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REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM

Monita Olivia, Parthasarathi Mandal

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper is to examine the influence of three variables on curvature ductility of

reinforced concrete beams. A computer program was developed to predict moment-curvature

and available curvature ductility of reinforced concrete beams with or without axial loads. Ten

beams with different variables were analysed using the program. The variables measured are

concrete strength, amount of longitudinal reinforcement and spacing of transverse

reinforcement. The input consists of beam geometry, material properties and loading. A

confined stress-strain curve for concrete proposed by Saatcioglu and Razvi (1992) is applied in

the program, while, steel stress-strain model is adopted from BS 8110 (British Standard

Institution 1985). Computer analysis indicates that the curvature ductility increases with the

increase of longitudinal reinforcement and concrete strength. On the other hand, the spacing of

transverse reinforcement does not have any significant influence on the curvature ductility.

Key words : computer analysis, curvature ductility, moment-curvature, reinforced concrete

beams

1. INTRODUCTION

Ductility of reinforced structures is a desirable property where resistance to brittle

failure during flexure is required to ensure structural integrity. Ductile behaviour in a structure

can be achieved through the use of plastic hinges positioned at appropriate locations

throughout the structural frame. These are designed to provide sufficient ductility to resist

structural collapse after the yield strength of the material has been achieved. The available

ductility of plastic hinges in reinforced concrete is determined based on the shape of the

moment-curvature relations.

Ductility may be defined as the ability to undergo deformations without a substantial

reduction in the flexural capacity of the member (Park & Ruitong 1988). According to Xie et

al, (1994), this deformability is influenced by some factors such as the tensile reinforcement

ratio, the amount of longitudinal compressive reinforcement, the amount of lateral tie and the

strength of concrete. The ductility of reinforced concrete section could be expressed in the

form of the curvature ductility (µφ):

µφ =

φu

φy

**where φu is the curvature at ultimate when the concrete compression strain reaches a specified
**

limiting value, φy is the curvature when the tension reinforcement first reaches the yield

strength. The definition of φy shows the influence of the yield strength of reinforcement steel

Curvature Ductility Of Reinforced Concrete Beam

(Monita Olivia, Parthasarathi Mandal)

1

Moment-curvature relationship can be obtained from curvature and the bending moment of the section for a given load increased to failure. Park & Paulay (1975) have suggested that the yield curvature of a reinforced concrete section is taken when the tension steel first yields.(ρ + ρ')n. Es. Moment (M) First yielding First cracking Curvature (ϕ) Figure 1. f'c is the concrete compressive strength. It can be written as: Mu = 0. n = Es/Ec = modular ratio. while the definition of φu reflects the effect of ultimate strain of concrete in compression.85 f 'c b where fy is the steel yield strength. Assuming an under-reinforced section. d'' is the distance from centroid of compressive forces in the steel and concrete to the centroid of tension. In Eurocode 8 ENV 1994-1-3 (European Committee for Standardization 1994) the nominal value of ultimate concrete strain (εcu) for unconfined concrete needed to calculate Conventional Curvature Ductility Factor (CCDF) is 0.85 f'c ab(d-a/2) + A's fy (d-d') φu = where a = Asf y − A' sf y εc c = ε c β1 a 0. 1. Oktober 2005 : 1 . 2 Volume 6 No. while implicitly for confined concrete it is larger than 0. ρ' = As’/bd is the compression steel ratio.0035. β1 is the depth of the equivalent rectangular stress block. ρ = As/bd is the tensile reinforcement ratio. Theoretical moment-curvature analysis for reinforced concrete structural elements indicating the available flexural strength and ductility can be constructed providing that the stress-strain relations for both concrete and steel are known.0035. first yield will occur in the steel.13 . then the moment and curvature are: My = Asfyd'' φy = ε sy (1 − k )d = fy E s (1 − k )d where k = √{(ρ + ρ')2n2 + 2 [ρ + (ρ'd/d)]n} . A trilinear moment-curvature relationship (Park & Paulay 1975). ACI 318-71 (Park & Paulay 1975) conservatively recommends a value of 0.003. Ec is the modulus elasticity of the steel and the concrete. The ultimate curvature of reinforced concrete section is defined as the maximum value of concrete strain at the extreme compressive fibre.on the calculation of µφ.

The summary of the specimen properties is given in Table 1. The test specimens contained four types of compressive strength. namely 1) loading variable such as the level of axial load. provides momentcurvature analysis and curvature ductility analysis. c is the neutral axis depth. 2) geometric variables such as the amount of tension and compression reinforcement. The stirrups spacing were taken between 50-150 mm. The longitudinal reinforcement consisted of tension and compression reinforcement and was varied between 0. di and dj are the the distance of the centroid of i-th layer for concrete and of j-th lamina for steel. The variables studied in the presented test program are as follows 1) concrete compressive strength (fcu). where As is the area of reinforcing steel. The software.A trilinear moment-curvature relationship shown in Figure 1 is defined by the points of cracking and yielding. respectively. the moment. n m i =1 j =1 M = Σ f ci Aci d i + Σ f sj Asj d j where fci is the concrete stress in the i-th layer. Asj is the steel stress in the j-th layer. and 3) material variables such as the yield strength of reinforcement and characteristic strength of concrete. The effect of different variables is studied by varying one variable at a time. The parametric study has been carried out for all the specimens. METHODOLOGY Many variables influence the curvature ductility of reinforced beams and the presented numerical analysis is done on specimens that are designed to address some of them. and the relationship between moment M and curvature is given by the classical elastic equation: EI = MR = M/ϕ where EI is the flexural rigidity of the section. The variables affecting curvature ductility may be classified under three groups (after Derecho 1989). 3) spacing of confinement reinforcement. referred to CD Analysis. Uncracked. fsj is the steel stress in the j-th layer.25 to 1. The curvature is given by: ϕ= ε cm c where εcm is the concrete strain in the extreme compression fibre. The reinforcement ratios were calculated as As/bh. Curvature Ductility Of Reinforced Concrete Beam 3 (Monita Olivia. Ten beams with 77 x 130 mm in cross section and 1320 mm length were investigated in this research. 2) longitudinal reinforcement ratio (ρ'/ρ).00. 2. keeping the value of other variables fixed. amount of transverse reinforcement and the shape of the section. Park & Paulay (1975) found that the curve is linear in its initial stage. Based on the procedures proposed by Park & Ruitong (1988). Parthasarathi Mandal) . A computer program was developed to establish ductility analysis for those reinforced concrete beams. The objective of this study is to analyse curvature ductility of 10 beams with three different variables. n is the number of layer of concrete. m is the number of layer for steel. b and h are width and height of the concrete section. The compressive strength (fcu) ranged between 20-35 MPa. from reference axis for moment calculation. cracked and yielded behaviors are depicted by straight lines. corresponding to the chosen value (εcm) and axial load (P) is obtained by taking moments of the internal forces. Aci is the area of concrete in the i-th layer.

36 3 75 7 35 2#10 0.00704 2#6 0.01993 2#6 0. Oktober 2005 : 1 .00704 1.36 3 100 10 25 2#10 0. A constant residual strength is assumed beyond the descending branch. Specimen properties Beam No.55 3 75 3 25 2#10 0. The equations relating to the various segments of the stress-strain curve are shown below: The parabolic part: 4 Volume 6 No.36 3 75 4 25 2#12 0.01993 2#6 0. Stress (f ) f' cc 0.0 3 75 2 25 2#8 0.00717 0.00717 0.02898 2#6 0.00717 0.85f'c Confined Unconfine 0. The program incorporates effect of concrete confinement. This part is constructed by defining the strain corresponding to 85% of the peak stress. Stress-strain relationship for concrete confined by circular spirals (Saatcioglu & Razvi 1992). fcu (MPa) Diameter of tensile reinforcement (mm) ρ Diameter of compression reinforcement (mm) ρ' ρ'/ρ Diameter of stirrups (mm) Spacing of stirrups (mm) 1 25 2#6 0.00717 0. In this research.85f'c f'co 0.00717 0. This strain level is expressed in terms of confinement parameters.36 3 150 A computer program was run to estimate moment-curvature relationship and curvature ductility of reinforced concrete section.Table 1.25 3 75 5 20 2#10 0.00717 0.13 .01263 2#6 0. 1. The assumed stress-strain curve of steel reinforcement from BS 8110 (British Standard Institution 1985) is modified to simplify the analysis.00725 0. stress-strain curve of confined concrete was adopted from Saatcioglu and Razvi (Saatciouglu & Razvi 1992). at 20% strength level.36 3 75 8 25 2#10 0.20f'c Strain ε01 ε085 ε1 ε85 ε20 ε Figure 2.36 3 50 9 25 2#10 0.01993 2#6 0.01993 2#6 0. The stress-strain curve consists of a parabolic ascending branch followed by a linear descending segment as shown in Figure 2.01993 2#6 0. Saatcioglu & Razvi (1992) proposed a stress-strain relationship which is applicable to any cross sectional shapes and reinforcement arrangement used in practice.01993 2#6 0.01993 2#6 0.36 3 75 6 30 2#10 0.00717 0.00710 0.

20 of maximum stress on the falling branch of stress-strain curve for unconfined concrete. fc is the strain and corresponding stress from stress-strain curve. bcy is the core dimensions of rectangular section. εc. for unconfined concrete. f1 is the uniform confining pressure (MPa). As. Parthasarathi Mandal) 5 .For 0 ≤ εc ≤ ε1 ε ε f c = f ' cc 2 c − c ε 1 ε 1 The linear part: 2 − (1+ 2 K ) ≤ f cc For ε1 ≤ εc ≤ ε20 f c = f 'cc − For εc ≥ ε20 fc = 0.26 c s bc s1 1 ≤ 1. ε1.15 f 'cc ≤ 0. fyh is the area and yield strength of transverse reinforcement. εo85 is the strain corresponding to the peak stress and 85% of the peak stress.0 f 1 f'cc = f'c + k1f1e εo = 0.7(fle)-0. bcx. εo. flex is the effective lateral pressures acting perpendicular to core dimension bcx. for confined concrete.002 ε1 = εo (1+5K) ε85 = 260ρε1 + ε85 ΣAs ρ= s (bcx + bcy ) where f'c is the unconfined strength of concrete.17 fle = k2fl f'cc = f'c + k1f1e ε c − ε1 0. ε85 is the strain corresponding to the peak stress and 85% of the peak stress. ε20 is the strain at 0. fley is the effective lateral pressures acting perpendicular to core dimension bcy. s is the centre to centre Curvature Ductility Of Reinforced Concrete Beam (Monita Olivia.20 f 'cc ε 85 − ε1 for a rectangular section : f le = fl = f lex b cx + f ley b cy b cx + b cy ΣAs f yh sin α s bc b k 2 = 0. fle is the equivalent uniform pressure (MPa).20f'cc where K = k1fle/fcc k1 = 6.

concrete compressive strength (fcu = 20-35 MPa).22 (BS EN 10002 1992). Oktober 2005 : 1 . Figure 4 shows a rectangular section with stress and strain diagram. The computational procedure for obtaining the curvature ductility from the momentcurvature behaviour of cross section is as follows (Saatcioglu & Yalcin 1999). If the given axial load is less than the ultimate axial load (Po). The section is divided into rectangular strips (lamina) for the purpose of calculating compressive forces in concrete as shown in material models described in Figure 4. fy is the yield strength of longitudinal steel. the partial safety factor γm = 1. the present curvature is set as 6 Volume 6 No. Firstly. Geometric data for a beam consist of width (b = 77 mm). s is the spacing between laterally supported longitudinal reinforcement. material properties and axial loading.As)(maximum stress of concrete) + Asfy where Ac is the gross area of core concrete for confined section. as being linear in the elastic range up to the design yield stress of fy/γm where. depth (h = 130 mm). 1. and the forces acting on the cross section.0) and the spacing of transverse reinforcement (s = 50-100 mm). Corresponding stresses in concrete and steel are determined from its appropriate stress-strain models.000 Mpa) and maximum elongation of steel reinforcement grade 250 is 0. the process will continue to the next step.distance of tie spacing. Then. the ratio of the amount of longitudinal reinforcement (ρ'/ρ = 0. modulus elasticity of steel (Es = 200. Figure 3. concrete cover = 9 mm.15. material properties include Young's Modulus (200 MPa). It is assumed that strain has a linear variation over the beam cross section.025-1. Inputs for the program are beam geometry. a simple bilinear idealisation of the steel stress-strain relationship is adopted in which no strain hardening of the material is taken into account (Figure 3) from BS 8110 (British Standard 1985). BS 8110 idealises an identical behaviour of the steel in tension and compression. analysis is conducted for the strain at the extreme compressive fiber as if the section is loaded under once axial load without any moment. The momentcurvature curve is plotted from the values of moment and curvature. Internal forces in reinforcing steel are calculated. While. Design stress-strain curve from BS 8110 (British Standard Institution 1985) In this research. If the yield condition is satisfactory.13 . the axial force is calculated. Curvature at each section is obtained from the moment-curvature relationship. calculate the ultimate axial load (Po) that the section can carry using Po = (Ac . Once internal forces are computed. The strain profile is established for the value of fibre strain. As is the area of longitudinal steel. The sectional analysis continues until either the yield condition of steel is being satisfied at this particular iteration or the ultimate condition has reached. yield strength of reinforcing steel (250 MPa). fy is the characteristic yield stress.

The program output consists of numerical results and curvature ductility values. stress and force distribution. They found that a closer spacing has a contribution to postpone the buckling of the compressive reinforcement. The curvature at yield does not show any significant change with the amount of transverse steel reinforcement. With confining the section.85f'c S2 Stress Internal Forces External Forces Figure 4. and failure takes place in tension steel. Figure 6 shows comparison of moment-curvature relationship for four beams having the same concrete strength and the same amount of longitudinal reinforcement but different confinement reinforcement spacing. Curvature at each section is obtained from the moment-curvature relationship. εc b φ Idealised section c1 S1 c2 c3 c4 h/2 M Neutral axis Actual strain profile Strain M P fs2 εs Section fs1 Assumed strain profile c h 0. Section with strain. On the other hand. The sectional analysis continues until either the yield condition of steel is being satisfied at this particular iteration or the ultimate condition has reached. The momentcurvature curve is plotted from the values of moment and curvature. Program flowchart is in Figure 5. The results are presented in a tabulation form in term of moment-curvature values and a value of curvature ductility of a section. curvature ductility of the section can be determined. The results are presented in a tabulation form in term of moment-curvature values and a value of curvature ductility of a section. the present curvature is set as yield curvature. The yield and maximum moment capacity of the section remain unaltered because the stress-strain model used in the numerical analysis assumes that shape of the initial ascending segment of stress-strain curve is unchanged with the amount of transverse steel. If the yield condition is satisfactory. If the ultimate condition has reached. 3.yield curvature. the axial force is calculated. curvature ductility of the section can be determined. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The numerical model was employed to analyse the ten beams. Program flowchart is in Figure 5. If the ultimate condition has reached. it is assumed in the current study that there is no effectiveness of a closer confinement spacing. Curvature Ductility Of Reinforced Concrete Beam (Monita Olivia. Parthasarathi Mandal) 7 . Once internal forces are computed. Confinement reinforcement spacing. the ultimate curvature increases because the compressive strain also increases. the ultimate compressive strain and ductility is increased. Therefore. Shin et al. hence there is no effect on ductility. The effects of the major variables on moment-curvature curves are discussed in the following paragraphs. The parameters considered were included in the ductility computation. (1989) have reported their test results on ultra high strength concrete beams for specimens having the same concrete strength and the same amount of longitudinal reinforcement but different confinement spacing.

Oktober 2005 : 1 . Calculate the strain ( cp) on the section under axial load Set strain at the top most fibre c = cp + c A i) ii) iii) iv) Divide the section into laminae Depending on c and . 1. depth. axial load on the section (P). calculate the stress in steel Calculate axial force on the section (Pcal) Calculate moment (M) on the section Is y > 0.Start i) ii) iii) iv) Geometry geometry (width. cover. and strain increment in the extreme compression fibre (∆ε c). and assuming linear variation in strain. calculate strain at the middle of each laminae Calculate the stress on each lamina. material specification (grade of concrete and steel. Young's modulus for steel).) of the section.0 ? NO Is the yield condition of steel achieved ? YES y = NO Set the ultimate conditions Continue 8 Volume 6 No. etc. using the stress-strain model for concrete Also.13 .

Parthasarathi Mandal) 9 . The program flow chart for the moment-curvature calculation 4.00E-04 5. Curvature Ductility Of Reinforced Concrete Beam (Monita Olivia.00E-04 4.00E+06 Beam 8 (s = 50 mm) Beam 9 (s = 100 mm) Beam 10 (s = 150 mm) 1.00E-04 2.50E+06 4.50E+06 1.00E-04 Curvature (rad/mm) Figure 6.00E-04 3.00E+00 1.00E+00 0.Figure 5.00E+06 2.00E+06 Moment (Nmm) 3.00E-04 6.00E+05 0.00E+06 5.50E+06 3. Computed moment-curvature curves for different spacing of confinement reinforcement.50E+06 Beam 3 (s = 75 mm) 2.

00E-04 2. 1994). The curvature corresponding to moment appears to increase slightly for the higher members.25 to 1. Shin et al. At ultimate condition. As a result.00E+06 Moment (Nmm) 3. the depth of neutral axis increases. For the very low amount of tension steel. With increase in the amount of tension steel. Xie et al.00E+00 0.Concrete compressive strength. so the curvature at ultimate decreases. At yield. 1. The parameter ρ'/ρ varying from 0.0. in longitudinal steel is fixed stress and neutral axis depth increase with the curvature. 4.00E-04 6. (1989). Beam 4 in Figure 8 shows the lowest curvature ductility. The higher strength concrete members are stiffer than lower strength concrete members. It can be assumed that there is significant change with an increase in the concrete strength. the strain at the maximum compressive fibre of concrete is fixed. Mandal (1993) also reported that increase in the characteristic strength of concrete increases the neutral axis depth.50E+06 3. On the other hand. but only a small curvature can be achieved before the ultimate condition.00E-04 5. the curvature ductility decreases. Figure 8 shows comparison of moment-curvature curve for four beams with the same concrete strength and confinement reinforcement spacing but different amounts of longitudinal reinforcement.50E+06 (fcu = 25 MPa) Beam 7 (fcu = 20 MPa) 1. the curvature at ultimate increases. the ultimate condition may arrive due to fracturing of tension steel.00E-04 4. 10 Volume 6 No. reported that member with high values of ρ'/ρ undertaking large curvature at relatively constant level of moment before the ultimate load was attained.50E+06 4. In this case the strain at tension steel is fixed at ultimate condition. refers to over reinforced condition.00E-04 Curvature (rad/mm) Figure 7. (1994). The comparison of the moment-curvature curve for specimens having the same confinement reinforcement spacing and amounts of longitudinal reinforcement but different concrete strength is shown in Figure 7. hence increases the moment capacity of the section.00E+06 2.00E+06 (fcu = 30 MPa) 5. Oktober 2005 : 1 . was found to be the important factor in determining the shape of moment-curvature curves.50E+06 Beam 3 2. It is evident that the curvature at yield decreases and the curvature at ultimate increases with high characteristic strength of concrete.00E+05 (fcu = 35 MPa) 0. the curvature ductility increases with decrease in the amount of tension steel. As a result.13 . hence.00E+06 Beam 5 Beam 6 1. beam 1 shows the highest curvature ductility refers to under reinforced condition.00E+00 1.00E-04 3. On the other hand. because the flexural rigidity (EI) of concrete increases with strength (Xie et al. although the beam with low values of ρ'/ρ was able to sustain increasing moments. The figure shows that for a member with lower strength exhibits less curvature at ultimate than a member with higher strength does. Computed moment-curvature relationship curve for different concrete strength Longitudinal reinforcement ratio.

60E-03 1. the ductility of high strength concrete beams was generally higher than those of beams with moderate concrete strength. Computed moment-curvature curves for different longitudinal reinforcement ratios.00E+06 Beam 2 (ρ'/ρ = 1.99 32. during a severe earthquake the curvature ductility (µφ) available at the reinforced concrete beams section may be in the range of 10 to 20.0) Beam 3 (ρ'/ρ = 0.84 11.83 53.20E-03 1.55 0.0 0.36 0.80E-03 Curvature (rad/mm) Figure 8.36) (ρ'/ρ = 0.00E+06 4. According to Dowrick (1987).65 21.295 19.00E+06 0.00E-04 4.00E+00 0.55) Beam 4 (ρ'/ρ = 0.00E+06 Beam 1 Moment (Nmm) 5.00E-04 8. Parthasarathi Mandal) 11 . The table generally shows that for the same amounts of longitudinal and confinement reinforcement.36 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 50 100 150 108.00E+06 1.36 0.00E+06 2.00E-04 1.36 0. Properties and curvature ductility from experimental and computation results of reinforced concrete beams (steel reinforcement with fY = 250 MPa).833 Curvature Ductility Of Reinforced Concrete Beam (Monita Olivia.057 27. Curvature ductility rise gradually as the concrete strength increases from 20-35 MPa.023 26. Thus.36 0.597 17.00E+00 2.40E-03 1. In seismic design it would appear to be reasonable to aim at an available curvature ductility factor of at least 10 when εcu = 0.25) 3.36 0.25 0.138 17. Available curvature ductility of the beams that calculated using the CD program is listed in the Table 2. Table 2.36 0.004 is reached in the potential plastic hinge regions of beams (Park & Ruitong 1988). Finally. the curvature ductility increase drastically as the ratio of ρ'/ρ increases. Beams fcu (MPa) Longitudinal bars dia.6.00E-04 6.00E-03 1. For the same concrete strength. (mm) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 25 25 25 25 20 30 35 25 25 25 6 8 10 12 10 10 10 10 10 10 ρ'/ρ Stirrups spacing (mm) Numerical Curvature Ductility (φ) 1. the results did not show the expected effect of decrease spacing in confinement reinforcement on curvature ductility.

S.13 . D. Special thanks are due to the technical staff of the Structural Laboratory of 12 Volume 6 No.Beams have a higher curvature value compared to columns because they are designed to fail in a ductile manner with yielding of the tension steel. Park. Yu.J. P.Design provisions for earthquake resistance of structures Part 3: Specific rules for various materials and elements. Ductility of doubly reinforced concrete beam section. 1993.R. W. J. Earthquake Resistant Design. BS 8110: Part 1: 1985. S... T.K. with other variables held constant. 2000. Xie. 1985.. Available at: <http://www. REFERENCES British Standard Institution. Y. ASCE Journal Structural 106: 1079-1102. T. Ghosh. Reinforced Concrete Structures.. Saatcioglu. Dowrick.. It is evident that the available curvature ductility from CD analysis fits the ranges of ductility values according to some findings from previous research. 4. The available curvature ductility values arising from CD Analysis are ranging from 11-108. & Yalcin. European Committee for Standardization. S. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This article is a part of MSc Dissertation of Structural Engineering. Oktober 2005 : 1 . 1988. 1975. & Paulay. Eurocode 8: 1994. & Moreno. R. the values will generally be exceeded during a severe earthquake (Park & Paulay 1975). Flexural ductility of ultra high strength concrete members.. Shin. 1992. D. 1994. 1987. & Chung. Park. 1989. Saatcioglu.sciencedirect. Mandal. C. Master Thesis Department of Civil Engineering..com/science/journal/00457949> [Accessed 29 August 2000]. M. London: Elsevier Science Ltd.. Hino. Great Britain: John Wiley & Sons. Structural Use of Concrete. As expected it was found that. R.. 1. Inelastic analysis of reinforced concrete columns. Strength and ductility of confine concrete columns. S. ACI Structural Journal 86: 394-400.. The author wish to acknowledge the financial support given by Engineering Education Development Project ADB-INO 1432. ACI Structural Journal 91: 140149. there is no significant increase if the confined reinforcement spacing is decreased. & Ruitong. ACI Structural Journal 85: 217-225. Computer and Structures 77 [online]. Ahmad. Although some codes of practice require the available ductility for beams in seismic design. Canada: John Wiley & Sons. Kanpur: Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur. London: BSI. S. the available curvature ductility factor is increased if the longitudinal reinforcement ratio is increased and the concrete compressive strength is increased. Shear ductility of reinforced concrete beams of normal and high strength concrete.. M.. CONCLUSION The effect of geometric and material variables on the available curvature ductility of reinforced concrete beam can be readily assessed using Curvature Ductility Program. & Razvi. While. Curvature ductility of reinforced concrete sections with and without confinement.

Steve Edwards. Manchester. John Mason. Pekanbaru. and John Wall for their kind assistance throughout the project.Civil & Structural Department. Manchester. Parthasarathi Mandal) 13 . United Kingdom. Parthasarathi Mandal PhD adalah staf pengajar pada Civil & Structural Engineering Department. i.e. adalah staf pengajar pada Jurusan Teknik Sipil Fakultas Teknik Universitas Riau. Paul Nedwell. UMIST. RIWAYAT PENULIS Monita Olivia MSc. UMIST. Curvature Ductility Of Reinforced Concrete Beam (Monita Olivia.

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