Presentation on Power Transformer &

Distribution Transformer Protection

Presented byCh. Alamgir Hossain
Deputy General Manager
System Protection & Metering Circle


Protection of Transformer
Requirements of Transformer Protection-To protect the equipment form external and internal faults
Type of Transformer Faults:
A: Internal Faults
1.Earth Fault
2.Phase to Phase Fault
3.Inter-turn Fault
4.Core Fault
5.Tank Fault- ex. Loss of Oil
6.Slug Formation

Protection of Transformer: cont.
External Faults:
1. Over Loading – Causes I2R losses
2. System Faults- Causes Mechanical stress to transformer
3. Over Voltage- Transient Over Voltage- LAs are provided
- System O/V- Causes Over Flexing which increases Iran
losses and damage insulation.


Protection of Transformer: cont.


¾ When power is then reapplied. Inrush Current ¾ A transformer steel core's retains a static magnetic field when power is removed. the magnetizing inrush currents are estimated as multiples up to 08 to 10 times of the transformer's rated current. the residual field will cause a high inrush current until the effect of the remnant magnetism is reduced. ¾ When a transformer is energized.Protection of Transformer: cont. ¾ Transformer protection devices must be selected to allow this harmless inrush to pass. usually after a few cycles of the applied alternating current. ‰ Factors that affect the Inrush Current ¾The source impedance ¾The size of the transformer ¾The point of wave when the switch closes ¾The magnetic properties of the core ¾The remanence magnetism of the core 5 .

‰ Protections provided by external protective relays: ƒTransformer Differential Protection (87T) ƒRestricted Earth Fault (REF) Protection (87N) ƒTime Delayed Over Current & Earth Fault Protection (51/51N) ƒInstantaneous Over Current & Earth Fault Protection (50/50N) ƒThermal Overload Protection (49) ƒOver Fluxing Protection (24) ‰ Mechanical/Self Protection (Provided within the transformer ): ƒMain Tank Buchholz Protection ƒOLTC Buchholz Protection ƒPressure Relief Device (PRD) Protection ƒWinding Temperature Protection ƒOil Temperature Protection ƒOil Level Alarm ƒMain Tank Buchholz Alarm 6 .Protection of Transformer: cont.

Protection of Transformer: cont. Conventional Protection Scheme of a Two Winding Transformer 7 .

Conventional Protection Scheme of a Two Winding Transformer Including REF 87N 8 .Protection of Transformer: cont.

Protection of Transformer: cont. Conventional Protection Scheme of a Three Winding Transformer 9 .

Protection of Transformer: cont. Conventional Protection Scheme of an Auto-Transformer 10 .

11 .Protection of Transformer: cont. Group B protection The group A and group B protection are connected to separate DC source. All the Group-A and Group-B protection functions energize separate lockout relays (86-1 & 86-2) respectively to trip the circuit breaker during fault. 1. Group A Protection 2. So that protection functions are divided in two groups to obtain some redundancy. Grouping of protection: As transformer protections are not duplicated.

Generally Group-A protection consists of¾Differential Protection (87T) ¾Time Delayed Over Current & Earth Fault Protection (51/51N)_HV ¾Instantaneous Over Current & Earth Fault Protection (50/50N)_HV ¾Thermal Over Load Protection (49) ¾Main Tank Buchholz Relay Protection 12 .Protection of Transformer: cont.

Protection of Transformer: cont. Generally Group-B protection consists of¾Restricted Earth Fault Protection (87N) ¾Time Delayed Over Current & Earth Fault Protection (51/51N)_LV ¾Instantaneous Over Current & Earth Fault Protection (50/50N)_LV ¾OLTC Buchholz Relay Protection ¾Pressure Relief Device (PRD) Protection ¾Winding Temperature Protection ¾Oil Temperature Protection 13 .

Protection of Transformer: cont. Fig: Zone of Differential Protection 14 . ƒIf any difference in HV & LV currents exists (beyond the setting value) it is assumed that the transformer has developed a fault and the relay instantaneously trips the relevant circuit breakers. ƒTransformer differential protection detects faults within the differential protected zone. including inter-turn short circuits. Transformer Differential Protection (87T) Basics: ƒTransformer differential protection is a unit scheme that compares the current on the primary side of a transformer with that of the secondary side. ƒThe principle of operation is made possible by virtue of the fact that large transformers are very efficient and hence under normal operation power-in equals power-out.

An internal fault produces an unbalance or 'spill' current that is detected by the relay. leading to operation to isolate the fault. Transformer Differential Protection (87T) Principle of Operation: The operating principle employed by transformer differential protection is the MerzPrice circulating current system as shown in the figure.Protection of Transformer: cont. 15 . Under normal conditions I1and I2 are made equal and opposite such that the resultant current through the relay is zero.

Transformer Differential Protection (87T) ‰ Transformer Differential 10 Protection (87T) Relay Types: ¾ High Impedance Type ¾ Low Impedance Type ƒ In a low impedance protection scheme. ƒ 87T relays are generally of 1 I d min low impedance type.Protection of Transformer: cont. the differential protection can 5 have the protection characteristic set typically with a two slope restraint characteristic. 1 Differential current |I1+I2 | < 25 I Unrestrained High Trips Blocks 5 10 Irestrain (|I1 |+ |I2 |)/2 16 .

Protection of Transformer: cont. Transformer Differential Protection (87T) Transformer Differential Protection With Matching CT 17 .

Protection of Transformer: cont. 18 . Transformer Differential Protection (87T) Factors to be considered in selecting 87T relay: ¾ Extremely stable under through fault conditions and magnetic inrush. ¾ Very fast to operate for an internal fault ¾ Able to restrain second harmonics and block fifth harmonics.

¾ It’s a unit protection and operation of relay is instantaneous. or zero-sequence differential protection is implemented in transformer star winding. ¾ Restricted earth fault. ¾ It offers a significant improvement in sensitivity over traditional differential protection ¾ It does not respond to load current.Protection of Transformer: cont. 19 . Restricted Earth Fault Protection (87N) Basics: ¾ Conventional earth fault protection using over-current elements fails to provide adequate protection for transformer.

Protection of Transformer: cont. ¾ Generally 87N relays are of High Impedance type. 20 . ¾ The relay is operative for faults within the region between current transformers. Restricted Earth Fault Protection (87N) Basics: ¾ Ground current in the transformer neutral is used as a reference and is compared to zero-sequence current at the terminals to determine if a fault is internal to the transformer. for faults on the star winding in question. that is. ¾ The relay will remain stable for all faults outside this zone. ¾ 87N relays are also available high impedance and low impedance type.

Protection of Transformer: cont. Restricted Earth Fault Protection (87N) Basic 87N Scheme: 21 .

Restricted earth fault protection : (a) neutral earthed within the protected zone (b) neutral not earthed within the protected zone 22 .Protection of Transformer: cont. Restricted Earth Fault Protection (87N) (a) (b) Fig.

Protection of Transformer: cont. Time Delayed/Instantaneous Over Current & Earth Fault Protection (50/50N & 51/51N) ¾Used on all feeding circuits of transformer ¾Provide back up for internal faults ¾Also provide back up for system faults ¾Instantaneous high element ¾51/51N can be definite time or inverse time to achieve proper relay co-ordination from upstream to downstream 23 .

¾During over load conditions excessive load current through the transformer causes over heating of the winding and insulating oil.Protection of Transformer: cont. as excessive winding hot-spot temperatures cause degradation and eventual failure of the winding insulation. 24 . ¾Protection based on winding hot-spot temperature can potentially prevent short circuits and catastrophic transformer failure. Thermal Overload Protection (49) ¾The transformer winding hot-spot temperature is another quantity that should be used for protection of transformers.

25 .Protection of Transformer: cont. First alarm is generated then finally tripping occurs. Thermal Overload Protection (49) • To prevent damage of the winding insulation thermal overload protection is used. • It is basically a over current protection implemented in both windings of the transformer • Tripping is time delayed.

Thermal Overload Protection (49) Rise of temperature Trip Alarm τ Time 26 .Protection of Transformer: cont.

27 . Over Fluxing Protection (24) Transformer over-fluxing can be a result of • Overvoltage • Low system frequency ¾A transformer is designed to operate at or below a maximum magnetic flux density in the transformer core. ¾The magnetic flux in the core is proportional to the voltage applied to the winding divided by the impedance of the winding.Protection of Transformer: cont. ¾Above that design limit the eddy currents in the core and nearby conductive components cause overheating which within a very short time may cause severe damage.

Protection of Transformer: cont.44 ΦmN • During startup or shutdown of generator-connected transformers. the transformer may experience an excessive ratio of volts to hertz. or following a load rejection.44fΦmN =>E/f = 4. that is. become overexcited. • Overexcited transformers become overheated and damaged • Over fluxing protection is specially required for Generator Transformers 28 . Over Fluxing Protection (24) • The flux in the core increases with either increasing voltage or decreasing frequencyEMF = E = 4.

gas evolved. ¾Generally these relays are built in features of power and distribution transformers having capacity more than 10MVA. ¾Transformer mechanical protection relays operate by sensing operational parameters like oil pressure. oil & winding temperature. Mechanical Protection ¾There are several mechanical protection relays installed on transformers . 29 .Protection of Transformer: cont. oil level.

¾In addition with the main tank Buchholz relay another Buchholz relay is mounted on OLTC (On Load Tap Changer).Protection of Transformer: cont. ¾It is used on practically all power transformers with the exception of small distribution transformers. Buchholz Relays (63): ¾Buchholz relay is a mechanical protection device for monitoring the gas and oil movements in oil immersed transformers. Mechanical Protection: cont. ¾Location of main tank Buchholz relay is given as follows: 30 .

Protection of Transformer: cont. Fig. Buchholz Relay: contd. Buchholz Relay 31 .

shortcircuits etc. ¾During normal operation. the relay is completely filled with oil keeping the floats in their top limit or reset position.g. ¾The internal mechanism of a Buchholz relay mainly comprises two floats.). ¾The contact mechanisms in the relays respond to: ƒ Slight faults causing a slow evolution of gas in the transformer (e. ƒUnattended Oil leakage may lead to operation of the Buchholz relay. ƒSerious faults creating an immediate surge of oil (e. overheating).g. 32 .Protection of Transformer: cont. Buchholz Relay: contd.

Buchholz Relay: contd. Schematic Diagram of a conventional Buchholz Relay Arrangement 33 .Protection of Transformer: cont.

Schematic Diagram of a modern Buchholz Relay (Oil Surge) Arrangement An oil-surge detection feature of the Buchholz relay will trip the upstream circuit-breaker “instantaneously” if a surge of oil occurs in the pipe connecting the main tank with the conservator tank. Buchholz Relay: contd. generated by an arc of short-circuit current in the oil. Such a surge can only occur due to the displacement of oil caused by a rapidly formed bubble of gas. 34 .Protection of Transformer: cont.

Protection of Transformer: cont. Schematic Diagram of a Buchholz Relay Mounting Arrangement Θ = 3-5° 35 . Buchholz Relay: contd.

the upper float drops and activates the external alarm switch. ¾If an arc forms. Buchholz Relay Operation: ¾When a slight fault occurs in the transformer. ¾ As a result. gas accumulation is rapid. ¾ If gas continues to be generated then the second float operates the second switch that is normally used to isolate (trip) the transformer. ¾This switch normally will operate a circuit breaker to isolate the apparatus before the fault causes additional damage 36 . the small bubbles of gas which pass upwards towards the oil conservator tank are trapped in the relay housing this causing its oil level to fall.Protection of Transformer: cont. ¾This flow of oil operates a switch attached to a vane located in the path of the moving oil. and oil flows rapidly into the conservator which is called oil surge. Buchholz Relay: contd.

¾This pressure is sufficient to damage the transformer.Protection of Transformer: cont. there will be an increase of temperature associated with formation of gases. impurities in oil and thus increase in pressure. Pressure Relief Device (PRD) Basics: ¾Pressure Relief Device is a safety element of the transformer employs to prevent heavy damages of the tank in the case of sudden rise of the internal pressure. ¾During internal faults of a power transformer. ¾These device has been designed in order to remove the excess pressure in a very short time as soon as the pressure in the tank rises above predetermined safe limit ¾PRD operates and allows the pressure to drip instantaneously and avoids damage to transformer body. ¾The pressure relief device is applied to prevent the transformer from this danger 37 .

Pressure Relief Device (PRD): cont. Fig. Pressure Relief Device 38 .Protection of Transformer: cont.

Protection of Transformer: cont. ¾The pressure relief device consists of a spring which normally is uncompressed and when the pressure increased in the transformer. ¾Following Figure (shows the pressure relief device in the normal condition (before the fault occurrence): 39 . ¾Compressing the spring will close an electrical contact. and this contact will give trip to circuit breakers associated with alarm. the spring get compressed and give a path of gases to go out of the transformer. Pressure Relief Device (PRD): cont.

Following figure shows the fault condition at which the compressed gases get passage to let the gases out from the transformer. 40 . Pressure Relief Device (PRD): cont.Protection of Transformer: cont.

¾It has a specially designed heating element.e. ¾Temperature is measured with a bulb in a pocket. 41 . the current through the winding) and the temperature of the cooling medium (the oil). ¾This heating element is a thermal model of the winding.Protection of Transformer: cont. simulates the winding temperature. ¾The heating element is connected to the current transformer (CT) via a Matching Resistance or a Matching Unit. to allow setting the correct winding temperature gradient. to measure the transformer load. ¾The temperature of the winding depends on the transformer load (i. Winding & Oil Temperature Protection Winding Temperature Indicator ¾By making a "Thermal Image" of the winding the Winding Temperature Indicator.

¾Generally winding temperature indicator consists of four contacts which are normally open and closes in series according to pre set closing value (temperature). Normally it trips the load side breaker.Protection of Transformer: cont.The second contact is used for automatic operation of second fan group.The first contact is used for automatic operation of first fan group. ¾These contacts can be assigned as follows:1. this value is higher than the first contact setting.e.As a last step. (i. 4.If the cooling fans are not sufficient to retain the transformer temperature to its normal value. Winding Temperature Protection: cont. the third contact is applied to feed alarm circuit. 2. the secondary side CB) 42 . the fourth contact is applied for tripping to prevent the transformer from high temperatures. 3.

¾This consists only of two contacts. 43 . ¾These contacts are similar to the third and the fourth contacts of the winding temperature indicator but with preset values less than winding temperature indicator by approximately 5-10 degrees.Protection of Transformer: cont. Oil Temperature Protection Oil Temperature Indicator: ¾Oil temperature indicator is similar to winding temperature indicator except that it depends only on the temperature transferred by the bulb (no current transformer is used).

Transformer Dehydrating Breather Transformer Dehydrating Breather: ¾A transformer breather is an accessory of an oil filled type transformer which is attached to the oil conservator tank. it expands and goes back to the conservator tank and subsequently pushes the dry air out of the conservator tank through the breather 44 . ¾When the insulating oil of the transformer gets heated up.Protection of Transformer: cont.

• When the oil cools down. Transformer Dehydrating Breather • It is filled with some desiccating agent. 45 . • If the silica gel looses its moisture absorbing capability then the oil in the conservator gets contaminated and eventually losses the insulating property. e. silica gel.g.Protection of Transformer: cont. it retracts and sucks fresh air from the atmosphere through the breather • the silica gel dries up the moisture content of the air that goes back in to the conservator tank.

¾Furthermore they are provided with micro switches to signal the alarm in case the oil level reaches its minimum and/or maximum. ¾It is mounted on the body of the conservator. ¾Its function is to give a visual alarm of the oil level contained in the conservator. Oil Level Indicator ¾Oil level indicators with magnetic joint are usually used on transformers' conservators. 46 .Protection of Transformer: cont.

Thanks to All 47 .