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such as high pressure sodium (HPS). Masdar Institute of Science and (H. Abu Dhabi. Introduction The need for street lighting has existed for a long time.001 . Al Ali. When choosing the appropriate lighting technology for roadway lighting. due to the lower energy consumption of LEDs. our analysis shows that most environmental impacts come from battery Light Emitting Diode (LED) and induction lamps. The analysis in this paper also covers a scenario where stand-alone light fixtures are powered by photovoltaic (PV) panels. About 70 years later. Box 54224. but this is offset during the operational life of the lamp. Ceramic Metal Halide (CMH) and Light Emitting Diode (LED).doi. 2006). and transportation of parts. UAE. use and end of life scenario. P. Acceptable standards for illuminance on roads.esd. all modeled using the SimaPro software package. This project aims to compare two types of lamps from the latest streetlight technologies. The cradle to grave analysis for CMH and LED streetlights includes raw material extraction.Author's personal copy Energy for Sustainable Development 17 (2013) 438–450 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Energy for Sustainable Development Comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of streetlight technologies for minor roads in United Arab Emirates Sabina Abdul Hadi. then it can be calculated that there are about 117.2013. With increasing world population and urbanization. United Arab Emirates a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 4 September 2012 Revised 2 May 2013 Accepted 2 May 2013 Available online 29 May 2013 Keywords: Streetlight Light Emitting Diode (LED) Ceramic Metal Halide (CMH) Photovoltaic (PV) Life-cycle assessment (LCA) United Arab Emirates a b s t r a c t In this work. in order to determine which lamp is more efficient and could be installed on the internal (minor) roads of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. 2011) with an average distance of 20–50 m between two light poles on junctions and internal roads. E-mail address: harafat@masdar. The main motivation for choosing road lighting in Abu Dhabi as a study subject is that most of the roads in UAE are very well illuminated. Arafat ⁎ Water and Environmental Engineering Program. All rights reserved. All rights reserved. the production stage has significantly less overall impact when compared to the impact during their operational life. The results show that LED lights have larger environmental impact during the production stage. Abu Dhabi has committed itself to sustainable 0973-0826/$ – see front matter © 2013 International Energy Initiative. Moreover. Ceramic Metal Halide (CMH). throughout the year. Hassan A. While high pressure sodium (HPS) lamps are currently most widely used in street lighting since they are very efficient. The total length of Abu Dhabi internal roads is 8379 km (Statistics Centre — Abu Dhabi. For both types of lamps. Published by Elsevier Inc. parking areas and highways can range between 5 to 30 lx. metal halide (MH).O.A. 2012).1016/j. with and without battery recycling. with the aim of assessing their application in Abu Dhabi — United Arab Emirates (UAE). their color temperature of 2000 K and low CRI in the range of 20–30 (OSRAM. with higher lux levels ⁎ Corresponding author. The color rendering index (CRI) is a factor that indicates the comparison of lamp light to daylight. http://dx. In all the cases analyzed. so energy savings in this field would have significant positive impact on the environment. care has to be taken to ensure that the level of illumination satisfies road safety standards. Al Kaabi. dedicated Light Emitting Diode (LED) and Ceramic Metal Halide (CMH) bulb. where CRI is considered to be 100 if colors are perceived similarly to daylight conditions (Descottes and Ramos. The lamps are chosen based on the same range of luminescence and CRI. Published by Elsevier Inc. 2011). In order to have safe roads at night. 2013) do not compare favorably with the state of the art streetlight technologies. the LED lamp has a lower overall environmental impact. Furthermore. 1807.: +971 28109119. Arafat). Tel.05. © 2013 International Energy Initiative. with lumen efficacy greater than 100 lm/W. Electric street lighting has varied from using incandescent bulbs. consumption of fossil fuels for energy. to the use of more energy efficient technologies. On January 28. according to standards for safe road lighting. luminous flux (lm) and illuminance (lumen/m 2 = lux) should be sufficiently high to provide adequate illumination of the road and quality of colors perceived by human eye should preferably be as high as possible. Pall Mall in London witnessed the first street lighting powered by gas. Muna R. the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method is used to investigate the environmental impacts of two recent energy efficient streetlight production of streetlight fixture. fax: +971 2810 9101. with energy efficiency and lighting quality increasing continuously over the years. at cross sections and places with more pedestrians (Schreder. in addition to a scenario where the energy used for operation comes from a solar power plant. Many different lighting technologies have been developed and used for outdoor illumination. If it is assumed that 70% of internal roads are lit and that the distance between the light poles is fixed at 50 m. the amount of energy used for lighting of public areas is also increasing.000 high intensity lamps working 12 h a day. consuming a significant amount of energy. Meshayel O. the first electric street lighting was developed by Russian Pavel Yablochkov (Pohl. Having even a minor added environmental improvement per light pole will result in a significant decrease in greenhouse gas emissions.

Abdul Hadi et al. CMH lamps provide very efficient street illumination. The results of comparative LCA analysis for CMH and LED streetlight technologies could help the government of Abu Dhabi in choosing the most efficient and environment friendly option while accommodating the increasing energy needs of the constantly growing population. with lumen efficacy of HPS technology. 2013). similar to high pressure sodium lamps.d). CMH lamps combine the bright white light properties of MH technology. 2009). 2013). 2012). 2005. providing improved luminous efficacy and color rendering index. 2013). 2013). the methodology developed in this work is equally applicable to other cities around the world. allowing more efficient use of chemicals.d. OSRAM. / Energy for Sustainable Development 17 (2013) 438–450 439 Fig. development (Abu Dhabi Sustainable Group. providing almost daylight conditions (GE Lighting. While quartz MH lamps operate at ~ 80 lm/W (GE Lighting.. Each MH lamp contains approximately 5 mg of mercury. OSRAM. with CRI ~ 70 and ~ 20. A big advantage of CMH bulbs is that they can be used as retro-fit to HPS light fixtures. (a) MasterColor HPS — retro fit CMH bulb by Phillips (Philips Lighting Solutions. 2013. . 2005). n. LED Street Light. such as high CRI and color temperature above 3000 K (GE Lighting.Author's personal copy S. (b) Schematic drawing of OSRAM's LED and the cross section of an LED chip (OSRAM. 2009). due to loss of the arc material and mitigation of halides (GE Lighting. unlike quartz MH or HPS lamps. Ceramic arc tubes can withstand higher temperatures than quartz. and an arc tube filled with a gaseous mix of metal halides that are used to produce bright white color (Navigant Consulting Europe. 2012). 2. Ceramic Metal Halide (CMH) lamps use ceramic arc tubes as opposed to quartz tubes. However. Ltd. 1. n. 2012) but are susceptible to color shift during the operational life. CMH lamps have constant color throughout the lamp's operational life and CRI > 90. 2005). respectively (GE Lighting. With these properties. CMH lamps are as efficient as HPS lamps with 100 lm/W lumen efficacy (GE Lighting. Ceramic Metal Halide (CMH) lamps Metal halide (MH) lamps belong to the group of high pressure discharge lamps. Furthermore. CMH (a) and LED (b) streetlight fixtures (CMH Street Light. The first generation of MH lamps were made with high purity quartz arc Housing tubes (OSRAM AG. 2012). Housing Lamp a) Dedicated LED b) Fig. where light is generated by a gas discharge of particles created between two hermetically sealed electrodes in an arc tube (OSRAM AG.

the rated lifetime of LEDs is about 50. with CRI b 80 (Tan et al. The light emitted by the solid state electronic material strikes a phosphorous coating. but satisfactory lighting is generated during 30. Inventory includes inputs to the system boundary such as raw materials. Depending on the semiconductor materials and design used in fabrication process. Data relating to inputs and outputs (e. Furthermore. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) provides a detailed inventory of all the impacts associated with each and every stage of a process or a product. which emit light when charged with an electric current.. such as gallium arsenide. 1(b) shows schematics of a typical LED lamp (OSRAM.. matching the minimum luminous flux of a 250 W CMH bulb during its lifetime. Life Cycle Assessment standards are governed by the standards ISO 14040:2006 and ISO 14044:2006.g.. 2010): ▪ Goal and scope definition: The goal of the LCA along with the system boundary and level of detail are determined in this step. / Energy for Sustainable Development 17 (2013) 438–450 since they both use a ballast for ignition. which is within the range of the road safety standards. from cradle to grave..014 0. has increased significantly (OSRAM.000 to 17. OSRAM. materials. Fig. All steps involved in production of LEDs are carried out in cleanrooms and involve energy intensive processes. along with the selection of the functional unit. Illuminance of Component LED lamp (kg) (containing 16 LEDs) CMH bulb (kg) Base Ballast Lamp Lens Packaging Total (kg) 0. luminous efficacy significantly drops. However. in an attempt to introduce the missing red component in the spectrum of the emitted light. 2003). Process flow diagram for material and processes used throughout lamp's life (Navigant Consulting Europe. Since commercially available streetlight luminaries have approximately 0. Ltd. Abdul Hadi et al. 2011).10 n/a 0. E-Lite Opto Tech). and outputs from the system boundaries such as emissions to the atmosphere. 2005). LCA widens the view of system attributes during environmental and economic assessments. Dedicated LED luminaries are composed of many light emitting diodes.41 180 W LED light fixture installed on a 12–14 m pole was found to vary between 20 and 60 lx (Energy Works. OSRAM. state of the art LEDs is reported to range between 142 lm/W to a record 231 lm/W when operating at 350 mA/mm 2. use and disposal of the system under study. Fig. For our study of minor roads. Light Emitting Diode (LED) lamps LED lamps are solid state electronic devices made of semiconductor materials with direct band gap. for simplicity. ▪ Inventory analysis: The inventory is a list of the materials. 2012). we chose the 250 W CMH lamp.16 0. which is equivalent to 180 W energy consumption and 15. 2010). 2009).03 0.. an LED streetlight fixture with 180 LEDs was chosen. 2012). Furthermore. which identify the following stages of an LCA (International Standard Organization. Table 1 Weight breakdown of material components for LED and CMH indoor lamps (Navigant Consulting Europe. 2009). 2011)...000 operational hours approximately (Energy Works). CRI of LEDs can be increased by adding red or nitride-based phosphors. 3. energy. with CRI ~ 90 and luminous flux ranging from 25. 2012).000– 19.000 lm (E-Lite Opto Tech. which is known as efficiency droop (Tan et al. the efficiency of LED lamps. . In recent years.85 LEDs per watt (Energy Works. providing a good basis for comparison between different technologies. under high current injection in LED.14 0. whose power can range between 1 and 3 W (E-Lite Opto Tech. Energy Works). resulting in decreased luminous efficacy of optical radiation (Tan et al. 2009). 1(a) shows an example of a CMH bulb designed as HPS retro-fit by Phillips (Philips Lighting Solutions. Energy Works. adding phosphor causes very broad spectrum and far red emission spilling beyond the eye sensitivity.14 0. emissions) is collected in this stage. 2009).003 0. expressed in lumens/ watt.500 lm throughout lamp life (GE Lighting.52 0.7–0. Ltd. Phosphorus coating is used to modify light emitted by a diode into a white and usable light (Navigant Consulting Inc. luminous efficacy of high power. which then emits the usable light (Navigant Consulting Inc.. we assume in this work that one light emitting diode corresponds to 1 W of system power. For our study. by taking every single step of the process into consideration (Tester et al.000 h. energy. 2012).31 0.03 0. 2003).Author's personal copy 440 S. Energy Glass Electronics Plastics Aluminum Extraction Copper/Bras Exploration Manufacturing Ultra Efficient Lamp Packaging Use Disposal Phosphorus Production Processing Mercury Transportation Landfill Steel Reuse / Recycle Ceramics Tungsten Emissions Earth materials Others Fig.. and emissions involved in the production. The functional unit is the unit of comparison among different systems or products that are being analyzed by an LCA.

at plant/RER S Aluminum alloy.074 0. The study of inventory and data gathering for production. through hole mounted. AlMg3.957 0.422 2. LED Street Light). raw materials and energy required to produce and operate the lights with satisfactory luminescence and CRI are compared in this study. at refinery/SE S Textile. the inventory can be used to estimate the environmental impact of the product or a system under the study. at regional storage/CH S Printed wiring board. at plant/RER S Brass. at plant/GLO S Copper. US — ecoinvent country code for United States. RNA — ecoinvent country code for North America. 2-Individualist and 3-Egalitarian (Eco-indicator 99 Impact Assessment Method for LCA). at plant/RNA Galvanized steel sheet.024 0.003 0. Methodology Geographical boundary The objective of this LCA is to assess the life-cycle environmental burdens of two technologies. at plant/RNA Galvanized steel sheet.000 h of operation (Hartley et al. Moreover. IN — ecoinvent country code for India. models of both lamps were chosen such that they have CRI greater than 80 and lumen efficacy greater than 90 lm/W (GE Lighting.039 0. secondary. since our study is more oriented toward municipalities/governmental entities. AlMg3. 2004) This method provides a way to evaluate different environmental impacts and present the final result in a single score. While all three approaches were used to observe the impacts in this study.041 0.. GLO — ecoinvent country code for Global.044 0. 2009). which are candidates for lighting internal streets in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. Under this method. 2010). SE — ecoinvent country code for Sweden. showing the environmental significance of the considered product or system. results. we chose 60.1101 0.002 2.359 0. at plant/RNA Galvanized steel sheet. Lamp components Material SimaPro material Weight (kg) Bottom housing Metal separator Reflector Top housing Screws (brass) Bracket rocker Ceramic bulb holder Photocell circuit board Copper from circuit board Felt heat shield Attachment Bolt Bracket pieces Photocell holder cover Screws (steel) Small screws (steel) Lens Paper insulator Black plastic insulator Photocell cap Photocell plastic Photocell plugin Plastic circuit board Weather guard Metal bulb screws Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Brass Cast aluminum Ceramic Circuit board Copper Felt Galvanized steel Galvanized steel Galvanized steel Galvanized steel Galvanized steel Galvanized steel Glass Paperboard Plastic Plastic Plastic Plastic Plastic Plastic Stainless steel Aluminum alloy. PS — polystyrene.0102 0. lost foam. and recommendations. During this period. FAL PS (GPPS) FAL PS (GPPS) FAL PS (GPPS) FAL PS (GPPS) FAL PS (GPPS) FAL PS (GPPS) FAL X5CrNiMo18 (316) I 0. × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × Ba B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B .0543 0. as a functional unit for this study. Later in the study.000 h of operational life.0051 0. Figs. b CH — ecoinvent country code for Switzerland. RER — ecoinvent country code for Europe. Semichem.000 h. unspecified. as the most likely decision makers in terms of public roads lighting. at plant/RNA Galvanized steel sheet. from electronic and electric scrap recycling. a CMH bulb would need to be replaced twice. color rendering index. Therefore.177 0.019 FAL — Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture. at plant/kg/US Sanitary ceramics.000 h while LED's average lifetime with sufficient light output is 30. number of bulbs within 60. the geographical boundaries were extended in order to accommodate the Table 2 Housing raw material for streetlight CMH bulb for 60. the results of the inventory and impact assessment are summarized into meaningful outcomes. after the initial installation of each. S — ecoinvent process type-system. Different impact assessment methods exist with a variety of assumptions and details. jute. the results presented here are focused on the Hierarchist view on impact assessment.000 h (GE Lighting Technologies. at plant/RNA Galvanized steel sheet. AlMg3. The study considers the CMH and LED streetlight technologies. operation.018 0. ▪ Interpretation: Finally. By using impact assessment methods. we assumed that all lamps and fixtures were produced in the USA and used in Abu Dhabi—UAE. In other words. Time frame The time horizon in this study is 60.Author's personal copy S. CMH bulb's average lifetime is 20.011 0. Eco-Indicator 99 was the method used for the life cycle impact assessment in this study and it is a damage oriented method (Baumann and Tillman.295 0. wattage. solder mix. Energy Works). while an LED lamp will have to be replaced once. lifetime etc. 2(a) and (b) show an example In our base case. at plant/IN S Galvanized steel sheet.417 0.023 0.000 h. over 60.000 h of lighting (as the least common multiple). a B = 3.0013 0.0153 0. at plant/RER S Aluminum alloy.0054 0.147 0. GPPS — general purpose polystyrene. Abdul Hadi et al. AlMg3. 441 of CMH and LED streetlight fixtures. at plant/CH S Aluminum. 2009. there are three different perspectives: 1-Hierarchist. respectively (CMH Street Light. at plant/RNA Glass bottles FAL Paperboard Unbl. and end of life disposal or recycling is done for the current time period (2011) as a base case. Lighting technology varies widely in many aspects such as lumen efficacy. cast. This operational time is equivalent to approximately 14 years. / Energy for Sustainable Development 17 (2013) 438–450 ▪ Impact assessment: The environmental impacts from the inventory's inputs and outputs are calculated. at plant/RER Sb Aluminum alloy.

009 × B 0. at plant Solder.028 × B 0. the distance required to travel in order to replace bulbs at the end of their life was excluded. at regional storage Steel.and low-alloyed. 2 times for LED versus 3 times for CMH over 60. Boston–AD airport distance. estimated CMH fixture weight.9Cu0. at plant Polyethylene terephthalate. electric.000 operational hours.001 × B 0. the types of materials required to produce light fixtures in both cases are very similar. electric.009 × B 0. Furthermore. maintenance of PV panels in one of the studied scenarios was accounted.215 × B 0. production mix. Ltd. at plant Argon. F_L = 65. at plant Polyethylene. c W = 11. Although there is a difference between the production of CMH bulb and LED lamp. at plant Copper. from bastnasite. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) software SimaPro V. single wall. . freight. at plant Rare earth concentrate. unspecified.5Ag3. borosilicate. at plant Packaging. at regional storage Polypropylene. depending on the wattage of the lamp.103 × B 5.495 × B 0. corrugated board. at plant Krypton.019 × B 0.019 × B 0. LLDPE. b HID — high intensity discharge.495 × B 0. intercontinental/RER S (tkm) Truck 28 t B250 (tkm) Truck 28 t B250 (tkm) Natural gas.5 km. (250 W for CMH and 180 W for LED).080 × B 8. the maintenance of both kinds of streetlight technologies involves the bulb replacement at the end of its life..2 (PRé Consultants.8E–06 × B 2.009 × B 0. at plant Epoxy resin insulator (SiO2). at plant Mercury. Therefore. for electronics industry.134 × B 0.6. gaseous.and low-alloyed. processing of materials. at regional storage Copper. un. Abdul Hadi et al. 3 shows a general flow diagram of the material and processes throughout a lamp's life.001 × B 0.1 kg. at plant Aluminum. While both CMH and LED lights can be installed on poles with various heights. granulate. Aluminum content was found to be approximately the same for streetlight fixtures of both lighting technologies and its impact was therefore excluded from the base case scenario.Author's personal copy 442 S. Lamp component Item SimaPro material Weight (kg) Ballast Ballast Ballast Ballast Ballast Ballast Ballast Ballast Ballast Ballast Ballast Fitting Fitting Fitting Lamp Lamp Lamp Lamp Lamp Lamp Lamp Lamp Lamp Lamp Lamp Packaging Packaging Lamp PCB Housing Gear tray Wiring Connectors Switch Coil Capacitor Capacitor PET film Solder paste Plastic Clips Wiring Pins Pins Pins Pins Base HIDb capsule HID capsule HID capsule HID capsule HID capsule Reflector & lens Card Plastic HID capsule Printed wiring board.056 × B 0. and disposal scenario at the end of life of light fixtures. and its impact can be estimated through distance needed to travel to install and replace the lamp.009 × B 0. at plant Copper. 70% REO.065 × Ba 0. System boundary Results and discussion System boundary includes raw material production. 2009). Fig. respectively. Therefore.000 h of operation (Navigant Consulting Europe. at plant Polypropylene. Table 3 Raw material for streetlight CMH bulb manufacture and 60.495 × B 0.607 × B 0. India and Germany. but instead light emitting diodes integrated into the light fixture. at plant Aluminum. including UAE. the relative weights of indoor CMH and LED lamps (no fixtures). In this study. number of bulbs within 60. at plant Steel.735 km. at plant Glass tube. Due to the lack of information on streetlight CMH and LED lamps. liquid. Energy Works).336 × B 0. at beneficiation Aluminum oxide. aircraft. factory–Boston Airport distance.159 × B 0. in further text. production mix. from bastnasite. but transportation of light fixtures from USA to UAE had to be accounted for. CMH bulbs can be retro-fitted into existing HPS fixtures. and given the impossible prediction of the actual distance beforehand. at plant Steel. AD = 38. surface mounted. at plant Aluminum. mixed fiber.000 h. Sn95. energy required for manufacture and use.5 km. 2005. at beneficiation 0. environmental impacts were compared for production and use of lamp (LED)/bulb (CMH) and fixtures for both types of luminaires. Transportation of raw material to the production factory is included in the Ecoinvent Database. low-alloyed.3. On the other hand. at regional storage Polycarbonate. liquid. at regional storage Chromium. Preliminary hypothetical calculations were done and the impact of travel for bulb replacement 2–3 times over 14 years of bulb lifetime was found to be very minimal compared to the other impacts. granulate. Pb free. amorphous. the location and time when each bulb would need to be replaced is random and difficult to account for. terms “bulb” and “lamp” would refer to CMH and LED lighting technologies. un. paste. Abu Dhabi airport–warehouse distance. granulate. at plant Copper.001 × B 0. granulate. at plant Polypropylene. While a dedicated LED light does not have a bulb.560 × B 0. 70% REO.6E–05 × B 2. Netherlands) was used to assess the environmental impact of the various options considered for this study.4E–05 × B 0. / Energy for Sustainable Development 17 (2013) 438–450 location of recycling centers and component manufacturers. burned in power plant/ASCC S 15 (MWh) Variable explanation and values are given below c Transportation B × W × flight/103 Transportation B × W × F_L/103 Transportation B × W × AD/103 Operational Energy Flight = 10. production mix. However. both are assumed to be installed on 12–16 m high poles (GE Lighting.7.8E–06 × B 8.4E–05 × B Transport. a B = 3. granulate. System design Streetlights are composed of the lamp/bulb and the light fixture that is fixed on top of the light pole. regardless of the lighting technology. at plant Rare earth concentrate.

along with available data for indoor CMH bulb composition. we have assumed 100% landfill in the base case. This information was used. average metal working Steel product manufacturing. from Ecoinvent Database in SimaPro. Both light fixtures are assumed to be produced in USA.028 × B 0. From commercially available information. no inventory data was found for CMH street lighting in open literature. Ltd. Inventory for CMH light fixtures was assumed to be the same as the available 443 inventory for HPS light fixtures. while other materials are scaled up. (2009) and scaling it up to 3 kg of assumed outdoor lamp's weight. Ltd. 3 shows options of landfill and recycling. 2009) was examined carefully and components corresponding to light emitting diodes were linearly scaled up for a Table 4 Resources required to process raw material for streetlight CMH Luminaire System for 60.. Material and resources required to process raw material for manufacture of streetlight CMH Luminaire System for 60. by intercontinental cargo aircraft and land transport (latter for transport from/to airports).019 × B 0. calculated. the flow diagram in Fig. (2009) unless otherwise specified. Energy required for fabrication of one light emitting diode in cleanroom facilities ranges from 0. CMH streetlight As CMH is a relatively new technology. average metal working Wire drawing. This was considered as Abu Dhabi now aims to maximize its solar energy utilization.496 S — ecoinvent process type-system. All energy consumed during the operational life of lamps is modeled by SimaPro to be 100% from a natural gas power plant.019 × B 0. a B = 3.0805 × B 4.000 operating hours (expressed in kg of material that needs to be processed) are shown in Table 4. 2011).607 × B 0. 2011).. 2009).495 × B 0. percentage wise..07 kWh/diode (Matthews et al. 2011). Ltd. An alternative scenario was also studied in which the operational energy is considered to come from off-grid photovoltaic (PV) panels with batteries for power storage. Inventory analysis For this study. as discussed in this section. Abdul Hadi et al. the main energy resource currently used in Abu Dhabi (Abu Dhabi Water and Electricity Company (ADWEC). Transportation of light fixtures is assumed to take place from the manufacturing facility in Boston. recycling of some of the light components is considered. Raw materials required for manufacture of CMH bulb are extrapolated by using fraction of each component of indoor lamp from Navigant Consulting Europe. / Energy for Sustainable Development 17 (2013) 438–450 shown in Table 1. 2009). number of bulbs within 60.000 h..000 h (Hartley et al.056 × B 0. Inventory available for indoor LED lamps with 16 diodes (Navigant Consulting Europe. in order to complete an average weight of LED streetlight fixture. and total weight of the light fixture with lamp is assumed to be 11 kg (GE Lighting. Total weight of the housing is about 8 kg. Consequently.045 kWh/diode for the base case analysis. limited mostly to the recycling of construction waste (Statistics Center Abu Dhabi. As a disposal scenario. Data taken from Navigant Consulting Europe. average metal working Wire drawing. copper Chromium steel product manufacturing. to calculate (by scaling up) the weights of high wattage roadway CMH lamp components.495 × B 0. along with the transportation of recyclable material to the recycling centers.019 × B 0.495 × B 0. due to the retro-fit property of the CMH bulb under study.159 × B 0.009 × B 0. production mix. Hence. at plant Extrusion. copper Sheet rolling. due to uninterrupted operation of devices at high temperatures and under high pressure. However. to an arbitrary warehouse in Abu Dhabi. 2009) and is assumed here to be on an average 0. Table 2 shows raw materials for housing of streetlight CMH bulb for 60. b Additionally adjusted from Hartley et al. the average weight of CMH streetlight (bulb and fixture) was found to be approximately 11 kg (GE Lighting. 2009). a third scenario where energy comes from a solar PV power plant is considered and its impact is analyzed. USA. or estimated.000 h of operation (expressed in kg of material that needs to be processed). since the lamp and fixture are not clearly differentiable.000 h. Lamp component Item SimaPro material Weight (kg) Ballast Ballast Ballast Ballast Ballast Ballast Ballast Ballast Fitting Fitting Fitting Lamp Lamp Lamp Packaging Housing b Housing Gear tray Wiring Connectors Switch Coil Capacitor PET film Plastic Clips Wiring Pins Base Reflective coating Plastic Metal manufacturing process Steel product manufacturing.. average metal working Injection molding Aluminum. (2009). at a later stage. copper Injection molding Injection molding Wire drawing. Ltd. the energy used for production is chosen to be USA mix. The scenario with off-grid PV energy source is further divided into scenarios with and without battery recycling at the end of battery life. detailed information on high wattage CMH and LED roadway light bulb/lamp and their light fixtures was not readily available and it had to be collected. c RER — ecoinvent country code for Europe. as the two street lighting technologies are fairly recent. 2009) and for HPS light fixtures (Hartley et al. . Light emitting diode fabrication in cleanroom is an energy intensive process. aluminum Extrusion. as shown below: CMH streetlight component ¼ Indoor bulb component  3kg: Indoor bulb weight ð1Þ The data in Table 3 shows the raw materials required for CMH streetlight bulb manufacture and operation over 60. Since UAE currently has a low rate of recycling. Finally. 2011). average metal working/RER Sc 0.Author's personal copy S. plastic film Metal product manufacturing. were utilized (by scaling up) to estimate the weight composition of high wattage roadway lighting technologies (Navigant Consulting Europe.103 × B 0. Components corresponding to diode production and operation are scaled up linearly according to the number of diodes in a streetlight lamp. plastic film Injection molding Aluminum product manufacturing..02 to 0. which leaves about 3 kg of weight for ballast and the streetlight bulb. data was collected for CMH bulbs for indoor use (Navigant Consulting Europe. LED streetlight A slightly different approach was taken to extrapolate the data for LED streetlight.336 × Ba 0. Ltd.009 × B 0.

Sn95. per day can be calculated as (Goeble. Battery density was assumed to be 170 Wh/kg (Rydh and Sandén. c Data from Energy Works.d L × 0.. burned in power plant/ASCC S 16 (kWh) 10. Although lead-acid batteries are more commonly used in stand-alone PV systems. 210 Wp PV panel. Item SimaPro material Weight (kg) Ballast Ballast Ballast Ballast Ballast Ballast Ballast Housing Ballast Ballast Ballast Ballast Ballast Fitting Fitting Fitting Lamp Lamp Lamp Lamp Lens Lens Lens Housing Packaging Foam Inductor Inductor Zener diodes Capacitors Resistors Transistor PCB (Al. batteries to store DC energy. unspecified. 2010): Full load hours=day ¼ GHI  PR  G ¼ 5:1h: 365 ð2Þ Furthermore. due to the larger and thicker glass lens. 2010) and its capacity 3 days. GHI in UAE is about 2360 kWh/Wh/m 2 (Alnaser and Alnaser. Required panel area was calculated based on the power needs of the light fixture.005 d L × 0.692 d L × 0. since its model is built in SimaPro. machined tooled block) Wiring Solder paste Housing (polypropylene) Integrated circuit PET film Base Metal clips Wiring Copper pins Base contacts Base contacts LED Glass Coating Coating Estimated d Card Polyurethane.c L × 0. Verma et al. F_L = 65. system losses and global horizontal irradiation (GHI) in the UAE. 2005. freight.84 b L × 0. at plant Aluminum. Stand-alone PV powered streetlight without battery recycling In this case.808 b L × 0.52 b. Table 5 shows the extrapolated inventory for raw materials which were then used to input to SimaPro software in order to simulate manufacturing and operation of the LED streetlight over 60.0023 d L × 0. amorphous. Using this information. performance ratio (PR) is around 0.000 h. when PV efficiency drops.046 d L × 2.5Ag3.615 b. Ltd. at plant Polyethylene terephthalate. at regional storage Copper. at plant La×0. f Flight = 10. at plant Integrated circuit.074 (Goeble. Boston–AD airport distance. at plant Polypropylene. LED. These systems consist of solar panels producing direct current (DC) electrical power. at regional storage Diode. corrugated board.012 b L × 0. known as full load hours.8 (MWh) Variable explanation and values are given below f Transportation L × W × flight/103 Transportation L × W × F_L/103 Transportation L × W × AD/103 Production Energy (LEDs ∗ E_d) ∗ L Operational Energy W = 12 kg. and charge controller/inverter (Solar Street Lighting Systems.000 h. Sn95. for electronics industry.d L × 0. 2010) and batteries were assumed to be imported from India.5 km.735 km. A multi-crystalline Silicon. at plant Glass tube. at plant Transistor.072 b.231 d L × 0.96 d L × 0. d Data from Hartley et al.012 b L × 0.c L × 0. production mix. (2009). streetlights are assumed to get their power from PV panels mounted on the same pole as the light fixture itself. a L = 2. e Data from OSRAM (2009). Abu Dhabi airport–warehouse distance. compared to indoor LED lamp from (Navigant Consulting Europe.c L × 0. IC.0012 b.5 km.9Cu0. AD = 38.009 d L × 0. Furthermore. Lamp comp. intercontinental/RER S (tkm) Truck 28 t B250 (tkm) Truck 28 t B250 (tkm) Energy I USA mix Natural gas. production mix. production mix. logic type. since larger percentage of these materials are used for street lighting.5Ag3.036 b. rigid foam.045 kWh to produce 1 light emitting diode. 2005). number of lamps needed during 60. granulate. granulate. 2005. Abdul Hadi et al.Author's personal copy 444 S. which is built into the SimaPro database. at plant Aluminum. for electronics industry.12 b.9Cu0. borosilicate. at plant Aluminum.c L × 0.069 b L × 0. at plant Aluminum. Microsol International LL FZE). in order to provide additional 2 days power supply during cloudy or sandy days. at regional storage Solder. Remaining raw materials are scaled up percentage wise in order to complete light fixture weight of 12 kg (Energy Works). as the LED streetlight under the study.023 b L × 0. Battery efficiency was assumed to be 90% (Verma et al. at plant Aluminum.046 b L × 0.24 b. . 2011). 2010). single wall. was assumed to be the panel to be used.6. Tester et al. factory–Boston Airport distance. assuming that average operational temperature is 40 °C (Rydh and Sandén. mixed fiber. at plant Aluminum. at plant Light emitting diode. 2009). at plant Copper. unspecified. paste. at regional storage Copper. Table 7 summarizes PV panel specifications used in the simulations. 2009). at plant Aluminum Packaging. at regional storage Solder.06 b. larger housing and the presence of reflector. aircraft. 2010). which was found to be the closest battery supplier in the region. b Data from Navigant Consulting Europe. These are stand-alone systems which are not connected to utility power lines and are self-sufficient.36 d L × 0. production mix. production mix. (2009).. it was found that the average weight of multi crystalline Si PV panel per meter square is around 11. lamp with 180 diodes. paste.. at plant Resistor. An exception was made for glass and aluminum. unspecified.74 and gain (G) due to panel tilt is estimated to be approximately 1.048 b. production mix. Ltd.e L × 0. at plant Copper.. LEDs = 180 diodes to produce 180 W LED lamp. the battery was assumed to be a rechargeable Li-ion one.000 h of operation.c L × 4. / Energy for Sustainable Development 17 (2013) 438–450 Table 5 Raw material for a 180 W LED lamp streetlight fixture for 60.c L × 0. at plant Copper. at plant Cast iron.5 kg (Solar BP.069 b Transport.6. estimated weight 180 W LED lamp. in simulations for this work. E_d = 0. Battery life was assumed to be 7 years. PV peak operation time. Overall system losses were assumed to be 10% (GE Lighting. required resources to process those raw materials during LED manufacture are shown in Table 6.

producing and transporting PV panels and their batteries. carbon dioxide emissions during manufacture and use. 4(b). number of LED lamps within 60.115 L × 4. 6. which adds up all impacts into a single number by applying weighting of individual damaging factors. required PV panel area and weight. Germany). Fig. Eco-Indicator 99 (H) considers all possible contributors to an impact if they are backed up by scientific and political bodies widely recognized in the environmental community (Baumann and Tillman. (2009).4 180 5. Overall energy needs of LED are about 6% lower than those of CMH. 2000). which can be seen in Fig. The least favorable performance was for stand-alone PV-powered streetlight without battery recycling. Eco-Indicator 99 Hierarchist view (H) was used to compare the impact of the different scenarios. The single score method can be used to quickly compare overall impacts of different systems. PV panel specifications Value Unit PV panel peak power (by SimaPro model) Area of a panel (by SimaPro model) Full load hours per day Multi c-Si PV panel average weight a Energy delivered by panel 210 2.046 2. plastic film Aluminum product manufacturing. with the exception that batteries are assumed to be recycled at an 80% recycling rate. Transportation is considered to be one way. minerals and fossil fuels.36 61. involving a maximum of 1 l of water per meter square of panel (Interview with Lopez CV. climate change.092 L × 0.4336 5. Although PV power is a renewable source of electricity. assuming all fixture parts are 100% landfilled.308 L × 0. Fig. copper Injection molding Extrusion. eco-toxicity. but LED uses about 28% less energy than CMH during its operation. Abdul Hadi et al. Maintenance of PV panels is assumed to be by wipe-cleaning. 5(b) shows that during the entire life of the lamp. CMH lamps have a larger overall environmental impact during production and use. involving an intercontinental cargo flight. An additional way of quantifying the impact assessment is by use of single score weighting method. Fig. ozone layer depletion. The CMH light consumes less energy than LED during the manufacturing process. respiratory inorganics.000 h. Weight (kg) La×0. Overall. During the manufacturing stage. due to its higher energy consumption. while LED contributes more to greenhouse gasses (GHG) during the manufacturing phase. radiation. 5 illustrates the overall environmental impact. so “tap water” is used in SimaPro model. were compared as shown in Fig. CMH has more CO2 emissions during use. along with their frequent maintenance seems to outweigh the benefits of using renewable resources in terms of energy consumption and CO2 emissions. and Energy Works. to preserve PV efficiency. while the impact categories in CMH manufacture are more evenly distributed.7 129. 6 shows energy consumption (a) and CO2 emissions (b) in those three scenarios for CMH and LED lights. Energy for desalinating this clean water is assumed at 1.000 h of operation. and it was used to compare different scenarios in our analysis. climate change. Table 8 Stand-alone PV panel area and weight required for CMH and LED lights for 60. acidification/eutrophication. average metal working Aluminum product manufacturing. every 10 days. Water used for cleaning the PV is desalinated. Results show that the system powered by grid has the lowest energy consumption and CO2 emissions. while CMH affects the environment more negatively during usage. Inverters are assumed to be delivered together with PV panels from a factory in Fujairah—UAE. from Abu Dhabi to Frankfurt. The detailed inventory for stand-alone PV powered streetlight without battery recycling can be found in Table 9.7 93. Out of many Table 7 Stand-alone PV panel specification used in simulations. Stand-alone PV powered streetlight with battery recycling The inventory for this scenario is same as the case with standalone PV powered streetlight without battery recycling. 2004).1 11.615 445 Rated power Panel area to deliver required energy Total PV panel weight Total Li-ion battery weight (3 days capacity) CMH LED Unit 250 7. with and without battery recycling.Author's personal copy S. Due to its higher energy consumption. radiation. Impact assessment The results we report in this paper are focused on energy consumption. Lamp component Item Ballast Ballast Ballast Inductor Capacitors PCB (aluminum machined tooled block)-housing Ballast Ballast Ballast Fitting Wiring Housing (polypropylene) PET film Base Fitting Metal clips Fitting Wiring a SimaPro material Wire drawing. largest single impact for LED production comes from fossil fuels and respiratory inorganics. Microsol International LL FZE). Data from Navigant Consulting Europe. respiratory organics. These calculations show that CMH streetlight fixture has approximately 8% higher overall carbon footprint than does the LED fixture. by far. copper L L L L × × × × 0. average metal working Wire drawing.692 L × 0. / Energy for Sustainable Development 17 (2013) 438–450 Table 6 Resources to process raw material for LED luminaries system for 60. and ozone layer depletion are presented here using the common unit of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY). as well as overall environmental damage assessment. respiratory inorganics.45 85. Ltd. Effects from carcinogens. 2011). To account for maintenance per pole.8 kWh/m 3 of water (International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). respiratory organics. carrying 2 workers and the required quantity of water. 4 compares 250 W CMH and 180 W LED streetlight technologies in terms of energy consumption (a) and carbon dioxide emissions (b) both for production and the operational life of the lamps.231 L = 2. Table 10 shows major emissions to . land use.5 443 W m2 h kg/m2 Wh/m2 a Data from (Solar BP. Microsol. Those impacts include carcinogens.0462 0. Fig. using the single score method. Considering energy needs of both the luminaire technologies and assuming 10% losses. On the other hand. the most significant environmental impact comes from fossil fuel usage for energy generation needed during lamp operation.000 h of operation. CMH and LED streetlight technologies powered from grid and from PV stand-alone system. and battery weight are calculated as shown in Table 8. copper Sheet rolling. LED has a greater environmental impact during the manufacturing phase. The closest battery recycling center that accepts international recyclable material was found to be in Frankfurt. with use of fossil fuels being the largest contributor.2 W m2 kg kg different impact assessment methods. PV panels were assumed to be wiped-clean every 10 days. aluminum Aluminum product manufacturing. which operates a modern cell manufacturing plant in UAE with an annual production capacity of 150 MW which is expected to increase to 250 MW by mid 2012 (Microsol International LL FZE). of CMH and LED during manufacturing only (a) and for the whole life cycle (cradle-to-grave) (b). we have assumed that a truck with crane (Commercial Truck Parts) would pass 250 m of distance. Germany (Redux Recycling GmbH.808 0. average metal working Wire drawing. In line with the energy consumption.

000 operational hours (~14 years) assuming 7 years of life. M_dist = 0. multi-Si. assuming 33% charge–discharge at operation at 40%. from factory to warehouse Battery transport from New Delhi to AD airport Battery transport from factory to new Delhi airport Inverter for stand-alone PV Transportation for PV cleaning assuming 120 kg for workers. BFA = 40. have the least environmental impact among all compared systems.7 km.13 FLH/day 3 day capacity Li-Ion battery for 60. assumed cleaning every 10 days. Abdul Hadi et al. 1 l/m2 of PV. where LED has significantly higher contribution. estimated distance between PV factory and warehouse. RER — ecoinvent country code for Europe. Impact assessment by single score method for CMH and LED streetlight technologies for grid and stand-alone PV power supply (with and without battery recycling) are also compared in Fig.000/12/clean) kg PV panel for CMH assuming 5. a P_A = panel area (Table 8). as a result of manufacture and operation of CMH and LED streetlight fixtures for all analyzed scenarios. PV_M = 279 km. it was found to have the least environmental impact (Fig. 4. where LED has almost ten times higher emissions. rechargeable. at plant/RER/I S Transport. fleet average/RER S B_W = battery weight (Table 8). air. PV_D = 11.000 h Electricity/heat Value Unit Description Natural gas.000 / 12/clean) / 103 × E_desal kWh Energy used to desalinate water used for cleaning of PV panels Variable explanation and values are given belowa PV panel. CH4 and NOx. freight/RER S Truck 28 t B250 Inverter. . water and soil in kg. For systems powered by the grid. E_desal = 1. 7. I — infrastructure. Here. aircraft.000 h of operation. SO2. BC = 170 Wh/kg. burned in power plant/ASCC S P_A × (60.5 kg/m2. For PV stand-alone systems with battery recycling. lorry >16 t. AD = 38.8 kWh/m3. assumed energy for water desalination. except for silicon. ND_AD = 5206 km. Fig. Clean = 10. assumed 250 m distance to clean panel. 250 m distance traveled per pole per visit. While PV-powered lamps with battery recycling didn't register the lowest energy consumption or CO2 emissions (Fig. Abu Dhabi airport–warehouse distance. Similarly. To further explore these factors. number of batteries needed for 60. Four gasses that are most emitted to air. SimaPro Material Value Unit Description m2 kg tkm tkm tkm tkm p tkm Tap water.Author's personal copy 446 S.000/12/clean) aM_dist/103 P_A × (60. 1 l = 1 kg.5 km. B = 2. / Energy for Sustainable Development 17 (2013) 438–450 Table 9 Inventory relevant to PV Stand-alone analysis for 60. S — ecoinvent process type-system. emissions to water are higher for CMH.25 km. B_life = 7. due to silicon use in diode processing. and visit every 10 days Amount of water used to clean per panel every 10 days throughout 60. at user/RER S P_A B_W × B (B_W × B) × AD/103 PV_D × P_A × PV_M/103 B × B_W × ND_AD/103 B × B_W × BFA/103 B (1 + 120) × P_A × (60. 8 shows the processes with the largest contributions to the environmental damage for all investigated cases for CMH and LED streetlight technologies. the process with the largest impact is battery production. PV-powered lamps with an assumed 80% battery recycling efficiency.000 h Transportation needed for battery from AD-airport to warehouse Transport of estimated weight of PV panels. at plant/RER/I S b Battery. 500 W. For PV stand-alone systems without battery recycling. assumed Li-ion battery capacity (average between 138 and 240). 7) after assigning weights to all the other contributing factors. Emissions to soil are negligible and the highest ones are oils. battery factory to New Delhi airport distance. Fig. LiIo. followed by aircraft transportation. 6). the largest environmental impact comes from burning natural gas. New Delhi to Abu Dhabi airport distance. followed by aircraft transportation. b GLO — ecoinvent country code for Global. the largest contributor is aircraft transportation. with LED having a lower overall impact than CMH. estimated weight of PV panel per meter square. are slightly higher for CMH lighting technology than they are for LED lighting. Energy consumption (a) and carbon dioxide emissions (b) during manufacture and operation of CMH and LED streetlights powered by electricity from grid. CO2. prismatic. at plant/GLO S Truck 28 t B250 Truck 28 t B250 Transport.

ion Calcium. Table 10 Most significant emissions to air and water (kg) due to manufacture and operation of CMH and LED streetlight for all investigated systems. acidification/ eutrophication and land use.40 47 258 – 17 16 0. followed by PV production. Fig.7 2. but probably not enough to justify the infrastructure needed for it. In the particular case of streetlights for minor roads of Abu Dhabi. fossil fuels for operation. comparative LCA analysis of CMH and LED streetlight technologies powered by grid or by stand-alone PV systems (with and without battery recycling) identified the three major impact contributors to be: battery production. Fig.2 0. Solar power plant was modeled using a built-in SimaPro process. Results show that having solar power plant is slightly more environmentally friendly than having a stand-alone PV system with battery recycling.Author's personal copy S.58 0. comparing the systems powered by grid and by PV panel. Abdul Hadi et al.9 PV w/o battery recycle .3 2.126 40 35 26 9501 31 27 21 220 188 20 5 54 17 159 139 243 23 42 21 0. for 60. comparing lighting technologies powered by the grid and by stand-alone PV systems. with its largest impact on the increase in respiratory inorganics and land acidification. with and without battery recycling. 6. unspecified CMH LED PV with battery recycle 250 W 180 W 250 W CMH 180 W 250 W 180 W LED CMH LED 3566 31 18 10 3260 25 14 9 4109 11 8 13 3726 10 7 12 12.62 71 277 – 20 20 2. the case of grid powered streetlights has the lowest impact on land use and human health. So far. / Energy for Sustainable Development 17 (2013) 438–450 447 Fig. climate change and carcinogens. with larger impact for PV stand-alone systems.64 2. Impact assessment by single score method for CMH and LED light fixtures during the manufacturing stage (a) and both manufacture and operational life (b) (Hierarchist view). Overall energy consumption (a) and carbon dioxide emissions (b) during manufacturing and operation of 250 W CMH and 180 W LED streetlights. 5. with and without battery recycling. fossil Nitrogen oxides Emissions to water (kg) Dissolved solids Chloride Silicon Chemical oxygen demand Sodium. Furthermore. 10 shows the damage assessment in terms of ecotoxicity. 11 shows the single-score impact assessment for CMH and LED lights powered by PV-solar power plant.85 91 64 – 21 15 0. in DALY units. a solution that could potentially minimize all three contributors is a PV-solar power plant to power streetlights. compared to the same powered by grid or stand-alone PV system. Fig.000 h of operation. We can see that the major contributor to ecotoxicity along with significant increase in respiratory inorganics. Emissions to air (kg) Carbon dioxide. is disposal of batteries after their use in stand-alone PV systems. 9 shows the assessment of damage to human health. and transportation.54 58 38 – 18 10 0. ion Emissions to soil (kg) Oils. fossil Sulfur dioxide Methane. the largest contributing processes to the environmental impacts of the systems under analysis are: • Burning of natural gas for systems powered by grid • Battery production for PV systems • Transportation for all cases. implying that these should be minimized. Fig. Overall.

LED technology uses significantly larger amounts of water compared to CMH. Finally. for system powered by grid and by PV panel. 5. Fig. Due to high water consumption in cleanrooms during PV panel fabrications. 13. 7. due to the nature of diode processing in cleanrooms. Impact assessment by single score method for CMH and LED light fixtures. . The results are shown in Fig. Abdul Hadi et al.Author's personal copy 448 S. 8. and 10). Furthermore. 12 and indicate that most of the water is consumed in the production stage. Damage assessment on human health for streetlight technologies powered by grid and PV systems with and without battery recycling. Fig. The impact of water consumption is already captured in the single-score results (Figs. 8. as shown in Fig. 9. with and without battery recycling (Hierarchist view). Battery recycling is found to decrease water consumption. Moreover. (Hierarchist view). compared to PV-powered systems. in the light of growing clean water scarcity worldwide. / Energy for Sustainable Development 17 (2013) 438–450 Fig. grid-powered lights use significantly less water. the amount of water used in production and operation stages of CMH and LED bulbs was analyzed. 7. water consumption by CMH and LED powered by stand-alone PV systems was compared to grid-powered streetlight. The largest process contributions to environmental impacts of all investigated cases (Hierarchist view). but it remains 10 fold higher in water consumption than the lighting system powered by the grid.

we compared two streetlighting technologies. stand-alone PV-powered lights were found to be an environmentally better choice than grid-powered lights. although the added benefits were not very significant and did not justify the infrastructure costs. Moreover. transportation of system components was found to be the highest contributor to environmental impact. Comparative LCA for 250 W CMH and 180 W LED streetlights powered from the grid showed that it is environmentally friendlier to use LED streetlights. Impact assessment by single score method for 250 W CMH and 180 W LED light fixtures powered by PV-solar power plant. Acknowledgments Fig. 10. With estimated 117. Ashraf Sadik Hassan. We . CMH and LED. Abdul Hadi et al. will become considerable when applied to the entire system of lighting of minor roads of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. compared to power by grid and stand-alone PV systems (Hierarchist view). / Energy for Sustainable Development 17 (2013) 438–450 449 Fig. Mona Abdulla Al Ali and Dr. The authors would like to thank the staff at Masdar Institute. during production and operation stages. 12. who provided valuable information needed to complete our inventory analysis.000 light poles on minor roads of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. Conclusions In this work. in terms of their environmental impact. powering these streetlights via a central PV-solar power plant (instead of stand-alone PV panels) does reduce the environmental impact. powered by grid. acidification and land use for streetlight technologies powered by grid and PV systems with and without battery recycling. Water consumption of 250 W CMH and LED technologies. only if the used batteries are recycled. 11. Fig. since CMH technology uses far more energy during its operational life. Damage assessment in terms of ecotoxicity. Even small incremental benefits from applying these alternative power supply schemes. it can be calculated that roughly 2500 tons of CO2 would be saved per year if 180 W LED lights are used instead of 250 W CMH lamps. It was found that factors with the highest environmental impact in these lighting technologies are battery production (for the PVpowered system) and the usage of fossil fuels for power generation. (Hierarchist view).Author's personal copy S. Cristobal Verdu. Finally. In PV-powered stand-alone systems with battery recycling.

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