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# 06/16/2015

## SMK DATO PENGGAWA BARAT

82000 PONTIAN,JOHOR
ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 2015
HEALTHY CITIZEN-THE EARTHDREAM
NAME
: TY SHEE YANG
I/C NO
: 980824-01-7371
CLASS
: 5 DAHLIA
TEACHER : PN.AZNITA BINTI SAIRI

OBJECTIVES

## The aims of carrying out this project are :

To apply and adapt a variety of problem-solving strategies
To improve critical thinking skills
To promote effective mathematical communication
To solve problems in real-life situation
To use the language of mathematics to express mathematical
statements precisely
To develop positive attitude towards mathematics
To produce a systematic presentation

CONTENT
CONTENT
PAGE
Part 1 : Introduction
Binomial distribution
Normal distribution
Differences between Binomial Distribution&Normal Distribution

## Part 2 : Distribution of Height and Weight

Part 3 : Body Mass Index (BMI)
Further Exploration
Reflection

Part1:Introduction
What is a Probability Distribution?
A probability distribution is a table or an equation that links each outcome of a statistical
experiment with its probability of occurrence.

## Probability Distribution Prerequisites

To understand probability distributions, it is important to understand variables. random variables,
and some notation.

A variable is a symbol (A, B, x, y, etc.) that can take on any of a specified set of values.
When the value of a variable is the outcome of a statistical experiment, that variable is a random
variable.
Generally, statisticians use a capital letter to represent a random variable and a lower-case letter,
to represent one of its values. For example,

## X represents the random variable X.

P(X) represents the probability of X.
P(X = x) refers to the probability that the random variable X is equal to a particular value,
denoted by x. As an example, P(X = 1) refers to the probability that the random variable X is
equal to 1.
Probability Distributions
An example will make clear the relationship between random variables and probability
distributions. Suppose you flip a coin two times. This simple statistical experiment can have four
possible outcomes: HH, HT, TH, and TT. Now, let the variable X represent the number of Heads
that result from this experiment. The variable X can take on the values 0, 1, or 2. In this example,
X is a random variable; because its value is determined by the outcome of a statistical
experiment.

## A probability distribution is a table or an equation that links each outcome of a statistical

experiment with its probability of occurrence. Consider the coin flip experiment described above.
The table below, which associates each outcome with its probability, is an example of a
probability distribution.

0

0.25

0.50

0.25

Probability

The above table represents the probability distribution of the random variable X.

## Cumulative Probability Distributions

A cumulative probability refers to the probability that the value of a random variable falls within
a specified range.

Let us return to the coin flip experiment. If we flip a coin two times, we might ask: What is the
probability that the coin flips would result in one or fewer heads? The answer would be a
cumulative probability. It would be the probability that the coin flip experiment results in zero
heads plus the probability that the experiment results in one head.

## Like a probability distribution, a cumulative probability distribution can be represented by a table

or an equation. In the table below, the cumulative probability refers to the probability than the
random variable X is less than or equal to x.

x

Probability:

P(X = x)

Cumulative Probability:

P(X < x)
0

0.25

0.25

0.50

0.75

0.25

1.00

## Uniform Probability Distribution

The simplest probability distribution occurs when all of the values of a random variable occur
with equal probability. This probability distribution is called the uniform distribution.

Uniform Distribution. Suppose the random variable X can assume k different values. Suppose
also that the P(X = xk) is constant. Then,
P(X = xk) = 1/k

Example 1

Suppose a die is tossed. What is the probability that the die will land on 5 ?

Solution: When a die is tossed, there are 6 possible outcomes represented by: S = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
}. Each possible outcome is a random variable (X), and each outcome is equally likely to occur.
Thus, we have a uniform distribution. Therefore, the P(X = 5) = 1/6.

## What is the Normal Distribution?

In probability theory, the normal distribution is a continuous probability distribution. Normal
distributions are important in statistics and are often used in the natural and social sciences to
represent real-valued random variables whose distributions are not known. The normal
distribution is called the bell curve.
For standard normal distribution graph, any normal distribution curve can be converted to a
standard normal curve with mean = 0 and standard deviation 1. The standard normal distribution
is represented by N(0, 1). The continuous random variable for standard normal distribution is
called the standardized variable and is represented by Z.
From normal random variable X , to standardized variable Z ( Z-score) , a random variable X
that has a normal distribution with mean, and standard deviation, can be converted to Z-score
using the formula :
Z = X-

In real-life, we can use normal distribution in the application of quality control. We can calculate
the probability and estimate the amount for each category or grade.

## WHAT IS BINOMIAL DISTRIBUTION?

A binomial distribution summarizes the number of trials, or observations, when each trial has the
same probability of attaining one particular value.

For example, flipping a coin would create a binomial distribution. This is because each trial can
only take one of two values (heads or tails), each success has the same probability (i.e. the
probability of flipping a head is 0.50) and the results of one trial will not influence the results of
another.
P(X = x) = nCr=p, where x = 0, 1, 2, n and p + q = 1
Bernoulli has also shown that mean, variance and standard deviation of a binomial distribution
can be
calculated using :
If X ~ B(n , p),then,
Mean, = np
Variance, = npq
Standard deviation, =

## Examples of Binomial Distribution

Suppose a biased coin comes up heads with probability 0.3 when tossed. What is
the probability of achieving 0, 1,..., 6 heads after six tosses?
\Pr(0\text{ heads}) = f(0) = \Pr(X = 0) = {6\choose 0}0.3^0 (1-0.3)^{6-0}
\approx 0.1176
\Pr(1\text{ heads}) = f(1) = \Pr(X = 1) = {6\choose 1}0.3^1 (1-0.3)^{6-1}
\approx 0.3025
\Pr(2\text{ heads}) = f(2) = \Pr(X = 2) = {6\choose 2}0.3^2 (1-0.3)^{6-2}
\approx 0.3241
\Pr(3\text{ heads}) = f(3) = \Pr(X = 3) = {6\choose 3}0.3^3 (1-0.3)^{6-3}
\approx 0.1852
\Pr(4\text{ heads}) = f(4) = \Pr(X = 4) = {6\choose 4}0.3^4 (1-0.3)^{6-4}
\approx 0.0595
\Pr(5\text{ heads}) = f(5) = \Pr(X = 5) = {6\choose 5}0.3^5 (1-0.3)^{6-5}
\approx 0.0102
\Pr(6\text{ heads}) = f(6) = \Pr(X = 6) = {6\choose 6}0.3^6 (1-0.3)^{6-6}
\approx 0.0007

## DIFFERENCES BETWEEN NORMAL

DISTRIBUTION&BINOMIAL DISTRIBUTION
Normal distributions are continuous and have a special bell shape.

Binomial distributions are discrete ("stairsteppy"); they are close to normal only if the sample
size satisfies np 10 and nq 10.

## Normal distributions arise in three general areas:

1) Natural processes where the data value (e.g., height) is the result of many small random
inputs.
2) Sampling distribution of xbar, where either the underlying distribution is normal or (more
commonly) where the sample size is large enough for the CLT to take effect. Rules of thumb are
on p.606 of textbook.
3) Repeated measurement of a fixed phenomenon (e.g., the orbital period of Mars, the mass of a
moon rock, or the height of a mountain). Most phenomena cannot be measured preciselyeven
if we have an accurate pan balance or laser range finder or whatever, there will always be some
uncertainty or error in our measurement. For this reason, the normal distribution is sometimes
called the "error function." However, #3 is really just a special case of #1.

Binomial distributions arise whenever the r.v. of interest is the count of successes in a fixed
number (n) of independent trials. The four rules are listed near the beginning of the binomial
distribution section, before the second set of example problems.

PART 2
1. Distribution of height and weight of 50 students in school

Bil
.

Nama

Height(cm
)

weight(kg
)

BMI

160

42

16.4

170

70

24.2

174

76

25.1

182

75

22.6

180

65

20.1

182

56

16.9

174

70

23.1

160

50

19.5

155

49

20.4

10

160

50

19.5

11

164

50

18.6

12

LIM JING AN

151

69

30.3

13

160

72

28.1

14

175

63

20.6

15

175

61

19.9

16

159

41

16.2

17

160

48

18.8

18

163

51

19.2

19

173

65

21.7

20

163

48

18.1

21

165

58

21.3

22

160

47

18.4

23

163

75

28.2

24

160

63

24.6

25

161

45

17.4

26

160

52

20.3

27

TAN YI JUN

169

60

21.0

28

158

45

18.0

29

152

51

22.1

30

153

45

19.2

31

169

64

22.4

32

160

63

24.6

33

163

53

19.9

34

174

60

19.8

35

163

63

23.7

36

170

52

18.0

37

165

52

19.1

38

LEE YI XUAN

157

51

20.7

39

165

53

19.5

40

172

62

21.0

41

164

58

21.6

42

176

68

22.0

43

173

57

19.0

44

168

42

14.9

45

150

50

22.2

46

159

48

19.0

47

TAN YONGXIU

156

51

21.0

48

168

49

17.4

49

## TONG YONG LIN

159

47

18.6

50

TY SHEE YANG

170

57

19.7

2.
Draw frequency distribution table for the mass of 50 students using a suitable class
interval.
Weig
ht

Midpoin
ts

No. of
students

Cumulative
Frequency

41-50

45.5

17

17

2070.25

773.50

35194.2
5

51-60

55.5

16

33

3080.25

888.00

49284.0
0

61-70

65.5

13

46

4290.25

851.50

55773.2
5

71-80

75.5

50

5700.25

302.00

22801.0

X2

fx

Fx2

0
Total

50

2815.00

163052.
50

a. Histogram

b. Line Graph

c. Pie Chart

3.

(i)Use mean =

f x
f

## Such that f=number of students

Use standard deviation =

f x2
f x
- ( f )2
f

Such that

f = number of students
x = mid point of class interval

Weig
ht

Midpoin
ts

No. of
students

41-50

45.5

17

17

2070.25

773.50

35194.2
5

51-60

55.5

16

33

3080.25

888.00

49284.0
0

61-70

65.5

13

46

4290.25

851.50

55773.2
5

71-80

75.5

50

5700.25

302.00

22801.0
0

2815.00

163052.
50

Total

Cumulative
Frequency

X2

50

fx

Fx2

(ii) Find the mean and standard deviation for the weight.

Mean

2815
50

Standard deviation ,

2
=56.3

163052.5
(56.3)2
50

= 91.36

91.36
9.558

(iii)Find the percentage of the students with weight more than 60kg by drawing an
ogive.

Percentage =

total frequency 25

100%

total frequency
=

3.
the

25
50

0.5

50%

X
X

100%
100%

With assumption that the weight of the students are normally distributed, find

## (i)Percentage of students with weight more than 60kg.

60 56.3
P(X 60) P Z

9.558

P Z 0.3871
0.3494
34.94%
(ii)The percentage of students with weight less than 45kg.

45 56.3
P(X 45) P Z

9.558
P(Z 1.1823)
P(Z 1.1823)
0.1186
11.86%
(iii)The value of m if 90% students have weight more than m kg.

P(X m) 0.9

m 56.3
P Z
0.9

9.558
m 56.3
1.281
9.558
m 44.06kg

4.

What conclusion can you draw from the answer obtained in 2(iii) and 3(i)?
- The actual number of students who are more than 60 kg is more than the
assumption.

5.
10 students are picked at random, find the probability that exactly 3 students have weight
more than 60kg?

## P(X 3) 10C3 p3q7

10C3 (0.3494)3 (0.6506)7
0.2526
6.
Estimate the number of students with weight more than 60kg in your school. Compare

Number of students

=np

=50(0.2526)
=12.63
=13

PART 3

1.

Using the data in Part 2, calculate the BMI for each student.

BMI

Midpoin
ts

Frequency

Cumulative
Frequency

x^2

fx

fx^2

14.116.0

15.05

226.50

15.05

226.50

16.118.0

17.05

290.70

119.35

2034.92

18.120.0

19.05

17

25

362.90

323.85

6169.34

20.122.0

21.05

12

37

443.10

252.60

5317.23

22.124.0

23.05

43

531.30

138.30

3187.82

2.

24.126.0

25.05

47

627.50

100.20

2510.01

26.128.0

27.05

47

731.70

0.00

0.00

28.130.0

29.03

49

842.74

58.06

1685.48

30.132.0

31.05

50

964.10

31.05

964.10

1038.4
6

22095.
40

Total

50

(i)Based on the information given and data collected, find the mean and standard
deviation for the BMI.

1038.5
50
20.77

Mean
2

2 20 9 5 .4.
50

( 2 0.77 ) 2

= 10.52
(ii)Determine by drawing an ogive,

Standard deviation ,

3.

12
X 100%
50
0.24 X 100%
24%

## (b)The percentage of students with BMI more than 25.

5
X 100%
50
0.1X 100%
10%

With assumption that the BMI of the students are normally distributed, find
(i)The percentage of students who are overweight

P(25 X 29.9)

25 20.77
29.9 20.77
Z

3.249
3.249
P(1.302 Z 2.81)
P

P(X K ) 0.05

k 20.77
P Z
0.05

3.249
k 20.77
1.645
3.249
k 15.425

## (ii)The percentage of students with BMI less than 18.5

P(X 18.5)

18.5 20.77
P Z

3.349
P(Z 0.6778)
P(Z 0.6778)
0.2491
24.91%
(iii)The value of k if5% students have BMI more than k

P ( X K ) 0.05
k 20.77

P Z
0.05
3.249

k 20.77
1.645
3.249
k 26.115

4.
Estimate the number of students who are overweight in your school.
Number of students
=np
=50(0.9398)
=4.699
=5

5.
Suggest ways and strategies that a person can adopt to reduce weight and live a
healthier life

Quit smoking
It's no secret that nicotine use has been linked to a variety of life-threatening illnesses,
from cancer to heart disease and stroke. If you're a smoker, make quitting your top
priority.
Get regular checkups
Think of your doctor as an ally who helps keep you well, not just the person who treats
you when you're sick. Regular checkups and screenings are vital, especially if you or
your family are predisposed to certain medical conditions.

## Watch your weight

Those extra pounds can cause big trouble. They strain your heart, raise your blood
pressure and significantly increase your risk of a heart attack. Eat more high-fiber,
nutrient-rich fruits and vegetables, and fewer high-fat foods.
Avoid excessive drinking
While drinking in moderation is usually fine, heavy drinking can lead to liver damage
and other serious health risks.
Get regular exercise
A healthy life requires periodic physical activity. To prevent heart disease, cancer, high
blood pressure and obesity, the American Heart Association recommends 30-60 minutes
of exercise at least four times a week.

FURTHER EXPLORATION

## Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855) discovered the normal

distribution in 1809. Gauss was the first to suggest the normal distribution
law. In 1809, Gauss published his monograph "Theoria motus corporum
coelestium in sectionibus conicis solem ambientium" to the method of least
squares. Gauss also used the normal curve to analyze astronomical data. The
normal distribution is often called the Gaussian distribution. The term bell
shaped curve is often used in everyday usage as the normal curve.

Although Gauss was the first to suggest the normal distribution law, Laplace made
significant contributions. It was Laplace who first posed the problem of aggregating several
observations in 1774, although his own solution led to the Laplacian distribution. It was Laplace
who first calculated the value of the integral et dt = in 1782, providing the normalization
constant for the normal distribution. Finally, it was Laplace who in 1810 proved and presented to
the Academy the fundamental central limit theorem, which emphasized the theoretical
importance of the normal distribution

Conclusion
There are two types of probability distribution, binomial distribution and normal
distribution. Both distributions are very useful as they help us to solve problems in real
life. For binomial distribution, it can be described as the probability of a SUCCESS or
FAILURE outcome in an experiment, that is repeated multiple time. For a real-life
example, if a new drug is introduced to cure a disease, it either cures the disease
(successful) or it doesnt cure the disease (failure). If we purchase a lottery ticket, were
either going to win money, or arent. In contrast, the normal distribution is very
important in statistic as it approximately fits into actual, observed probability of many
real-life measurements such as height, weight and blood pressure.
From the survey done, we can conclude that majority of the students are in the
normal BMI category. However, there are still many students that do not achieve an
ideal BMI, which is from 18.5 to 24.9. They were in the underweight, overweight and
obese categories. Proper diet arrangement and regular exercises are needed for them to
return to the normal BMI category, so that they live a healthier life.

Reference
1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Normal_distribution
2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binomial_distribution
3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre-Simon_Laplace
4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carl_Friedrich_Gauss

5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_de_Moivre

REFLECTION
While conducting this project, I have learnt the importance of using binomial distribution and
normal distribution to solve mathematical and statistics problems. Apart from that, this project
encourages students to gather information from the Internet, making surveys, improve thinking
skills and promote effective mathematical communication.
After conducting this project, I found out that most of the students have an ideal BMI index.
This means that they always maintain a healthy lifestyle. Besides, they always keep their body
fit.
On the other hand, from this project, I have given the chance to promote some moral values
while conducting this project. Firstly, I learn to be thankful to my additional mathematics
teacher, Pn.Aznita binti Sairi who has been so caring who has given guidance to me while
conducting this project. Besides, I also want to thank to my friends who have been very cooperative with me while conducting this project. Furthermore, I am appreciate those
mathematician who invented normal distribution and binomial distribution so that our current life
is easy in solving questions concerning in this aspect.