Equation (5). The truncation of the series expansion. . is not valid in this category and the complete expansion as given by Equation (4) is used.

the isothermal compressibility of any compressible fluid is described by the following expression: -------------.(8) Figures (1) and (2) show schematic illustrations of the volume and density changes as a function of pressure for the three types of fluids: .

Figure(1) Pressure-volume relationship .

Figure(2) Fluid density versus pressure for different fluid types .

FLOW REGIMES There are basically three types of flow regimes that must be recognized in order to describe the fluid flow behavior and reservoir pressure distribution as a function of time: Steady-state flow Unsteady-state flow Pseudosteady-state flow .

Steady-State Flow • The pressure at every location in the reservoir remains constant does not change with time -------------.(9) .

. In reservoirs. the steady-state flow condition can only occur when the reservoir is completely recharged and supported by strong aquifer or pressure maintenance operations.

Unsteady / Transient State Flow The fluid flowing condition at which the rate of change of pressure with respect to time at any position in the reservoir is not zero or constant The pressure derivative with respect to time is essentially a function of both position i and time t -------------.(10) .

(11) .Pseudosteady-State Flow The pressure at different locations in the reservoir is declining linearly as a function of time -------------.

Figure (3) Flow regimes .

RESERVOIR GEOMETRY The shape of a reservoir has a significant effect on its flow behavior Most reservoirs have irregular boundaries Rigorous mathematical description of geometry is often possible only with the use of numerical simulators The actual flow geometry may be represented by one of the following flow geometries: .

Radial flow Linear flow Spherical and hemispherical flow .

Radial Flow Flow into or away from a wellbore will follow radial flow lines from a substantial distance from the wellbore In the absence of severe reservoir heterogeneities fluids move toward the well from all directions and coverage at the wellbore .

Figure (4) Ideal radial flow into a wellbore. .

Linear Flow When flow paths are parallel and the fluid flows in a single direction The cross sectional area to flow must be constant A common application of linear flow equations is the fluid flow into vertical hydraulic fractures .

Figure (5) Linear flow .

Figure (6) Ideal linear flow into vertical fracture .

Spherical and Hemispherical Flow Depending upon the type of wellbore completion configuration possible to have a spherical or hemispherical flow near the wellbore A well with a limited perforated interval could result in spherical flow in the vicinity of the perforations A well that only partially penetrates the pay zone could result in hemispherical flow .

Figure (7) Spherical flow due to limited entry .

Figure (8) Hemispherical flow in a partially penetrating well .

or gas-water) Three-phase flow (oil.NUMBER OF FLOWING FLUIDS IN THE RESERVOIR Single-phase flow (oil. and gas) . water. or gas) Two-phase flow (oil-water. water. oil-gas.

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