# Introduction to Control 034040

Tutorial 10 – Nyquist stability criterion
Spring 2014
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Technion – Israel Institute of Technology

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Im s Im s R R Gs.3 -R -R (a) Nyquist contour (b) Nyquist contour for L(s) with pole(s) at the origin Figure 1 • The Nyquist plot is the mapping ΓL of Γs by the loop transfer function.0 Re s ¥ R Re s ´ Gs. • The graph of L(jω) in polar coordinates as ω runs from −∞ to +∞ is called the Nyquist plot of L(jω). • When L(s) has poles on the imaginary axis. The Nyquist plot can be constructed in two steps: 1.2 Gs. Construct the polar plot of L(jω).2 Gs.3 Gs. 2 .4 Gs. 2.1 ¥ R Gs. Add the reflection of the polar plot about the real axis. L(s).Short background Consider the closed-loop control system r y L(s) − n and the Nyquist contours depicted in Fig. we add an infinite-radius arc connecting the point where ω → 0− and the point where ω → 0+ through the angle πl in the clockwise direction.1 Gs. 1.

3 . hence. For stability. Pol+ = −ν. • If the Nyquist plot does intersect the critical point. then χcl (s) has at least one root at s = jω. say at the frequency ω = ω0 . the number of closed-loop unstable poles. Pcl+ is Pcl+ = Pol+ + ν where ν is the number of clockwise encirclements of the critical point by the Nyquist plot. and Pol+ is the number of unstable open-loop poles.• Nyquist stability criterion: If the Nyquist plot of L(jω) doesn’t cross the critical point (−1 + 0j). we require Pcl+ = 0.

Question 1 Use the Nyquist stability creterion to determine the stability of the closed-loop systems below (the 150 is controlled by the controller C(s) = 1): plant P (s) = (s+2)(s+5)(s+10) d r e 1 − ym u 150 (s+2)(s+5)(s+10) y n Question 1 Solution Step 1: Construct the polar plot of L(jω) Here. In order to find the intersection frequency. ωP . (s+2)(s+5)(s+10) Compute the loop frequency response 150 (jω + 2) (jω + 5) (jω + 10) ⇓ 150 √ √ |L(jω)| = √ 2 2 ω + 4 · ω + 25 · ω 2 + 100 ω ω ω − tan−1 − tan−1 arg L(jω) = − tan−1 2 5 10 L(jω) = Compute the initial values.5 ⇓ arg L(0) = 0◦ and the final values. there can be only one intersection point of the polar plot with the negative part of the real axis. |L(j∞)| = 0 ⇓ arg L(jω) = −270◦ Since |L(jω)| and arg L(jω) are monotonically decreasing functions of ω. L(s) = P (s)C(s) = P (s) = 150 . |L(0)| = 1. use the trigonometric formula   a±b −1 −1 −1 tan (a) ± tan (b) = tan 1 ∓ ab 4 .

12 |L (jωP )| = p 2 2 ωP + 4 · ωP + 25 · ωP2 + 100 Hence. 2 shows the Nyquist plot of L(jω). The magnitude sec of L(jωP ) is 150 p p ≈ 0.12. Im -1 . namely. Step 2: Draw the Nyquist plot and count the encirclements Fig. ωP . 0). Therefore. which implies that ω0 = 0 rad is the intersection frequency with the positive part of the real axis).12 1. Namely.5 Re Figure 2: Nyquist plot of L(s) Our loop transfer function is stable. It 5 . we need ν = 0. ω ω ω  − tan−1 − tan−1 arg L(jω) = − tan−1 5 10 2  ω 7ω = − tan−1 − tan−1 2 10 − ω 10   2 ω (80 − ω ) = −180◦ = − tan−1 2 100 − 17ω Hence. satisfies arg L (jωP ) = −180◦ . the polar plot intersects the negative part of the real axis at P = (−0. in order to have a stable closedloop (Pol+ = 0).94 sec (as ω0 = 0 sec drives the denominator to be positive. the Nyquist plot must not encircle the critical point. ω (80 − ω 2 ) =0 100 − 17ω 2 The solution which satisfies the equation √  rad   rad   rad  and drives the denominator to be negative is ωP = 80 sec  ≈ 8.0. Pol+ = 0.The intersection frequency.

Q: What would change if the controller was C(s) = 8.is readily seen that there are no encirclements of the critical point. Im Im 12. the closed-loop is stable.333 or C(s) = 20 ? Hint: The Nyquist diagrams presented in Fig. 3 should help you out a little. therefore.333 (b) Nyquist diagram: C(s) = 20 Figure 3 6 Re .5 Re 30 (a) Nyquist diagram: C(s) = 8.

the loop transfer function is L(s) = P (s)C(s) = s (s2 10 + 6s + 25) Compute the frequency response 10 jω (25 − ω 2 + 6jω) ⇓ 10 |L(jω)| = q ω (25 − ω 2 )2 + 36ω 2   6ω ◦ −1 arg L(jω) = −90 − tan 25 − ω 2 L(jω) = Find the initial values |L(0)| = ∞ arg L(0) = −90◦ and the final values |L(j∞)| = 0 arg L(j∞) = −90◦ − 180◦ = −270◦ Namely.Question 2 Use the Nyquist stability creterion to determine the stability of the closed-loop systems below (the 1 is controlled by the controller C(s) = 10): plant P (s) = s(s2 +6s+25) d r e u 10 − ym 1 y s(s2 +6s+25) n Question 2 Solution Here. In order to understand it better. split L(jω) into its real and imaginary parts.096 − ∞j 252 7 . the polar plot goes from ∞ to 0. L(jω) = − When ω → 0. we have 10 (25 − ω 2 ) 60 − j 36ω 2 + (25 − ω 2)2 ω 36ω 2 + (25 − ω 2)2 L(0) = − 60 − ∞j = −0.

Now. Q: What would change if the controller was C(s) = 150 or C(s) = 300 ? Hint: The Nyquist diagrams presented in Fig. Now. compute the intersection of the polar plot with the negative part of the real axis. 5 should help you out a little. the polar plot must not encircle the critical point.15 -0. 8 . Pcl+ = 0. 4) Im -1 Re 1 . namely. thus.Hence. Indeed. Pol+ = 0. 0 . construct the Nyquist plot (Fig.096 Figure 4: Nyquist plot of L(s) The open-loop is stable (the integrator does NOT count!). In order to obtain a stable closed-loop. namely. we need ν = 0. the closed-loop is stable.096. therefore. arg L (jωP ) = −180◦   6ωP ◦ −1 = −180◦ arg L (jωP ) = −90 − tan 25 − ωP2 ⇓   6ωP −1 = 90◦ tan 2 25 − ωP ⇓   rad ωP = 5 sec Compute the gain of L(jωP ) |L(jωP )| = 10 ωP q 10 1 = q = 15 2 (25 − ωP2 ) + 36ωP2 5 (25 − 52 )2 + 36 · 52  1 Hence. there are no encirclements. the intersection point with the negative part of the real axis is P = − 15 . we have an asymptote at −0.

Im -1 Im Re -1 (a) Nyquist diagram: C(s) = 150 (b) Nyquist diagram: C(s) = 300 Figure 5 9 Re .

3 −1 α is a monotonically increasing function of α. P (s) = √ s+ 3 √ s( 3s+1) d r e u 1 s − ym y P (s) n Question 3 Solution Item 1 The loop transfer function is L(s) = P (s)C(s) = Compute the frequency response L(jω) = √ s2 3s + 1 √  s+ 3 √ 3jω + 1 √  −ω 2 jω + 3 ⇓ √ 3ω 2 + 1 |L(jω)| = √ ω2 ω2 + 3 √ !   ω 3ω −1 −1 √ − tan arg L(jω) = tan − 180◦ 1 3 The initial and the final values are |L(0)| = ∞ arg L(0) = −180◦ |L(j∞)| = 0 arg L(j∞) = −180◦ Since tan ω √ ∀ω.Question 3 Use the Nyquist stability creterion to determine the stability of the closed-loop systems below (a plant controlled by the integral controller C(s) = 1s ) for √ 1. P (s) = 3s+1 √ s(s+ 3) 2. as √ 3ω 1 > . tan −1 10 √  3ω 1 > tan −1  ω √ 3  .

6). hence. the real part approaches zero faster than the imaginary. Note that we have two integrators in L(s). At this point we can draw the Nyquist diagram (Fig. Split L(jω) into its real and imaginary parts and obtain √ 2 (ω 2 + 1) 3 − j L(jω) = − 2 2 2 ω (ω + 3) ω (ω + 3) ⇓ ! √ 2 3 j L(0) = lim − 2 − ω→0 3ω 3ω Although there is no finite asymptote. This actually happens here. as the integrators don’t count). 11 . Im Ω=0Re -1 Ω=0+ Figure 6: Nyquist plot of L(s) Since the open-loop is stable (Pol+ = 0. arg L(jω) is always greater than −180◦ . so the closed-loop system is stable. for a stable closed-loop (Pcl+ = 0) we need ν = 0 encirclements of the critical point.tan-1 H 3 ΩL tan-1 HΩ 3 L Ω Therefore. we need to add a 360◦ arc from L (j0− ) to L (j0+ ) in clockwise direction.

as Since tan α is a monotonically increasing function of α. Namely. However. arg L(jω) is always smaller than −180◦ .Therefore. now we have two encirclements. 12 . Note that we have two integrators in L(s). 7). for a stable closed-loop (Pcl+ = 0) we need ν = 0 encirclements of the critical point.Item 2 The loop transfer function is √ s+ 3 √  L(s) = P (s)C(s) = s2 3s + 1 Compute the frequency response √ jω + 3 √  L(jω) = −ω 2 3jω + 1 ⇓ √ ω2 + 3 |L(jω)| = √ ω 2 3ω 2 + 1 √ !   3ω ω −1 −1 √ − 180◦ arg L(jω) = tan − tan 1 3 The initial and the final values are |L(0)| = ∞ arg L(0) = −180◦ |L(j∞)| = 0 arg L(j∞) = −180◦   √  3ω ω −1 −1 √ −1 < 0. we need to add a 360◦ arc from L (j0− ) to L (j0+ ) in clockwise direction. therefore. tan − tan 1 3 √ < 13ω ∀ω. Construct the Nyquist diagram (Fig. Pcl+ = Pol+ + ν = 2. the closed-loop is unstable (has two unstable poles). hence. ω √ 3 Im Ω=0+ Re -1 Ω=0- Figure 7: Nyquist plot of L(s) The open-loop is still stable.

.Question 4 Use the Nyquist stability creterion to determine the stability of the closed-loop systems below (the plant P (s) = ss+1 2 +1 is controlled by the controller C(s) = 1): d r e − ym 1 u s+1 s2 +1 y n Determine the closed-loop stability. Question 4 Solution The loop transfer function is L(s) = P (s)C(s) = s+1 s2 + 1 The frequency response is jω + 1 1 − ω2 L(jω) = ⇓ √ ω2 + 1 |L(jω)| = |1 − ω 2 | ( tan−1 (ω) 0≤ω<1 arg L(jω) = −1 ◦ tan (ω) − 180 1 < ω < ∞ The initial and final values are |L(0)| arg L(0) |L(j∞)| arg L(j∞) = = = = 1 0◦ 0 −90◦ Also compute the values of L(jω) when ω → 1 |L(j1)| = ∞ arg L(j1− ) = 45◦ arg L(j1+ ) = −135◦ The Nyquist plot is presented in Fig. 13 .

and the closedloop is stable. we need ν = 0 encirclements of the critical point to have a stable closed-loop. we have 0 encirclements. 14 . Indeed. therefore.Ω= Ω= 1 - Im - 1 Ω® -¥ Re + 1 Ω= 1 Ω= + Ω® +¥ -1 + 0 Ω= Ω= 0- Figure 8: Nyquist plot of L(s) The open-loop is stable (the poles on jω axis don’t count).