Mohammed Abdalla Ayoub

Lesson Outcomes
 To explain the primary reservoir characteristics.
 To describe the linear and radial flow behavior of the

reservoir fluids in porous media.
 To understand the mathematical relationships that are
designed to describe the flow behavior of the reservoir
fluids in porous media.

 Flow in porous media is a very complex phenomenon

and as such cannot be described as explicitly as flow
through pipes or conduits.
 Measure the length and diameter of a pipe and
compute its flow capacity as a function of pressure; in
porous media, however, flow is different in that there
are no clear-cut flow paths which lend themselves to

The mathematical forms of these relationships will vary depending upon the characteristics of the reservoir.Objective  To present the mathematical relationships that are designed to describe the flow behavior of the reservoir fluids.  The primary reservoir characteristics that must be considered include: .

 Types of fluids in the reservoir  Flow regimes  Reservoir geometry  Number of flowing fluids in the reservoir .

Types of fluids  The isothermal compressibility coefficient is essentially the controlling factor in identifying the type of the reservoir fluid. reservoir fluids are classified into three groups:  Incompressible fluids  Slightly compressible fluids  Compressible fluids . In general.

 the isothermal compressibility coefficient c is described mathematically by the following two equivalent expressions:  In terms of fluid volume: -------------.(1) .

. In terms of fluid density: -------------. respectively.(2)  where V and ρ are the volume and density of the fluid.

i.e.Incompressible fluids  An incompressible fluid is defined as the fluid whose volume (or density) does not change with pressure.: .

 The changes in the volumetric behavior of this fluid as a function of pressure p can be mathematically described by integrating Equation (1) to give: . with changes in pressure. or density.Slightly compressible fluids  These “slightly” compressible fluids exhibit small changes in volume.

ft3  pref = initial (reference) pressure. psia  Vref = fluid volume at initial (reference) pressure.  p = pressure. where. ft3 -------------.(3) . psia  V = volume at pressure p.

 The ex may be represented by a series expansion as: -------------. the ex term can be approximated by truncating Equation (4) to: -------------.(4)  Because the exponent x [which represents the term c (pref−p)] is very small.(5) .

(7) where V = volume at pressure p ρ = density at pressure p Vref = volume at initial (reference) pressure pref ρref = density at initial (reference) pressure pref .(6)  A similar derivation is applied to Equation (2) to give: -------------. Combining Equation (5) with Equation (3) gives: -------------.

Compressible Fluids  These are fluids that experience large changes in volume as a function of pressure  All gases are considered compressible fluids. as given by Equation (5).  The truncation of the series expansion. . is not valid in this category and the complete expansion as given by Equation (4) is used.

 the isothermal compressibility of any compressible fluid is described by the following expression: -------------.(8)  Figures (1) and (2) show schematic illustrations of the volume and density changes as a function of pressure for the three types of fluids: .

Figure(1) Pressure-volume relationship .

Figure(2) Fluid density versus pressure for different fluid types .

FLOW REGIMES  There are basically three types of flow regimes that must be recognized in order to describe the fluid flow behavior and reservoir pressure distribution as a function of time:  Steady-state flow  Unsteady-state flow  Pseudosteady-state flow .

Steady-State Flow • The pressure at every location in the reservoir remains constant does not change with time -------------.(9) .

. In reservoirs. the steady-state flow condition can only occur when the reservoir is completely recharged and supported by strong aquifer or pressure maintenance operations.

Unsteady / Transient State Flow  The fluid flowing condition at which the rate of change of pressure with respect to time at any position in the reservoir is not zero or constant  The pressure derivative with respect to time is essentially a function of both position i and time t -------------.(10) .

(11) .Pseudosteady-State Flow  The pressure at different locations in the reservoir is declining linearly as a function of time -------------.

Figure (3) Flow regimes .

RESERVOIR GEOMETRY  The shape of a reservoir has a significant effect on its flow behavior  Most reservoirs have irregular boundaries  Rigorous mathematical description of geometry is often possible only with the use of numerical simulators  The actual flow geometry may be represented by one of the following flow geometries: .

 Radial flow  Linear flow  Spherical and hemispherical flow .

Radial Flow  Flow into or away from a wellbore will follow radial flow lines from a substantial distance from the wellbore  In the absence of severe reservoir heterogeneities  fluids move toward the well from all directions and coverage at the wellbore .

Figure (4) Ideal radial flow into a wellbore. .

Linear Flow  When flow paths are parallel and the fluid flows in a single direction  The cross sectional area to flow must be constant  A common application of linear flow equations is the fluid flow into vertical hydraulic fractures .

Figure (5) Linear flow .

Figure (6) Ideal linear flow into vertical fracture .

Spherical and Hemispherical Flow  Depending upon the type of wellbore completion configuration  possible to have a spherical or hemispherical flow near the wellbore  A well with a limited perforated interval could result in spherical flow in the vicinity of the perforations  A well that only partially penetrates the pay zone could result in hemispherical flow .

Figure (7) Spherical flow due to limited entry .

Figure (8) Hemispherical flow in a partially penetrating well .

or gas-water)  Three-phase flow (oil.NUMBER OF FLOWING FLUIDS IN THE RESERVOIR  Single-phase flow (oil. and gas) . water. or gas)  Two-phase flow (oil-water. water. oil-gas.