© All Rights Reserved

6 views

© All Rights Reserved

- q 0440596102
- Flame Configurations in a Lean Premixed Dump Combustor with an Annular Swirling Flow
- Scope of CFD in the Process Industry
- 2X 3 7X 1
- Modelling Assignment: OpenFoam
- Master Thesis
- cfd imp
- A Validation Method of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulation against Experimental Data of Transient Flow In Pipes System
- Report on Boiler Modification for 100% Over bed Firing
- CFD Analysis of an Elliptical Pin Fin Heat Sink using Ansys Fluent v12.1
- IC+9162+COMPUTATIONAL+FLUID+DYNAMICS
- Micro Gas Turbine Teste MIT
- The Practical Uses of ComputationalFluid Dynamics–Not Just a PrettyPicture
- ChangLiu General CFD
- [doi 10.1002%2F3527601996.ch13] Wittig, Sigmar; Vöhringer, Otmar; Kim, Soksik -- High Intensity Combustors - Steady Isobaric Combustion (DFG SF High-Int. Combust. O-BK) __ Numerical Modelling of Combu
- Chen y Cfd Study of an Ufad System Ncembt-091012
- Power Flame CG-Full
- Propulsion Lect 17 Combustion
- Huang Paper
- RD 93

You are on page 1of 34

[1] Khanna, V. K. A Study of the Dynamics of Laminar and Turbulent Fully and Partially

Premixed Flames. PhD thesis, Virginia Tech, 2001.

[2] Fleifel, M., Annaswamy, A. M., Ghoniem, Z. A., and Ghoniem, A. F. Response of a

laminar premixed ame to ow oscillations: A kinematic model and thermoacoustic

instability results. Combustion and Flame, 106:487510, 1996.

[3] Fleil, M., Hathout, J. P., Annaswamy, A. M., and Ghoneim, A. F. Reduced order

modeling of heat release dynamics and active control of time delay instability. 38th

Aerospace Sciences Meeting Conference and Exhibit, (AIAA-2000-0708), January 2000.

[4] Candel, S. M. Combustion instabilities coupled by pressure waves and their active

control. Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth Symposium (International) on Combustion,

pages 12771296, 1992.

[5] Rogallo, R. S. and Moin, P. Numerical simulation of turbulent ows. Annual Review

of Fluid Mechanics, 16:99137, 1984.

[6] Saxena, V. and Pope, S. B. PDF simulations of turbulent combustion incorporating

detailed chemistry. Combustion and Flame, 117:340350, 1999.

[7] Renard, P.-H., Thevenin, D., Rolon, J. C., and Candel, S. Dynamics of ame/vortex

interactions. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 26:225282, 2002.

200

BIBLIOGRAPHY

201

[8] Baillot, F., Durox, D., and Prudhomme, R. Experimental and theoretical study of a

premixed vibrating ame. Combustion and Flame, 88:149168, 1992.

[9] Bourehla, A. and Baillot, F. Appearance and stability of a laminar conical premixed

ame subjected to an acoustic perturbations. Combustion and Flame, 114:303318,

1998.

[10] Lieuwen, T. Theoretical investigation of unsteady ow interactions with a premixed

planar ame. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 435:289303, 2001.

[11] Lieuwen, T. Theory of high frequency acoustic wave scattering by turbulent ames.

Combustion and Flame, 126:14891505, 2001.

[12] Angelberger, C., Veynante, D., and Egolfopoulos, F. LES of chemical and acoustic

forcing of a premixed dump combustor. Flow, Turbulence and Combustion, 65:205

222, 2000.

[13] Poinsot, T. J. and Veynante, D. Theoretical and Numerical Combustion. R. T. Edwards, Inc., 2001.

[14] Mason, W. H. Applied computational aerodynamics Text/Notes. An electronic version

of the class notes for AOE 4114 (Applied Computational Aerodynamics), Department

of Aerospace Engineering, Virginia Tech.

[15] Anderson, J. D. Computational Fluid Dynamics. McGraw Hill, New York, 1995.

[16] Versteeg, H. K. and Malalasekera, W. An Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics: The Finite Volume Method. Addison Wesley Longman, Ltd., Harlow, England,

1995.

[17] Tannehill, J. C., Anderson, D. A., and Pletcher, R. H. Computational Fluid Mechanics

and Heat Transfer. Taylor & Francis, New York, 2nd edition, 1997.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

202

and General Techniques, Vol. II: Specic Techniques for Dierent Flow Categories.

Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988.

[19] http://www.icemcfd.com/cfd/CFD codes c.html.

[20] http://www.uent.com.

[21] Oran, E. S. and Boris, J. P. Numerical Simulation of Reactive Flow. Cambridge

University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 2nd edition, 2001.

[22] Poinsot, T. J., Trouve, A., and Candel, S. Applications of direct numerical simulations of premixed turbulent combustion. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science,

21:531576, 1996.

[23] Vervisch, L. and Poinsot, T. J. Direct numerical simulation of non-premixed turbulent

ame. Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, 30:655692, 1998.

[24] Veynante, D. and Vervisch, L. Turbulent combustion modeling. Progress in Energy

and Combustion Science, 28:193266, 2002.

[25] Bray, K. N. C., Libby, P. A., Masuya, G., and Moss, J. B. Turbulence production in

premixed turbulent ames. Combustion Science and Technology, 25:127140, 1981.

[26] Akselvoll, K. and Moin, P. Large-eddy simulation of turbulent conned coannular jets.

Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 315:387, 1996.

[27] Wilcox, D. C. Turbulence Modeling for CFD. DCW Industries, Inc., 1998.

[28] Menon, S. and Jou, W. H. Large eddy simulations of combustion instability in an

axisymmetric ramjet combustor. Combustion Science and Technology, 75(1-3):5372,

1991.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

203

submitted to Prof. Uri Vandsburger, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Tech,

May 2001.

[30] Peters, N. The turbulent burning velocity for large-scale and small-scale turbulence.

Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 384:107132, 1999.

[31] Pope, S. B. Pdf method for turbulent reacting ows. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 11:119195, 1985.

[32] Tyndal, J. Sound. D. Appleton & Company, New York, 1897.

[33] Faraday, M. Journal of Science and the Arts, 5:274, 1918.

[34] Le Conte, J. Philosophy Magazine, page HP. 235, 1958.

[35] Rijke, P. Ann. Phys., Lpz 107:339, 1959.

[36] Lord Rayleigh. The Theory of Sound, volume 2. Dover Publications, 1945. re-issue.

[37] Annaswamy, A. M., Fleil, M., Hathout, J. P., and Ghoniem, A. F. Impact of linear

coupling on the design of active controllers for thermoacoustic instability. Combustion

Science and Technology, 128:131180, 1997.

[38] McManus, K. R., Poinsot, T. J., and Candel, S. B. A review of active control of

combustion instabilities. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 19(1):130, 1993.

[39] Schuller, T., Durox, D., and Candel, S. Dynamics of and noise radiated by a perturbed

impinging premixed jet ame. Combustion and Flame, 128(1-2):88110, 2002.

[40] Dowling, A. P. A kinematic model of a ducted ame. Journal of Fluid Mechanics,

394:5172, 1999.

[41] Lieuwen, T., Torres, H., Johnson, C., and Zinn, B. T. A mechanism for combustion instabilities in premixed gas turbine combustors. Journal of Engineering for Gas

Turbines and Power, 123(1):182190, 2001.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

204

[42] McIntosh, A. C., Brindley, J., and Yang, X.-S. Pressure disturbances and strained

premixed ames. Combustion Theory and Modelling, 6:3551, 2002.

[43] Ledder, G. and Kapila, A. K. The response of premixed ames to pressure perturbations. Combustion Science and Technology, 76(1-3):2144, 1991.

[44] Friedlander, M. M. and Smith, T. J. B. Experiments on the rijke tube phenomenon.

Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 36:17, 1964.

[45] Pelce, N. C. One-dimensional model for the rijke tube. Journal of Fluid Mechanics,

202:8396, 1989.

[46] Nark, D. M. and Hardin, J. C. The rijke tube as an initial value problem. AIAA-971626-CP, pages 325333, 1997.

[47] Yoon, H.-G., Peddieson Jr., J., and Purdy, K. R. Mathematical modeling of a generalized rijke tube. International Journal of Engineering Science, 36:12351264, 1998.

[48] Nord, L. A thermoacoustic characterization of a rijke tube combustor. Masters thesis,

Virginia Tech, 2000.

[49] Raun, R. L., Beckstead, M. W., Finlinson, J. C., and Brooks, K. P. A review of rijke

tubes, rijke burners and related devices. Progress in Energy and Combustion Sciences,

19:313364, 1993.

[50] Putnam, A. A. Combustion-Driven Oscillations in Industry. American Elsevier Publishing Company, New York, 1971.

[51] Yan, H. Numerical simulation and experimental investigation of self-excited oscillating

ows in rijke tubes. In Proceedings of the 33rd National Heat Transfer Conference,

Proceedings of the 33rd National Heat Transfer Conference, Albuquerque, New Mexico,

August 15-17 1999.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

205

SIAM Journal of Numerical Analysis, 21:1, 1984.

[53] Ishii, T., Hihara, E., and Saito, T. Numerical analysis on heat-induced vibration of

air column. JSME International Journal, 41(3):674681, 1998.

[54] Entezam, B., Majdalani, J., and van Moorhem, W. K. Modeling of a rijke-tube pulse

combustor using computational uid dynamics. In AIAA Paper 97-2718, AIAA Paper

97-2718, Seattle, WA, July 1997.

[55] Flow Science Inc., Los Alamos, New Mexico.

[56] Entezam, B., Majdalani, J., and van Moorhem, W. K. A novel investigation of the

thermoacoustic eld inside a rijke tube. In 7th AIAA/ASME Joint Thermophysics and

Heat Transfer Conference, Albuquerque, NM, June 15-18 1998.

[57] Sangyeon, C., Jaeheon, K., and Soogab, L. Characteristics of thermoacoustic oscillation

in a ducted ame burner. In Proceedings of the 36th Aerospace Sciences Meeting and

Exhibit, Reno, Nevada, January 12-15, 1998.

[58] Amsden, A. A., ORourke, P. J., and Butler, T. D. KIVA-II: A computer program

for chemically reactive ows with sprays. Los Alamos Scientic Laboratory Reports,

1989.

[59] Fluent Inc., Lebanon, New Hampshire.

[60] Saunders, W. R., Nord, L., Fanin, C. A., Ximing, H., Baumann, W. T., Vandsburger,

U., Khanna, V. K., Haber, L. C., Eisenhower, B., and Liljenberg, S. Diagnostics

and modeling of acoustic signatures in a tube combustor. In Proceedings of the 6th

International Conference of Sound and Vibration, Copenhagen, Denmark, July 1999.

[61] Markstein, G. H. Nonsteady Flame Propagation. The Macmillan Company, Pergamon

Press, New York, 1964.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

206

22:143169, 1980.

[63] Fluent Inc. Fluent 5 Users Guide, 2000.

[64] Vandsburger, U., Saunders, W. R., and Baumann, W. T. Development of modular, reduced order models for prediction of combustion instabilities: Final report for

subcontract no. 98-01-SP065, AGTSR program. Technical report, Virginia Active

Combustion Control Group (VACCG), Virginia Tech, May 15 2002.

[65] Westbrook, C. K. and Dryer, F. L. Chemical kinetic modeling of hydrocarbon combustion. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 10:157, 1984.

[66] Habiballah, M. and Dubois, I. Numerical analysis of engine instability, liquid rocket

engine combustion instability. Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, 169:475502,

1995.

[67] Matsui, Y. An experimental study on pyro-acoustic amplication of premixed laminar

ames. Combustion and Flame, 43:199209, 1981.

[68] Landau, L. D. and Lifshitz, E. M. Fluid Mechanics. Pergamon Press, 1959.

[69] Shivashinsky, G. I. Diusional-thermal theory of cellular ames. Combustion Science

and Technology, 15:137146, 1977.

[70] Joulin, G. and Clavin, P. Linear stability analysis of nonadiabatic ames: Diusionalthermal model. Combustion and Flame, 35:139153, 1979.

[71] Buckmaster, J. D. Stability of porous plug burner ame. SIAM Journal of Applied

Mathematics, 43:13351349, 1983.

[72] Jackson, T. L. and Kapila, A. K. Thermal expansion eects on perturbed premixed

ames: A review. Lectures in Applied Mathematics, 24:325347, 1986.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

207

of a plane ame front. Combustion Science and Technology, 29:207224, 1982.

[74] Matalon, M. and Matkowsky, B. J. Flames as gasdynamic discontinuities. Journal of

Fluid Mechanics, 124:239259, 1982.

[75] Pelce, P. and Clavin, P. Inuence of hydrodynamics and diusion upon the stability

limits of laminar premixed ames. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 124:219237, 1982.

[76] Mukunda, H. S. and Drummond, J. P. Two dimensional linear stability of premixed

laminar ames under zero gravity. Applied Science Research, 51:687711, 1993.

[77] Liberman, M. A., Bychkov V. V., Goldberg, S. M., and Book, D. L. Stability of a

planar ame front in the slow-combustion regime. Physical Review, 49:445453, 1994.

[78] Lasseigne, D. S., Jackson, T. L., and Jameson, L. Stability of freely propagating ames

revisited. Combustion Theory and Modelling, 3:591611, 1999.

[79] Sharpe, G. J. Linear stability of planar premixed ames: Reactive navier-stokes equations with nite activation energy and arbitrary lewis number. Combustion Theory

and Modelling, 7:4565, 2003.

[80] Kurdyumov, V. N. and Fernandez-Tarrazo, E. Lewis number eect on the propagation

of premixed laminar ames in narrow open ducts. Combustion and Flame, 128:382394,

2002.

[81] Boury, G. and Joulin, G. Nonlinear response of premixed-ame fronts to localized

random forcing in the presence of a strong tangential blowing. Combustion Theory

and Modelling, 6:243261, 2002.

[82] Day, M. S. and Bell, J. B. Numerical simulation of laminar reacting ows with complex

chemistry. Combustion Theory and Modelling, 4:535556, 2000.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

208

[83] Rook, R., de Goey, L. P. H., Somers, L. M. T., Schreel, K. R. A. M., and Parchen,

R. Response of burner-stabilized at ames to acoustic perturbations. Combustion

Theory and Modelling, 6:223242, 2002.

[84] Haber, L. C., September 2002. Private Communication.

[85] Haber, L. C. An investigation into the origin, measurement and application of chemiluminescent light emissions from premixed ames. Masters thesis, Virginia Tech, 2001.

[86] Lee, R. J., Grcar, J. F., Smooke, M. D., and Miller, J. A. A fortran program for

modeling steady laminar one-dimensional premixed ames. Technical Report SAND858240, Combustion Chemistry Division, Sandia Laboratories, December 1986.

[87] Smith, G. P., Golden, D. M., Frenklach, M., Moriarty, N. W., Eiteneer, B., Goldenberg,

M., Bowman, C. T., Hanson, R. K., Song, S., Gardiner Jr., W. C., Lissianski, V. V.,

and Qin, Z. http://www.me.berkeley.edu/grimech.

[88] Kaufmann, A., Nicoud, F., and Poinsot, T. J. Flow forcing techniques for numerical

simulation of combustion instabilities. Combustion and Flame, 131:371385, 2002.

[89] Poinsot, T. J. and Lele, S. K. Boundary conditions for direct simulations of compressible viscous ows. Journal of Computational Physics, 101:104129, 1992.

[90] Baum, M., Poinsot, T. J., and Thevenin, D. Accurate boundary conditions for multicomponent reactive ows. Journal of Computational Physics, 116:247261, 1994.

[91] Kee, R. J. and Dwyer, H. A. Review of stiness and implicit nite-dierence methods in combustion modeling. In M. Summereld, editor, Progress in Astronautics and

Aeronautics Combustion in Reactive Systems (7th International Colloquium on Gasdynamics of Explosions and Reactive Systems, Goettingen, Germany), pages 485500,

New York, 1979. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

209

[92] Raithby, G. D. and Chui, E. H. A nite-volume method for predicting radiant heat

transfer in enclosures with participating media. Journal of Heat Transfer, 112:415423,

1990.

[93] Lammers, F. A. and de Goey, L. P. H. The inuence of gas radiation on the temperature

decrease above a burner with a at porous inert surface. Combustion and Flame,

136:533547, 2004.

[94] Siegel, R. and Howell, J. R. Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer. Hemisphere Publishing

Corporation, Washington D. C., 1992.

[95] McIntosh, A. C. and Clarke, J. F. Second order theory of unsteady burner-anchored

ames with arbitrary lewis number. Combustion Science and Technology, 38:161196,

1984.

[96] McIntosh, A. C. The eect of upstream acoustic forcing and feedback on the stability

and resonance behaviour of anchored ames. Combustion Science and Technology,

49:143167, 1986.

[97] Artyukh, L. Y., Itskova, P. G., and Lukyanov, A. T. Mathematical modelling of

stability of non-adiabatic laminar premixed ame. International Journal of Heat and

Mass Transfer, 40(9):22352240, 1997.

[98] Moschandreou, T. and Zamir, M. Heat transfer in a tube with pulsating ow and

constant heat ux. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 40(10):2461

2466, 1997.

[99] Hemida, H. N., Sabry, M. N., Abdel-Rahim, A., and Mansour, H. Theoretical analysis

of heat transfer in laminar pulsating ow. International Journal of Heat and Mass

Transfer, 45:17671780, 2002.

[100] Barletta, A. and Zanchini, E. Time-periodic laminar mixed convection in an inclined

channel. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 46:551563, 2003.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

210

[101] Cho, H. W. and Hyun, J. M. Numerical solutions of pulsating ow and heat transfer

characteristics in a pipe. International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, 11(4):321330,

1990.

[102] Bloxsidge, G. J., Dowling, A. P., and Langhorne, P. J. Reheat buzz: An acoustically

coupled combustion instability. part 2. theory. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 193:445

473, 1988.

[103] Dowling, A. P. Nonlinear self-excited oscillations of a ducted ame. Journal of Fluid

Mechanics, 346:271290, 1997.

[104] Vaezi, V. and Aldredge, R. C. Inuences of acoustic instabilities on turbulent-ame

propagation. Experiments in Thermal and Fluid Science, 20:162169, 2000.

[105] Lieuwen, T. Analysis of acoustic wave interactions with turbulent premixed ames.

Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 29, 2002.

[106] Kalamatianos, S., Park, Y., and Vlachos, D. Two-parameter continuation algorithms

for sensitivity analysis, parametric dependence, reduced mechanisms, and stability

criteria of ignition and extinction. Combustion and Flame, 112(1-2):4561, 1998.

[107] Janus,M.C. and Richards, G. Results of a model for premixed combustion oscillations.

Proceedings of the Meeting of the American Flame Research Council, 1996.

[108] Becker, R. and Gunther, R. The transfer function of premixed turbulent jet ames.

Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 13:517526, 1970.

[109] Marble, F. E. and Candel, S. M. An analytical study of the non-steady behavior of

large combustors. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 17:761769, 1978.

[110] Lee, D. H. and Lieuwen, T. Acoustic neareld characteristics of a conical, premixed

ame. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 113(1):167177, 2003.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

211

[111] Stone, C. and Menon, C. Swirl control of combustion instabilities in a gas turbine

combustor. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 29, 2002.

[112] Schadow, K. and Gutmark, E. Combustion instability related to vortex shedding

in dump combustors and their passive control. Progress in Energy and Combustion

Science, 18:117132, 1992.

[113] Coats, C. Coherent structures in combustion. Progress in Energy and Combustion

Science, 22:427509, 1996.

[114] Wilcox, D. C. Multiscale model for turbulent ows. AIAA Journal, 26(11):13111320,

1988.

[115] Choudhury, D. Introduction to the renormalization group method and turbulence

modeling. Technical Report TM-107, Fluent Incorporated, 1993.

[116] Launder, B. E. Second-moment closure and its use in modeling turbulent industrial

ows. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, 9:963985, 1989.

[117] Launder, B. E., Reece, G. J., and Rodi, W. Progress in the development of a Reynoldsstress turbulence closure. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 68(3):537566, 1975.

[118] M. M. Ribeiro and J. H. Whitelaw. Coaxial jets with and without swirl. Journal of

Fluid Mechanics, 96:769795, 1980.

[119] Speziale, C. G. Modeling of turbulent transport equations. In T. B. Gatski, M. Y.

Hussaini, and J. L. Lumley, editors, Simulation and Modeling of Turbulent Flows.

Oxford University Press, New York, 1996.

[120] Kim, W. and Menon, S. Application of the localized dynamic subgrid-scale model to

turbulent wall-bounded ows. AIAA paper 97-0210, 1997.

[121] Chen, J.-Y. A general procedure for constructing reduced reaction mechanisms with

given independent relations. Combustion Science and Technology, 57:8994, 1988.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

212

[122] McMurtry, P. A., Menon, S., and Kerstein, A. R. A linear eddy sub-grid model

for turbulent reacting ows: Application to hydrogen-air combustion. Twenty-Fourth

Symposium (International) on Combustion, pages 271278, 1992.

[123] Pope, S. B. Computationally ecient implementation of combustion chemistry using

in situ adaptive tabulation. Combustion Theory and Modeling, 1:4163, 1997.

[124] Schonfeld, T. and Rudgyard, M. Steady and unsteady ow simulations using the hybrid

ow solver AVBP. AIAA Journal, 37(11):13781385, 1999.

[125] Cannon, S., McDaniel, K., and Smith, C. Sensitivity analysis of combustion dynamics

using time-accurate CFD modeling. In 37th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Meeting and Exhibit, Salt Lake City, Utah, 8 - 11 July 2001.

[126] Hendricks, A. G. Determination of ame dynamics for unsteady combustion systems

using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. Masters thesis, Virginia Tech,

December 2003.

[127] Najm, H. N., Paul, P. H., Mueller, C. J., and Wycko, P. S. On the adequacy of

certain experimental observables as measurements of ame burning rate. Combustion

and Flame, 113(3):312332, 1998.

[128] Paul, P. H. and Najm, H. N. Planar laser-induced uorescence imaging of ame heat

release rate. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 27:4350, 1998.

[129] Najm, H. N., Knio, O. M., Paul, P. H., and Wycko, P. S. A study of ame observables

in premixed methane-air ames. Combustion Science and Technology, 140(1-6):369

403, 1998.

[130] Haworth, D. C., Blint, R. J., Cuenot, B., and Poinsot, T. J. Numerical simulation of

turbulent propane-air combustion with nonhomogeneous reactants. Combustion and

Flame, 121(3):395417, 2000.

Appendix A

A CFD Study of Air-fuel Mixing in a

Lean Premixed Combustor

The overall goal of the project titled Analysis and Design Tools for Combustion Instabilities (STTR AF00-T019 Phase I: Contract No. F49620-00-C-0056) was to develop an accurate design tool for predicting and controlling oscillations in high-performance, gas-turbine

combustors. The sensitivity equation method (SEM) was developed by Aerosoft, Inc. (a

stand-alone commercial package called SENSE) to investigate turbulent ow sensitivities for

chemically reacting ows. The focus during Phase I was to develop a tool using the GASP

(Aerosofts CFD solver) and SENSE CFD software to study thermoacoustic instabilities

observed in a National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) lean premixed combustor.

The Phase I goal was to simulate a forced instability in a simplied geometry of the NETL

combustor. The inlet boundary condition for the combustor comprised of a planar jet prole

and the species mass fraction of air and fuel were specied as a function of the radial distance.

This prole was determined by solving the steady-state, axisymmetric ow equations for the

fuel nozzle alone. To determine the sensitivity prole, it was assumed that the mass-fraction

proles can be approximated using a cubic Lagrange polynomial. Turbulent mixing of air

and methane in the nozzle was simulated using a two-equation model and a second moment

213

214

closure Reynolds Stress Model (RSM). The baseline prole was made unsteady by imposing

a time-dependent sinusoidal uctuation in velocity, where the amplitude and frequency were

obtained from experimental data.

Four dierent swirler congurations were attainable in the fuel-nozzle section of the NETL

combustor. In particular, the swirl vanes could be placed at dierent locations upstream

of the fuel-spoke injector in increments as shown in Figure A.1. The rst case corresponds

to locating the swirl vanes 3.25 inches upstream of the combustor. Each successive case

corresponded to the vanes being located one inch farther upstream (i.e., to the left). One

of the design variables in the study was the swirler location relative to the fuel injection

location.

Figure A.1: The DOE NETL Combustor air-fuel mixing nozzle. The range of positions for

the swirling vanes are shown.

To determine the inlet to the combustor boundary proles of velocity and species mass

fractions, three-dimensional mixing of air and fuel that takes place in the fuel nozzle was

simulated. The Fluent segregated CFD solver was used for the calculations and the grid was

generated using the Gambit preprocessor. Axisymmetric modeling of the air-fuel mixing

process was simulated by selecting the axisymmetric-swirl model in Fluent. The inlet air

215

was preheated to 578 K and the fuel entered the ow domain at 300 K. Both the RNG

k- and the Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) were applied for turbulence modeling. Air was

introduced at a swirl angle of 45 and the fuel was introduced at the location of the spoke

ring. Internal mass sources tuned for an equivalence ratio of = 0.74 were used to introduce

the fuel into the stream. The fuel nozzle exit mass-fraction proles of CH4 and O2 are shown

in Figure A.2 and Figure A.3 respectively. The axial velocity at the exit of the fuel nozzle is

shown in Figure A.4.

Figure A.2: Mass fraction prole of CH4 at the exit of the fuel nozzle for dierent locations

of the swirler relative to the fuel injection location

As the swirling rings are located farther upstream of the combustion region, the swirl ratio

decreases at the spoke-ring location. As a result, the mixing in Case 4 is less than in Case 1.

The mass-fraction proles for N2 , O2 and CH4 were then applied as an in-ow prole for

the two-dimensional, chemically reacting simulation in the combustor. By running all four

swirler-ring cases, the sensitivity of the mass-fraction proles to the swirler location was

formulated through a Lagrange polynomial.

216

Figure A.3: Mass fraction prole of O2 at the exit of the fuel nozzle for dierent locations

of the swirler relative to the fuel injection location

Figure A.4: Axial velocity prole at the exit of the fuel nozzle. The swirler location progresses

upstream in each of the four cases.

Appendix B

A CFD Study of Blu-body Stabilized

Combustion in a Lean Premixed

Combustor

The overall goal of the ongoing project titled Systematic Investigation of Blu-Body Combustion Instability (STTR AF00-T019 Phase II: Contract No. F49620-00-C-0048 STTR

AF00-T019) is to provide a sensitivity-analysis tool for the control of heat-release rate distribution in aeroengine combustors with emphasis on blu-body type ame-holders. This

control is essential to attenuate the thermoacoustic instabilities of the combustors under lean

operating conditions. Previous studies on blu body stabilized combustors have indicated

that such a conguration is susceptible to ow instabilities due to vortex shedding which

can hinder the study of thermoacoustic instabilities and their control. The importance of

this very internal ow boundary conditions is another issue addressed by the project.

The project includes both CFD investigation of blu-body stabilized combustion and experimental studies. For the experimental studies, a high pressure combustor has been designed

at VACCG. The combustor apparatus includes of a fuel-air impingement mixer section, followed by a ow conditioning section; diuser, plenum, and nozzle. Following the nozzle is

217

218

the entrance to the combustor and the exit nozzle. The blu-body ame stabilizer is placed

in the combustor. To support the combustor, high pressure air and natural gas supply setup

have been installed at the VACCG Laboratory. The goal of the test facility is to yield an

invaluable database that can guide the software computations and gage their limitations.

Since the project is focused on unstable combustion, its prediction, and active design methodology, designing the combustor was critical to the success of the project. Specically, in the

case of blu-body stabilized combustion strong coupling between the acoustics and shear

layer instabilities is expected. This manifests itself in the shedding of large scale structures,

which are typically straddled by the ame/combustion zone. To examine these structures

CFD simulations of cold ows were rst undertaken using FLUENT 6. The geometrical conguration was that of the coaxial blu-body combustor shown schematically in Figure B.1.

Boundary conditions and numerical settings are listed in Table B.1.

LD

d

o

6.35 mm

45

D

10 mm

Figure B.1: Coaxial blu-body combustor geometry used in the CFD simulation. The

dimensions of the blu body are D = 7.62 cm, d = 12 D = 3.81 cm

219

Table B.1: Combustor domain dimensions, Boundary conditions and Numerical settings

Combustor dimensions

Diameter (D) = 7.62 cm

Downstream length (LD ) = 3D = 22.86 cm (shown in Figure B.1)

Blu-body top diameter, (d) = 12 D = 3.81 cm

Reynolds number

39,124 (inlet velocity = 15 m/s)

78,248 (inlet velocity = 30 m/s)

Boundary conditions

Inlet: Uniform inlet velocity, no-free stream turbulence assumption (T KE = 0)

Outlet: Initial calculations performed by keeping the outlet at atmospheric pressure

Numerical settings

2D unsteady solution: second order accurate temporal discretization

RNG k- turbulence model

Second order accurate upwind spatial discretization

Time step: t = 1 105 s (15 m/s), t = 5 106 s (30 m/s)

The CFD investigation showed vortex shedding behind the blu-body. A time series of

vorticity magnitude is shown in Figure B.2. Clearly seen are the alternating vortices shed.

The vorticity magnitude of the turbulent oweld was collected at six locations that are

shown in Figure B.3. The resulting power spectra are shown in Figures B.4 and B.5 with a

magnication of spectra for P t11 shown in Figure B.6. In both cases (15 m/s and 30 m/s) the

fundamental vortex shedding frequency corresponds to a Strouhal number of 0.3. It can be

noted from Figure B.2 that the time taken for one vortex to shed is approximately 8103 s,

which corresponds to a frequency of 125 Hz. The frequency calculated by FFT comes out

to be 120 Hz (for the 15 m/s case) which corresponds to a shedding time of approximately

8.33 103 s.

220

-33 8

38

8

-3 3

-33 8

-3 3 8

-3 3

-338

-3 3

-3

-3 3

25

-338

-338

79

79

579

25

-3 3 8

6

25

-3

54

97

-338

-3 3 8

84

79

25

t = 1 103 s

t = 0s

09

15

927

17

-9

-3 2

-1 4

-3 3

04

54

-6

230

-338

-3256

97

257 9

-3 3

56

257

25

79

-3

38

549 7

-3 38

-3 3

t = 2 103 s

-33 8

-3

38

-33 8

-33 8

8

-3 38

-3 38

-3 3

-3 3 8

-33 8

-3 3 8

38

56

25

79

t = 3 103 s

-338

841

5497

-3 3 8

25

-3 3 8

-3

8

-3256

-3 3

-3 2

25

79

-3256

-3

-3 3

t = 4 103 s

221

-3 3 8

-3 3 8

-3 38

-3 38

8

-3 3

-3 3

-3 3

-3 3 8

-3 3 8

-3 3

-3 3

2579

25

2579

257

-9

t = 5 103 s

t = 6 103 s

-3256

33

1 1 3 5497

2579

-338

2 530 8 4 1 5

1 4-3

8

-6 1 7 4

11333

-3 3

8

4 5 -3 2 5 6

78

09

-1

79

00

25

23

97

257

56

-338 25 79

79

54

-3 2

7 4 -3 2 5 6

-6 1

-3 3

-3 38

-33 8

t = 7 103 s

-338

-3 38

-3

38

-3 3 8

-3 3

-3 3 8

-3 3 8

-3 3 8

25

25

79

-3 3

-3 38

6

4

23

-3 25 6

8

-3 3

-338

-3256

009

-1 2

79

33 25

8

3

-3

6

5

32

113

54 97

-3 2 5 6

257

00

25

6

-3 2 5

2579

-3

79

t = 8 103 s

t = 9 103 s

222

223

60

Point 11

Point 21

50

40

20log10(Vorticityfluc)

30

20

10

10

20

30

600

500

1000

Frequency (Hz)

1500

Point 12

Point 22

50

40

20log10(Vorticityfluc)

30

20

10

10

20

30

600

500

1000

Frequency (Hz)

1500

Point 13

Point 23

50

40

20log10(Vorticityfluc)

30

20

10

10

20

30

500

1000

1500

Frequency (Hz)

224

Point 11

Point 21

60

50

40

20log10(Vorticityfluc)

30

20

10

0

10

20

30

40

600

500

1000

1500

Frequency (Hz)

2000

1500

Frequency (Hz)

2000

1500

Frequency (Hz)

2000

2500

3000

Point 12

Point 22

50

40

20log10(Vorticityfluc)

30

20

10

10

20

30

40

600

500

1000

2500

3000

Point 13

Point 23

50

40

20log10(Vorticityfluc)

30

20

10

10

20

30

40

500

1000

2500

3000

225

70

U

= 15 m/s

inlet

Uinlet = 30 m/s

240 Hz

120 Hz

60

50

20log10(Vorticityfluc)

40

30

20

10

10

20

30

500

1000

1500

Frequency (Hz)

Figure B.6: Power spectrum plot of vorticity magnitude (Pt11; Uinlet = 15 m/s and 30 m/s)

Appendix C

Matlab Code for Frequency Response

Function Calculation

This code has been used to calculate the Frequency Response Function (FRF) between

unsteady velocity (u , input) and the resulting unsteady heat release rate from the ame

(q , output). The code has been used to compute the FRF for both laminar and turbulent

ames.

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

% Matlab code for calculating the FRF between u and q

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

% Number of frequencies at which the flame was excited

% is given by the variable freq which needs to be

% modified for every FRF calculation

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

clear all;

226

% sampling rate for the data

sam=10000;

% frequencies specified

freq = [15 20 25 30 35 50 75 100 200 300 500];

% number of frequencies

nfreq = length(freq);

nfreqf = nfreq + 1;

siv = inletv_;

srr = rr_;

shz = Hz.out;

for i = 1:nfreq

% to form final string for reading files

freq(i);

sfr = num2str(freq(i));

% reading velocities

fidv = fopen([siv sfr shz]);

a = fscanf(fidv,%g %g,[2 inf]); a = a;

227

% velocity vector

vel = a(:,2);

fidr = fopen([srr sfr shz]);

b = fscanf(fidr,%g %g,[2 inf]); b = b;

rr = b(:,2);

len = length(vel);

lenr = length(rr);

if (len ~= lenr)

fprintf(lengths of vel and rr not equal)

break

end

% calculating mean

vel_mean = sum(vel)/len;

rr_mean = sum(rr)/len;

vel = (vel - vel_mean)/vel_mean;

rr = (rr - rr_mean)/rr_mean;

% window size

228

win = len;

[P, F] = spectrum(vel,rr,len,0,hanning(win),sam,0.95);

pm=abs(P(:,4));

pp=(180.0/pi)*angle(P(:,4));

res = sam/len;

% since exact match is not always possible, the two

% frequencies closest to the frequency of interest are chosen

ifind = find(F > freq(i) - res & F < freq(i) + res | F == freq(i));

lenifind = length(ifind);

magvalues=pm(ifind);

% by averaging the values obtained for the two frequencies

magn= sum(magvalues)/lenifind;

clear magvalues

229

% finding the phase at the two frequencies

phasevalues=pp(ifind);

% by averaging the values obtained for the two frequencies

phase= sum(phasevalues)/lenifind;

clear phasevalues

clear ifind

mag(i) = 20*log10(magn);

pha(i) = phase;

clear magn phase

fclose(fidv);

fclose(fidr);

clear vel_mean rr_mean

clear vel rr len lenr win P F pm pp

end

% steady state

freq(nfreqf) = 0;

mag(nfreqf) = 0;

pha(nfreqf) = 0;

230

231

h=10.^(mag/20).*exp(j*pha/180*pi);

[num, den]=invfreqs(h(1:nfreqf),freq(1:nfreqf)*2*pi,2,2);

rden=roots(den)/2/pi

rnum=roots(num)/2/pi

hid=freqs(num,den,[1:1000]*2*pi);

figure(1);

semilogx(freq,20*log10(abs(h)),s,1:1000,20*log10(abs(hid)))

axis([1 1000 -140 25]);

xlabel(Frequency (Hz))

ylabel(Magnitude (dB))

legend(Computed Data Points,2nd Order Fit,3);

grid on

figure(2);

semilogx(freq,unwrap(angle(h))*180/pi,s,1:1000,unwrap(angle(hid))*180/pi)

axis([1 1000 -350 50]);

legend(Computed Data Points,2nd Order Fit,3);

xlabel(Frequency (Hz))

ylabel(Phase (deg))

grid on

re_rden=real(rden);

img_rden=imag(rden);

re_rnum=real(rnum);

img_rnum=imag(rnum);

% Pole-Zero plot

figure(3);

plot(re_rden,img_rden,kX,re_rnum,img_rnum,kO);

grid on;

xlabel Re

ylabel Img

legend(Poles,Zeros,2);

232

Vita

Prateep Chatterjee was born in the Darjeeling district of West Bengal, India in 1973. He

spent his childhood at the I.I.T. campus in Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India. He went to the

Campus School for his primary schooling and subsequently completed his high school education from Central School (Kendriya Vidyalaya), I.I.T. Kanpur in 1991. He pursued his

Bachelors degree in Mechanical engineering at the Zakir Hussain College of Engineering and

Technology, Aligarh Muslim University (AMU) and completed his degree in 1996. Between

October 1996 and August 1997, he worked at I.I.T. Kanpur as a Research Associate and

later as an Engineer Trainee at West Bengal Power Development Corp., West Bengal, India.

He started his graduate studies in Aerospace engineering at I.I.T. Kanpur in August 1997.

After completing the rst semester of the Masters program, he wrote a proposal for conducting research in Germany. The German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) awarded

him a fellowship to pursue his Masters research at the University of Stuttgart, Germany.

The following ten months were spent at the Institute for Nuclear Technology and Energy

Systems (IKE) working under Prof. Manfred Groll. The thesis research conducted at IKE

involved experimental investigation of two-phase nucleate pool boiling over enhanced industrial evaporative tubes. He defended his Masters thesis at I.I.T. Kanpur in April 1999.

In the spring of 2000, he began his doctoral studies in Mechanical engineering at Viginia

Tech under the guidance of Dr. Uri Vandsburger. While pursuing his degree, he taught the

undergraduate heat transfer course three times. Upon successful completion of his Ph.D.,

he will begin working as a Senior Research Scientist at FM Global in Norwood, MA.

233

- q 0440596102Uploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- Flame Configurations in a Lean Premixed Dump Combustor with an Annular Swirling FlowUploaded byعبدالله عبدالعاطي
- Scope of CFD in the Process IndustryUploaded bydkrnambiar
- 2X 3 7X 1Uploaded byRaby Abidi
- Modelling Assignment: OpenFoamUploaded byAlexandros Kenich
- Master ThesisUploaded byFabio Carvalho
- cfd impUploaded byatharvapathak
- A Validation Method of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulation against Experimental Data of Transient Flow In Pipes SystemUploaded byAJER JOURNAL
- Report on Boiler Modification for 100% Over bed FiringUploaded byparthi20065768
- CFD Analysis of an Elliptical Pin Fin Heat Sink using Ansys Fluent v12.1Uploaded byKelsey Ryan
- IC+9162+COMPUTATIONAL+FLUID+DYNAMICSUploaded bydraj1875977
- Micro Gas Turbine Teste MITUploaded byErico Antonio Teixeira
- The Practical Uses of ComputationalFluid Dynamics–Not Just a PrettyPictureUploaded byCostynha
- ChangLiu General CFDUploaded byprakash_vinayak4946
- [doi 10.1002%2F3527601996.ch13] Wittig, Sigmar; Vöhringer, Otmar; Kim, Soksik -- High Intensity Combustors - Steady Isobaric Combustion (DFG SF High-Int. Combust. O-BK) __ Numerical Modelling of CombuUploaded byawarialocks
- Chen y Cfd Study of an Ufad System Ncembt-091012Uploaded byNemo Neo
- Power Flame CG-FullUploaded byJhonatan Parraguez
- Propulsion Lect 17 CombustionUploaded bysanjay
- Huang PaperUploaded byNicolaas Tangkudung
- RD 93Uploaded byaunbhutta
- Notes-cfd Viscous FlowUploaded bySiow Shung Churn
- Computational Fluid Dynamics ( Cfd )Uploaded byRushikesh attarde
- Obara 2008Uploaded bymahesh
- ArticuloUploaded byfelo345
- 1-s2.0-S0892687511004262-mainUploaded byNopparut
- lecture5.pdfUploaded byLUIS ISAAC LEON PARO
- AEC361 2019 Question Old PapersUploaded byVenky Gollavelli
- Mukundan N. Deepu et al- Numerical Simulation of Supersonic Combustion Using Unstructured Point Implicit Finite Volume MethodUploaded byOlmea
- Brief Microfluidic CFD Simulation ExplanationUploaded byLuthviyah Choirotul Muhimmah
- BO2012 - Insights Into Oil Sands Tailings Development ProjectsUploaded bymauricio

- Rel Prop Terms DefinitionsUploaded byPercy Alex Machuca Gamarra
- Proceedings of NCPCE-10Uploaded byAnoop Mathew
- ae lab manual.docxUploaded byaryakalekattu
- volterraUploaded bymohammedmusthaffaaas
- 10.Coherence Bandwidth Characterisation at mm-wavesUploaded byBismark Obinim Akoto
- Total NotesUploaded byArmando Malone
- Actuateur Gras Pd_90CAUploaded byEMA54
- Smaart ManualUploaded byekoeddy
- Control System - I: Weekly Lesson PlanUploaded bydebasishmee5808
- Bass Extension ComparisonUploaded byAnonymous RLZ8OaIr
- JVC CD Receiver KD-S6350/KD-S590Uploaded bydzr
- AD_AN406 7714 sigmaUploaded byCarlos Correia
- Speedy 33Uploaded byPrashanthi Govindarajan
- Universal CVR 30 IM 23-70-03_Rev_1Uploaded byHenry Blandon
- EcA Lab ManuallUploaded bySylviaHofer
- Pasta Wikiped PageUploaded bySimon Mathews
- HP-AN243-3_Fundamentals of Modal TestingUploaded bysirjole7584
- U.S. Pat. 4,405,832, Entitled Circuit for Distorting an Audio Signal, Issued Sept. 20, 1983.Uploaded byDuane Blake
- EC302Uploaded byapi-3853441
- Transistor Amplifier ReportUploaded byarunkkumar
- A Torque Control Method of Three-Inertia Torsional System With Backlash856Uploaded byMohamed Berriri
- linear system analysisUploaded bysahar
- TM11-2566 Public Address Set an PIQ-1, 1945Uploaded bydavid_graves_okstate
- AC23-562-1 (dynamic test of seat-restraint systems)Uploaded byDavid Loury
- Mechanical Measurements and MetrologyUploaded bygiridhar
- 7071066 Multilevel Dynamic Voltage RestorerUploaded bymadhu
- Control system assignmentUploaded byKarthikeyan Parthy
- Control System Analysis & Design by Frequency ResponseUploaded byDozdi
- DatasheetUploaded byTufan Ünal
- sfra meggerUploaded byMehtab Ahmed