ENCYCLOPEDIA OF

THEMES AND SUBJECTS
IN

PAINTING

MYTHOLOGICAL, BIBLICAL, HISTORICAL, LITERARY,
ALLEGORICAL, AND TOPICAL
A

B R

A

M

S

K
i^

<'M

ry,o\(il^^^

What

exactly happened to Saint

Ursula?

Why

Andromeda

did

What

herself chained to the rock ?

the

story

and

Susanna

Questions such

Elders'}

gallery,

and can prove

hindrances to the

the

visitor to
irritating

understanding

full

and appreciation of painting.
inquiring artlovers,

is

these can

as

even the best-informed

baffle

a

behind

find

Howard

To

all

Daniel's

comes as an invaluable
aid. Nearly four hundred of the subjects that recur most frequently in
Western art most of them mytholoEncyclopedia

gical or rehgious

betically

Every
bius,

and are concisely explained.
from Achilles to Zenoillustrated by a major work

subject,
is

from

—are arranged alpha-

a public gallery.

The same

prompt John

questions

Berger, in his stimulating introduction,
to look critically at the

whole function

of Western painting during the

hundred

five

years.

Does

represent "the specialized
Ml

1

of

and

is it

modern man

in fact,

knowledge

minority" that

a privileged

extinct,

it,

last

is

now

therefore irrelevant to

altogether? In a lively

and unorthodox

essay,

Mr. Berger

poses questions as freely as the Encyclopedia

tions
is

combine

to provide a

book

that

both thought-provoking and prac-

tical,

as

answers them. The two sec-

a

book

to refer to in the gallery

well as to ponder over at leisure.

^go

illustrations, including

35

in full color

\V-hl\r-^^A\\tXKl^i\nEV\:\^\n,fK!\TiUHTrrynr\'>.

CENTRAL ^EFEREHCE
DOES NOT (MRCDLllfe

Encyclopedia of

Themes and Subjects
in

Painting

.

• NEW YORK . ALLEGORICAL.Encyclopedia of Themes and Subjects in Painting MYTHOLOGICAL. LITERARY. BIBLICAL. INC. Publishers ABRAMS. AND TOPICAL HOWARD DANIEL Introduction by HARRY JOHN BERGER N. HISTORICAL.

. No part of the contents of this book may be Standard Library of Congress Catalogue Card reproduced without the written permission of the publishers Harry N. Abrams.For the Velehits of Circe^s island Book Number: 8109-0099-8 Number: 74-153493 Copyright© 1971 in Great Britain by Thames and Hudson. Incorporated. Printed and bound New in Great Britain York . Ltd. London All rights reserved.

We also have the advantage today .19th century. The this past from general public lives in the present with.Introduction The largest part of this book comprises a dictionary of the most common recurring subjects to be found in European painting from the early Renaissance to the mid. The culture which once produced the paintings is no longer the same culture which has formed those who look at them. as artists.if we wish to sec it as an advantage . What follows consists of a short essay which attempts to outline the meaning of the pictorial tradition of the easel painting as a historical whole.of realizing that European culture was never the unquestionable summit of world culture. because we can now see it from the outside. Approximately 300 entries are illustrated by paintings . And this remains generally true even if a few exceptional works appear to transcend their tradition and to speak to us directly about some unchanged tradition to aspects of human experience. at the most. It is possible today to do this (or to try to do it) precisely because the tradition has reached its end. is no longer obvious to their public. The that the experts live in the past without appreciating the extent of the gap which separate^ the present. a false nostalgic curiosity about the standing the art of the period distance. free from its own self-justifying and self-perpetuating criteria. The tradition as a whole is now a historical fact rather than a continuing and living reality. reference : is the case with is all inform the to about the traditional yet The of which are easel pictures dictionaries. I and believe that the major difficulty of communication between art experts a general public is largely due to the pretence tradition of fine art continues unbroken. we The pre-condition now are considering Both experts and public tend to shrink is for under- a sense of historical from such a sense. the entries fmd now visitor to any .nearly 150 But. of the dictionary likely to all a general The purpose art gallery or collection obscure subject matter of the paintings he is there. fact that such a dictionary is necessary indicates that the pictorial which the paintings belong is no longer vital: the meaning of the paintings. European past. on one level at least.by about have they do not merely refer to the works illustrated. .

thinking about my own life. surrounded by gilded frames. From the walls of the long gallery those who never had any reason to doubt their own significance look down in perpetual self-esteem. I see myself as seen. before turning back to the it is portraits I of the 19th-century local is down on the animated figures of him and me. In summer it is cooler than the city streets outside: in winter protected from the wind. I have sat there. and a few gesticulating statues. is a quantitatively insignificant fraction of what was actually produced. too. each alone and sat dignitaries. am seen quite clearly but not in detail for it is forty feet up to the window and the sun is in such a position that it half dazzles the eyes of the seer. of 18th-century landscapes or that of 17th-century religious But perhaps not by exaggerating never seeing it the historical differences as a European art is idealized within its development and by to a degree that matters. There are weeping willows. The courtyard is open to the public. . blind to everything around me. Has anyone ever tried to estimate how many framed oil paintings. is to realize that what is normally counted as art and on the evidence of which art historians and experts generalize about the European tradition. there are in existence? During the last fifty years a large number must have been destroyed. I notice that the gallery window and that he. on a bench listening to the talk of those who come into the courtyard for a few minutes' break . I have watched the children playing. The essay approaches the question: Why? The dictionary begins to answer the question: With What? There remains the question o£ But this is the question upon which the vast majority of art How? historians have already concentrated in their books. Then I turn back to the framed images. And then suddenly I have a vision standing at the next attendant I have tall stiff in his window.mostly old people or women with children. being seen from below.This essay is an attempt to define very roughly the use to which European painting was put since the Renaissance: the overall social and ideological purpose which it served. How many were there in 1900? The figure itself is not important. dating from the 15th century to the 19th. I look down at the courtyard around which the galleries were built. reading a newspaper. I experience a moment of familiar panic. But even to guess at it. The dictionary offers definitions of some of the references which paintings used in pursuit of this purpose. In the centre a fountain plays sluggishly: the water slowly but continuously overbrimming its bowl. benches. I have paced around the courtyard when nobody was there. whole. As I look down on the courtyard. The banality of 19th-century official portraits is of course more complete than that pieces. is gazing below.

The art of any culture will show a wide differential of talent.was produced cynically that is to say its content. Undoubtedly the two facts were somehow linked within a fantastically complicated matrix of spiritualize art other historical developments. a sense of belonging to a these have discouraged us from ever seeing our whole and have led us to imagine that our own experience of looking today at a few works from the past still offers an immediate clue to the function of the vast production of European art. We conclude that it was the destiny of Europe to make art. Hack-work is not the result of clumsiness or else the difference : provincialism: it is the result of the market making more insistent demands than the job.) so sharply and explained their evolution from one to the other with such skill that they encouraged the notion that the European tradition was one of change without end: the more it broke with or remade its own inheritance. Wall painting. but also of morale.' wrote Nietzsche. defmed the various phases o£ the tradition (Renaissance. but that is the essential assumption. The difference is not only a question of skill and imagination.began writing at the moment when the tradition was beginning to disintegrate. Tracing a certain continuity in the past they seemed to guarantee one for the future. 'what to become it still history one day. aesthetic theory has emphasized the disinterestedly spiritual experience to be gained from works of art and largely ignored their massive ideological function. 'We can have no idea. Neo-classic etc. The modern historians of Renaissance and post-Renaissance art Burckhardt. Try pictorial tradition as a now to see the tradition from the far distance. discovery. Perhaps the past needs so many retroactive forces for sort is still its of things are going largely undiscovered. the values it was nominally upholding. The formulation may be more sophisticated.' During the period we are considering. sculpture. Concentration upon the exceptional works of a couple of hundred masters. Just as art history has concentrated upon a number of remarkable works and barely considered the largest part of the tradition. however. These historians. WolfBin. was the primarv art product. were less meaningful for the producer than the finishing of the commission. the oil painting. Perhaps historians always require an end in order to begin. its message. Mannerist. Riegl. an emphasis history without on the end - all spirituality of art. We by calling it art.and increasingly after the i6th century . . which can be roughly marked out as the period between Van Eyck and Ingres. But I doubt whether anywhere between the masterpieces and the average is as large as it is in the European tradition of the last five centuries. the framed easel picture. The average work . Dvorak . the more it was itself. Baroque.

were mechanically explicable and. imitating nature meant tracing on a two-dimensional surface what that eye saw or might see at a given moment. commas round imitative because the word may confuse as much as it explains.from Classical to Mannerist to Baroque and so on . What are usually termed stylistic changes . as separated when it can from the we feel in symbols. its aspects of archi- which to a value system purest expression in the easel picture. The mind was infinitely subtle. Thus. more exactly. To say that the European style imitated nature makes sense only when one accepts a particular view of nature a view which I put inverted : eventually found its most substantial expression in the philosophy of Descartes. unmysterious. Nature was that conical segment of the visible whose apex was the human eye. drew an absolute distinction between mind and matter. demonstrated.' He then goes on to explain that the tangibility. each subsequent phase simply used in a different it manner. according to which everything converged on the eye of the Descartes beholder. a subtler question. And so we must ask figurative art What European style invoke? Or. tapestry.the graphic scenic design and even many were visuaHzed and judged according tecture found arts. European is no art (I use the term to refer only to the period less artificial. too. To what It uses did the easel picture pre-eminently lend itself? permitted a style of painting which was able to 'imitate' nature or reality more closely than any other. Nature was predestined for man's use and was the ideal object of his observation. no less arbitrary. .never affected the basic 'imitative' faculty. The property of mmd was self-consciousness. All traditions of figurative art invoke different experiences to confirm their own principles of figuration. however complicated. And it was precisely this which Renaissance perspective. The property of matter was extension in space. West or In his we aspect of experience does the African. relative to the mind. For the ruling and middle classes the easel picture became visually assimilable pictorial : its microcosm of the whole world that was tradition became the vehicle for all visual a ideals. The workings of nature.) book on the Florentine Painters Berenson wrote: 'It is only can take for granted the existence of the object painted that begin to give us pleasure that interest is genuinely artistic. the same question about Japanese art. No figurative works of art produced within a tradition appear unrealistic to those brought up within the tradition. what kind of experience do its means of representation represent? (Ask. no we are discussing) closer to total reality than the of any other culture or period.

In the 1 8th century the tradition divided into two streams. The expressions. jewels. Each category might well be studied separately within the same general perspective which I have suggested. it does not. a safe. the aristocratic right to buy performances and to direct an unending theatre. their subject matter. which the visible has been deposited? So far I have considered the methods of painting. Painting is it to depicted becomes the metaphorical act of appropriation. Now to consider what the paintings showed. in (Think of the tens of thousands of or bagged. ence for granted. By the i6th century it was no longer assembled or hoarded riches w-hich the painting rendered up to the spectator-owner but. so its refer to the experience all that is of taking extended to render means of representation render all that into the hands of the individual owner-spectator. to . Purely optically this may be the endemic to is prostitution. thanks to the unity that chiaroscuro could give to the most dramatic actions. rich textiles. Nothing could be of the artistic believe we what allows is more pleasure to be derived explicit us to take its exist- about the implications from European That which art. She is painted with extreme sensuous emphasis. The and economic modes of appropriation changed a great deal social during the five centuries. the numerous genre still-life canvases depicting game shot pictures about procuring or accosting.marble floors. however. simple middle-class properties were celebrated. the innumerable uniformed portraits of office. The European means of representation possession. the means of representation. Yet her sexuality is only superficially manifest in her actions or her own traditions this would not be primary. In the majority of European nudes there which a close parallel with the passivity It in Her the owner-spectator's (mine in this case) right to see her naked. in the other. genre pictures of 'low life'. In 15th-century painting the reference was often directly to what was depicted in the painting .the 'tactile value' of the painted object. in a comparable figure within other art so. I am in front of a typical European nude. we we cannot. These scenes were 'ownable' to the degree that the spectator understood that wealth could produce and control action at a distance. There were special categories of subjects: portraits. let into the wall. whole scenes complete with their events and protagonists. golden pillars. landscapes. Why? painting's sexuality is Because for Europe ownership manifest not in what it shows but who is is not a function of her sexuality but of the sexuality of those have access to the picture. Just as perspective gathers its the individual eye. silverware. still lifes. window open on to But is it not as much like like a case. In one.) I want. nakedness is is has been said that the European painting the world. truly exists for us if . can put our hands upon.

Exactly why did AndroIn this respect if in meda find herself chained to the rocks? This specialized knowledge of the privileged minority supplied them with a system of references by which to express subtly and evocatively the values and ideals of the life lived by their class. They supplied a visual etiquette . (For the last vestiges of this tradition the Classics. who is also a worshipper. the donors. are actually painted in standing at the foot of the cross or kneeling around the crib. A fresco presents its subject within a given context . Familiarity with these texts or at least it.paintings of religious or mythological concentrate subjects. What exactly happened to St Ursula? we ask. The subject applies to what is structurally around it and to what is likely to happen around it the spectator.say that of a chapel devoted to a particular saint. .a series of examples showing how significant moments in the life should be envisaged. Yet described in frescoes or sculpture or stained glass as distinct from purely iconographic meaning was very different. A primitive transitional example of this principle working are the crucifixions or nativities in which those who commissioned the painting. becomes a part of that and their function their social. The easel picture context because whole it is is without a precise physical or emotional transportable. Yet how did hundreds of somewhat esoteric subjects apply to the lives of those who owned paintings of them? The sources of the subjects were not real events or rituals but texts. with their personae was the prerogative of the privileged minority. To the majority such paintings would have been readable as representational images but un- readable as language because they were ignorant of what they signified. . Later. context. Instead of presenting whoever owns its subject within a Thus its subject applies to the life of its owner. as evidenced by so many of the entries larger it offers its subject to in this Guide. together they constituted which classified and idealized reality according to the cultural interest of the ruling classes. painting alone offered recorded evidence of what people or events a system looked like or should look like. One needs to remember that before the photograph or the cinema.) sometimes ascribed to the study of Religious and mythological paintings were something more note the moral value still than mere illustrations of their separate subjects. they did not need to be painted in because physical ownership of the painting guaranteed their immanent presence within it. Certain basic Christian subjects occurred in art long before the rise of the easel painting. To a unique degree European art was a visual art deriving from literature. no other most of us today are a little like that majority.10 on the category which was always considered the noblest and the most central to the tradition .

The typical religious or mythological painting from the i6th century to the 19th was extraordinarily vacuous. Empathy occurs at a simpler and more spontaneous level of appreciation. moments heroic action. tender- courageous death. The tradition and its norms are worth is to confuse these exceptions studying. The mistake with the norms of the tradition. In the typical painting the figures are their painted surroundings . The means of representation to a metaphorical appropriation of the material world by its iconography to the appropriation by a small privileged minority of the 'human values' of easel picture lent itself by its : Christianity and the Classic world. for in them we can find . the dignified exercise of power. contrition. into The spectator-owners did not identify themselves with the subjects of the paintings. A look which shows sight questioning what I it see a rather undistinguished sees. they were meant to in action. even of a low order or imagination. they appear detachable from them their faces : are expressionless. Instead. We only fail to see this because we are deceived by the cultural overlay that art history has given these selves only superficially related to pictures. There have been paintings which have transcended the tradition to which they belong . covered over by the them the guise of what they believed to be their own humanity. This cannot be explained clothe the systematic fantasies of their owners. their vast bodies are stereotyped and limp . Hence the great attention paid to the verisimilitude of the texture of the things portrayed. A look of probing amazement. These paintings pertain to a true humanity. and wear. to be empty. The look of the painter has a quality which is not uncommon in self-portraits. They bear witness to their artists' intuitive awareness that life was larger than the available traditional means of representing it and that its dramas were more urgent than conventional iconography could ever allow.some of which are illustrated in this book. primitive works. The subjects did not even confront the spectator-owners as an exterior force. They needed to be empty.limp even by the artist's clumsiness or lack of talent. they were already theirs. the spectator-owners They saw themselves or their imagined subject's idealized appearances. sensuous abandon. anger. They found in identified themselves in the subject. They were like garments held out for the spectator-owners to put their arms ness. These paintings are vacuous because it was their function. Dutch 17th-century self-portrait. are infinitely more expressive. They were not meant to express or inspire. etc. as established by usage and tradition.II Paintings applied to the lives of their spectator-owners because they showed how these lives should ideally appear at their heightened of religious faith.

12

way

evidence such as exists nowhere else of the
classes

that the

saw the world and themselves. (Paintings

illustrated in this book.)

European ruhng

in this category are also

We can discover the typology of the fantasies of
We can see life rearranged to frame

the ruling class in different periods.
their

own

And

image.

occasionally

we

can glimpse even in works that

are not exceptional - usually in landscapes because they relate to ex-

periences of solitude in

which the imagination

is less

confined by social

usage - a tentative vision of another kind of freedom, a freedom other

than the right to appropriate.

one sense every culture appropriates or tries to make the actual and
possible world its own. In a somewhat different sense all men acquire
In

experience for themselves.
practice

which

from

that

What

distinguishes post-Renaissance

of any other culture

is its

European

transformation of everything

acquired into a commodity; consequently, everything becomes

is

exchangeable. Nothing

every value

is

Marx

is

appropriated for

its

own

sake.

transmutable into another - even into

Every object and
opposite. In

its

Columbus writing

in 1503: 'By means
Nothing exists in itself.
This is the essential spiritual violence of European capitalism.
Ideally the easel picture is framed. The frame emphasizes that within its
four edges the picture has established an enclosed, coherent and absolutely
rigorous system of its own. The frame marks the frontier of the realm
of an autonomous order. The demands of composition and of the picture's

Capital

quotes Christopher

of gold one can even get

souls into Paradise.'

illusory but all-pervasive three-dimensional space constitute the rigid laws

of this order. Into

this

order are fitted representations of real figures and

objects. All the imitative skill

of the tradition

is

concentrated

these representations look as tangibly real as possible.
to an abstract

paintings and

and
all

artificial

They

Yet each part submits

order of the whole. (Formalist analyses of

the classic demonstrations of compositional rules prove

the degree of this submission.)
ciphers.

upon making

The

parts look real but in fact they are

system which nevertheless pretends to be open and natural.

tyranny exercised by the easel painting and from
criterion

and closed
Such is the

are ciphers within a comprehensive yet invisible

it

arises the

fundamental

forjudging between the typical and the exceptional within the

European tradition. Does what is depicted insist upon the unique value
of its original being or has it succumbed to the tyranny of the system? The
reader can apply this criterion for himself to the works illustrated.
Today visual images no longer serve as a source of private pleasure and
confirmation for the European ruling classes; rather, they have become
a vehicle for its power over others through the mass media and publicity.
Yet it is false to draw a contrast between these recent commercial developments and the hallowed tradition of European art. Their references may

13

may

be different: they

determining principle
Delacroix was,

I

is

the same - a

think, the

tradition

of the

tradition

and opposed

from within.

serve a different immediate purpose: but their

man

is

what he

possesses.

painter to suspect

first

some of what

the

easel picture entailed. Later other artists questioned the

more violently. Cezanne quietly destroyed it
Significantly, the two most sustained and radical attempts to
it

create an alternative tradition occurred in Russia

and Mexico, countries
imposed on their own

where the European model had been arbitrarily
indigenous art traditions. To most young artists today it is axiomatic that
the period of the easel picture is finished. In their works they try to
establish new categories in terms of media, form, and response. Yet the
tradition dies hard and still exerts an enormous influence on our view of
the past, our ideas about the role of the visual artist and our definition of
civilization.

Why has

it

taken so long to die?

Because the so-called Fine Arts, although they have found

and new means, have found no new

new materials

social function to take the place

of the

beyond the power of artists alone to create
a new social function for their art. Such a new function will only be born
of revolutionary social change. Then it may become possible for artists to
work truly concretely and constructively with reality itself, to work with
what men are really like rather than with a visual etiquette serving the
easel picture's

interests

outdated one.

It is

of a privileged minority; then

contact with

what European

art has

it

may

be that

art will re-establish

always dismissed - with that which

cannot be appropriated.

John Berger

Achilles and the daughters of Lycotnedes (detail).

Diana and Actaeon. Paolo Veronese,

c.

David Teniers

1528-1588

the Younger,

i6io-i6go

15

A
Abraham,

see Isaac.

Achilles Son of the mortal Peleus and the
Greek sea goddess Thetis {q.v.). According to
one version, Thetis sought to bestow immortality on her child by immersing him in the
waters of the Styx. His body was then invulnerable, except for the 'Achilles heel'

by which

he had been held. Thetis was told Achilles
would die at Troy. To avoid this fate she tried
to keep him out of the Greek army by dressing
him as a girl and hiding him among the
daughters of King Lycomedes on the island of
Skyros. The Greeks sent the cunning Ulysses
to find Achilles.

He

trapped Achilles by in-

among gifts for the girls a sword and
armour which the transvestite hero seized
when the alarm was sounded. Achilles is the
hero of the Iliad, which is largely about his
prowess, his tantrums, and his anger at the
killing of his friend Patroclus by Hector (q.i^.),

cluding

Thetis dips Achilles in the Styx. Peter Paul

Rubens, 1577-1640

the Trojan champion. He in turn kills Hector,
and - after the end of the Iliad - was himself
killed

by

Paris (q.v.),

who wounded him in his

vulnerable heel.

Acta eon A Greek huntsman who accidentally came upon Diana (q.v.) and her maidens
bathing in a forest pool. He was too fascinated
of looking, the angry
goddess of the hunt turned Actaeon into a
stag. His own dogs immediately set upon him
to pass on. For the crime

>^
'**

and tore him to pieces. This is thought to be
one of the many myths relating to the incest
mechanism - punishment for an even accidental look at something forbidden. It is one of
those subjects offering a theme central to the
idea of painting itself: there is a kind of collusion between the spectator of the painting, the
voyeur within it, and the painter himself, all
three

naked.

concentrating

on the

figure

caught

Achilles kilLs Hectot. Peter Paul Rubens,

1577-1640

ADAM AND

i6

The Creation of Adam. Michelangelo Buonarroti,
1475-1564

EVE

Adam and

Eve
Creation of Adam The source in Western
art for the creation of man is Genesis i and ii.
According to Genesis ii, 7 the Lord God formed
Adam from dust and breathed hfe into his
nostrils.

in

This

is

not the act generally depicted
paintings. The best known of

most creation

these paintings
ceiling

an

is

Michelangelo's on the Sistine

which shows life being transmitted like

electric

Adam lived

spark through the finger
930 years (Genesis v, 5).

tips.

Creation of Eve After Adam's vast
taxonomy - the giving of names to
all living creatures - Genesis records (ii, 20-24)
Adam's need for a 'help meet'. The Lord God
put Adam into a deep sleep, removed one of
his ribs and converted it into the first woman.
It was not until after the temptation and the
eating of the forbidden fruit that Adam called
exercise in

the

woman

Eve.

Temptation and Fail Genesis

how

the

iii

relates

Garden of Eden's talking serpent -

frequently represented in art as having the top

half of a

woman

- tempted Eve to

eat the

forbidden fruit which offered the divine power
of knowing good and evil. Eve persuaded

Adam to eat some of this forbidden fruit. The
primal pair immediately became aware of each
other's nakedness. Theologians considered the
events in Eden for a long time. St Augustine
(^.t^.) fmally developed the concept of Original
Sin - later reconfirmed

The Creation of Eve. Fra Bartolommeo,
1474-1517

c.

Adam's

sin

by Calvin - whereby

was transmitted

to all his descen-

dants through the act of propagation.

He

I

with talking snake. The theme was frequently used .as by Masaccio . The inter- The Expulsion from I40i-i428(?) Paradise. end all his the complications inherent in that relation- ship. but outside Eden from which he is expelled for ever. Henceforth mankind will reproduce sexually. Expulsion from the Garden Genesis iii goes on to record the Lord God's discovery of Adam and Eve's disobedience. thereby set in motion an anxiety mechanism which still dominates European morahty.to represent tality the tragic aspect of the human condition. whole story of the expulsion has been preted as a symbol of birth itself. Masaccio.ADAM AND EVE and 1467-1482 Tfie Temptation active 17 Fall. The man blames the woman. Hu^^o :iH / der Goes. . woman blames the Lord God brings to an the and the experiment in immortality. Man will make his living by the sweat of his brow. Cherubim guardians and a whirling fiery sword at the entrance of Eden prevent man from ever returning to immor- and the easy life.

'. see Adoration of the Magi. let us go even unto and they came with haste and Bethlehem found Mary. Detail from the 'Hours of the Duchess of Burgundy' c. and myrrh. and kah. and Joseph and the babe in a manger. Melchior and Balthazar. 1 he txpubion. . .the sacred priestly of the Persians . Eve. with the Labours oj Adam. Adoration of the IVIagi Matthew ii relates how the wise men or magi . 23 completes the story of his and ground from whence he was taken'. Homage of earthly kings to Christ the Heavenly King established the divine source of its own authority. local inn. and Dionysia). whose iii. and with Saturnalia. The simply told Epiphany story which makes no mention of the number of wise men. fate as a result expulsion from Eden was Adonis. Painters frequently included in the ox and an ass. Adoration of the Kings. frankincense. the shepherds said one to another. . . The story had an obvious attraction for the Church.' The Holy Family lodged there because there was no room for them in the described in . with ancient festivals of the birthday of the sun. 1450 .ADONIS -ADORATION i8 Toiling Genesis of Adam.followed a star to Bethlehem and found Mary and the child Christ whom they worshipped and presented with gifts of gold. Cain and Abel. major patron of artists. the 1 2th kings Adoration of the Shepherds The scene is Luke ii. The Gospels give no it was not until the 4th century that the feast was celebrated on 25 December (a date which corresponds roughly with Hanuscene an date. 15 and 16. . By caste the yth-century there are three wise the men (from number of gifts?) and they now have names of Caspar. underwent a glamorous transformation. the By century they have been promoted to and their royal remains buried in Cologne. fall 'to till the see Venus. The scene of Adam and Eve toiling is very common in Gothic illuminated manuscripts of the late feudal period and is visual evidence of man's inferiority and submission before divine authority whose representative on earth was the Church.

Adoration of the Shepherds. I4g4-i5j3 1431-1506 . c.Adoration of the Magi (detail). Andrea Mantegna. Lucas van Leyden. c.

His reply. c. and a visit to Hell to see his now dead Aeneid. carrying his aged father on his back and leading his little son. father. 48 5-1 54 j in Latium. He then dismisses the woman with the admonition to 'sin no more'. asking him if according to Mosaic Law she should not be stoned. Aeneas Aeneas. Queen of Carthage. He wandered for many years in the eastern and central Mediterranean.^#»'" * jdHfe Wma fftA ^' \\ Christ and the woman taken in adultery. .AENEAS 20 #MEi- . hero of Virgil's epic The was an ally of the Trojans whom he supported with great valour during their ten-year war with the Greeks. Lucas Cranach the Elder. He was followed by some surviving Trojans and they took with them the city's Penates. The epic is Virgil's conscious glorification of Rome and his master Augustus. which ended in her death from unrequited love.ADULTERY. Among his adventures was an encounter with Dido. 1472-1553 ^W /tf^^/K^' Adultery. Aeneas carved out a kingdom the ancestor of the The Martyrdom of St Agatha Sebastiano del Piombo. Woman ' t^M ^^5L^ taken in describes the trap set for Christ and Pharisees who John viii. and became himself for finally arrived Romans. 3-7 by the scribes brought before him a woman caught in the very act of adultery. 'he that is without sin among you let him first cast a stone at her' sent them off in shamed disarray. 1 (detail). On the fall of Troy he fled.

Agnus in Latin invoked for chastity.AGATHA . Quintianus. 1388-1632 After resisting from a sword lamb. Indeed. Thirty days with priately named Aphrodisia who ran a family business with her nine prostitute daughters only confirmed Agatha in the advantages of a sinless life. she was led through the streets naked to a brothel. south-east Sicily. Then according to Caxton's translation of the Golden Legend 'Quintianus did her to be tormented in her breasts and paps.AGNES 21 Agatha. The in Italy (detail). she ^J^^^^^^^^^Be ^^^^E ' ^1^% i attracted the lecherous governor. St This was saint a ^^^^^^^^^H r ^B^ brought him back to life. Agnes. he gave her madame into the charge of a brothel approAphrodisia. When she resisted his advances. 1600-1682 . An early Christian. jose de Ribera. The Landing of Aeneas a is lamb. St Agnes. her intended husband tried to ravish her in the brothel but was stricken dead.' They were miraculously healed but she died. and commanded that her breasts and mammels should be drawn and cut off. Her hair grew miraculously long and covered her. Refusing to thrust. She is invoked against natural disasters. ^* Roman in the hard times of marry the son of the Roman prefect. Her prayers £^l^^^M "^^^^^L ^m "^H i young victim of Diocletian. St This saint came from a prosperous family in mid-3 rd-century Catania. a pun on her incineration she finally died Her attribute is name. An angel proa Christian-hating M0 is Claude Lorraine. Her attributes are pincers and her breasts on a dish. saint ^^^^^^IL r tected her virginity in the brothel.

if thou be willing re- move this my cup from me: nevertheless not will but thine. El Greco.AGONY 22 Agony the Garden The fourth in known act in The Agony in the Garden and is described in several of the Gospels. Father.v. . a man of sorrow and acquamted with grief. and his sweat was as it were great drops of blood falling down to the ground. 1541-1614 The Agony in c. '. the cup The Agony in the Garden (detail).v.) and takes place on the Mount of Olives in a garden called Gethsemane where Christ was wont to rest and meditate. is frequently used as a symbol of the Agony. Following the version in Matthew xxvi.) and the Betrayal by Judas (q. . 37. be done. strengthening being in an agony he prayed most earnestly. . 3. the phrase from Isaiah liii. And In painting. Luke xxii. 1431-1506 the Garden.' angel unto him. Peter and the brothers John and James are often shown asleep in the foreground. It occurs between the Last Supper (q. And there appeared an him from heaven. Andrea Mantegna. The face of the suffering Christ inspired paintings with the title Man of Sorrows. 42-44 describes the scene in which his disciples sleep while he Christ's passion is generally as prays 'saying.

In Greek mythology their queens fared badly. With a small well-disciplined army of Macedonians and Greeks he set out on a series of conquests. A Amazons legendary race of women . e. Peter Paul .v.g. Making occasional use of men in neighbouring cities to perpetuate their race.all warrior-hunters . 1477-1549 (detail). With one sword-blow he severed the Knot which according to legend gave mastery of Asia. Battle of the Amazons Rubens.who lived in Asia Minor near the Black Sea.ALEXANDER-AMAZONS 23 Alexander Alexander the Great (3 56-323 bc) as he is usually known. The most important result of his activities was the spread of Hellenic culture. As a personality he comes down to the Middle Ages and Renaissance as a godlike conqueror of distant lands and in art often appears in contemporary knightly garb. they otherwise lived in exclusively feminine settlements.v. In the few years after his defeat The wedding of Alexander and Roxana Sodoma. 1377-1640 (detail).) at the battle of Issus (q. of Darius (q. In the Middle Ages numerous legends gathered round him. They are said to have removed their right breasts to make better use of the bow. the first Buddha images owe much to statues of Apollo. of which the most frequently illustrated carried by is his flight to Heaven griffins. His bold solution of complicated problems is illustrated by his way with the unravellable Gordian Knot. but are not shown thus in art. was King of Macedonia. He died of malaria in Babylon at the age of thirty-three.) he was master of the Middle East between the Nile and the Indus.

i3gg-i64i responsible for the conversion of St Augustine {q.) Antiope - seduced by Jupiter disguised as a satyr . Such was Ambrose's authority that he successfully defied and corrected the Emperor Theodosius I who had permitted Catholics to be massacred at Salonica. He was St Ambrose dissuading Maximus. At that time Milan was rent by religious feuds connected with Arianism. St One of the Church Fathers. Ambrose's administration of Milan was so popular that he was acclaimed bishop of that city. Theseus abducted no relation of the Antiope (q. To the Renais- Amazons were an he was ideal sexuality. i6ig-i6go Hercules slew Hippolyta in his labour of seizing her girdle. sance imagination the image of aggressive feminine Ambrose. the ally of Troy. Anthony van Dyck. He brought peace to Milan and although not trained in Church matters he became one of the great ecclesiastical scholars and teachers. School of Charles Lebrun.).AMBROSE 24 Battle of the Amazons. After being educated in Rome.and Achilles killed Penthesilea.v. governing two provinces from Milan.v. greatest of the early bom about ad 340 at one of the main cities of the Roman province of Gallia of which his Christian Trier. father was prefect. he in turn became a high official of the Empire. .

) the god of the sea originally wanted to marry Thetis (q. and He is is the invoked Crucifixion of St Andrew. Neptune then sought out the unenthusiastic To avoid his attentions. or sea goddess. Neptune {q. Amphitrite. cross. Amphitrite Amphitrite was a Nereid. Andrew. the so-called St patron against ire of the Roman governor. Jose de Ribera. to north-west Africa horses. St One of the fishermen Apostles.v. she fled but was retrieved by one of Neptune's dolphins who was rewarded by becoming a constellation. 1594-1665 Ambrose was instrumental in stamping out the Arian heresy. by being tied to an His attributes are a book and crucified Andrew's saint of Scotland. She married Neptune and had to accustom herself to a philandering husband with a penchant for strange love affairs with creatures such as harpies.v.AMOR . brother of Peter. Nicolas Poussin. gout and stifl^neck.ANDREW 25 Triumph of Neptune and Amphitrite. Amor.) but rejected her after learning of the prophecy that her son would be greater than his father. see Cupid. The success of his mission in Greece aroused the who had him X-shaped cross. and nymphs. 1588-1652 .

1 $9^-1 61)2 Anne. see Perseus. 1577-1640 Andromache. Angelica One of the heroines of Ariosto's great Renaissance main theme poem Orlando Furioso.ANDROMACHE-ANNE 26 Sleeping Angelica and the Hermit. Andromeda. Her adventures . holding the .) and wife of Joachim. sitting on her lap. The Christian champion Orlando (Roland) brings Angelica. Orlando becomes msid [furioso). to Charlemagne's Court where she stirs up dissension in this epic collection among his knights.v. She appears frequently in paintings.included capture by pirates and an attempted desert seduction by an old hermit. St Anne teaching the Virgin (detail). She also appears with the Virgin Mary Christ Child. Georges de la Tour. see Hector. St Mother of the Virgin Mary (q. The of myths is the struggle between the Saracens and Christians. Queen of Cathay. When she marries the Saracen champion Medoro. teaching the Virgin Mother to read and embroider. Peter Paul Rubens.not always glamorous .

26 fF. (detail). Francesco 1435-1477 c. the messenger of God . Giovanni The Annunciation. Antiope Daughter of a Theban named Nycteus (or of the river god Asopus). In Sienese paintings of the Annunciation Gabriel some- times bears an olive branch. Paolo. To make sometimes shown sliding doMOi behind the dove. Studio ofJan active 1422-1441 van Eyck. Antaeus. Later. The dove descending towards Mary. Siena's rival.ANNUNCIATION -ANTIOPE 27 Annunciation Most paintings of the Annunbased on the story in Luke i. in which the Archangel Gabriel. Mary becomes the dominant figure and the Virgin Gabriel generally bears a white lily. or hovering over a symbol of the Holy Ghost entering it more explicit a small baby is her. symbol of purity and the flower of the Virgin.in early paintings he is the main figure and bears a sceptre like Mercury . . the lily being the flower of Florence. di del Cossa. is her.tells ciation are Mary that she will bear Jesus. see Hercules. She The Annunciation 1403-1482 The A)ii}iiHiiation. she was seduced by Jupiter disguised as a satyr.

The theme of the temptation of St Antony inspired a surprising number of the most powerful and sustained works by northern painters between the 15th and i6th centuries. St Antony becomes for them the embodiment of the also at the Antiope's Dream. or St Antony's fire. Antonio Correggio. by bringing them a daily loaf of bread. and venereal diseases. a crutch. and He suddenly gave all he had to the poor retired to the desert as a hermit. St (Abbot) Antony. and all of which seem to have become attached to him because he was the patron of an order of Hospitallers in France who looked after the sick and had the privilege of allowing St a pig. . His successful resistance to temptations carefully worked out by devils was exemplary.ANTONY 28 bore him two for classical sons. among them Bosch and Griinewald. lived the fashionable life. the seduc- woman by a half-beast. A raven fed Antony and his associate hermit friend. Hieronymus Bosch. St The c. It seems that their interest m the subject went far beyond its original or illustrative meaning. Antony saint showing a Black Mass). was invoked against erysipelas. (detail is same time patron of swineherds. their pigs to forage in the streets. a rich young 4th-century Egyptian. 1494-1534 The Temptation of St Antony 1450-1516 c. The Renaissance respect mythology enabled portiray a particularly erotic tion of a sleeping painters to theme. Antony's attributes are a bell. Antony. Paul.

death. 1427I30-1515I16 . the plague. Such an interpretation of the subject must have been partly formed by the historical development leading to the Reformation. Joachim desperately whom against individual isolated all Patinir. attracted to Assisi St Francis {({. the evil and suffering of a world breaks in order to make meaning of his own existence.his principal actors with grave decorum and punctilio the offices of a Black Mass. He died in Padua at the age of thirty-six. For Griinewald the threat takes the form of disease.v). early 16th century conscience. For transitional him doubt the Bosch. St Antony is threatened by the male- volent force of evil rituals. Vincenzo Foppa.ANTONY 29 The Temptation of St Antony. whose 13th-century by the work of friend he became. accompanied by a kneeling ass. Painters sometimes represent him carrying the Christ Child. This St Antony of Padua (detail). his St It is significant in this respect that Antony was hospital in Alsace specially painted for a which cared for the venereally infected. Antony of Padua. St A Portuguese. and genetic malare monsters carrying out formation.

Resisting his attentions she was pursued. It was not before the Middle Ages that she is thought of as having had her tians. c. St Martyred during the 3rdcentury persecutions of the Alexandrian Chris- were broken by violent blows. i6()6-ijjo commemorates the story of the Albigensian heretic who was dramatically convinced of the miracle of the Eucharist. Almost at the point of rape her prayer to the earth goddess was answered. Apollonia. down carrying the invoked to secure the return of lost property. Giovanni Battista Tiepolo. 1416-1492 In early accounts her jaws . St Apollonia. His ass knelt when St Host. She turned into a laurel tree in Apollo's arms. see Venus. The beautiful daughter of the river god Peneius caught the roving eye of Apollo. Apollo and Daphne Of the many versions of the story.APOLLO NI 30 Apollo and Daphne. Piero della Francesca.APHRODITE . The Antony passed saint is by. the one favoured by painters concerns Daphne as an object of Apollo's lust. The laurel was Apollo's sacred plant. Aphrodite.

and to cast out devils'.identical in Mark and Matthew but varying somewhat in Luke and the Acts . (detail). and that ing to . 1471-1528 Mark . Thomas.are Simon called Peter.APOSTLES 31 Her attributes are pincers and She is understandably patroness of and is invoked against toothache. . to Four Apostles : John Peter. the Apostles are most frequently represented as a group. Albrecht Durer. Jesus * twelve. . the others were Galileans. on the strength of his vision of Christ on the road Damascus. a tooth. he might send them forth to preach. his brother : Andrew. that they should be with him. Matthew. each holding his emblem. and with a scroll giving a sentence from the 'Apostles' Creed'. Philip. Except for Judas Iscariot who closeness to Christ's came from southern Judea. and to have power to heal sicknesses. Their number had symbolic significance in Jewish history and culture. ordained 14 and 15. Simon and Judas (replaced by Matthias after betraying Christ). James and John the sons of Zebedee. Their names . teeth pulled out. dentists Apostles The Apostles (the Greek word means messenger) were twelve of Apostolos many disciples chosen for their special him. Paul and . In painting. Accord- Mark iii. Paul is also counted as an Apostle. James the son of Alphaeus. Bartholomew. Thaddeus.

1 he Competition between Arachne and Pallas Athene 'Et in Arcadia Ego' (detail). (The 1594-1663 Spinners). i5g9-i66o . Nicolas Poussin. Velazquez.

he The Ascension. Thereupon Arachne a great tapestry illustrating the dis- of the gods. The famous wedding portrait by Jan van Eyck is full of the symbols which works of that kind displayed. famous for weaving and needlework. A backward rural part of the Peloponnesus which in Virgil became an archetype of ideal country life and in Renaissance and Arcadia thought a setting for an and happy free life. shoes for domesticity.g. on earth. candle in day- etc. In his famous painting Et in Arcadia Ego. while he blessed them. Luke xxiv. The thread produced scientific name for the spider family Arachnida comes from Arachne. . 37. ^tc Jason. Arachne.she turned ultimate resort Arachne into a spider to weave for ever the by her own body. . Ariadne. Armida. good little dog for the hand being offered and held for faith. the graceful figures examining the phrase on the tomb inscribed plating the are quietly of inevitability contem- their own mortality. Disguised as an old woman the goddess tried unsuccessfully to dissuade Arachne from her wove orderly love no folly. the fidelity. challenged Minerva the goddess of industry and household arts.the of the gods . the end of Christ's physical presence 51 tells how ' . Ascension There are two sources in the New Testament for the Ascension. the single lighted time for the presence of God. Arnolfini Giovanni Amolfmi was a 15thcentury silk merchant and banker from Lucca who had settled in Bruges. Artemis. In a philosophical post-Renaissance entirely more painter such as Poussin a serious idea emerges. Rembrandt van Ryn. The young Lydian. Minerva found life fault in the work but using her power . Argonauts. i6o6-i66g . see Rinaldo. See p. sec Bacchus. see Diana. e.the folly of competition with the gods.ARACHNE-ASCENSION 33 Arachne The story of Arachne is a perfect example of hubris . summed up in the notion of the Golden Age.

Atlas. Acts ' . baby by a disgruntled Arcadian father who wanted a son. various punishments were meted out to them. 9 relates more specifically that while they beheld. Atalanta Exposed Athena. . While doing this he somehow managed to keep an excellent orchard whose fmest tree produced golden apples. one of the Titan leaders. Melanion beat her by a trick. Atlas When the Titans were defeated by the gods under the leadership of Jupiter. was sent to what is now north-west Africa where his punishment was to support the heavens on his shoulders for ever. Assumption. Atalanta was suckled by a bear. was parted from them. He borrowed three golden apples from Venus and dropped them in front of Atalanta as they raced. Peter Paul Rubens. survived and grew up as a huntress. he was taken up and a cloud received him out of their sight'. and carried up into i.ASSUMPTION -ATLAS 34 Atalanta and Melanion. 1577-1640 as a see Minerva. Atlas. Notwith- . 1575-1642 heaven'. She dispatched suitors who failed to outrun her. They profaned a grove sacred to Jupiter and were turned into lions. Their subsequent marriage ended poorly. . Guido Reni. . She stopped to pick them up and was beaten. She could out-wrestle and out-race any man. see Virgin Mary.

who showed him the Gorgon's head and turned him into the stone which we know as the Atlas Mountains of North Africa. He is sometimes shown with a small boy at his feet whom he had once seen trying to empty the sea into a hole in the sand. when told by Augustine that were in vain. and spurred her into unhappy love affairs with a series of mortals.). and later turned into a grasshopper. Memnon. See p.v. Venus was jealous of her youth and beauty. The tears she shed for Memnon each morning were the origin of dew. St One of the four great Church was bom in North Africa in ad 354.) at Troy. Tithonus.and a book. He was a good scholar but led a riotous -life and had an illegitimate son called Deodatus. and then had to trick him into taking it back. great systematizers of Christian theo- He tells the story of his spiritual develop- ment in Ids still readable Confessions^ the St Augustine. Their son. Aurora obtained immortality but not youth. O Lord. St Augustine and the child (detail). 'Make me continent and chaste. c. Another unhappy lover was Cephalus. Fathers He finally but slowly accepted Christianity under the influence of his mother and St Ambrose of Milan. his efforts Aurora One of the daughters of the Titans was Aurora (or Eos) the goddess of the dawn. 41.AUGUSTINE-AURORA 35 standing the inconvenience of his burden he also managed to father a number of daughters.) was to bring back some of the Golden Apples of the Hesperides. 40. As he aged she had him first shut up.whole. Hercules relieved him of his burden. According to Ovid's Metamorphoses Atlas later refused hospitality to Perseus {q. broken.).t^. c. who was temporarily abducted from his wife Procris {q. For her favourite. During this period he wrote his immortal phrase. See p.v. was killed by Achilles (^.v. the best-known being the Hesperides who tended his orchard. or transfixed . Fra Filippo Lippi. Sandra Botticelli. 1406-1469 1445-1310 . Augustine. One of the labours of Hercules {q. beginning of confessional autobiography.' He was one of the first logy. he replied that his task was no harder than Augustine's attempts to expound the Trinity. To enable Atlas to pluck some apples. His attributes are a heart . but not yet.

.the Hebrews . Tower of The origin of the Tower of Babel was the ziggurat or seven-stepped pyramid temple of Marduk built near ancient Babylon. go to.' From this confusion of tongues comes the word 'babel'.36 B Babel. ' . let us build us a city and a tower. . . whose The Lord top may reach unto heaven. . The Tower of Babel. and of one speech and they said. . 1542-1604 . then confounded their language 'that they may not understand one another's speech. . * . Genesis xi the whole world was of one related that language.were warned of the folly of competition with God. Marten van Valckerborch. It was three hundred feet high and occupied an area of about two thousand square yards. The story of the Tower of Babel is yet another hubristic myth in which an ancient people . . So the Lord scattered them abroad.

.fc-* his wife. / **4j< i Giovanni Arnolfini and 'p/s. active 1422-1441 . -: /•.* i^^^.'~^. Jan van Eyck.

they degenerated into drunken revelries and mass festivals They were banned by the The respectability bestowed on classic antiquity by Renaissance debaucheries. The cult of Bacchus {q. as scenes of erotic and liberating abandonment. crowded with naked Bacchantes {q. 1577-1640 Bacchanalia Festivals held in honour of Bacchus (Dionysius) imported into Roman civilization from the Greek cities in southern Italy. sacred nature.) appears to have started in Thrace.v. Their uncontrollable . Originally wine of a mystical. Bacchantes The raving women (Maenads) who with Satyrs (q.v.BACCHANALIA-BACCHANTES 38 Bacchanal.v-). Rubens and Poussin to depict Bacchanalia.) formed part of the train of persons accompanying Bacchus on his drunken processions. scholars permitted painters such as Titian. Peter Paul Rubens. Roman Senate in 186 bc.

See p. was bom from where he had been transplanted as a foetus removed from his mother Semele when the jealous Juno caused her destruction. and even their own children. He was the classic god of the grape vine.i^. 14871^0-1576 . It became a constellation.). to ecstatic frenzies tearing pieces. Titian.BACCHUS 39 were frequently appeased by men.v. 40. after she Bacchus and Ariadne. daughter of King Minos of Crete.) the handsome young man visited many countries Bacchus Bacchus (Dionysius) the thigh of his father Jupiter and introduced viticulture. had been abandoned in Naxos by Theseus (^.v. Travelling on a chariot drawn by panthers and accompanied by his Bacchantes (q.) and his Satyrs (q. He married Ariadne. c. On her death Bacchus threw into the heavens the crown he had given her.

1573-1610 . Caravaggio.Young Bacchus.

c.y**gr''"*?T'>>^ ty Sr Augustine in his study.— m ^^i:l(»c\^. 3 F^ F- mmmfm J W- % I'lllHBBWSBW^''*^" i2Sf \ifilti0*ii/*^ . Sandro Botticelli. 1443-1310 .

v).although a form of purifying by immersion was practised in the Eleusian mysteries and in many Near Eastern cults .from the Greek haptizOy I immerse. He was obsessed with torturing her and in Caxton's words commanded *the hangman that he should cut off with his sword her paps'. What distinguished this baptism from normal Jewish baptism was the introduction of the idea of repentance for sins and preparation for the Last Judgment {({.it was a cleansing rite of initiation in which pagans converted to Judaism had their uncleanness washed away.v.) Jewish in origin . The saint's attributes are a three-windowed tower (for the Father. (q. St A saint who because of her great beauty was kept in a tower by her father. a sword. active 1422-1441 fire. 10). Son. 44. Barbara. . 1394-1665 Baptism The first of the Seven Sacraments . and a chalice.BAPTISM-BARBARA 42 The Baptism of Christ. Nicolas Poussin. See p. During a great religious revival in the Jordan valley John the Baptist baptized Christ in the waters ofJordan and the spirit of God descended on him like a dove (Mark i. Jan van Eyck. The increasingly enraged father reserved for himself the coup de grace and killed her with a sword thrust. and Holy Ghost). He was immediately afterwards consumed by St Barbara (detail).

BARTHOLOMEW-BATHSHEBA

43

Bartholomew, St One of the Apostles about
Uttle is known. He evangeHzed in the

whom

Near East and was martyred

in

Armenia by

being flayed aHve. His attributes are a flaying
knife and a book. He sometimes carries a

human

He

skin.

is

the patron of

many

occu-

and the leather
and is invoked against nervous diseases.

pations, including butchers
trades,

Bathsheba The story of David's adultery
with the beautiful Bathsheba, wife of one of
his officers, Uriah the Hittite, is told in 2
David arose from his bed and
Samuel xi
saw a woman
walked upon the roof.
herself,
and
woman
was very
washing
the
and David sent
beautiful to look upon
messengers and took her.' David disembarrassed himself of Uriah by arranging his death
in battle. He married the pregnant Bathsheba
but they were punished. The prophet Nathan
rebuked David and correctly foretold the
death of the child which was the product of his
sinful union with Bathsheba. After David's
repentance they had a second son, Solomon,
who succeeded him. See p. 45.
'

:

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Bathsheba. Peter Paul Rubens, 1577-1640

(Below) St Bartholomew with donor, St Agnes
and St Cecilia. Master of S. Bartholomew, c. 1500

The Baptism of Christ. Giovanni

Bellini, c.

14JO-1516

Bathsheha. Rembrandt van

Ryn, i6o6-i66g

BAVON- BENEDICT

46

jl

J^

m
1

IB

^^
'\~l
If

St Bauon. Hieronymus Bosch,
c.

1450-1516

'Beata Beatrix' (Beatrice).

Dante Gabriel

Rossetti,

1828-1882

Bavon, St Except for being the patron of
that now rare sport of falconry, Httle is known
of this yth-century local saint, particularly
venerated in Ghent, Haarlem, and Liege. In
those cities there are churches called after him.

Bearing of the Cross,

in love with Beatrice
was but a nine-year-old
the story of his passion for the

Beatrice Dante
Portinari
child.

young

He

when
tells

see Calvary.

fell

she

Florentine girl in the

Although he only saw her

a

Vita

Nuova.

few times before

she died in her twenty-fourth year, he

immor-

talized her as his guide through Paradise in the

Divina Commedia.

Belshazzar's Feast,

Benedict,
St Benedict, detail from an 11th-century
manuscript

see

Daniel

St St Benedict of Norcia

in

Umbria (ad 480-543) left his wealthy family
to become a hermit. He founded at Monte
Cassino the headquarters of the order which

BERNARD
bears his

47

name and whose rules set the standard
Europe for centuries. The

for monastic Ufe in

combination of ascetic exercises and prayer
with physical labour which made the monasteries

also

self-sufticient

had

a

particularly

of great chaos
invasions
of the so-called
about
by
the
brought
barbarians. His attributes are a broken sieve,
a raven and a book. He is the patron of coppersmiths and is invoked against witchcraft.
stabilizing value in a period

Bernard, St This son of an

aristocratic

entered the Cistercian order in

ad

house

1113, and

age of twenty-five founded the austere
monastery of Clairvaux. He became one of the
most powerful spiritual leaders of Europe. At
Vezelay his preaching was the formal start of
the disastrous Second Crusade which killed
more Jews in Europe than Moslems in the

at the

Holy Land. He appears

in painting wearing a
white Cistercian habit, adoring the Virgin.

The Vision of St Bernard (detail).
Fra Filippo Lippi, c. 1406-1469

Surrender oj Breda (detail/. Velazquez. i3gg-i66o .

changed hands frequently during the sixty years' war between the Spaniards and fortress »=^. Educated bom This great Franciscan in 1221 near Viterbo.he refused the Archbishopric of York . One of the great moral forces of his times. St {Abbot). ^^^^^^^^^ 1 m^l 1 St Bonaventura (detail). outbreak.given special prominence in his preaching campaigns. His commonest attributes are three mitres.. representing the three bishoprics he is said to have refused.| their rebellious subjects. an important town on the Meuse in southern Brabant. the victim. whose order of Friars he subsequently headed. plague he preacher. The monogram IHS (q. ) St Bernardino preaching (detail). Sana K di Pietro. is Black Mass.) for the Sacred Name of Jesus was . The Papal envoys who brought it were asked to hang it on a tree while Bonaventura fmished washing dishes in a convent near Florence. the largely Protestant Dutch.v. like so many 13th-century scholars at the University of Paris. St schoolman was Italy. Francisco de Zurbardn. On siege the 5 June 1625 after a town was surrendered by by ten-month the Dutch Genoese general Spinola.000 people. The saintly man consistently rejected honours . said great to sec Antony.contrasts with what we know was the ferocity of the Spanish attempt to hold their possessions in the Low Countries.v. I3g8-i664 . Surrender of Breda.).but fmally accepted a Cardinal's hat. He died in Lyon in 1274 at the Fourteenth Oecumenical Council. he feared no temporal authority. St 1444). The chivalrous tone of the scene in Velazquez's great military painting to the Spaniards led in which there is their hired an imaginary portrait of Spinola . it is claimed.BERNARDINO-BREDA Bernardino. of poison. he wrote the official life of St Francis (q. 1406-1481 r ^O^B^^^^ ^^B^^^W^B Breda. Bonaventura. A 49 noble of Siena (ad 1380- As a young man he became a Franciscan and bravely ran the local hospital during a A and popular have preached to audiences of up to 30.

Before the unfortunate Callisto realized she had been duped. For this seduction Callisto Jupiter Jupiter disguised himself as Diana. When the real Diana discovered her plight illustrated 1703-1770 Diana and Callisto. c. Jupiter saved her by lifting her up into the heavens where she and their son became the constellation known as the Great and Little Bear. one of the virgin companions of Diana (q.c Another sacrifice to the lust of was Callisto. Titian.v. Francois Boucher.). she turned Callisto into and let loose her dogs. a bear Jupiter and Callisto. i487lgo-i576 (a scene Titian). she was already pregnant. by .

and are as to be crucified. See p. 3 of cross. : the Deposition. Falls under weight 2 He receives the cross.fl. Christ on the road c. 5 Simon of Cyrene helps Jesus to carry the as the Stations follows: cross. I condemned Jesus 6 Veronica for Jesus to wipe speaks 8 Jesus {q. 12 13 The Calvary laying in the sepulchre. II The cross. nailing to the cross. Titian. During the late Middle Ages a convention grew some fourteen clearly defmed events took place on the Road to Calvary. is Death on the The deposition from the cross. The other three Evangelists report that Christ was helped by a Jew named Simon who came from Cyrene in North Africa. 7 Jesus falls again. to the 9 Jesus falls once more. 4 Meets his sorrowing mother.where he was crucified. xix. 1487I90-1576 1^17-1327 to Calvary. 10 Jesus stripped. 17 describes on the road to Calvary. The road to Calvary became a subject Christ carrying the cross of great interest to painters in the Renaissance. or Golgotha the place of a skull . . These are up that known of the Cross.CALVARY 51 Road to John Calvary. 14 her handkerchief Jerusalem women.u. Ugolino di Nerio. 65.) offers his face.

St Casilda 1398-1664 ( detail j. she sympathized secretly with her father's Christian captives.CANA-CASILDA 52 The Marriage at Carta (detail). bad luck. many painters saw the subject as an opportunity for depicting a sumptuous banquet. St Daughter of a Moorish king in 11th-century Spain. ' . and sterility. Paolo Veronese. 1528-1588 Cana. Marriage at Christ's first miracle took place at a wedding in the Galilean town of Cana. She took bread to the starving prisoners and it always turned to roses at the approach of authority. The original story probably touches upon one of the realities of poverty. In Spain. Casilda. Some scholars consider the story an allegory for the changing of the water of Judaism into the wine of Christianity. John ii describes the events when the mother of Christ reported that there was no wine. Christ thereupon converted the water in six stone waterpots (about one hundred gallons) into fme wine. her name is invoked against haemorrhage. c. later. Francisco de Zurhardn. particularly at Burgos and Toledo.

CATHERIN E 53 Castor and Pollux When Jupiter (q. A brilliant dialectician. Copy after Leonardo da Vinci. and in miscellaneous ravishings. she even engaged the Emperor Maximinus and his scholarly advisers in debate. bom The Birth of Castor and Pollux (detail).) covered Leda (q. the most famous being that of the Daughters of Leucippus (^.called the Dioscuri by the Greeks .v. They took part in the expedition of the Argonauts (cf. The Dioscuri were protectors of sailors and of the Olympic Games. and out of the other Helen (^. 1452-1319 . Out of one hatched Clytemnestra and Castor. she gave birth to two eggs.i^.engaged in the usual adventures of Greek heroes. Catherine of Alexandria.CASTOR AND POLLUX . In a dream she made a mystic marriage with Christ.v. St This highAlexandrian girl was a 4th-century convert to Christianity. The two inseparables.) and Pollux.) in the guise of a swan.). Jason). Castor and Pollux . in cattle robbing.i^. She argued with the advisers so well that she was ordered to be torn to pieces on a wheel.

Hans Memlinc. 1472-1^53 . Martyrdom of St Catherine.The Betrothal of St Catherine. 1433-1494 the Elder. Lucas Cranach c.

She was then Of her many attributes those com- seen in paintings are the wheel or of it. It relates that she was a from early childhood and that her marriage to a pagan was never consummated. This established such as St Cecilia playing the organ. According to the Golden Legend. St the life of The source for information about this virgin saint from a Roman patrician family . St Born in Siena in 1347 of lower middle-class parents. a sword. but her successes were greater in the spiritual field. She essayed the role of peacemaker between the Vatican and its many enemies. to the St Catherine of Siena (detail). 156JJ63-1610 pierced heart. At the age of seven she decided to dedicate her virginity to Christ whom with she had already contracted a Her devotion poor and sick. celestial conversations. From early childhood she had visions. Carlo Dolci. Francesco Vanni. Supposedly buried in the Catacomb of were moved to the Church of St Cecilia in Trasteverc hundreds of years Callistus. monly 55 destroyed the wheel.martyred sometime between the 2nd and 4th centuries . Cecilia. 1616-1686 .and a scene in which her mystic marriage to the Christ Child is celebrated. Catherine of Siena. sang in her heart only to God'. on her wedding day. but it was not visible while she was alive. a palm . and her manifest saintliness were so universally impressive that she ventured into the thorny field of international politics. Since the 14th century she shown with an organ is generally an attribute. a book. she. hearing the organs making melody. She is the patroness of philosophers.is a document full of romantic fantasy which appeared in the 5 th century. and sometimes a mystical and ecstatic marriage.CATHERINE -CECILIA Divine fire beheaded.a common symbol in paintings of martyrs . Firework makers took her name pieces for the catherine-wheel. Cecilia survived an attempted suffo- cation by the enemies of Christianity. She received the stigmata five years before her death at the age of thirty-three. her relics later. Christian Her husband was so impressed by her statement that her body was guarded by an angel that he shortly thereafter became a Christian himself. She finally died three days after partial decapitation. and ecstasies. Her emblems are a lily.

Mary followed the practice. See p. ijoo-ij66 Pr(':.CHRIST 56 a connection with music that in 1584 she became patroness of the Academy of Music. Joachim Patinir. 22). see Scio.CENTAURS. early 1 6th century frequently fused the two separate subjects of the Presentation in the Temple and the Purifica- of the Virgin. Christ For the birth and childhood of Christ Mary. To the anxious questions of his parents. Circumcision. Presentation in the Temple Painters Charon crossing the Styx (detail). Chios. Annunciation. She took the child Christ with her 'to present him to the Lord' (Luke ii. 64. Baptism and Cana. Massacre at.symbol of purification . not alphabetical order.cniatum in the In the Desert After his baptism in the Jordan by John the Baptist. a devout old man. 'Wist ye not that I must be about my Father's quality Among business?' The Temple. recognized the special of the child. Christ went into isolation in the desert to prepare himself for . see Aurora. Taddeo Gaddi. Flight into Egypt. and of Church music in generah Centaurs.that Simeon. the boy made the cryptic reply. Three days later they found him in the Temple carrying on a religious discussion with learned rabbis (doctors). The ancient souls across the river Styx Greeks placed Charon's obolus under the tongue of their dead. Charon The ferryman who transported dead which separated the world of the living from the underworld of the dead. It was here while she sacrificed doves . see Lapiths and Centaurs. Adoration of the see Virgin Shepherds. Cephalus. a prophetess. Being a strict Jew. the Doctors Luke ii records that Christ's parents took the twelve-year-old boy to Jerusalem for Passover and lost him there. According to Mosaic law a woman who had given birth to a child could tion *MiJ| "^ not go to the Temple for a period of thirtythree days. and Anna. Other scenes from his life which appear most often in art are listed below in narrative. Passengers had to pay a toll of one obolus (a penny) without which Charon refused to carry them and they wandered the barren bank of the Styx for ever.

He spent forty days and forty nights fasting in the wilderness.CHRIST 57 his ministry. First the devil suggested to Jesus that hunger by turning stones into bread. After Hieronymus Bosch. During this time he was subjected to a series of three temptations by Satan. The Gospels of Matthew. He offered Jesus dominion over them. c. angels came and ministered unto him. and Luke tell the story of these temp- tations. and. .' he alleviate his among the Doctors. Finally Satan took Jesus to a high mountain from which he could see all the kingdoms of the world. 1430-1316 Christ (Below) Temptation of Christ Duccio. behold. Next the devil told Jesus to throw himself from the pinnacle of the Temple and have his angels save him to prove he is the Son of God. Mark. i233J6o-i3i3li8 (detail). Jesus resisted the temptations and according to Matthew iv. ii: 'Then the devil leaveth him.

Believe ye that I am able to do this? They said unto him. Christ went up into the mountains to pray while some of his disciples tion Conrad Witz. Walking upon the Water Shortly after the miracle of the feeding of the five thousand with loaves and fishes.' And the Woman of Samaria John iv. : According to your faith be it unto you. Christ healing the Blind El Greco. The miraculous draught offishes (detail). In the conversa- which followed he revealed to her her whole life and that he was the Messiah. And their eyes opened. 1541-1614 Man (detail). and convinced him that Jesus was the Messiah .reports of which reached the imprisoned John the Baptist. Then touched he their eyes. Lord. Among Christ's cures . 1400I10-1444I46 .the healing of the blind was prominent. saying. 7-29 relates how Christ on his way from Judaea to Galilee passed through Samaria.CHRIST 58 Healing the Blind The Gospels emphaan important part of Christ's mission was the healing of the sick. a country whose people were on unfriendly terms with the Jews. At Jacob's Well Christ asked a Samaritan woman to draw water for him which at first she refused. Yea. Matthew ix records one of these miracles: 'The blind men came to size that him and Jesus saith unto them.

. The spies of the chief priests tried to trap by asking (Luke XX. 'Is it lawful for us to give tribute unto Caesar. aware of the trap. and give unto them for me and thee. Peter then tried to walk on the water but was afraid and began to sink: 'And immediately Jesus stretched forth his hand and caught him. walking on the sea. : reference to tribute money in the New Testa- ment. . according to Matthew xiv. Titian.) There is another collectors raised ' . and take up the fish that first cometh up and when thou hast opened his mouth. or no?' Jesus. O thou of little faith.CHRIST 59 went out on the lake of Galilee in a boat.v. Some modem Biblical scholars hold Greek word epi can mean 'by' or 'on'. 22). Masaccio.' God the things The Tribute Money. tax with Peter the question of Jesus's taxes. and cast an hook. thus And The Tribute Money i40i-i428(?) diminishing somewhat the miracle.' (Matthew xvii. Jesus said to Peter: Go thou to the sea. the Tribute Money Capernaum In shortly after the Transfiguration {q. and said unto him. wherefore didst thou doubt?' that the (detail). 1487I90-1376 . 27. 'Christ went unto them. pointed to the image of Caesar on a penny and Jesus into a political offence said.). . A storm came up and. thou shalt find a piece of money that take. and unto which be God's. 'Render therefore unto Caesar the things which be Caesar's.' The disciples were troubled but Jesus reassured them.

but they equally despised. 17.probably Matthew the Apostle.' (Mark /n the when ii. Paolo Veronese.) House of Simon Luke vii tells how Christ was dining Pharisee a with Simon the woman 'who was and anointed his feet came Simon with ointment. that are sick : I come not to call the righteous.v.6o The Feast CHRIST in the House of Levi. the moral of which is that he who has sinned most needs most forgiveness. see Lazarus. c. 1528-1588 Feast in the house of At Capernaum on the Sea of Galilee. a sinner' reproached him for receiving her but he of the moneylender and two debtors. The woman is not named. Present were other tax collectors and people To the criticism of the pious and devout. Raising of Lazarus. named Levi . Christ replied. but sinners to repentance. 'They that are whole have no need of the physician. Christ took supper in the house of a minor tax collector (publican) Levi. the Pharisee (detail). He . but is usually identified with Mary Magdalene (q.). replied with the parable Christ in the Giovanni House of Simon Battista Tiepolo. 1696-1 yjo Entry into Jerusalem Christ's decision to go to Jerusalem for the Passover marks the beginning of the Gospel Passion narrative.

Giotto. i266l6j-ijjy .(Below) Christ entering Jerusalem (detail).

who spread palm branches in the road. but ye have made it a den of thieves. Christ washing his Disciples' Feet (detail). and overthrew the tables of the money changers. and the seats of them that sold doves. infuriated Christ was the exploitation and cheating of simple worshippers.M^^. unto them.' Business directly connected with the rituals of the and said Temple was What Ji -.62 CHRIST Christ cleansing the Temple. and out all them that sold and bought in the temple. The follow- the version of Matthew (xxi. Tintoretto. 1622-1634 entered the city riding on an ass and was by the people. Cleansing the Temple All four Evangelists ing is 'And cast record this dramatic scene. Washing the Feet In John xiii how it is during the Last Supper. 12 and 13) Jesus went into the temple of God. Christ washed the feet of his disciples as an act of described . This is the origin of Palm Sunday and is frequently represented joyfully received 1% ^c^ in art. My house shall be called the house of prayer. Bernardo Cavallino. It is written. 1518-1394 acceptable in the outer courts.

Duccio c. ' . See also Ecce Homo. ye also ought to wash one another's purification feet. then proceeded to make sport with him. then. and put it about his head. Mocking of As part of the not uncommon phenomenon of mishandling prisoners. Betrayal of This is the dramatic scene described by Luke xxii. 68. Lord and Master. Denial of Peter At the Last Supper Christ prophesied that Peter would deny him three times before the cock crowed (i. Rembrandt van Ryn. Peter waited outside in the courtyard. St) The Betrayal of Christ. At this moment the cock crowed. .* The subject is particularly common in The Denial of Peter. The Gospel accounts of these trials vary in detail. betrayest thou the Son of man with a kiss?' The following symbols often appear in paintings of the Betrayal: two hands filled with money. and put his own clothes on him. and did spit upon him. But Jesus said unto him.CHRIST 63 and a lesson in humility: 'If. and began to salute him. went before them. and a human ear. before the next day). Three people in the crowd recognized him and asked him whether he was a follower of Jesus. 1450-1316 c.e. i6o6-i66g northern European painting of the 15 th and 1 6th centuries. See p. a rope. where it becomes a comment on military and religious persecutions. Hail. your feet. have washed your I. a torch. Judas. ! him. after flagellating Christ. and led him out to crucify Christ before Pilate (detail). 1255I60-IJ13I18 Pilate's soldiers. but he had not the courage to admit it. (See Peter. While Christ was being examined by the Sanhedrin. Mark xv describes the events: they clothed him with purple. and platted a crown of thorns. . one of the twelve. And when they had mocked him. and bowing their knees worshipped him. King of the Jews And they smote him on the head with a reed. they took off the purple from him. and drew near unto Jesus to kiss him. Hieronymus Bosch. . 47 and 48: 'And he that was called Judas. but in art Christ is always portrayed as a figure of divine dignity confronting the meanness and ignorance of men.' Before Caiaphas and before Pilate When Christ was arrested he was taken first to the Sanhedrin (the Committee of Temple priests) to be examined by Caiaphas and then to the Roman headquarters to be examined by Pontius Pilate.

. CO f \ i 5« 1 .

(Left) The Presentation in the Temple. 1433- 1494 Christ carrying the Cross. Hans Memlinc. Hieronymus c. c. Bosch. 1450-1516 .

It is thought that Christ was nailed rather than tied to the tied cross. The purpose of his journey was to bring salvation to the souls lingering there since the creation of Adam. painters in order to emphasize his work to when it was suffering include a ladder in their suggest that he was nailed to already mounted. All four Gospels record the Crucifixion. 26) Pilate followed the normal practice of the day.) See p. This did not happen to Christ. Descent from the Cross. who from the Carthaginians turn had inherited it from their mostly in slaves. 1318-1594 offered it to Christ. Christ died somesix hours later. ers it The Crucifixion The Romans probably acquired this particularly painful technique for executing non-Romans and the worst criminals. The execution took place on Golgotha. In Limbo One of the most widely held Christian beliefs . does not rest on any of the four Gospels but comes probably from the apocryphal the Gospel of Nicodemus. . who indeed is frequently shown in paintings man to emerge through the doors broken down by Christ. In ordering the flagellation of Christ (Matthew xxvii.CHRIST 66 Flagellation The scourging of prisoners to death by crucifixion was common at the time of Christ. stuck it on a reed and legs Flagellation (detail). often called the Harrowing of Hell (from Old and Middle English word harrow. After the victim had been scourged. his executioners nailed or him by his hands to a cross while it lay on the ground or stood in the air. Entombment took place what less at than and Lamentation. probably But many when it lay on the ground.m. it To hasten death the victim's were sometimes broken. (See also Calvary. the details varying somewhat. The Crucifixion probably about 9 a. to rob). 69. ancestors the Phoenicians. Christ hanging on a cross between two thieves. condemned The subject attracted many Renaissance because of the possibilities paint- permitted to depict most graphically a naked or near-naked body being subjected to sadistic indignities. To assuage his thirst one of the spectators dipped a sponge in sour wine.incorporated in the various Creeds . Tintoretto. The authority for the as the first story.is that in the period between his death on the cross and his resurrection Christ descended into Limbo (Hell).

1436-0. Giovanni Bellini. 1518 . 1430-1516 Christ in Limbo (detail). 1465-1528 Christ descending into Limbo. Mathis Griinewald. c.Crucifixion. c. Benvenuto di Giovanni.

The Crowning with Thorns. Hieronymus Bosch. c. 1450-1316 (Right) Crucifixion. c. 1430-1516 . Giovanni Bellini .

.

c. St From The Golden Legend. The further he went the heavier the child became and the more He turbulent the river. hard-working giant of Httle inteUi- gence coming from southern Palestine. thought to be Losinj in the northern Adriatic. He once carried a child over a river. Landing on her island. Circe Homer relates the adventures of Ulysses and his men with the great magician Circe.with her magic wand.CHRISTOPHER -CIRCE 70 Christopher. He subsequently cleaned up the brothels of several Middle East and was fmally beheaded. barely reached the other side. palm St Christopher (detail).invariably male . 1433-1494 tree as a supporting staff. Ulysses protected himself from her magic by taking strange drug called moly. daughter of the sun god Helius. He a forced Circe to . The patron of he is generally depicted carrying a small child across water using the trunk of a cities travellers. Christopher appears to have been a goodnatured. turning them into swine. The beautiful sorceress touched all visitors . There he discovered he had carried the Christ Child. Quentin Massy s 1465I66-1530 (Below) St Christopher. Hans Memlinc.

(Luke ii. Their son. circumcision . The Circe story is probably a symbol for debasing love. is said to have killed Ulysses unknowingly and married the give widowed Penelope. Telegonus. Dosso Dossi.1542 71 The Circumcision (detail). the archetype of exquisite seductive woman. Such was her holiness that the bread supply in her institute miraculously replenished itself She once repelled Moslem attackers by holding up a pyx. St This follower of St Francis estabhshed an order for the care and education of poor girls. 1479-c. c. Following this tradition Jesus was circumcised on the appropriate day and given his name 21). Clare. Circumcision According to Jewish ritual. the Order of the Poor Clares. In the earliest days of Christianity the practice of circumcision for non-Jews was abandoned in favour of baptism.CIRCUMCISION -CLARE Circe and her Lovers (detail). Her usual attributes are a pyx and a lily. early 15th century . I44i(?)-i52j him back his men who were all swine. and as such appears in Dosso Dossi's painting.had to be practised on male children on the eighth day after birth. Luca Signorelli.evidence of admission to God's covenant with his people . In Orlando Furioso Circe becomes Alcina. A stay near her tomb was reputed to be effective for the cure of those afflicted with devils. The Death of St Clare (detail). and almost as an afterthought made love to her. Master of Heiligen Kreuz.

Francesco Parmigianino 1503-^540 .Cupid cutting his bow.

she became the mistress first ofJulius Caesar.CLEOPATRA 73 Cleopatra Her real name was Auletes. She is said to have particularly impressed Mark Antony by dissolving one of her pearl earrings in vinegar and drinking it off. 1696-1770 . the title of all Ptolemaic queens. Giovanni Battista Tiepolo. Using her beauty to preserve her throne in an expanding Roman Empire. Daughter of Ptolemy XIII. Knowing that she was no match militarily for Octavian (Augustus). To the late Renaissance and Baroque painters she was the very image of the scheming lascivious woman who used sex as a power. weapon in the struggle for The Banquet oj Cleopatra (detail). then of Mark Antony whom she later married. Seeing that Octavian was immune to her charms. she tried to ingratiate herself with him by tricking Antony into a suicide pact which only he kept. she followed the Egyptian custom and married in turn several brothers of whom she rid herself violently. she became Queen of Egypt about 51 bc. Although of Macedonian origin. She is known in history as Cleopatra. she put an asp into her bosom and died from its bite.

One of festivals. Like a true Roman he put virtue before popularity and his opposition to public handouts led to his exile. Littre. The imagery of Cockaigne could only have been produced by a people who had known back-breaking work and intermittent famine. and the loss Coronation of the Virgin.CORPUS CHRISTI 74 Land of Cockaigne. celebrated Trinity Sunday. name derived from a Latin word for cake. The imaginary' land of Cockaigne fascinated to who produced a conwith no work and unlimited food and drink scattered freely all over the landscape. Corpus Coriolanus persuaded by hisjamily to spare (detail). Brueghel the Elder's painting (and engraving) with its emphasis on cakes seems closest to the theory of the great lexicographer. 1525130-1569 Pieter Brueghel the Elder. Land of The name is thought come from the French word for abundance. He collaborated with one of the city's enemies of Rome was only prevented by the intervention and pleas of his mother. Cockaigne. I44i(?}-i$2j Rome Christi. that the late medieval writers siderable literature describing a heaven. Coriolanus Livy ii is the main source for the bc Roman story of the legendary 5th-century hero Gnaeus Marcius Coriolanus. on the The see Virgin Mary. Luca SignoreUi.COCKAIGNE . the great Catholic first festival Thursday after became wide- .

COSMAS AND DAMIAN 75 spread in the 13 th century following the official establishment of the doctrine of tran- whereby the consecrated wafer of the Mass became in fact the flesh and blood of Christ.. miraculous aspect of the festival is shown in Raphael's Vatican painting of the Mass of Bolsena where a doubting priest is convinced by the wafer oozing blood. It is one of the Church's most impressive pubhc displays. 1420-1 >o~ . Cosmas. Marco 'derail'. Damian who were persecutions Two insepar- victims of the of the with their brothers (detail). St able Arab brothers Diocletian The attempted Martyrdom of Saints Co.. because of its into bird A pehcan being alleged habit of feeding young from the flesh is of symbolic paintings and blood of its its ovni breast.. frequently Corpus incorporated that Christi. St and Damian. in Piazza Gentile Bellini. Fra Angelico. The Reformation put an end to the festival in substantiation Protestant countries. >. splendour Bellini's is seen The to procession in all its perfection in Gentile The magnificent Venice painting. The feast is now characterized by a splendid procession in which the Host is displayed for general veneration. 1386I 87-1 455 earlv 4th (Below) Corpus Christi procession S.

the female equivalent of the Labours of Hercules {q. box of ointment. Finding of the True According to tradition. They treated the sick without charge and are the patrons of physicians and surgeons. Cross. Cross. and the Medici family century. Her subsequent troubles . 16^9-1734 Charmed by her midnight lover Psyche could not restrain her curiosity and one night as Cupid slept.f. the classic gods being much given to incest. The Finding of the True Cross. 72.v. After unsuccessful attempts by drowning. The merest touch of one of his arrows aroused intense love. Cupid (Amor or Eros) Son of Venus by either her half-brother Mars.v) half- brother Mercury.). barbers.CREATION. the mother of the Emperor Constantine found the pieces of wood which formed the cross on which Christ was grimage as an old crucified during her pil- woman. her {({. doctors). Creation. tation. see Adam. No contemporary writer supports the story become current well which seems to have after her death. He disappeared leaving her inconsolable. assignations in total darkness. 250-c. Sebastiano Ricci. Helena (c. A drop of hot oil fell on him and woke him. and stoning. or her father Jupiter. or a mortar and pestle. lit a lamp and gazed at his beauty. see Calvary. See p. He shot his arrows somewhat irresponsibly into humans and gods alike. Cupid never grew up but this did not stop him from falling in love with Psyche with whom he had . Stations of. Indeed he even wounded his own mother and caused her grievous harm over Adonis. {Medici. Cythera One of the Ionian islands of Greece. the martyr-makers fell back on their most tried and effective method.) . The cult of Venus is said to have been intro- . 330) (^.so moved Jupiter that he finally united her to Cupid. using the leg of a dead Ethiopian. Cupid was frequently portrayed as a winged boy carrying a bow and arrows.CYTHERA 76 They practised miraculous medicine. decapito kill the brothers Their attributes are a surgical instrument. incineration. performing bravura surgical feats such as a successful limb transplant.

Embarkation from the Island of Cythera Antoine Watteau. Cythera is the place where the goddess is supposed to have come out of the sea (she settled in Cyprus). c. the love that contemplates and dreams. bathed as the Goncourt brothers noted in that 'indefinable sadness which is poetic love. .v. 1480-1328 duced here by the Phoenicians.CYTHERA 77 Venus and Cupid. After Palma Vecchio.) of Watteau. There is little connection between the atmosphere of classic Cythera and that of the Cytherean 'fetes galantes' {q. In Watteau the transience of this dream was probably underlined by his own its aspirations fatal suffering from tuberculosis. If Cythera had not existed. a painter like Watteau would have had to invent it for his bored public who wanted the imagined freedom of the shepherds' Me plus all the physical comforts of upper-class propertyownmg society. 1684-1721 (detail). love with modern and its coronal of melancholy'.

I saw the ram pushing westward. early i6th know what me . Daniel. . . suspecting his brother rather than Jupiter.. . behold. the Vision of Daniel viii describes the great prophet's vision: 'And. I but he [the behold. Jupiter. face. he put her in a chest and threw her into the sea. and southward . unknowingly. She was fished up at Seriphos still alive and gave birth to Perseus who later. and became great . .' . Mabuse (Jan Gossaert). I will the end shall be.. King of Argos. killed his grandfather with a discus. i487lgo-i376 afraid make thee and fell my upon Danae. visited her as a shower of gold. Titian. was century angel Gabriel] said unto Danae. c. Her father locked her up in a brass tower to avert the fate foretold by an oracle that the son she bore would slay him. and northward. always on the look-out for good-looking women and undaunted by Danae's protective residence..78 D Danae The only daughter of Acrisius.. . he did according to his will... there ram which had two stood before the river a horns . When her father discovered her pregnancy.

. MENE. Daniel is particularly his correct interpretation it remembered of the w^ords for MENE. As a forecaster of later than the events foretold in doom. Rembrandt van Ryn. Rembrandt van Ryn. 21 relates when God how he survived mouths'. last of Babylon in 539 bc to the Medes and Daniel is best remembered for his adventures during the Babylonian Captivity. used captured Jewish temple vessels for wine drinking. king. Daniel vi. . The greatly impressed king then gave preferment Belshazzar' s Feast to Daniel. Daniel explained that the words foretold the Belshazzar. the most spectacular being his imprisonment in a den of lions for alleged disrespect to the fall Persians. i6o6-i66g 'shut the lions' (detail).had great popularity because of the apparent accuracy of many of its prophecies. UPHARSIN which appeared on a wall during a feast in which King of Babylon. i6o6-i66g In the cryptic is form favoured by seers. Daniel foretelling the universal oppression in store In 17th-century Europe the Book of Daniel - written hundreds of years for the Jev^s.DANIEL 79 The Vision of Daniel. TEKEL.

For Dante he was not only the author of the influential Aeneid. but also a figure of immense importance because his life and thought encouraged him in the belief that the political and moral chaos of 13th-century Guelf and Ghibelline Italy would one day be cleared up.DARIUS 8o Dante and Virgil The Florentine poet Dante (1265-1321) in his great poem La Divina Commedia chose as his guide to the other official poet of the Augustan era.f. 380-330 bc) like most Persian much of his emperors spent vast empire together. c. before Alexander Darius III (c.DANTE . Paolo Veronese. underestimated (^. It is the tour under the guidance of Virgil which has the most to say to us. Virgil (70-19 bc). Dante and Virgil in Hell (detail). Darius. see Apollo.). Macedon The family oj Darius III before Alexander (detail). Paradise. a time holding his A competent soldier. Daphne. Virgil guided Dante through Hell and Purgatory. he Alexander of military genius of great 1528-1588 . he let her be his guide to worlds. Eugene Delacroix ijgS-iSd^ nevertheless . but because he lived before Christ and because of Dante's life-long obsession with his love for Beatrice Portinari. Family of.

chieftains. refused to years later Alexander obtained what victory at Arbela in Iraq. The Philistine champion. and took thence a and slang it. issued a challenge to the was finally taken up by David. the giant Goliath. He hand in his bag. and smote the Philistine in 'put his stone. a concoction David. gave Alexander the western half of Darius' empire. story of the defeat David with 1573-1610 the head of Goliath. and his children whom he ransom or return to Darius. who was able to warn him in advance of his father's murderous intentions. of chivalrous fantasy little connected with the true facts. Alexander treated the captured family and followers of Darius with great courtesy. that the stone sunk into his forehead. It to bring victuals to his warrior brothers.' When cried out: 'Saul hath and David Saul's depressions his ten were thou- intense. by nature a manicdepressive and often insanely jealous of the young man. .). first Phihstines the women slain his thousands. i6o6-i66g . . grew up between David and Saul's son Jonathan. And when the Philistines saw their champion was dead. his wife. and cut off his head therewith. .t^. see David and Goliath. and he earth. upon the fell upon his face to the Therefore David ran. David and Goliath The almost universal and death of the giant at the hands of the humble. Triumph of. Carauaggio.' David and Saul David was the favourite of king of Israel. including Damascus where he captured the Persian baggage train. A close friendship. however. defeat on bc in 333 a crushing This victory inflicted his armies at Issus (^.DAVID who daring. Rembrandt van Ryn. an obscure young shepherd sent to the battlefield Israelites. the mother of Darius. The is Two a decisive now northern of Darius ended in murder by one of his relentless pursuit the defeated monarch's According to the Alexander legend. . . they fled. Dauid playing the harp for Saul. his forehead. sands. unknown hero is nowhere better illustrated than in the story told in I Samuel xvii. and stood and took his sword . Saul's nervousness was exacerbated by incidents such as that reported in i Samuel xviii when on returning from a victory over the Saul. Philistine.

Triumph of Death (detail). Martyrdom of St Denis.jiii.imijnii . 15251^0-1369 — >V-» -'Z^--^ . Pieter Brueghel the Elder. Attributed to Henri Bellechose. active 1413-1440 pj.

. see Descent from the Cross. man went unto Pilate and begged the body of Christ. Deposition. St According to de Voragine's Golden Legend St Denis was converted to Christianity by St Paul who gave him visions so that 'he was ravished into the third heaven'. Death and Descent from the Cross All four Gospels describe the treatment of Christ's body after his death on the cross. so Saul was refreshed. see Hercules. Saul killed himself After the murder of Saul's son. the 'This .: DEATH -DESCENT FROM THE CROSS 83 'David took an harp and played with his hand and was well. . inspired much of the imagery. putting it down where the Cathedral of St Denis now stands.' Because of the significant role ofJoseph of Arimathea. which came with him from Galilee prepared spices and ointments. Luke xxiii records the role played by the major participant in the wealthy Joseph of Arimathea. A triumph. The subject of Death the Great Leveller is summarized once and for all in Brueghel's remarkable Triumph of Death. Dejanira. that remarkable meditation on the vanity of life. This St Denis (i. Labours of Denis.' Cut off in a battle against the Philistines. . And he took it down. and the evil spirit departed from him. the subject had a special attraction events. not only over the living but over everything that is human. as seen by Brueghel. David became king of the Israelites. . The Old Testament Book of Ecclesiastes. . a man of standing. In of Death is often merged with that of Time. generally seen as by an animated skeleton wielding a great scythe. He was decapitated at Montmartre in Paris in 272 and he is said to have carried his head some six miles. and wrapped it in linen and the women also. Hans Baldung Grien. the 1484I85-1545 Maiden. Death The medieval mind was the fascinated image of Death. . Italian art the figure The modem has made the history of concentration camps painting intensely prophetic. Dionysus the Areopagite) was later confused with another St Denis mentioned by Gregory of Tours as one of the seven 'bishops' sent to convert Gaul.e.

for here she was a fertility goddess and her statues depict her with multiple breasts.). and a skull and cross bones. Symbolic objects frequently included in this subject are a ladder. Rogier van der Weyden.v. killing . It is as virgin goddess of the chase that Diana appears in art. traditionally held to be those of Adam. as witness the tragedies of Callisto iq. for wealthy patrons whose portraits in incongruously rich garb are often to be seen in 139911400-1464 paintings of this subject. (detail).) and Actaeon {q.DIANA Deposition. This virgin goddess of the hunt was also the moon goddess who protected virgins and women in childbirth.) was frustrated by her cult jealous brother Apollo Diana returning home from the Hunt 1577-1640 Peter Paul Rubens. Her love for another great hunter Orion (q. and carrying a bow and arrows. who tricked her into him. The bereaved Diana had Orion placed among the stars. generally clad in a tunic.v.had mixed up Diana with a local deity.v. and twin of Apollo. Minor . Diana Diana (or Artemis) was the daughter of Jupiter and Latona.her The Greeks in Asia was highly developed at her temple in Ephesus . In her cult of chastity she was fanatic.

v. 412-c. (detail). she murdered her husband. 323 bc) was a firm advocate of self-sufficiency. in the Market Dido's Suicide c. she bargained with the Dido Sister Pygmahon {q.DIDO . . living in a barrel.DIOGENES 85 of the Phoenician king of Tyre. Diogenes Founder of the philosophical school of Cynics. could enclose cutting the skin into fine strips she secured a large area for Carthage. It is said that on being asked by Alexander the Great what he could do for him. Jacob Jordaens.v. She and Aeneas (q. he replied that he could get out of his light He is also said to have wandered through daytime Athens with a lamp looking for an honest man. 1393-1678 da Verona. Liberate 1443-1326 Place. natives for as much with the skin of a land as she By bull. founded Carthage. which he way. Africa.). Archetype of the shrewd Phoenician trader. In despair she stabbed herself divine mission to Roman on a funeral pyre. Diogenes (c.) fell in love but the Trojan deserted her in fulfilment of his become the ancestor of the Empire. and North fled to became its queen. The Stoic philosophers influenced by practised in a forthright ! Seneca claimed him as a Diogenes with his Lantern founder.

It is said that St Dominic started the widespread use of the its St Dominic (detail). comforted and protected by Abraham. active by . covered with sores and licked by dogs. Both died and the rich man suffering in hell saw Lazarus in Paradise. Dives' second request that his five brothers be fate was also refused. To punish him for refusing succour to Lazarus on earth. St A noble Spaniard who founded in the early 13 th century the of Preachers. Dominic. 19-31. His Dominican Order activities in southern France contributed to the merciless extermination of the Albigensian heretics. Popular belief held that in relating this parable Christ had in mind an centuries there For many in house a Jerusalem called actual person. 1 487-1 53 Dives and Lazarus The parable of the rich (in Latin dives means rich) is reported in Luke xvi. His mendicant order distinguished itself not only scholars such as St 1344-1375 its magnificent Thomas Aquinas but also by vigorous. even enthusiastic role as the Church's principal Inquisitor. Bonifazio Veronese. Lazarus the beggar.DOMINIC DIVES 86 Dives and Lazarus. could not have even the crumbs which fell from the rich man's table. was The House of Dives. warned of his Abraham pointing out unhelpfully that 'They have Moses and the prophets' to guide them in their duty to care for the stranger within their gates.AND LAZARUS . Abraham man denied Dives' request for water. Lippo di Vanni. In this exemplary story.

In paintsometimes shown with a dog holding its mouth a flaming torch. active 1467-1482 . his mother having dreamed of giving birth to such. Then.87 DONOR Donors: Tommaso Portinari. In the 15 th century. rosary which ing he is his wife and children.usually an altarpiece for a church in northern Europe. with Saints. His in commonest emblem is the lily. First the donors obtained spiritual merit for the decoration of the House of God. Donor or Patron Man or family who commissioned a painting . this had three great advantages. by having the painter incorporate in his painting portraits of themselves and members Hugo van der Goes. particularly. is one of his attributes.

in the late 1470s. if their judgment was good. by commissioning a painter like Hugo van der Goes. 1445-1510 saints.v. commissioned Hugo van der Goes to paint a triptych with the Adoration of the Shepherds Portinari {q. Finally. His wife and daughter appear in the right wing panel with their patron Adoration of the Magi. Thus Tommaso Portinari. the representative of the Medici banking interests in Bruges. . c. in the company of their patron saints. Sandro Botticelli. St Thomas and St Antony Abbot.DONOR 88 of their family paying homage to the Virgin Mary and the Christ Child. portraits of himself and his two young sons Antonio and Pigello in the left panel of the work.) as the centre had the painter include panel. or Botticelli they had a fair chance of achieving a sort of immortality. Margaret and Mary Magdalene. they obtained great social prestige and enhanced themselves temporally.

Pursued. Her attribute is understandably a basket of fruit and flowers and she is patroness of florists. the Magnificent appears Dormition. Mary. asked her to send him fruit and flowers from the garden of Paradise. and most of the spectators are members of the Medici court. she pursues. Lorenzo in the UfFizi). sequel.DOROTHEA . After her death a child called at his house with a basket of apples and roses. witch-like qualities which can exist in women when driven to desperation. remembered left particularly for its is colourful an official of the court which condemned her. Florence (now such Botticelli The three kings are thought to be portraits of Cosimo the Elder. Piero di Cosimo. on the with a sword. (detail). brewers. St A Cappadocian victim of the Her martyrdom Diocletian persecutions. and midwives. 14^9-150112 . The verbal fire which can come out of the mouths of such harridans may be the reason for the custom in some countries of naming cannons as 'Mad Meg'. Dulle Griet (Mad Meg) Some scholars Mad Meg is one of the think that Dulle Griet or furies (Meg is possibly a shortening of Megaera or Fury). Botticelli on the extreme right. The unsettled Theophilus quickly became a Christian. see Virgin Dorothea. Francesco di Giorgio.DULLE GRIET 89 With due modesty the donor and his family are much smaller figures than their holy companions. Brueghel the Elder uses the image of a harridan to summarize all the shrewish. and Giovanni di Cosimo. 1525IJO-1569 St Dorothea and the Infant Christ. Theophilus. Dulle Griet (Mad Meg) Pieter Brueghel the Elder. is significant that Brueghel painted his Dulle Griet during the greatest outburst of It witch-hunting in Western history. No Medicis when modesty troubled the was commissioned to paint his Adoration of the Magi for an altar in Santa Maria Novella. There could be no more convincing proof of the power and authority of the Medici family than this work in which the Holy Family has become virtually another possession of the enormously rich merchantbanker-moneylender politicians of Tuscany. also of brides.

!' And Pilate saith unto them.90 Ecce Homo (Behold the Man) These words were spoken by Pontius Pilate and The competent administracould fmd Christ guilty of no referred to Christ. if incessant talker. John xix tells how Jesus was brought forth in front of a crowd 'wearing the crown of thorns. 1594-1665 f the nymphs.:. Pilate.. On one occasion she used her gift for talking to divert Juno while Jupiter was making love to her sister nymphs. Juno discovered this treachery and arranged that (detail).' Echo Echo was one of tutelary deities Ecce Homo. Nicolas Poussin. minor of mountains.•: -*! fel 1^ ^Htj^B^B 4 i •»--». --:-'_. (Below) Echo and Narcissus c. Behold the man If Pilate thought the sight would arouse pity he was quickly corrected by the high priests shouting 'Crucify him. and the purple robe. offence but as an archetype bureaucrat he wished to avoid all troublesome responsibility. forests. ^^^i^- would shrink to K-r*: f^^'i ^M.'KH valleys. and grottoes. 1450-1516 henceforth Echo's speech I rife •*«« |''^''^:. She was attached to Juno and was a fascinating. and turned the problem of Christ over to the Jewish high priests. who frequently made up the retinue of gods and goddesses. m- ^fH j^ i"' ^ -^ . Hieronymus Bosch. tor.

. the god of the two Phoenician rulers Ahab and his queen Jezebel. Expulsion (q. there fire. . 2 Kings ii describes Elijah's equally dramatic departure from life. . {q.) She followed him in a forest and her seemingly fatuous when he was repetition of his calls for help. . heaven.' up in a chariot offire. . 'And it came .EDEN-ELIJAH repeating the last Her love 91 few words she had heard.v. ended sadly. Eden. pleasant to the sight The location of Eden seems to be somewhere between the Tigris and Euphrates in modern Iraq. drove him away for ever. Hieronymus Bosch. . 1450-1316 . c. always repeating the last word.) the Lord God planted a garden eastward and out of the ground made in Eden after ' . . In a dramatic competition on Mount Carmel Elijah tury Jehovah ignited not get his Elijah's altar priest's but Baal could altar alight. and Adam (q. and Elijah to . She went into a decline. The idea of the first home of man being a garden is an understandable myth of a people in a hot arid land. .v.v. Giovanni Battista Piazzetta.) Eden was the home of Adam and Eve. UntiL their food'. .) The Hebrew prophet of the 9th cenBC is best remembered for his successful effort to show that his god Jehovah was more powerful than Baal. 168 2-1 J 54 Elijah taken pass and horses of fire went up by a whirlwind into appeared a chariot of The Expulsion from Eden with the Creation of Eve and the Temptation in the background (detail). Garden of According to Genesis ii. withered away until only her voice remained. . creating the world. lost.v. for the beautiful Narcissus (q. grow every and good for to tree that is . .

they did not recognize him until after they invited him to supper with them in Emmaus. 1573-1610 (detail). Supper at Immediately after the Resurrection when the disciples discovered the body of St Elizabeth of Hungary (detail). he took bread. and lacemakers. Then. And their eyes were opened and they knew him: and he vanished out of their sight.ELIZABETH -EMMAUS 92 Elizabeth. After the death of her husband Bratislava en route to the Crusades. her name is invoked against toothache. Notwithstanding his conversation with them. she became the favourite saint of the Germans. as he sat at meal with 30-31 reports. . as Luke xxiv. St This 13th-century saint from was the daughter of King Andreas II of Hungary. Because of her great care for the oppressed. this feat when her suspicious husband found her carrying an apron of bread to the poor. and brake. defenceless and down-trodden. Jesus Cleopas and an unnamed disciple met Christ on the road to Emmaus. a village on the distant outskirts of Jerusalem. . Bartolome Esteban Murillo. Patroness of beggars. Like St Casilda she had the magic gift of turning bread into She performed roses.' ' (Below) The Supper at Emmaus Caravaggio. she devoted herself so vigorously to fasting and good w^orks that she died at the age of twenty-four.. 1617-1682 gone from the sepulchre. and blessed it. them. bakers. Emmaus.. and gave to them.

spear. 1528-1588 of Jesus burial arranged by Joseph of Arimathea was Descent [cf. Paintings of the event frequently include a pot of ointment. his mother. 97. 61). The Three Maries these are the John sponge. Paolo Veronese.. and his mother's sister.. 1386I 87-1 455 (detail). Entombment The c. 25 as standing by the cross ' . nails. but a secret sympathizer of Jesus. placed whose entrance was it in the Sepulchre sealed with a rock.and after the traditional Jewish manner of anointing the corpse from the Cross) a (John xix. Painters of Sepulchre assume that same three Maries mentioned by in xix.ENTOMBMENT 93 Entombment. wealthy member of the Sanhedrin. Attributed to Era Angelico. 39-40).his own according to Matthew xxvii. Mary the wife of Cleophas. and Mary Magdalene. See p. He used a new rock tomb . ladder. and some of the symbols of the Passion. the supreme political council of the Jews. . crown of thorns. at the etc. Matthew mentions only two Maries at the Entombment Sepulchre (xxviii.' There is no direct evidence of this in the Gospels. 60 . a hammer. scourge.

c. J acopo c. 1415-1475 del Sellaio.Martyrdom of St Erasmus. Dieric Bouts. 1441-1493 . Esther and Ahasuerus (detail).

Et in Arcadia Ego. and finally He paid chose a a large sum into the royal treasury for and slaughter the Jewish relative Mordecai. Haman. birth-pangs. see Cupid. His tormentors were unsuccessful in trying to destroy him with lead mallets. Although an unsummoned appearance in the royal presence was punishable by the right to plunder community. persuaded the king that the Jews were a troublesome minority. or Xerxes (485-465 bc) had rid himself of his Queen Vashti for disobedience. Esther's the brave Esther entered the king's private rooms. Haman begging Esther for forgiveness Rembrandt van Ryn. According to the Golden Legend he thereafter died a natural death. forcing him to drink boiling pitch. he tried out all the nubile virgins beauty named Esther (Hadassah) and married her in 478 bc. Erminia. She informed Xerxes that she was Jewish and he was so enchanted by her beauty and intelligence that he cancelled the plans for the pogrom. persuaded her to intervene with Xerxes. Esther and Mordecai turned the tables on Haman who was hanged on the gallows the ex-vizier had erected specially for Mordecai. He is and danger at sea. see Arcadia. has long served as an archetype Jewish survival story. Esther and Ahasuerus After the Persian King Ahasuerus. 1606-1669 . rosin and oil. Xerxes' vizier.. immersion in brimstone and oil. invoked against colic. death. Eros. roasting in a copper casserole. and finally using a windlass to wind his entrails out of his body. a prominent member of the Jewish community who had rendered Xerxes valuable services in the past. see Tancred. St This victim of the persecutions in the time of Diocletian and Maximihan is best remembered for the gruesome tortures to which he was subjected in the countryside near Rome. ERASMUS-ET IN ARCADIA EGO 95 Erasmus. The tale is still read today during the Jewish celebration of Purim and although full of contradictions. He is patron of sailors and his attribute is the windlass or capstan.

and when he had given thanks. has presided over was crucified.) they did took bread. 1528-1588 (detail). of Crete. and said. And he said unto them. he gave it to them: and they all drank of it. Leonardo da Vinci. and gave to them. Take. eat. See p. where changing body yet again he took the form of an eagle and ravished her. and brake it. daughter of a Phoenician was another of Jupiter's exotic seductions. 22-24. He appeared to the young girl as a handsome docile bull. loi. 100. Rape oJEuropa c.' Sec p. Jesus Euro pa Europa.EUCHARIST-EUROPA 96 Last Supper (Eucharist). And he took the cup. The product of Europa's union with Jupiter was Minos. who became king king. and blessed. Some stories say that the tree which sheltered their love-making was rewarded by becoming evergreen. . He suddenly took off for Crete. 'And as (q. which is shed for many. 1 432-1 ^ig Eucharist The Eucharist or Communion of the Lord. the most sacred of sacraments. its all origin in the Christian last supper by Christ the night before he The events immediately follow- ing his prediction of his betrayal by Judas are told in Mark xiv. eat: this is my body. Paolo Veronese.v. This is my blood of the new testament. and she mounted his back and wound round his horns the flowers she had been gathering.

1475-1364 .Entombment. Michelangelo Buonarroti.

. Cleansing of the Temple. The general. Expulsion from the Temple. Creation of. Eve. His conversion to Christianity followed his discovery. when hunting on the outskirts of Rome. His attributes are a crucifix. see Adam. a stag. 1395-1455 Eustace. c. see Christ.EUSTACE -EXPULSION 98 Vision oj St Eustace. his wife Theopista. St The legend holds that Eustace was one of the Emperor Trajan's generals. and an oven. and his two sons refused to pay obeisance to the pagan gods of Rome and were martyred by being roasted in a brazen bull. Antonio Pisanello. of a stag with a crucifix between its antlers.

(detail). Gods 14JO-1516 Feast of the c. Sodoma. frequently indulging in quasierotic play. goddess of Law. see Satyr.99 Fates Among the weird sets of triplets produced by Jupiter's union with Themis. I4yy-i54g The Feast of the Gods which came straight from the Fasti provided an opportunity for painters such as Bellini and Titian to flatter their and patrician patrons by setting sort of Olympian picnic scene in the aristocratic them in a guise of gods. These three sisters were: Clotho who spun the thread of hfe. and Atropos who relentlessly cut it off with her shears. Lachesis who measured it. . Feast of the Gods Ovid's Metamorphoses and Fasti were the source of inspiration of many Renaissance painters. A subject such as The Three Fates. Faun. were the Three Fates. Giovanni Bellini.

Dieric Bouts. 141^-147^ . c.Last Supper.

c. 1487I90-1376 .Rape of Europa (detail). Titian.

FETE CHAMPETRE-FLIGHT 102 Fete Champetre (detail). suffused with tenderness. obstructing the pursuit of the Holy Family by Herod's soldiers. Concert Champetre c.v. pagan statues fall off their pedestals. . 1476I78-1510 (detail). An angel warned Joseph of the danger in a dream. Probably a purely poetic or imaginary idea. he ordered a massacre there of all young children in order to rid himself of that threat.) learned from the Flight into Egypt when the brutal Magi {q. The Holy Family left hurriedly by night for Egypt where they stayed for about two years. set in a beautiful landscape.or early-i6thcentury work.) that a child was born in Bethlehem who would become King of the Jews.v. it provided an opportunity for an artist to paint for his wealthy or aristocratic patrons an erotically tinged picnic scene. Giorgione. The Holy Family returned and settled in Nazareth. the Concert Champetre. Matthew ii relates that Herod (q. 1684-1721 Fete Champetre The source and inspiration of the subject of the Fete Champetre which became popular in mid. As they pass.18th-century France. In another dream an angel told Joseph that Herod was dead. was Giorgione's late-i5th. In the background of many northern paintings of the Flight into Egypt can be seen the miraculous growth of wheat. Antoine Watteau.

Flight into Egypt. Massacre c. 1460-152.Rest on the Flight into Egypt (detail) Gerard David. 1616-1671 Cosimo Tura. active I45i-i4g5 . Sebastien Bourdon.^ oj the Innocents (detail).

Jan Brueghel the Elder.The Flood: collecting the animals for the Ark. 1568-1625 .

Bonaventura Berlinghieri .St Francis preaching to the birds. active I2j5 .

i6o6-i66g the many beautiful of Raphael . 'God saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth'. 'Among so many . *I will destroy man whom I have created from the face of the earth. The Romans celebrated her festival on I May.* He wavered in his decision when he saw the righteous (sixhundred-year-old) Noah. phose into flowers: Ajax into a pink. Narcissus. 108. it is example of a new type of private High Renaissance symbol representing affluence and power . La women in the short life when only portrait why thirty-seven. in Austria is said to Fornarlna. Adonis anemone.erotic treasure. Vasari said of her. the Flora.' Whether most beautiful. beautiful. Ovid's Metamorphoses and Fasti were the inspiration for paintings of Flora by late The Building of the Ark. 109. Genesis vii and viii describe the ensuing rains and the Flood which lasted for about one year and wiped out all life on earth. who are destroyed by kill themselves metamor- the gods. See p. St This victim of the Diocletian persecutions was martyred by being thrown into the river Enns with a stone tied to his The monastery at Scharding be built over his tomb. Crocus. and ordered him to build a large wooden ship and collect aboard it his family and pairs of all living creatures. the denizens of the Ark landed on Mount Ararat. o(La Rembrandt van Ryn. he regretted his error and said. and Hyacinth into the flowers which bear their names. One of . excellent an or not the work is by Raphael.v. The saint is patron of Upper Austria and Poland.FLOOD -FORNARINA io6 Flood When. . invoked against floods and fire. according to Genesis vi. When the waters subsided.he died We can see from the Fornarina (the Baker's daughter). half-flayed body. . Roman Flora The Greek and goddess of flowers. etc. Florian.) into the rebirth in nature. They are allegories of the constant death and (q. See p. Guido Reni. and God ordained the rainbow as a symbol of his agreement not to repeat the Flood. Klytriax into the heliotrope. 1373-1642 such or Renaissance and early Baroque painters who Figures as Poussin.

c. I5g4-i665 Recovering the body of St Florian (detail). - ' ^ !• Nicolas Poussin. 1480-1338 :-^^^0^j .p"' 't / '^ ill- i '^^ ' mw^'^^X f Triumph of Flora (detail). Albrecht Altdorfer.

La Fornarina. Raphael. 1483-1520 .

Sassetta. At the age of twenty he was captured by the Perugians. and the leprous. In 121 1 he started his order of Friars Minor Assisi cloth which was strengthened when Clare (q. Giovanni Bellini.FRANCIS 109 Francis of Assisi. St This son of a wealthy merchant was born c. St Francis renounces his earthly father (detail). St Francis in ecstasy (detail). A few years later he renounced his earthly goods and devoted himself to the poor. He then celebrated . 1430-1516 ijg2(?)-i430 .as Dante records . Pope Innocent III is said to have given Francis his support after dreaming that the tottering Lateran was being held up by the 'Poor Man of Assisi'. the lady Poverty. His example gradually attracted followers.his nuptials with his beloved spouse. the maimed.) He visited Egypt but had^ no success in converting the Moslems. and his illness during his captivity suddenly turned him away from his pleasureloving life. The Christmas custom of devotion to the Crib to celebrate the Nativity is said to have been joined him.v. 1181. c.

Xavier. He lived and worked for a number of years on the west coast of India. the Moluccas. and Japan where he preached in Japanese. St A Basque of noble boni in 1506.so weakened him that Brother Ass to it as this most attractive of all saints died at the age of forty-five. 1577-1640 cross. a flame. Such was his love of animals and birds that he asked the Emperor to legislate to provide for While keeping the poor. mortification of his are among his attributes. which. See p. His attributes are a torch. a Peter Paul Rubens. Miracles of St Francis Xavier (detail). His body . Jan van Eyck. he decided on missionary work in the Far East. them as well as for a forty-day fast in the mountains he received the stigmata. Malacca. the greatest missionary since the Apostles. active 1422-1441 introduced by him.no FRANCIS St Francis receivin<^ (he Stigmata (detail). He is patron of animals.he always referred . with birds. He died en route to China and is buried in Goa. After meeting St Ignatius Loyola {q.) in Paris and forming with him and several others the Society of Jesus.v. The Church considered him Francis parents. a lily. 105. and . He was never ordained a priest.

Acis and Galatea.- ^ - '^^^ Archangel Gabriel Gerard David. mythology there are two Galateas. Nicolas Poussin. once to Zacharias to announce that his wife will bear John the Baptist. Among the Christians he is the Angel of Mercy and St Michael is the Angel of Judgment. Her beauty attracted Polyphemus (q.) to Mary. and the second time as the Angel of the Annunciation (q. He courted her unsuccessfully by sending impressive but unusable gifts of bears and Galatea In elephants. The second Galatea was the ivory statue made by the Cypriot sculptor Pygmalion. c. pitying him. who fell in love with it.v. the one-eyed Sicilian giant. Among the Jews he may destroy as well as bless. brought it to hfe. from the topmost hierarchy of the heavenly host. Venus. Acis became a river.and twice in the New Testament. 1460-1523 rage he killed her herdsman lover Acis by smashing him with a rock. Gabriel appears twice in the Old Testament both times to Daniel .v.). 1594-1 665 .Ill G Gabriel One of the three archangels. Thus it is Gabriel as Angel of the Redemption who destroys Sodom. classical In a jealous '^2 L p. The first was one of the fifty Nereids or sea-nymphs.

Garden of Love This subject inspired a of painters Cranach. The occurred during the early ministry of Christ when he persuaded the reluctant Simon first called Peter to cast out nets once more. Watteau. Ganymede Ganymede. 1606-1669 In these entirely works the painter is concerned with sexual love. 10). Concert Champetre. Pygmalion and Galatea. 1518-1594 Galilee. John xxi reports that 'they were not able to draw for the multitude of fishes'. 'henceforth thou shalt catch men' (Luke V. Giorgione. The second incident took place after the Resurrection. Raoux. expressed in the . Rubens. Dejeuner sur VHerbe. it most beautiful Trojan boy. Christ told his fisher- men disciples their nets who had had no on the luck to cast right side of the boat. Tintoretto. and also. Rembrandt van Ryn. Robert Graves notes the popularity of the myth in Greece and Rome as providing the religious justification for pederasty. bedfellow of Jupiter. was snatched up into the air by Jupiter disguised as an eagle. Garden of series : LouCy Fete Champetre.GALILEE 112 -GARDEN Christ at the Sea of Galilee (detail). Christ tells him. it is said. Ganymede being carried off by the eagle. Flown to Olympus he became cup-bearer to the gods. Under different titles they treated the same theme whether it was called The Golden Age. Christ at the Sea of Both mira- culous draughts of fishes take place in the Lake of Galilee (Gennesaret or Tiberias). 1677-1734 He did this and his catch was great. Manet.

.GEORGE 113 of each period. m^-': existing sexual taboos. The stories collected in the Golden Legend first introduced him as a sort of Christian Perseus Through this heroism he of the Princess of Silene in Libya. St George and the 1518-1594 Dragon jw!^ '4]|i>>'' "' (detail). St There is little reliable information about St George. He is patron of army officers and his attribute is a red cross on a shield. K^^iK. George. saved the life claims that St George was who meddled in Church a pork-contractor His cult was brought to England by returning Crusaders. upper-class men and women in a shrine of Venus. Tintoretto. . - ^ so*' ^' \. ^!*» . i^^. Rubens sets his elegantly dressed. patron saint of England.. - v classical art. -wlil . The sceptical Gibbon in the Decline and Fall slaying the dragon.' "V ""^44 %s«e ''" V'\ ^^Pf** T^^ky%JfeS. W«K»SBJES3r>£a»KX '"' ' * " '""**" |!p*^''' . Hovering around the flirtatious group are ^moref^/ in a frenzy of activity. There is less nature visible in the background of Rubens' painting than in those of Watteau. It was indeed a unique subject which allowed painters to make some of the most lyric and tender love paintings in post- »'» '"^^ ' l_ -.. 1577-1640 Peter Paul Rubens.. politics. but it is every bit as aphrodisiac. Each significant forward move allegorical conventions work represents a to break away from The Garden of Love.

r v^ i 1 ** S Pr^HL < ** 'f*iiiiiii' Death of Germanicus (detail). see Agony in the Garden. Tiberius adopted him as successor under pressure from AugusGermanicus died suddenly at Antioch. St A 7th-century Greek who found Gaul a more fruitful place for spiritual develop- ment than his hermit's in a forest near life company St Giles and the active c. a native hind. a relative by marriage of Augustus. He is the patron of cripples and blacksmiths. Giles. He was thought to have been poisoned at the order of the jealous Tiberius. He Nimes.and his corrupt relatives made him an illustrious example to later Stoics. very active on the Rhine (hence his name). 1594-1663 Germanicus Julius Caesar Germanicus (15 BC-AD 19). was a popular Roman general.a hero of Tacitus . His somewhat tus. psychotic son. \ : ^SHH Nicolas Poussin. succeeded Tiberius.GERMANICUS- 114 m<^ GILES ^ i *' f-^ ^^j c<'4 ^/ L * ^ B^^^K . The contrast between the clean-living Germanicus . He always appears in painting with his hind. Master of St Giles. Gethsemane. \ e '-/ f 'i't ^^ 1 4. built a lived his a only Benedictine monastery near his retreat which had become famous through his miracles and good works. He Greece. 1500 Hind (detail). Caligula. . His burial place had a great attraction for medieval pilgrims.

had the tribe of Levi butcher three thousand of the guilty. 1^94-1665 '-' >^^W^M . while Moses was on Mount Sinai. Golden Calf According to Exodus xxxii. He is soft-hearted. to impress on the people the magnitude of their guilt. They danced around it in adoration but Moses discovered their idolatry when he came down with the tablets of the Ten Commandments. communing with Jehovah.GILLES Gilles GOLDEN CALF One of the 115 characters introduced into France in the i6th century by the Itahan Theatre of the Commedia delVarte (see Italian Comedians). the worship of horned beasts being common among their neighbours. Gilles (detail). He destroyed the idol and. \'icolas Poussin. his face flour-white. discipline broke down among the Israelites. Antoine Watteau. who persuaded their high priest Aaron to make them a Golden Calf. He seems to be closely related to and appears in paintings without a mask. and generally unhappy. blouse. wearing a loose Pierrot white peasant over-sensitive. 1684-1721 lA ^^ ^ ' /-^ ^A ' m ' Adoration of the Golden Calf (detail).

see Alexander. Goliath. see David. He was the founder of the Papacy as a great temporal as well as spiritual power. St Gregory was born into a Roman patrician family about Mass of St Gregory (detail). Meeting at. His forthright defence of Rome against northern invaders without help from the Emperor in Constantinople was a major factor in the development of Papal independence and authority. see Virgin Mary. i37Sl79-i444 Hagar and the Angel (detail). St One of the greatest of the early Church Fathers. Master oj'FlemaUe. He became Pope in 590. He is also shown with Christ appearing on the altar as he celebrates Mass. His name is associated with Gregorian Chant or Plainsong. 1600-1682 . ad 540. A voyage interested him in the conversion of the English. He is sometimes shown in art with a dove which according to legend brought him divine inspiration for his writings by whispering in his ear. missionary Claude Lorraine. Gordian Knot. He sent St Augustine of Canterbury to continue the work he had hoped to start. Gregory.GOLDEN GATE-GREGORY ii6 Golden Gate.

The eighty-six-year-old man fathered a child on In Genesis xvi distressed at her childlessness. Paris. which she bore with great nobility . Patroclus infuriated Achilles.). mid 15th century turn him and dragged his corpse round the walls of Troy three times. who grew into the most beautiful woman in the world. and every man's hand against every against him'. Her considerable sufferings. she was abducted by the Trojan. ancestor of all by the Arabs as the Bedouins.t^. Married to Menelaus. to whom she had been promised by Venus {cf. Genesis describes Ishmael as a 'wild man: his hand will be man. put forward her servant Hagar for Abraham's attention. His killing in battle of Achilles' friend Troy's Eldest fifty sons. Paris (^. Jupiter (^.) disguised as a Hector.inspired tragedies by Euripides and Racine. from one of which emerged Helen. 1748-1825 . This abduction was the cause of the ten-year Trojan War.) encounter with swan produced two eggs. Judgment of). Hector see Paradise.117 H Hagar Abraham's wife Sarah.v. Her subsequent arrogance got ^ her driven out into the wilderness where she bore considered Ishmael. Helen of Troy Leda's [q. Follower ofFra Angelico.i'. King of Sparta.her young son Astyanax was hurled from the walls of Troy by Ulysses and she was taken as a slave-woman by the Greek Neoptolemus . Hagar. He was mourned slew by his beautiful and heroic wife. and noblest of King Priam of Hector was the mainstay of the Trojans in their ten-year war with the Greeks. Andromache. Jacques-Louis David. who in Rape of Helen (detail). Heaven.

v. and whoremongers. Hell was the place of punishment after death. 1528-1588 . and murderers. is Hell As a subject for Renaissance and pre- Renaissance painters. devils. and medieval literature such as the Vision of Tundale. ' Hell: the latl of the Rebel Anj^cls. 1525J30-15 . . shall have their part in the lake which burneth with fire and '. c.) on which Christ was Constantine crucified. Revelation xxi. She is patroness of dyers.mostly in Matthew .HELENA -HELL ii8 Helena. inhabited and sinners. . 8 source of specific information: c. Her attribute the cross. Pieter Brueghel the LlJcr. from Sheol or Geherma of the Old Testament. St Helena's Vision of the Cross. . perpetual fire. and unbelieving. . and the abominable.) was originally an innkeeper from a small city in Asia Minor. and sorcerers and idolaters and all liars. She became a great church builder and at an advanced age visited Palestine where she is supposed to have discovered the remnants of the true cross {q.suggest a climate dominated by everlasting by Satan. local legend claimed her as British. Paolo Veronese. after his victory over Maxentius. and above all from Dante's Inferno. Always popular in England. is . St The mother of the Emperor {q. The few references to it in the New Testament . brimstone The pictorial concept of Hell was based on a mixture of beliefs incorporating imagery from the classic Hades.v. where dead sinners were burnt by unquenchable fire. She was converted to Christianity through the influence of her son. the sole the fearful.

6 Cleansing the stables of King Augeas of their thirtyyear accumulation of manure from several thousand oxen by diverting two rivers through beast's gall 7 Capturing the mad Cretan bull. As he severed this water-snake's heads. 2 Killing the Hydra of Lerna. The was used thenceforth to poison his arrows. c. 1484I85-1545 Hans Baldung Grien. 1 1 Bringing back the Golden Apples of the Hesperides. . 4 Capturing the wild boar of Erymanthus.HERA -HERCULES 119 Hercules and Omphale. 10 Stealing the cattle of the monster Geryon. killing on the way Antaeus. he cauterized the bleeding necks to prevent re-growth. They were: i Slaying the Nemean Lion whose hide he afterwards wore. by strangling him as he held him off the earth from whence came them. Bernardino Pintoricchio Hera. King of Mycenae. he was ordered by the oracle at Delphi to carry out Twelve Labours imposed by Eurystheus. Hercules and Antaeus. Queen of the Amazons. 3 Capturing the Ceryneian stag after a one-year chase. 9 Capturing the girdle of Hippolyta. . 5 Clearing the Stymphalian Marshes of their human-eating birds. 12 Dragging up from Hades the multi-headed dog Cerberus. son of the earth goddess. Hercules This most popular of all the figures of classical mythology {Heracles in Greek) was sired by Jupiter on the mortal Alcmene by impersonating her absent husband Amphitryon. Capturing the carnivorous mares of Diomedes who was then fed to them. As a punishment for killing his own children in a Juno-inspired fit of madness. 1 434-131 j sec Juno. 8 his strength.

Later needing to retain Hercules' love. to his serving as a wool-spinning slave Queen Omphale. 1578-1660 see Mercury. His rejection of her advances spurred her to a super effort.u. 1577-1640 Salmacis and Hermaphroditus. part male and part female. Catching Hermaphroditus bathing in her pool she held him so fast that their bodies fused into a composite.v. Hermes. When Hercules donned it. In mid-stream the agile Nessus tried to rape her. Francesco Alhani. she dipped his shirt in the magic blood.) was courted by a water nymph named Salmacis. Hercules asked the centaur Nessus to carry Dejanira across a river. Nessus and Dejanira. Hermaphroditus and Salmaci? The son of Mercury {q. The dying Nessus gave Dejanira some of his blood as a love charm. and ending with his marriage to Dejanira who caused his death. . including his sexual intercourse with the fifty daughters of Thestius in one night.) and Venus {q. Peter Paul Rubens. he was consumed by a deadly inner fire. Hercules slew him with a Hydra-poison arrow. Jupiter carried him off to Olympus as an immortal.HERMAPHRODITUS -HERMES 120 The Hercules legend contains hundreds of other adventures.

1577-1640 story comes to us from an obscure 6th-century writer named Musaeus. such an act could well have fitted his character. One stormy night Hero's guiding torch was extinguished and Leander drowned.121 HERO -HEROD (detail). This Tetrarch ofJudea was best a bloodthirsty included While two there a man whose multiple killings sons and most of his is own family. (See Flight into Egypi-) He must have had siderable political skill. During con- his seventy murderous years which coincided with the great political upheavals ushering in the Empire. Peter Hero and Leander Hero and Leander The Paul Rubens. the Great (73-4 bc) known of was the powerful Jewish (or rather Idumaean) family. support. no contemporary record of the Massacre of the Innocents at Bethlehem. he consistently retained Roman Roman The Banquet of Herod c. His poem describes the nightly swim of Leander across the narrow Hellespont between Abydos and Sestos for an assignation with Hero. Hero then threw Herod Herod herself into the sea. Masolino. Ij83l84-i447(?) (detail). .

which taketh away the sins of the world'. Joseph. to this basic of the Virgin Mary. the mother the child Jesus. househunters. and carpenters' tools. and Not infrequently there is added group St Anne {q. married couples. and pioneers. 13th-century Florentine The Holy Family. The attributes ofJoseph are sometimes a flowering rod or staff. Nicolas Poussin. John i. (Below) Holy Family with St John. and a lamb as a symbol of Christ ('Behold the Lamb of God. 29). I5g4-i663 . pictures of the the Virgin Holy Mary.).HOLY FAMILY 122 Holy Family Family show In general.v. He is the patron of carpenters. the infant John the Baptist.

HYDRA 123 Oath of the Horatii. The stag he was pursuing turned and revealed a crucifix between its antlers. Jacques-Louis David. The oath of the This subject comes from the story in Livy. H u bert St This heir to the Duchy ofAquitaine was born cad 656. three the Horatii. see Hercules. 1748-1825 Horatii. fight to Roman champions. took the advice to heart. the death the three champions of a neighbouring city. A voice told him he would go to Hell if he did not live a better life. became active in the Church. He is patron of hunters and mathematicians. Conversion of St Hubert. As a young man he lived in what is now Belgium. sought martyrdom but ended up as bishop of Liege. school 1 ^th-century Flemish . Hydra. A great huntsman. made popular by Corneille's Horace.HORATII . Such were the demands of loyalty to Rome that they did this even though related to their adversaries by marriage. He . one Easter Friday morning instead of going to church he set out for the hunt. Because of their oath to their virtuous father.

a distinguished Athenian craftsman who had been taught by Minerva. Peter Paul Rubens. He fell into the sea and drowned near Samos. 1377-1640 Adoration of the name ofJesus 1341-1614 (detail). Ignatius Loyola. Pieter Brueghel the Elder. The waters of this region are Fall of Icarus (detail). . Later Minos imprisoned them in the Labyrinth because Daedalus had helped Minos' wife couple with a white bull. His interest in the spiritual life started when he was thirty. St The founder of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) was born of a noble family of Spain in 1491. He helped his father build the Labyrinth for King Minos of Crete.124 I Icarus Icarus was the son of Daedalus. now known as the Icarian Sea. ofl^ the coast of what is now Turkey. El Greco. during 1525I30-1569 Miracle of St Ignatius Loyola (detail). Icarus flew too close to the sun which melted his wax. They escaped by fixing wings to their shoulders with wax and flying away.

) and other com- The chief interest of this great mystic was in missionary work and in teaching. from the first instance of her conception. The monogram has been erroneously confused with the phrases In Hoc Signo.IHS - INNOCENTS 125 convalescence recovering from a war wound. Ignatian development. still in wide use. El Greco.i^.). This means that the Virgin Mary's conception by her mother St Anne (^. Battista . at that time he had a vision of the Virgin Mary and Child which was so purifying that 'never again was there the least consent to any carnal thought'. According to his autobiography.v. Ildefonso. and Siena Jesus {q. into Egypt. but had gradually built up throughout the Middle Ages on the basis of such Biblical texts as Luke i. was made only in 1854. receiving his chasuble from the Virgin Mary. was preserved from all stain of Original Sin'. 28. that 'the Blessed Virgin . St A yth-century Spanish saint whose book on the Virgin Mary started the cult of the Mother of God in Spain. was a postpanions. See Virgin Mary. and a heart pierced by nails. 1541-1614 Salvator. . One of the most popular saints in Spain.v. very active in the Counter-Reformation. Giovanni i6g6-i770 Tiepolo. His attributes include a IHS dragon under his feet. He became archbishop of Toledo in 657. He died at the age of sixty-five. The idea of Jesuits as soldiers of Christ.v. he appears frequently in painting.) Hominum St Ildeforiso (detail). He formed the Society of Jesus in his 1534 with Francis Xavier {q. He produced a book of Spiritual Exercises. see Flight The Immaculate Conception. I H S The three contracted Greek monogram letters for Jesus. Immaculate Conception This the circumstances of Christ's those of the Virgin Mary's. St for the first Bernardino of gave the monogram wide publicity. Massacre of the. the monogram (q. St Ignatius Loyola (q. and it became the emblem of the Society of Jesus.) was immaculate and miraculous. . The formal announcement of the doctrine 'steadfastly believed by all the faithful' for centuries.v. Innocents. refers not to birth but to The dogma holds Mary.) adopted it.

lo retained the form of the peacock's tail sent a gadfly to a heifer until her arrival in Crucifixion (detail). who tality predict the birth Abraham and Sarah. Juno set the hundredeyed Argus to guard the heifer. on the look-out for beautiful girls. 1541-1614 Egypt when she gave birth to a son.in painting it Abraham moment an angel appears frequently St Michael .and last is discovers a which he can ram caught sacrifice as a in a thicket substitute for Isaac. Juno put the hundred eyes of Argus into and torment lo wherever she went. and Greek. Mercury put Argus to lo Ever Jupiter took the sleep with his flute playing and then cut ofFhis head. His heart firm. in Genesis xxii.as always . El Greco.by Juno. The union is hastened by her brother Laban when he sees the rich gold gifts the servant had given Rebecca. 'Where is the lamb for a burnt offering?'. and Rebecca Genesis xxiv tells at how Isaac sent a servant to find him a bride in Chaldea. Sacrifice of Isaac To was the test birth Abraham's Jehovah. and Latin. . It is Rebecca. Discovered . Hebrew.' INRI are the initials of the first letters of the words of the Latin text lesus Nazarenus Rex ludaeorum. THE KING OF THE JEWS and it was written in was JESUS . Jupiter sent Mercury to recover lo. he proceeds with the divine purfaith. 148^188-15^4 lo at a well is to be Isaac's bride. Antonio Correggio. pose but at the . OF NAZARETH. . he turned lo into a heifer and was forced to give her to Juno as a present.INRI -ISAAC 126 INRI John xix relates that 'Pilate wrote a and put it on the cross. Isaac The most important events in the life Isaac which appear in painting are as of follows: Birth of Isaac Genesis xviii relates the visit to Abraham of three men (angels representing Jehovah). after receiving hospi- of The a child to the aged result of Isaac. notwithstanding the touching question of the child. . form of a cloud and coupled with lo. The first girl who offers him Isaac length water embraced by Jupiter in the form of a cloud (detail). And the writing title. orders Abraham to sacrifice his beloved boy.

well (detail). 1683-1754 .Sacrifice of Isaac. Andrea del Sarto. 1486-1530 Isaac's servant Giovanni and Rebecca at the Battista Piazzetta.

Of the three battles Alexander the Great (q. the hunter-Bedouin type. Esau and Jacob. see Hagar. Issus.u. his birthright more civilized Jacob. by covering his arms and neck with goat skin to impersonate his hirsute elder brother Esau. Esau. By a trick Rebecca secures Isaac's death-bed blessing and right of succession for her favourite. Albrecht Altdorfer. in the mountains above what is now the Gulf of Alexandretta in southern Turkey. Bartolome Estebdn Murillo.) fought against Darius III. his iresounding victory at Issus in 333 BC marked the beginning of the end of Persian power. Jacob. Alexander destroyed the bulk of the Persian forces. Napoleon. was fascinated by the Macedonian's exploits and kept Altdorfer's imaginary painting of the battle . had sold to the smarter. who saw himself as a sort of latter-day Alexander.ISSUS 128 Isaac Blessing Jacob In Genesis xxvii Rebecca bears twin sons to Isaac. Choosing a terrain suitable tor his outnumbered troops. Battle of the Isaac blessing Jacob. Ishmael.ISHMAEL .in his bathroom. Earlier. 1617-1682 Battle of the Issus (detail). for a mess of pottage.stolen from Bavaria . 1480-1538 .

Very popular in France. .v). the Doctor. the company of Italian comedians was banned from 1697 to 1716 for offending the sanctimonious Mme de Maintenon. Colombine.ITALIAN COMEDIANS Comedians 1684-1721 Italian (detail). outline plot Its and a Italian of the Commedia professionals' and were an dialogue improvised by the main Italy in the i6th characteristics actors playing stock characters such as Harle- quin. (Right) Mezzetin. etc. Pierrot or Gilles {q. Companies of commedia players travelled all over Europe and greatly injfluenced the development of the Western theatre. 129 Antoine Watteau. Pantaloon. Antoine Watteau. 1684-1721 Italian delVarte reached Comedians The or its 'theatre high point in 17th centuries. Mezzetin.

Leah. He agreed to serve Laban ing on Dream ofJacob. Jacob sought a wife in Chaldea. 12 tells how in a dream Jacob saw 'a ladder set up on the earth.130 J Jacob Almost half of Genesis covers the life and times of Jacob. and the top of it reached to heaven: and behold the angels ascending and descendit. When he arrived at Hanan. La ban. the place of his uncle Laban. he met Rachel tending sheep and fell in love with her. and Rachel Like his father Isaac. i . Jacob. father of the twelve tribes of Israel. Among events in his life v^hich inspired paintings are the following Dream of Jacob Genesis xxviii. Jose de Ribera. i^gi-16^2 .' The dream reached its climax with Jehovah promising Jacob that his descendants would be his chosen people.

he whole night wrestling with a being who later revealed himself as an angel of the Lord from whom he received a blessing as further evidence of the favour he enjoyed in the eyes of Jehovah. . After a conversationless wedding night Jacob found in the morning he was married to the older but less beautiful 'tender-eyed' Leah. at Penuel. a final peaceful settlement Laban. to her. En route. Palma Vecchio. Jacob-Israel died at the age years.) He served another seven years and able to marry Rachel as his was finally second wife. for the love he had for seven years to unto him but a But Laban cheated him.JACOB 131 The Meeting ofJacob and Rachel (detail). Jacob left for and livestock. of 147 Jacob wrestling with the Angel.133- Jacob Wrestling with t/ie Angel After with the difficult Canaan with his wives.' (Genesis xxix. See P. 'They seemed few^ days. spent a name henceforth would be had striven with both Israel because he God and men. 20. The angel told him his children. Eugene Delacroix ijg8-i86^ . 1480-1^28 have her. and prevailed.

l kk . He was martyred by being thrown down from the Temple and beaten to death with a fuller's Giovanni club.f . active second half of ijth century James. at His attributes and a shell. saint of Spain. staff. Simone Martini and assistants. He is mentioned (Acts xv) as presiding over the Council of Jerusalem and James. and Peter (the St disciples closest to Christ are the three disciples always the others during the (^. Master of St Francis.). of Judaism. 1284-1344 St James the Less (detail).JAMES 132 St James the Greater. Greater) One of the . His body postela. of also include a pilgrim's Com- greatest He is the patron furriers. They were shown apart from Agony in the Garden also present at the Trans- figuration (^. St (the Less) Apostle who is Little said to (Acts xxi) instructing Paul how to demon- St James the Greater (detail). a wallet. John. c.he. His attribute strate his loyalty to the practices Battista Tiepolo. kai-^. According to a legend dating from the 7th century Herod Agrippa had James murdered after his return from Spain.t^. is supposed to be buried which became one of the pilgrimage centres in Europe. is known of this have been a close relative of Christ. 1696-1770 is the fuller's club.).

Jacob reproaching Laban. i^88(?)-i62g . Hendrick Terbrugghen.

and Jason and the Argonauts Pesellino. The vessel containing the blood is exhibited four times a year and liquefaction is recorded for certain of these occasions. The goldsmiths and is He the patron of invoked against eruptions of saint's attribute is a flask.JANUARIUS-JASON 134 Januarius. if he brought back from Colchis at the eastern end of the Black Sea a golden fleece guarded by a dragon. (detail). of which he had deprived him during his minority. Some of his dried blood is preserved in the Naples cathedral. St (Gennaro) A 4th-century martyr about whom little is known. mid i^th century A follower of Orpheus to help him. secured fifty Greek heroes including Hercules. Jason agreed. This phenomenon apparently went unnoticed until 1389 when mention was first made of it. 136. is Vesuvius. . See p. the Argo. Theseus. and set ofl^ built a fifty-oared ship. Jason Jason's uncle Pelias promised to return him the kingdom in Thessaly.

monasbut the saint. Aeetes agreed to give him performed certain tasks the golden fleece if he which were apparently impossible. the king's daughter who had fallen in love with him. 1598-1664 . 1443-1510 spent an man much given to violent The Golden Legend put into wide circulation many colourful stories about the saint. As the monks insisted it should work like everyone else in the monaslion is said to have limped into his tery. Jason stole the golden fleece and escaped with Medea {q. It was thereafter his constant companion. The story of the golden fleece is thought to concern a 13th-century BC joint trading venture in search of gold by Greek maritime towns. some years as a desert hermit. travelled widely in the Last Communion Sandro of St Jerome (detail). His marriage with her was an unmitigated disaster. Jason ploughed and sowed a field with dragons' teeth which sprouted fierce soldiers whom he had to fight and kill. It is said that while Orpheus charmed the dragon. St The most learned of the Four Church Fathers was born c. stolen accused the lion of eating the ass The and brought saint's it attributes it. Jason finally reached the kingdom of Aeetes who owned the golden fleece. Yoking up two firebreathing bulls. 137.v. and finally settled in Bethlehem in a monastery which his devoted companions established there.JEROME 135 After the usual assortment of adventures which showed up the skill. who removed the thorn from its paw. He is probably the only male saint to appear in church wearing women's clothes. 342 of prosperous parents on the Dalmatian coast. The ass was and the monks But the lion found back with the robbers. and weakness of his companions. Jason invoked the help of Medea. Medea had magical powers. his lion A was specially popular The with story of painters. See p.). He was day. Francisco de Zurhardn. the lingua franca of the He Middle East. his spiteful fellow students having placed irascible controversy. c. stupidity. the lion or the St Jerome with St Paula and St Eustochium (detail). Botticelli. are cardinal's hat. them in his cell in the darkness. bravery. it led out Jerome's ass to collect firewood each day. He translated the Bible into Latin. frightening all tery. Jerome. The journey was probably up the Adriatic rather than into the Black Sea.

Martyrdom oJStJanuarius. Luca Giordano. 1632-1703 .

^t Jerome in a landscape. Giovanni Battista Cima. 1459I60-1517I18 .

the Israeli port on the what Red is now Sea. 1757-1827 . married him. Moses sought refuge among the Jehovah-worshipping Midianites. and whether it could survive material loss. 141. The fight of the shepherds around the well was used by Mannerist painters to show naked dispute over the use of a well. Moses and Fleeing from the killing of an Egyptian overseer who had been harassing Israelite workers. and his health. Despite the loss of his extensive property. William Blake .JETHRO 138 S DAUGHTERS-JOB Jethro's Daughters. See p. and the hollow explanatory Satan smiting Job with sore boils. As a reward one of these daughters. bodies in violent conflict. generally considered the literary masterpiece of the Old Testament - tells the story of the wager between Satan and Jehovah concerning Job's piety and faith. in the area west of Elath. Joachim and Anne. Zipporah. see Virgin Job The book of Job - Mary. In a Moses helped the seven shepherdess daughters of Jethro against the hostile shepherds. his children.

a chalice it.). vindicated in his judgment. St Three separate men . Baptism). Prompted by her mother she asked for the head ofJohn the Baptist. Christ 'Among those that are born of women there is not a greater prophet. with a serpent emerging from Book of the see Holy Family. He died at His attributes are an the poison turning into a snake. the Messiah whom he later baptized {cf. 1519 Juan John.JOHN -JOSEPH 139 arguments of three maddening friends. many cities. 1430-1516 . St Generally considered to be the last Prophet of the Old Testament. active i^gd-c. The New Testament (his own Gospel) described Jesus loved'.' He also appears carrying a lamb and a scroll with the words 'Ecce Agnus Dei' (Behold the Lamb of God -John i. Hieronymus Bosch. John is the first saint of the New Testament. and Flight into St John at Patmos (detail). was the youngest of the Apostles. and a Jonathan. 140. According to legend he escaped death from immersion in boiling oil. and the author of Revelations were combined in later legend and given a continuous biography. An attempt to poison him failed. Egypt. the brother of James the Greater {q. See p.v.the Apostle. In painting he often appears as he was described in Matthew iii. : : Decapitation ofJohn the Baptist (detail). The the widow said that decapitation. and tailors. He is the patron of missionaries. Ephesus at a great age. and a leathern girdle about his loins and his meat was locusts and wild honey. he foretold the coming of Christ. St. John. 28.v. see David.) His rash criticism of Herod (q.' (Luke vii. c. got him arrested.v. the Evangelist. eagle. Gospel. a salver at with and delivery of the head on^ a banquet were popular subjects painters. It is Herod promised Herodias's daughter Salome {q.).) a gift. restored him to greater prosperity. 4 'John had his raiment of camel's hair. for murdering his brother and marrying considered that Herodias. de Flandes. including Florence. he never wavered. him He Mary following Book of is the after Christ's death Exiled to Patmos he there the as 'the disciple looked said to whom Virgin on the cross. have written Revelation. 36). Joseph. John the Baptist. Jehovah.

f Head of St John (detail). I . Masaccio. I40i-i428( ?) Moses defending the daughters ofjethro. 1494-154^ ^^. Giovanni Battista Rosso.

.

Judith made her way secretly through the siege lines and won the confidence of Holofemes. The discouraged and leaderless Babylonians were then routed by Judith's compatriots. by covering the food deficit of a seven-year drought. 3 'Then entered Satan into Judas sumamed Iscariot' and he agreed to betray Jesus to the Sanhedrin for thirty pieces of silver (mentioned only by Matthew). According to Luke xxii. had almost secured the surrender by siege of Bethulia.JOSEPH-JUDITH 142 Joseph The story Jacob and Rachel. is told in an Old Testament book not universally accepted as genuine. 1606-1669 Judas Iscariot The only one of the Apostles . and accusing him of theft. painting are in scenes of the Last Supper. One night when Judas returning the thirty pieces of silver Rembrandt van Ryn. he hanged himself. Holofernes. kissing Christ to others.he was the treasurer . Repenting of his treachery he unsuccessfully tried to give the money back. His brothers. See p. 1606-1669 (detail). 144. She then made nightly visits to his tent. Rembrandt van Ryn. Judas' appearances in . His explanation of Pharaoh's dreams of the seven lean cattle and seven lean ears of com consuming the seven fat cattle and seven fat ears of com resulted in falsely appointment as food minister. ofJoseph. he had fallen into a drunken sleep. identify him to the Temple police. told old Jacob that a wild animal had eaten him. a young widow of Bethulia in north Palestine. she seized her chance and decapitated him. came to Egypt to beg food. Benjamin. . showing him the 'coat of many which they had stained with animal blood. Joseph went to prison where he developed his gift for dream interpretation. Judith and Holofernes The story ofJudith.who came from Judea. where he is generally shown apart from the and at Gethsemane. a Babylonian general. and his own people. Before revealing himself he played a trick on them by hiding a silver goblet in the sack of the youngest. Storing the of seven good years he saved the Egyptians. His ten jealous elder brothers sold They him into slavery. without recognizing him. In Egypt Joseph became the trusted slave of an officer named Potiphar whose wife colours' accused him of attempted rape. his harvests Joseph relating his dreams. favourite son of is told in Genesis. Aghast at his crime.

Callisto Hercules (^. is in the Judgment of Paris (q.f.). Matteo di Giovanni. 1377-1640 . lo Bacchus {q. Peter Paul Rubens.- %* 4 i^.JUNO 143 Juno Wife (and of Jupiter. In Greek mythology she is Hera.)y (^. viz on his vengeance infidelities tiple Semele.v.). but Jupiter slew him and Juno put his eyes in the tail of her peacock. 14^3-1495 v>. naked or nearly so.. ^.. But she is the moving force behind the events in many mythological scenes. .v. and Queen sister) of Heaven.i^. ideal protectress Judith with the head of Holofernes.u... ' .)» Antigone.v. following up the mul- of Jupiter and wreaking victims or their children. Her best-known appearance. c. She sent the hundred-eyed Argus to spy on lo {q. (q. ^^^- Appro- priately her absolute fidelity to Jupiter made of marriage and her the women. ? 1 J( ^^B' |gj 4 fl«ii ^ ~\^^^^^ E:-fl ^- Jwno '""^^ Argus.).).

Paolo Veronese.Judith with the head oj Holofernes. c. 1328-1388 .

JUPITER

145

Jupiter As an
served

infant, Jupiter's life

from

his

child-devouring

was prefather,

His mother Rhea, the
hid him among
Mother
Goddess,
Great
nymphs. He was suckled by a goat named
Amalthea whom he later immortalized by

Cronus or Saturn

placing her

(q.v.).

among

the stars as Capricorn.

When

he came to manhood he ousted his
and became greatest and most powerful
of all the gods. Jupiter, or Zeus, as he was
known to the ancient Greeks, is the supreme
symbol of the civilizing and ethical force, and
the inspirer of laws. His enormous energy he controlled lightning and other natural
phenomena - was recognized by the Greeks
as sexuality in its broadest, most creative and
liberating sense hence the vast number of his
love affairs (see Antiope, Europa, Ganymede,
lo). It was the highly imaginative eroticism of
father

:

these adulterous adventures

which

fascinated

and post-Renaissance painters.
What the ancient Greeks emphasized is that
these unions produced gods and goddesses
who are symbols of those humanizing features
which distinguish men from the other animals. Thus, as the mythologues remind us,
his liaison with Themis produced the Seasons
and the Three Fates {q.v.) with Mnemosyne,
three Muses; with Eurynome, the three
Graces or Charities, and so on.
Renaissance

;

The Nurture ofJupiter (detail).
Nicolas Poussin, 1394-1665

146

Lamb, Mystic The

idea of the lamb as a
comes to us from Judaism.
As a sacrificial symbol of Christ - it appears
frequently with blood pouring from its breast
into a chalice - it is one of the most persistent
symbols in Western painting. Its Biblical
authority is immense and frequent, from
Isaiah liii, 7, 'He is brought as a lamb to the
slaughter', to John i, 29 '. .John seeth Jesus
coming unto him, and saith, Behold the Lamb
of God, which taketh away the sin of the

sacred ritual animal

.

world', to reach a climax in the Revelation of

Adoration of the Mystic Lamb (detail of the
panel of altarpiece). Hubert and
Jan van Eyck, completed in 1432
central

St John with its twenty-eight references to the
lamb. In painting the lamb appears often as an
attribute of John the Baptist, but also of St

Agnes

word

(^.f .),

because of the pun on the Latin

for lamb, agnus.

L

A

MENTAT O N
I

-

L

AOCOON

147

Lamentation The Lamentation

is

variant of the Crucifixion scene

{q.v.).

foot of the cross stand

some or

all

generally a

At the

of the per-

sons the Gospels mention as being present the
:

Virgin Mary,
Less,

Mary the mother oi

Mary Magdalene, and

St

St James the

John

who

had

been asked by Christ to care for his mother.

Sometimes the scene is indistinguishable from a
Not infrequently the donors {q.v.)
or patrons who commissioned works got their
portraits included with the group.

Pieta {q.v.).

Lao CO on The war between the Greeks and
many of whom
were partisans of one side or the other.
Laocoon, a Trojan priest of Apollo, warned
Trojans involved the gods,

his

countr\'men against the

wooden

horse

left

by the apparently retreating Greeks. His

'I

Greeks particularly when they bring
was answered by Minerva sending two large serpents which destroyed
Laocoon and his two sons. This cleared the way
fear the

gifts'

[Aeneid)

for the entry into

which disgorged
destroyed the city
ten years.

Troy of the wooden

horse,

Greek soldiers who then
which had resisted them for

its

Laocoon. El Greco, 1^41-1614

(Below) Lamentation (detail).
Hugo van der Goes, c. 1440-1482

LAPITHS-LAST JUDGMENT

148

Battle between the Lapiths

Piero di Cosimo,

c.

and Centaurs

(detail).

1462-after 1515

Lapiths and Centaurs, Battle between

Homer and Ovid

are the source for the story

of the great battle at the wedding of King
Peirithous between the Lapiths, a wild people
from Thessaly, and the Centaurs, equally wild
creatures, half-horse, half human. (They were
one of Jupiter's weirdest experiments, being
the final product of a union between a mortal
and a cloud shaped like Juno.) At the wedding,
a drunken Centaur tried to rape the bride. In
the ensuing battle the Centaurs were driven
out of Thessaly. Not all Centaurs were lustful
and drunken sober ones such as Chiron were
the teachers of such heroes as Achilles (^.i^.).
:

Last Judgment Both the Old and New
Testaments foresee the end of the world when,
as Matthew xxv relates, Christ the supreme
magistrate will judge the quick and the dead,
separating 'his sheep

from the

goats'.

Man,

only too aware of the human condition, has
always been more precise about Hell than
about Heaven. Many painters, therefore, concerned particularly about their didactic task,
have concentrated on the torments of the

damned. The Church encouraged
for political purposes,
Last Judgment. Hubert van Eyck, died 1426

to

this,

often

demonstrate that

whatever the worldly rank of the sinner, only
Church could intercede for them.

the

_.l

LAST SUPPER-LAZARUS

149

St Lawrence. Francisco de Zurbardn, I3g8-i664

St Lau>LiUL Jistribunng alms (detail).

Fra Angelica, IJ86I87-1455

Last Supper, sec Eucharist.

Lawrence, St A 3rd-century Spanish treasChurch who was martyred in
Rome. Ordered to turn over the Church
urer of the

- he had aheady distributed everything to the poor - he presented
the officials with the poor, the halt, and the
blind. He was killed by being roasted on a
griddle. The Golden Legend claims that during
his torture he called out to his executioners,
'Thou hast roasted that one side, turn that
other, and eat.' His attribute is the gridiron and
he is often shown with money, which he
distributed to the poor. He is the patron of
treasures to authority

cooks.

Lazarus The story of the raising of Lazarus
from the dead is told in John xi. In the small
town of Bethany, Jesus had three followers,
Mary, Martha, and their brother Lazarus. The
sisters

sent

a

message to Jesus

brother was very

ill.

When

that

their

came to
dead. Martha

Christ

Bethany Lazarus was already
said: 'By this time he stinketh: for he hath
been dead four days.' But at the tomb, Christ
'cried with a loud voice, Lazarus, come forth.
And he that was dead came forth.'

Raising of Lazarus
active

14^0— i^go

(detail).

Nicolas Froment,

Delacroix sympathized with the people of Paris who did the fighting for the bourgeoisie last in the 1830 revolution and commemorated the events in a large painting.). Out of one hatched Pollux and Helen (q. Liberty Leading the People The revolution of 1830 which overthrew the restored Bourbon monarchy and enabled the French bourgeoisie to exercise power less fettered by the restrictions of the old system inspired one of the but greatest allegorical paintings.LEDA -LIBERTY 150 Leda with the Swan c. and wife of a Spartan king. king of He had two daughters who were carried away (the original meaning of 'raped') on their wedding day by their cousins Castor Sparta. the romantic figure of Liberty. Jupiter turned himself into a swan and made of Thestius.v.) and out of the other Castor and Clytemnestra. She subsequently gave birth to two eggs. 1577-1640 In his predilection for exotic couplings. daughter Leucippus brother of Tyndarus. He . carrying a rifle realistic Liberty leading the people (detail).v. Eugene Delacroix. 1494-153^ Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus Peter Paul Rubens. (detail). love to the beautiful Leda. 1798-1863 inserted in a barricade scene. cluttered with dead and dying. a handsome Junoesque figure. Leda (detail). Antonio Correggio. and Pollux {q.

St Tradition holds that Longinus was the name of the centurion who was present at Christ's Crucifixion. His death was most Christian. Detail from Crucifixion. nephew of Abraham. The attribute of Longinus is a lance.LOT 151 and the republican tricolour as she leads the attack. Christ's side said. 1480-1538 c. Gomorrah and the other three wicked cities. Lot Lot. On recovering his sight that official immediately became a Christian. but all were saved by the angels temporarily blinding the perous herdsman Lot and his daughters. 39. St Longinus. The picture was bought by the French bourgeois government but not exhibited for years. Mark and He as pierced he died. Limbo. During the night. He promised that his martyrdom would restore the sight of the blind official who had condemned him. Lot offered his daughters instead. Long in us.' He lived in Caesarea and was martyred there. Andrea Orcagna. following what seemed to be a weird local custom. c. Genesis xviii and xix tell the story of the fate of Sodom. with according to his lance. Albrecht Altdorfer. 1308-1368 . was a proswho settled in Sodom. one of five cities of the Dead Sea region. see Christ in Limbo. some of the population tried to rape Lot's guests. xv. Lot offered hospitality in Sodom to two travelling angels. 'Truly this man was the Son of God.LIMBO .

Her relatives thereupon over- threw the monarchy of the Tarquins and established the republic. Denounced by her pagan fiance.LUCRETIA -LUCY 152 Lucretia. This legendary Roman womanly her. Lucretia virtue During his King of Rome. Lorenzo Lotto. c. . Lucy. the model of early was the wife of an absence a son of Tarquin. the daughters. Lot left Sodom for the mountains with his wife and two daughters. Revealing her defilement to her husband and father. raped oflicial. in order to have made Lot drunk and committed incest with him. Warned by the angels to and not look back. 1480-1536I57 would-be ravishers. The cities of the plain were then obliterated by brimstone and fire. St Sicily A virgin of Syracuse in southern who was martyred during the Diocle- tian persecutions in the early 4th century. children. Lot's wife looked back and was turned into a pillar of salt. Later in the flee mountains. like Agatha. she killed herself.

He is patron of doctors. Her over Europe. ijgg/ 1400-1464 c. painting the Virgin Mary. Rogicr van der St Lucy. was She also survived finally decapitated. and her attributes are a lamp. and painters. St The Evangelist-author of the third Gospel and the Acts ot the Apostles. she escaped the horrors of incineration but a brothel. St Luke painting the Virgin (detail). Francesco del Cossa. butchers. He was boni in Antioch. A number of churches claim to have works painted by him. and frequently a pair of human relics are distributed all eyes. was a nonJewish physician. probably into a prosperous Greek family. 14^^-1477 . she plucked them out and sent them to him. Luke. She is invoked against eye diseases and sore throat. She is patroness of the blind. and a friend of St Paul. His attribute is a winged ox. According to the legend he was a painter and appears as such in Flemish works. It is said that her eyes so attracted a suitor that for tear this might do him harm.LUKE the saint of neighbouring Catania. Weyden. a sword.

no with The Virgin Mary and the special connection on her infant Jesus held in her arms. particuhas larly in Italy. 1420-1481 Madonna and Child c. and donors {q.v. Raphael. and the shell as a symbol of pilgrimage. Sometimes the Virgin and Child are portraits of the donor's wife and child or even the painter's symbol mistress. may or in a group which include angels. it any Biblical text. 1483-1520 430(35. In Italy the scallop shell was often the shape of the receptacle for baptismal water. or lying lap. the apple as fruit of salva- symbol of Christ. the cherry of delight of the blessed.154 M Madonna and lar subject in Child Perhaps the most popu- Renaissance painting.). Madonna and Child. 1 (detail). Hans Memlinc. Jehan Fouquet. the egg and butterfly standing for the resurrection and rebirth. viz. Child. saints.1494 m. Frequently displayed are objects. The subject of the Madonna and Child has a history which dates from the Byzantine period to the tion.^: . the pear as as fruit Madonna and c. are displayed alone.

Manna. Judges xiii tells the exemplary story of how strict adherence to the Jewish dietary laws and proper offerings to Jehovah overcame his gave birth phenomenally strong Samson. others that it was a sort of edible lichen. sugary exude from a desert plant. . the food which fell from heaven and fed the Israelites during their forty years wandering in the desert after they bers xi describe left Egypt. its taste varied Manoah Manoah was the father of Samson. Manna looked like coriander but from 'wafers made with honey' to 'fresh oil'. It fell daily. wife's sterility so that she eventually The to the Rembrandt van Ryn. Bacchiacca.MAN OF SORROWS - The Gathering of Manna MANOAH 155 (detail). Some researchers believe Manna was an edible. 19th century. nature of the subject Man it supplies at of Sorrows. Gathering of Exodus xvi and NumManna. and was the Israelites' main diet. except on the Sabbath. 1606-1669 offering of Manoah (detail). sec Agony in the Garden. Given the elemental 1495-1557 human any one time a telling index of the relation between religious thought and humanism.

a Swiss from Neuchatel. or Ares. He finally established himself as an influential republican political figure. Mark travelled widely in the Mediterranean and was with Peter in Rome. She met her death in the classical martyr's way. and had the explicit purpose of keeping alive the memory of a revolutionary hero. whose patron he became. He is thought to have founded the Church in Alexandria where he was bishop.) took place in her house in Jerusalem. and later very successfully in Paris. and being swallowed St Margaret (detail).MARAT.MARS 156 Marat. Mars Mars. Her attributes are a cauldron and a dragon. was one of the three children of Jupiter and Juno. She the cross she was wearing grew bigger and finally split the dragon open. His remains were removed from Alexandria in 829 to St Mark's in Venice. Roman Rejecting the attentions of a prefect. who believed him to be a monster of wickedness. A virgin martyr from the Antioch region known in the Near East as Marina . Francisco de Zurhardn. She survived incineration. Tintoretto. studied medicine in France. His mother was a prosperous friend of Christ and it is thought that the Last Supper (q.' Among . His attribute Martyrdom of St Mark 1518-1594 (detail). being decapitated. who had talked with him the day before his death. as he sat writing in his medicinal bath. See p. He was assassinated by Charlotte Corday. I5g8-i664 escaped this latter hazard by when a dragon.who died during the Diocletian Margaret. for thou enjoy est nothing but strife. 157. The famous painting by his friend David. She sometimes appears in painting Mark. marks a high point in classic realism. He practised in London. war and battles. Legend has him martyred by being dragged through the streets of Alexandria. is a winged lion. and during the Revolution edited VAmi du Peuple. The St as a shepherdess. he denounced her as a Christian. thou art the most odious to me. It is one of the finest and most powerful political paintings ever made. Death of Marat (1743-93). the god of war. St persecutions.v. boiling water. His father's opinion of him is quoted in the Iliad: 'Of all the gods who live in Olympus. Evangelist-author of the second Gospel.

1748-1823 . Jacques-Louis David.The death of Marat.

Apollo and Marsyas. Piero i462-i32i(?) di Cosimo. c. The more serious and war-minded Romans treated Mars as one of their most revered gods. the rational Greeks his bluster and strength of ridicule. Peter Paul Rubens. Vulcan made a fine net and with it captured Mars and Venus fornicating. 1577-1640 .MARS 158 Venus and Mars. were often He a cause exhibited the captives to the gods of Olympus. causing great laughter. A favourite story tells how his ugly brother Vulcan suspected him of carrying on an illicit affair with his wife Venus.

) John was raised from the dead by Christ. Midas {q. prayer to the Virgin Mary and a promise to give up her whore's sible obstruction For many life overcame the inviand she became very devout.) was one of the judges and awarded the victory to Marsyas. and They became as a practical. tale Martha and Mary Bethany sisters. His sanctuary was sacked by the Protestants in 1562 as a ally politico-religious gesture.MARSYAS . 160. St A 4th-century prostitute from Alexandria who solicited business among the pilgrims en route to Jerusalem. After great missionary activities among the local heathens. exempla of the active and contemplative life. years she lived in the Syrian Desert female hermit and is reputed to have walked across the waters of the Jordan to take Holy Communion. In describing Christ's visit to two the Martha Mary Luke sisters.MARY Marsyas The 159 of the satyr Marsyas is a superb illustration of hubris. Apollo punished Midas by giving him ass's ears but reserved a special and terrible punishment for Marsyas. Ovid in his Metamorphoses tells how Apollo accepted Marsyas' challenge to a contest on the reed pipes. Biblical scholars. see Virgin Mary. Mystically prevented from entering a Jerusalem church. Tertullian and other early Church Fathers identify the Mary of Bethany with Mary Magdalene (q. Quentin 1464I65-1530 Massy s.). referred whose brother Lazarus {q.v. 38-42) portrays woman. but this is not accepted by many to in xi. he eventu- became bishop of Tours.v. See p. She died in the desert and as a St Mary of Egypt. He became Christian when his Martin. . Mary of Egypt. (x. See p. His attribute is a cloak. He is one of the earliest non-martyred saints. 161. St regiment was moved to Gaul. Here he perof heroic charity by dividing winter cloak into two and giving one half formed his 4th-century son of a his act to a shivering beggar.v. industrious more as easy-going. He hung him from a pine tree and flayed him while he was alive. A Roman soldier who came originally from what is now Hungary. Mary.

Peter Paul Rubens.Christ in the House of Martha and Mary. 1577-1640 ' 1 .

El Greco.St Martin and the Beggar. 1541-1614 .

He was present at the Ascension (^. suggested and tradition has 'adultress'. He and the Theban legion he commanded were sent on a mission to persecute Christians. St The Calling of St Matthew (detail).) and was first witness of the Resurrection [cf. c. Referred to frequently in the Gospels. now twice deci- refusing to Saint-Maurice. holding banner. or angel.). the legion was mated and then wiped out at Agaunum. There is much ecclesiastical dispute as to whether he was martyred. Her the ointment jar.MAURICE l62 her grave was dug by a monk and a lion.v. See p. in the Swiss shown Rhone Valley. St Her name probably came from that of her native town of Magdala near the west side of Lake Galilee. On do this. His attribute is a winged man. used in the and Marseilles attribute is anointing of Christ's feet. His travels were wide and took him to Ethiopia. Matthew. i Maurice. repentant prostitute {cf. and sword. and Christ attended a feast in his house (see Levi). His other name was Levi. Mary Magdalene. as having had seven devils driven out of her. Marinus van Roymersvaele. she was present many critical at events and places including the foot of the Cross. and where. see Flight into Egypt. She is said to have died in Ephesus where she lived with the Virgin Mary. 1497-1567 A legendary saint who was martyred at the end of the 3rd century. and to Persia. lance. the south Caspian region. . St The author of the first Apostle and Evangelist- Gospel. He armour.f . 164. French claims tradition Mary Magdalene. the Entombment {q. He is patron of infantry and is invoked against religious is usually as a soldier in intolerance. Massacre of the Innocents.MARY. he was originally a tax gatherer or publican of Capernaum. Noli me tangere). Her of bread and she is painting wearing nothing attributes are three loaves sometimes shown in but long hair. 1487190-1576 that she proselytized in converted Provence. Titian. Christ in the She who that she it was the anointed Jesus' feet House of Simon also reported is also It is Hebrew name means the that by Luke the Pharisee). He s patron of bankers and tax collectors.

v. Hans Baldung Grien. 1484I85-1545 (Left) Medea. Medusa Medusa had once been a beautiful but foolishly thought her hair was as beautiful as Minerva's. She was punished for her presumption by having her hair turned young girl Her appearance was then anyone looking at her was stone. I7g8-i86j marry a friendly gesture bride a present of a dress. so frightful that turned to Perseus {q.) to get the golden fleece. Medea sent the new their children to As St Maurice (detail).MEDEA .^09t^^tMtt.). When her unfortunate successor donned the garment. i^yj-idio . After a few years of marriage Jason magician abandoned Medea and a Corinthian princess. Medea then slaughtered her children and for Athens in a chariot left drawn by winged dragons. Caravaggio. Eugene Delacroix.MEDUSA 163 ^^k^^M" 1 f •^ ^<^^^P^ ^^Cn ^"^jmL^ s i ^^kF ^^^^StBtBI^^ ^^^J^J^^^ ^Sks9 W^^^^^mL llmV^^^^. ^^yPi K m ^^r \ m * <fl i '^^^S^^^l ^^^^^^^^^^m\ 1 ^ JM . she fled with him. Medusa. ^ ^^a^^^^^M HUk^' ^^^^Hi ^^^mS^V |1^K^ // : i 1 H ^^^^^HBr ^s^^ '^'-^^^P^^BK^aS^tm J ^^^'^^ES^KBSSk!^^ 1^^ Medea The daughter of King Aeetes of Colchis.f. After helping Jason (^. it burst into flames and killed her. delaying her pursuing father by cutting up her brother and throwing pieces into the path of his ship. She was later killed by into hissing snakes.

The Meeting oj 67 trasmus and St Maurice. 1470I80-1528 before Venus. Mathis Gmnewald. Antonio Correggio. 1494-^534 . (Right) h^cury instructing Cupid c. c.

.

Napoleon's Gericault chose a subject which provided an opportunity to use new techniques of realism to depict the truth about anguish and pain. Reacting against the official painters squandering who glorified of human lives. sank off the African coast.1 MEDUSA -MERCURY 66 The Raft of the Medusa. leaving the The crew on a raft towed for several days until Of the 150 men on escaped in officers it a which they broke loose. on their last journey. Mercury Son ofJupiter and Maia. in addition he accompanied the souls of the dead Mercury (detail). To prepare his painting he undertook fantastic naturalistic research. He was also the patron of any activity requiring skill and manual dexterity. the Roman god of commerce. He is identical with the Greek god Hermes and was the special protector of thieves and burglars. the Medusa. Messenger of the gods. Medusa. the raft only fifteen were alive when later. The fruit of his affair with his half-sister Venus was Hermaphroditus who . Theodore 1791-1824 Gericault. and the study in hospitals of men dying. Gericault chose for his subject the period it was sighted about two weeks immediately before the rescue. 1484I85-1545 Hans Baldung Grien. including the reconstruction and launching in the sea of a model of the raft. hfeboat. Raft of the 1816 a French In military transport frigate.

The Cupid who appears with Mercury and Venus in Correggio's painting is not his child. See p. turned to gold.' In Hebrew his name means 'Who is like God?' He is the guardian angel of Israel. St He is the Archangel-warrior in charge of the Heavenly Host which defeated Satan and his hordes. See Mezzetin. Nicolas Poussin. To rid himself of his gift. for superior in music.v. He has made many appearances in Western Europe.f.^^Sii* ^^^^^^^^pB ^^^^^^P\j^^^^h|^^^^^^^^^^^ "^ '*<«p'^^^^^^H|^^H . and he is invoked in battle and in peril at sea. This is referred to in Revelations xii. p. His attributes are a pair of scales . from Bacchus [q. see Italian Comedians. : Midas Apollo punished Midas. but was Venus' son by Mars. Midas Marsyas judging To repay the kindness of St Michael (detail). Midas was granted his wish that whatever he touched.MIDAS 167 developed into half-man.) was gift equally unfortunate.to weigh souls . Among the early Christians he was the protector of the sick and he later became the protector of soldiers.MEZZETIN. 165. 168. he had to wash in in helping the the river Pactolus were said to whose sands in ancient times be gold-bearing. Michael. He had to beg Bacchus to take back his gift as even his food turned to gold. Domenico Ghirlandaio. A more generous (^.) his by giving him ass's ears. King of Phrygia. 1449-1494 drunken Silenus {q.and a sword. ^. and Christians in general. "wiU 1 y\ Midas and Bacchus 1594-1665 "" Mi^" " (detail). 7: 'And there was war in heaven Michael and his angels fought against the dragon.) fmd his way back to his friends. half-woman. '^^'^IBfij^^^^^n^ K » ^ ^ wkr\ • # .v.

St Michael. Bartolome Bermejo. active 1474-1495 .

) by the mortal Alcmene should get off to a good start in life by drinking goddess milk.v.MILKY WAY-MINERVA Origin of the Milky Way 169 (detail). Tintoretto. general. 1518-1594 . Origin of The road taken by the gods to Jupiter's palace was called the Milky Way.v. because he feared that their child might carry on the family tradition and supplant him as he had supplanted his own industry. and civilization in She was the protectress of many heroes such as Achilles {q. household arts. Jupiter. cannibalistic father. Minerva (detail). Juno leapt up so that milk exploded into the sky. the Roman equivalent of Athena.). anxious that his son Hercules (q.) and Ulysses {q.v. Minerva sprang fully armed from the cleft.). who split open his skull. Awakened by the tugging at her nipple. creating the Milky Way. 1518-1594 Milky Way. Saturn {q. Her birth was unusual even for a child of Jupiter.v. Jupiter swallowed her pregnant mother. A Byzantine legend provides one explanation of its origin. hid the baby in Juno's bed. Tintoretto. was the virgin goddess of wisdom. Minerva Minerva. Jupiter's subsequent headache was treated drastically by Vulcan. Metis.

Numbers. Finding of IVIoses He was born in Egypt. his sumed. One of Pharaoh's fifty-nine daughters found the child and compassionately adopted him. . and the bush was not conIn Moses and the burning 1389-1624 bush. Domenico Feti. Tintoretto. His mother saved him from an Egyptian massacre of Hebrew firstborn by putting him in a wicker basket and floating him on to the Nile. Moses The sources for the principal events in the hfe of Moses.v)l\/loses and tfie Burning Bush Exodus iii. behold. who led the Israelites out of Egypt into the promised land. the bush burned with fire. of. the greatest Jewish lawgiver.' Jehovah then told him to bring the children of Israel out of Egypt 'unto a land flowing with milk and honey'. Christ at the Sea see Galilee. and. one of Jethro's daughters {q. are in Exodus. Brought up as an Egyptian. and Deuteronomy.1 MIRACULOUS DRAUGHT OF FISHES-MOSES 70 The Finding of Moses. at a time when Pharaoh feared the power of the Israelites. hot-tempered youth he killed an Egyptian ill-treating Israelite workers and fled to the land of Midian where he married Zipporah. somewhere between the 15 th and 13 th centuries B c. I5i8-i5g4 Miraculous Draught of Fishes. he never forgot his Hebrew origin. 2 records that while working for Jethro as a herdsman 'the angel of the Lord appeared unto him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush: and he looked.

Exodus xii. c. boils. flies. Departure of the Israelites. 37. before Pharaoh.MOSES 171 Moses before Pharaoh Hebrews Pharaoh's re- Egypt was overcome by a series of natural and unnatural disasters such as water turning to blood. 1500/ io-i57g . fiery hail. with perhaps some exaggeration. and plagues of frogs. The final persuader was a lethal plague which slew all Egyptian first-born but passed over the Hebrews. lice. suggests a departing multitude of about two million fusal to let the leave people with livestock. Pharaoh finally concluded that Egypt would be safer without the Hebrews. and passage of the Red Sea Pharaoh's heart hardened when he considered the economic consequences of the Hebrew departure . and locusts. The Egyptian out in pursuit and caught up with the army set Israelites Moses and Aaron Felix Chretien .

and the horsemen. Moses with the Ten Commandments. brazen serpents destroyed other backsliders. Moses Hebrews passed to on dry land. Exodus xiv.v).' The forty years wandering of the Israelites During their desert years Jehovah parted the waters and the the other side provided the Israelites with quails. or partridges. Cosimo Rosselli. burnt the idol.reached its climax when he ascended Mt Sinai and Jehovah gave him two tablets of stone on which were inscribed ments. and slaughtered three thousand Hebrews to restore discipline.MOSES 172 Crossing of the Red Sea (detail). Drinking-water was provided by Moses' striking springs from rocks. .v). As for the pursuing Egyptians. and all the host of Pharaoh that came into the sea after them: there remained not so much as one of them. I4jg-i507 at the Red Sea. His religious and social indoctrination of the Israelites . In his anger he broke the stone tablets. 28 relates that 'the waters returned.a system of beliefs and practices known as the Mosaic Law . 1606-1 66g the Ten Command- On his descent with the stone tablets he found his people dancing around the Golden Calf [q. and Manna {q. Rembrandt van Ryn. to* keep the lesson fresh. and covered the chariots. Later. With Jehovah's help.

Thus Thalia carries a mask. Eustache Le Sueur. Erato (Lyric and Love Poetry). Polyhymnia sucks a fmger. Terpsichore (Dancing). Euterpe and Thalia (detail). Polyhymnia (Hymns and Mimic art).: MUSES 173 The Promised Land Not permitted to Promised Land because his faith in had not been total. 1617-1655 . Paintings of from the life of Moses occur frequently from the end of the 15 th to the end thereafter died at the age subjects of the 17th centuries. retinue Their names and fields of competence w^ere Clio (History). Urania (Astronomy). The Muses Clio. he was given a Jehovah distant view^ of it from Mt Pisgah and shortly enter the of 120. Melpomene (Tragedy). Muses The nine Muses formed part of the of Apollo and inhabited Parnassus. and Calliope (Epic Poetry). Thalia (Comedy). Euterpe (Music or Lyric Poetry). and Calliope holds a stylus and tablet. They often appear in painting with their attributes.

see Adoration of the Shepherds. Finally his vanity was his own undoing. 1594-1665 . see Bathsheba. Nativity. Nathan Admonishing David.174 N Narcissus Narcissus brought grief to many Echo) by coldly spuming their advances. Follower of Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio.some say a male suitor and they condemned Narcissus to know the pains of Unreciprocated love. The gods answered the prayers of a thwarted nymph . Nicolas Poussin . From his blood sprang the plant narcissus. narcotic. He fell in love with his own reflection in a mountain pool and the lack of response drove him to suicide. Its active chemical principle gives us our word men and women [cf. Narcissus. 1466I67-1516 Narcissus. c.

Salvator Rosa. a princess sibly the family laundry when she discovered the naked Ulysses. offered Ulysses the hospitality of his kingdom.was swallowed at birth by his father Cronus. the king.posCorfu . Her father. active 1503.was helping her attendants with Ithaca. i^jj . died c. His younger brother.J NAUSICAA-NEPTUNE Nausicaa Homer relates the last 175 adventure of Ulysses before he finally reached his home in of Scheria . Nausicaa. Neptune Neptune . and Robert Graves consider that the Odyssey was written by a woman and that Nausicaa is a self-portrait of the authoress. a sort of early but charming Utopia. Jupiter. Mahuse (Jan Gossaert). freshly cast up from the sea after his disastrous eight-year misadventure with Calypso. 161 5-16 J Neptune and Amphitrite. Apollodorus. rescued him by inducing in Cronus a vomiting fit.Poseidon in Greek mythology . After he recuperated. On the death of Cronus he became god of Odysseus and Nausicaa. Samuel Butler. Nausicaa's friendly people heaped him with presents and took him to his home in nearby Ithaca.

c. He married a Nereid named By another union.) and of the winged horse Pegasus. Labours of. see Hercules. he was the father of Polyphemus (q^P.). Among the Romans he was the patron of the race-course. and saving a ship time they exude an oily substance supposed to have medicinal value. Nessus. Nicholas. c. 1348-1628 .NESSUS-NICHOLAS 176 the sea and water. A great web of legend grew up round his name. such as secretly supplying three bags of gold as a dowry for three girls would otherwise be reduced who to prostitution. He is the saint who Consecration of St Nicholas (detail). He was bishop of Myra where he died. by a wicked from shipwreck. His remains were stolen by Italian merchants in 1087 and brought to Bari where from time to restoring to life three boys killed butcher. 1328-1588 The Charity of St Nicholas. He performed several known charitable acts. Paolo Veronese. Pietro Candido. In art he is almost invariably portrayed holding a trident.v. and they Amphitrite (q. St (of Myra or Bari) Little is about this 4th-century saint from Asia Minor who was imprisoned during the Diocletian persecutions. were numerous.

). Antonio Correggio. bankers. Noli see Flood. attributes include the three balls used as a pawnbroker's sign. physical. Lo Scarsellino.v. the first person to appeared after the Resurrection phrase whom {q. 17 was by Jesus in the garden to Mary Magda- not touch uttered lene (q. but also of travellers. 1531-1620 German-speaking Switzerland. merchants.v. me tangere The phrase is Latin for do me and according to John xx. Noah.). which are thought to stand for the three bags of gold.NOAH-NOLI ME TANGERE 177 Noli me tangere. he The meant to signify that from hencebetween humans and the Son of God would be spiritual and not Noli me tangere. He is understandably patron of children. c. His in lands. the Netherand Germany brings presents to children on 6 December. In other countries he has been identified with Santa Glaus. and pawnbrokers. is forth the relation 1494-1534 .

Fearing that kill his presumptive father. Accordingly he abandoned his son Oedipus at birth. Oedipus and the Sphinx The Delphic oracle King of Thebes. 1841-igig . Pierre-Auguste Renoir.178 o Odalisque The French corruption of a Turk- word for a female slave or concubine in the seraglio of the Sultan of Turkey. Oedipus consulted the Delphic oracle who repeated the dire prediction. subject had The a particular attraction for French painters (Delacroix. Jocasta (Laius's told Laius. Shepherds saved the child and gave it to King Polybus of Corinth who wife). Renoir. Years later. Matisse) during the period of expanding French colonialism in North Africa. Byron in Don Juan (6. Ingres. that his son would kill him and marry his mother. he would Odalisque. xxix) gave ish publicity to the term and the occupation. Polybus. adopted it. concerned about his origin. The word seems first to have come into use in the late 17th century.

King of Chios. The grateful Thebans made Oedipus king and he married Jocasta. He recovered his eyesight by gazing at the sunrise. Travelling on. and in the ensuing quarrel he killed him. and even rocks. After Thebes was devastated by plague. see and Adam and Eve. Orpheus Orpheus. and discovered the truth. cared for by his devoted answer her riddle. see Hercules. Orion giant. 1826-1898 notable ex- death he was turned into a constellation. he encountered near Thebes a monster called the Sphinx.OMPHALE-ORPHEUS he hastily Corinth. his mother. Antigone. daughter. Oedipus was commanded by Apollo to fmd the murderer of Laius. Nepby Oenopion.) and the Argonauts. Gustave Moreau. He wandered off. Omphale. the joint son tune and Mercury. maliciously blinded His later career ploits. was bitten and died. the Sphinx committed suicide. She immediately became a shadow and returned Blind Orion searching for the Rising Nicolas Poussin. A of Jupiter. and included after his many Oedipus and the Sphinx. Unknowingly he had killed Laius. Original Sin. . trod on a snake. his music enabled the dangers of the Sirens guarding the golden them to pass and charm the dragon fleece. whose daughter he was wooing. left On 179 the road he met a stranger who disputed his right of way. Orpheus descended to Hades and with his music charmed Queen escaping Proserpina into letting Eurydice return to earth provided he did not look back at her on the journey. half-lion and half- woman. trees. When he accompanied Jason (^. his true father. 1594-1663 Sun (detail). Temptation Fall.i^. He mastered the lyre and sang to such perfection that according to Ovid's Metamorphoses he could charm wild animals. from a would-be seducer. His wife Eurydice. Approaching the hght he could not resist looking to see if she followed. to which he was led by placing a man on his shoulders to direct him. was the most interesting and civilized of all the Greek heroes. who killed passers-by unable to When Oedipus answered correctly. His mother hanged herself and Oedipus tore out his eyes. k Thracian son of the muse Calliope and perhaps Apollo.

Orpheus met his end by being torn to pieces by Maenads because he scorned their advances. extreme measures to prove his innocence. Othon (Otto). The hero Participation in the mysteries sinners and from punishment was said to save after death. She held his head in one hand and a red-hot brand . According to Ovid. Orpheus his cult fascinated Renaissance intellec- tuals. 1430-1516 Hades for ever. c. The incensed widow took accused a respected citizen of rape judgment of the Emperor Othon Dieric Bouts. provided such a receptive spread of Christianity. 1415-1475 (detail). A mystic Orphic cult developed in 6thcentury Greece and spread to southern Italy where it influenced the Pythagoreans. It is a subject con- said the Empress had when he had him Emperor rejected her advances. c. It was one of those semi-religious and philosophical cults of the eastern Mediterranean which to atmosphere for the figure of the cult was killed violently and then resurrected. The decapitated. Giovanni Bellini. Judgment of the Emperor The legend of the Judgment of the Emperor Othon attracted northern European painters of the 15th century seeking nected with Justice.i8o Orpheus OTHON (detail).

Banished suddenly. being burnt.OVID i8i His innocence insulated her from The guilty Empress had no such protection when the Emperor ordered her to be burned at the stake.probably a scandal concerning a grand-daughter of Augustus he spent his last nine years in exile at Tomi. Ovid among the Scythians (detail). These were the Fasti. or calendar of Roman festivals. Author of elegant erotic poetry {The Art of Love). in the other. and the Metamorphoses. Ovid among the Scythians Publius Ovidius Naso (43 bc-c. or Greek myths. ad 17) was a fashionable highly gifted poet and man-about-town at the beginning of the Roman Empire. he also produced works of enormous value to scholars from the Renaissance onwards because of their wealth of information on Greek and Roman life and thought. near present-day Constanza on the Rumanian Black Sea coast. Eugene Delacroix. and without stated reason . I7g8-i86j . The Romantics saw Ovid's exile as a poignant early example of the antagonism between poetry and society as it exists.

legs and connected equipment of a goat there sired might be truth in the legend that he was on a country-girl by Mercury disguised as a goat. Pan. beard. or that Mercury. 1441I50-1523 to rape the nymph Syrinx was foiled by a river . although he was not above frightening them (hence the word panic). Pan's attempt Pan and Syrinx. Amalthea. fertility deity and protected livestock and shepherds. him on Jupiter. c. wet-nurse of He was a phallic. Jacob Jordaens 1593-1678 . From the representations of him with the horns. undisguised.l82 Pan The parentage of Pan is not clear. sired the goat. He lived in Arcadia and not on Olympus with the other gods. Luca Signorelli.

PARADISE 183 Paradise Gdidai [Hortus Conclusus). 1421-1497 Benozzo Gozzoli. The Greek translation of Garden of Eden (^.i^. This comes from the Hebrew or Aramaic pardes which in turn Persian. . Anon c. Paradise The word comes to us from the Greek and the Hebrew. It park or pleasure garden. where they enjoy peaCe and complete freedom from all earthly cares. subject the Paradise (detail). From the reeds Pan made the Syrinx or Pan-pipes. via the came from the Old Persian originally an pairidaeza. But as a signified enclosed whole idea seemed less visually stimulating to Renaissance and pre-Renaissance painters than Hell. 1415 god changing her into reeds. c. Most painters held to this garden idea and portrayed a landscape of great physical beauty as a dwelling place for the righteous.) in Genesis ii. was paradeisos.

The decision was foregone. at an Olympian wedding. Jupiter did the sensible thing and left the decision to the mortal. It was claimed by Juno {q. and Venus [q. started the . Eris or Discord. Minerva {q. the Paris whose destruction he eventually caused. ^^1 1 ^f^^' /^ 1 c. Niklaus Manuel Deutsch. *''^. of the Judgment of fifty was the youngest sons of Priam. The bribes offered by Juno and Minerva were as nothing to Venus' offer of the assembly a Helen.v). It came about as follows.). 1577-1640 ^^ '\ ^di '4 K/^^3* M ^¥fe T "^IsBL^^i' ' frw^ 71^^j(i(0^*^L Judgment of Paris 1 Paris. "rte subsequent seduction of Helen (detail). city threw into golden apple inscribed 'For the Fairest'. Peter ^''^mmmuam Paul Rubens.1 PARIS 84 Judgment of Paris (detail). The uninvited guest.v). Paris. the most beautiful woman in the world. King of Troy.v. King from her of Sparta. 4 ^w^^Bii">. 1484-1531 husband Menelaus.

Christ's seamless Robe. a Poppy because of red colour. the Dandelion because of its bitter taste. was reputed to eat Thistles and Thorns from which Christ's Crown was made. used by Pilate to dry his hands. Andrea Mantegna. because of Peter's denial of Christ three times before of it crowed the Carbuncle because . a when Pillar. By profession he was a tentmaker. 14J0IJI-1506 . Parnassus. to which Christ was scourged. Dice because they were used to gamble for Christ's coat. an Ear because Peter cut one off during the arrest of Christ Chains which were used to bind Christ during the Flagellation.PARNASSUS-PAUL 185 War and ended with the total destrucof Troy and Paris' own death. Coins because of their its connection withjudas's betrayal. a Torch used to light the way of the and Temple a police Towel. coming to arrest Christ. used to pin Christ to the Cross. the Goldfinch which . See Christ. Nails. Pliers used to withdraw the nails. for by the fettered its blood gambled soldiers at the Crucifixion. the Lance or Spear which was used to pierce Christ's side. his conversion to Christianity Damascus came when he was en route to to persecute the Christians there. Poets and musicians came there for inspiration.i^. Probably a Pharisee. c.). a Scourge used for Christ's flagellation. The oracle of Delphi was situated on the southern side of the mountain peak. St Born in Tarsus of a prosperous Jewish family. The whole area to Apollo and was the residence of was sacred the Muses (^. the commonest appearing in painting being the following Anemone. the red : on the spots petals standing for blood. a Sponge which was dipped in vinegar and offered to Christ on the Cross. a Hand to represent the slapping of Christ's face. in what is now southern Turkey. Passion The episodes which took place between Christ's entry into Jerusalem and his Entombment are called the Passion. Trojan tion A Parnassus chain of mountains in Phocis. There are an enormous number of symbols of the Passion. the Cock. blood red colour. north of the gulf of Corinth in central Greece. Paul. which was over eight thousand feet high.

His mother Danae (q. c. came a sound from heaven as of a rushing mighty wind. On that day the Apostles had come together and as Acts ii. He Apostles. He way was acquitted in Rome but was later martyred of Nero at the place now known as in the time Tre Fontane.' point of The starting activity. and began 'suddenly there to speak them with other tongues. and a viper being thrown into a fire. ary. In painting. On and. a sword for his martyrdom. And there appeared unto them cloven tongues like as of fire. was taken over by the Christians and given a totally different significance. 1509-1571 Jewish festival {The Feast of Weeks). and a voice asked: 'Why persecutest thou me?' He then became an active missionwidely in the Mediterranean. where he miraculously escaped being bitten by a poisonous snake. His foster-father planned to seduce Danae and sent Perseus to fetch the snake-infested head of Medusa Pentecost. see Proserpina. was arrested in Jerusalem for causing a riot. held fifty days after the Passover.v. Roman citizen. 2-4 reports. Jupiter. rose petals used to be dropped on the congregation from the ceilings of churches as a symbol of the descent of the Holy Ghost. Persephone. he dominates the Acts of the His Epistles had a fundamental influence on the development of Christianity. and it filled all the house where they were sitting. His attributes are a book. And they were all filled with the Holy Ghost. and it sat upon each of them. Bartolome Zeitblom. being a after a sent to the time was he was shipwrecked in Malta. Rome for trial.) was fertilized by Jupiter raining gold on her. utterance. Perseus That Perseus had the archetypal life of a hero is not surprising. His father and grandfather seven times removed were the same person. Niccolo dell'Ahhate. A Pentecost Conversion of St Paul. the 1435I60-1518I22 Graeae (q. sisters to Perseus forced the horrible reveal the home of the . In some as the Spirit gave Apostles were just on the their great proselytizing countries as part of the cele- bration of this festival.1 PENTECOST-PERSEUS 86 He was temporarily blinded by a great flash of light. travelling A powerful figure.v. his headless torso is sometimes shown spouting three streams of blood.).

the king's daughter meda had been chained up When Andro- to a rock as a assuage the monster's appetite.' Peter was the leader of 1377-1640 . and fishers calling Greek and Latin mean 'rock'. The senior of the Apostles. also Simon. by I profession will make of men. when you which Andrew all {q. 'Follow me. Peter Paul Rubens. He was Christ early recognized his strength him Peter. sacrifice to Perseus slew monster the and married Andromeda. came from a humble family of Bethsaida on the Sea of Galilee where he Peter.v. St called worked as a fisherman. equivalents of his brother married. Perseus arrived.) left their Christ said.187 PETER Perseus and Andromeda. He and the Aramaic. petrifying him and saving his mother's honour. With single the help of Mercury and Minerva he safely engaged the Medusa and cut off her head which he then presented to his foster-father. On that return journey he found that Neptune had sent a sea-monster to terrorize Ethiopia. Medusa by withholding from them the eye and tooth they shared.

i88

PETER
the Apostles, or closest disciples,
earliest days.

happenings

the

the raising of Jairus' daughter,

:

the Transfiguration

Garden

from

He appears at the most important
(^.f.),

the

Agony

in the

and he caught the fish with the
coin in its mouth, needed to pay the tribute
{({.v). His premier position was signalled by
Christ's statement, quoted by Matthew xvi,
18 and 19 '.
thou art Peter [rock], and upon
this rock I will build my church and the gates
of hell shall not prevail against it. And I will
give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of
heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt bind on
earth, shall be bound in heaven and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed
in heaven.' This is the basis for the primacy
among Roman Catholics of the Bishop of
Rome, the Pope. The claim is not accepted by
most other churches. Peter's irresolute charac(q.v),

.

.

:

:

ter

was revealed during Christ's Passion {q.v).
he drew a sword and cut off the ear of

First

Martyrdom of St

Peter. Caravaggio,

157^-1610

one of the arresting party. Later in the night,
he denied three times that he knew Christ.
During his imprisonment by Herod Agrippa

Phaedra and Hippolytus. Pierre-Narcisse Guerin, lyy^-iSjj

PHAEDRA -PHAETON

189

he was released by an angel. He went to Rome
and was martyred during the time of Nero.
It is said that he specifically requested to be
crucified upside down. His execution is supposed to have taken place where St Peter's
now stands. His main attribute is two keys.

Phaedra and Hippolytus The

disastrous

marriage of Theseus (q.v.) to Ariadne {q.v.)
was followed by his equally disastrous marriage to Phaedra,

whom the

Athenian hero had
with Hippolytus, Theseus' son by an even earlier marriage,
but the youth rejected her unseemly advances. The enraged Phaedra told Theseus that
Hippolytus had tried to seduce her, Theseus
sought the help of Neptune to punish the lad.
One of Neptune's sea monsters caused Hippolytus' chariot horses to bolt, dragging the
young man to his death. Phaedra hanged

met in

Crete. Phaedra

fell

in love

herself

Phaeton This son of Helius, or Phoebus, the
sun god, borrowed his father's sun chariot to
impress his friends. He was unable to control
the horses

and the runaway sun chariot nearly

Fall of Phaeton.

Hans Rottenhammer, 1564-1625

(Phaeton in the clouds upper right)

PHILEMON -PHOCION

190

scorched up the earth.

Philemon and Baucis (detail).
Rembrandt van Ryn, 1 606-1 66g

The

earth was saved by

Jupiter destroying Phaeton with a thunderbolt.

According to legend Phaeton's bolting sun
chariot

came

so close to Africa that the heat

created the Sahara Desert and darkened the
natives.

Philemon and Baucis Ovid
phoses

tells

in his Metamor-

the exemplary tale of Philemon and

Baucis, a simple peasant couple

who

offered

humble means to
travelling incognito. The
gods rewarded them, first by making their

beyond
and
Mercury
Jupiter
hospitality

wine-jug

their

ever-replenishing,

and

then

by

saving either from the sadness of the other's

by having them metamorphose in
extreme old age into an elm and an oak,
growing side by side.
death

Phocion, Funeral of The followers of Stoic
philosophy held up as a model of virtue the
life and death of Phocion, an Athenian general
of the 4th century bc. His stern character, his
high principles, and his rejection of every
honour made him unpopular with many
elements in the democratic assembly in Athens.
They eventually got him convicted on a false

charge of treason for which he was executed.
Burial not being permitted in Athens, his
widow had him cremated in Megara and
brought the ashes back quietly to Athens to
Gathering of the ashes of Phocion
Nicolas Poussin, 1594-1665

(detail).

aWait an official burial
climate changed.

when

the political

PI

ETA-POLYPHEMUS

Pi eta

The second

{q.v.) is

known

last

191

episode in the Passion

Often the scene

as the Pieta.

is

over the dead Christ by
the Virgin Mary, Mary Magdalene, and others.
It took place between the Deposition (q.v.) and
a

Lamentation

{q.v.)

Entombment

the

(^.t^.).

The

characteristic

shows the dead Christ lying across the
of the weeping Virgin Mary, who may be

Pieta

lap

surrounded by mourners, including incongruously the wealthy donors {q.v.) or patrons who
commissioned the painting. See p. 205,

Polyphemus Polyphemus,

was
a son of Neptune {q.v.) and a nymph. His odd
appearance - he had but one eye set in the
middle of his forehead - and his partiality for

human

flesh,

made him

the Cyclops,

quite unattractive.

This had blighted his courting of Galatea {q.v.).

He

lived in a cave near Etna

of sheep.

with

a great

herd

On his travels Ulysses sought his help

but Polyphemus responded by eating several

of his

men and imprisoning the rest in his cave.

Ulysses

with

a

made him drunk and destroyed his eye
red-hot pole.

He and

his

men

escaped

Pieta. Ercole Roherti,

from the cave, hanging to the underside of
Polyphemus' sheep. Neptune punished Ulysses
with storms for the rest of his travels.

Ulysses deriding

Polyphemus

(detail). J.

M.W.

Turner, 1775-1851

c.

1448I33-1496

PONTIUS PILATE-PRESENTATION

192

Pontius Pilate Luke iii, i records that Pontius
was the Roman Procurator of Judea in
the fifteenth year of the reign of the Emperor
Pilate

He served about ten years in Judaea.
competent bureaucrat wishing to avoid
unnecessary trouble he bowed to the will of
local power and delivered Christ in whom he
had found no fault to crucifixion. He 'washed
his hands before the multitude, saying, I am
innocent of the blood of this just person'.
(Matthew xxvii, 24.) According to legend he
committed suicide or became a Christian and
was martyred by Tiberius (unlikely as that
Emperor predeceased him) or by Nero.
Another legend has it that he lived and died in
retirement in the quiet Rhone town of Vienne
where a pyramid supposedly erected over his
tomb is still to be seen.
Tiberius.

A

Poseidon,

see Neptune.

Presentation

in

the Temple,

Presentation in the Temple.

Pilate

washing

active

1476-1315

his

hands

(detail).

Dirck Baegert,

(Below) Primavera. Sandro
c.

1443-1510

Botticelli,

see Christ,

!.

the leading Platonist of the . c. One day he threw his unerring javelin at what he thought was an animal in a thicket. flower-clad Primavera. Zephyr. the nymph Three Graces (^. Cupid. the is clear enough. and from Marsilio Ficino. The jealous Procris spied on Cephalus when he hunted.v) failed in her attempted seduction of Cephalus but left behind a legacy of mistrust. Mercury. Piero di 193 Cosimo. It seems now sort of mother figure. who spent much time trying to Neo-Platonism and Christianity. Medici circle reconcile Procris.v) as mother symbol with the Christian concept of the Virgin Mary. 1462-1515 Prima vera The Renaissance courtier-philosopher-poets in the Medici entourage were by classic mythology and even more by the interpretations of ancient Neo-Platonist fascinated philosophers.).f.Venus Genatrix . He accidentally killed the watching Procris. Aurora {q. Death of Procris. and a javelin which always found its mark. The central figure of the allegory .PRIMAVERA-PROCRIS Death ofProcris. married Cephalus. .is possibly part of the philosophical attempt to reconcile a particular aspect of the Greek Aphrodite or Venus {({. a daughter of the King of Athens. The return of Cephalus to Procris had been hastened by her gift to him of a marvellous hunting dog called Lelaps. the subject-matter to be \ accepted that the painting's literary inspiration came from Apuleius. a son of Mercury. celli's The famous scene portrayed in Botti- Primavera Visible in the painting are Chloris. and Venus as a But the significance of of the painting is less clear and is much disputed by scholars.

He created the first make his life bearable. Stole fire for him from heaven. and and was should lost. he ordered the fatted calf to be killed for a great welcome-home feast. Cosimo. Domenico di Feti. He then hit on the more effective device of creating a 1589-1624 Prometheus creating Man. serious elder brother.PRODIGAL -PROMETHEUS 194 Prodigal Son Luke xv. The hard-working. was meet make merry. man from But 'It the father comforted him. Titans struggle with Jupiter. and is is alive again: found. 1462-1515 clay and water and. saying. tried to wipe them out with a great flood. In a far country he quickly used up his patrimony in wild living. two relates the The younger of sons asked for and received from his father his share of the estate. Piero power a brilliant inventor. angry at the unfairness his father of it all. 11-32 parable of the prodigal son. and be glad: for that we this thy brother was dead. 'I have sinned against heaven. to . fearful that his power would also be threatened by the development of men. After suffering hard times the wastrel returned home.' But was so pleased to have him back. Jupiter. one of the defeated in the was Return of the Prodigal Son. and in thy sight. refused to join in the festivities.' Prometheus Prometheus. telling his father. c. and am no more worthy to be called thy son.

The beautiful young girl attracted the attentions of her uncle Pluto. Niccolo dell'Ahhate. Pluto agreed to relinquish Proser- pina but as a parting gift gave her a magic pomegranate which brought her back to him for three winter months.). god of the Underworld. or Hades.v. woman. Proserpina Demeter. Pandora. Pluto abducted her and made her his queen. neglected her divine duties so that nature sterile and no crops grew. In Christian liturgical art an open pomegranate revealing its seeds is a symbol of the Resurrection {q. Jupiter sent Mercury to retrieve became this to Proserpina. i5og-i37i (detail). To bring an end. and setting her among men with her magic box which when opened unleashed every affliction known mankind.PROSERPINA 195 beautiful Rape of Proserpina loose c. This so upset Demeter that she lost all interest in life. . goddess of agriculture and her half-brother Jupiter were the parents of Proserpina. Jupiter punished Prometheus by him to a rock in the Caucasus and sending each day an eagle to eat his immortal to chaining liver.

Pyramus discovered the scarf. Virj^in Mary. comes to us from Ovid's Metamorphoses. I5g4-i665 . see Cupid. Nicolas Poussin. Their parents who lived in Babylon were hostile to their love. the children plotted a midnight meeting. Pyramus and Thisbe The tale of the unhappy lovers. dropped her scarf. see Pygmalion. torn and bloodied by the lion. and assumed Thisbe had been killed. Pyramus and Thisbe finding the body of Pyramus (detail). He thereupon stabbed himself to death. In getting to the rendezvous Thisbe. Pyramus and Thisbe. Thisbe then discovered the dead killed herself with his sword. Through a crack in the wall of their neighbouring houses.PSYCHE-PYRAMUS 196 Psyche and Amor. escaping from a lion. see Galatea. Purification.

Resurrection Christ's Resurrection . behold. and came and rolled back the stone from the door.197 R Rebecca. there was a great earthquake for the angel of the Lord descended from heaven. Piero della Francesca. see Isaac.his from the dead .is mentioned in all four Gospels. and in the Epistles of St Paul. And for 1410I20-1492 . Resurrection. rising Matthew xxviii. when early on Easter Sunday morning the two Marys came to the sepulchre: 'And. and his raiment white as snow. His countenance was like light: ning. 2-6 describes the events. and sat upon it.

and Armida.characteristic lymphatic swellings . Clorinda. The only parts of the poem which come to life are the love affairs between the Christian heroes and the pagan women. On returning home.entices Rinaldo and Armida. Rinaldo by her magic and holds up the capture of Jerusalem. Fear not ye for I know that ye seek Jesus. 1599-1641 Roch. . He town stricken tended the victims of disease and was During his illness would protect Rome by he the this lethal by it himself only his faithful dog looked after him. And the angel answered and said unto the women. St The 14th-century French saint of Montpellier was born with a cross-shaped birthmark on his left shoulder.RINALDO -ROCH 198 of him the keepers did shake. which was crucified. He emerges as a vague ancestor of Tasso's employers. 1503-1540 invoked against infectious diseases. Erminia. . bringing him a daily loaf of bread. The image often used by artists of Christ rising out of the tomb as a gravity-free body is not in is the Biblical text. . and became dead men. the Este Dukes of Ferrara. and the physical manifestations of the plague. His attributes are a dog. As a young man this influenced him to take up the spiritual life. he was unrecognizable because of the plague's ravages. He appears in paintings exposing his groin with its buboes .or pointing to a purpuric spot on his leg. Rinaldo is a combination of Aeneas and Achilles {q. The latter a late-Renaissance version of Dido . St Roch's name is suffered St Roch. Rinaldo One of the heroes of Tasso's romanc^ic Jerusalem Delivered. He is not . The adventures of the couple provided exotic subjects for painters. which deals with tic the First Crusade. incorporated into the various Creeds. Anthony van Dyck. He died in prison and a miraculous tablet was found in his cell testifying that prayers for Roch's intercession later stricken against the plague. On a pilgrimage to arrived in an Italian plague.' here: for he is risen This Resurrection is the fundamental doctrine of Christianity and fear as : . He seems to have from both the bubonic and septicaemic types of the disease. Italian merchants stole his remains and brought them to Venice where they lie in San Rocco.v). Parmigianino . and was imprisoned as an impostor.

199 Sabine Women. a The subject provided an excellent opportunity to portray sexual violence under the guise of illustrating ancient history. Seven. leading to a battle between the two cities. Sacraments. is some about Nicolas Poussin. whose Montagne name obscure victory in the Rape oj the Sabine see Seven Sacraments^ moun- This commemorates ist Women century bc. Rape of The painters' Rape of the Sabine Women was Livy. (detail). 1594-1665 . Peace is achieved by the women source for the story of the themselves proposing compromise. tain. Romulus attempts to kidnap the neighbouring Sabine Women. Sainte-Victoire. He tells of the early days of Rome when there was a shortage of women.

i8^g-igo6 Salome.La Montagne Dance oj Sainte-Victoire. 1420-1497 . Paul Cezanne. Benozzo Gozzoli.

According to legend Herodias had been in love with John the Baptist and Herod with Salome. Brought up Samson strictly. Herod's birthday was kept. childless years. tied firebrands to their tails and set them loose in the Philistine fields. Good Christ's answer to the question of the lawyer. painter of the region. Give me here John Baptist's head in a charger. He had and unusual skills.SALOME-SAMSON 201 three thousand feet high and is situated about from Aix-en-Provence in the south of France.i. Jacopo Bassano.e. daughter of Herodias and step-daughter of Herod Antipas. Paul Cezanne. he recovered. A priest and a Levite in turn passed him by. Salome was merely the instrument of her mother's hatred ofJohn who had publicized what local custom considered her adulterous relation with Herod. great strength The Good Samaritan. and thereby revolutionized modem man's whole approach to painting. • y^^M^^ Manoah extra-strict who became the Israelite leader in the struggle against the then dominant Philistines. Whereupon he promised with an would ask.) Samaritan. and pleased Herod. a native of Samaria . And she. 6-8: 'But when is told in Matthew xiv.took care of him and paid for his lodging at an inn until Samson (^.) After and his dietary laws.' An executioner beheaded John oath to give her whatsoever she and brought back the head for Salome. But a Samaritan .v. 'Who is my neighbour?' It is the story of the man left half dead by robbers on the road from Jerusalem to Jericho. in prison Good The Samaritan. the daughter of Herodias danced before them.and not as interpreted in the light of classical antiquity. It has been immortahzed by a ten miles By consomething permanent and solid as it really is . following produced Samson. told in Luke parable of the was x. 30-37. i5io(?)-i592 . said.f. on nature centrating Salome The as story of Salome. On one occasion he caught three hundred foxes. the Baptist {q. Three thousand of his unappreciative compatriots tied him up and left his hair completely uncut. or of the transitory appearance of the Impressionists he was able to impose order on it like a scientific Poussin. being before instructed by her mother. many wife.

see St Michael. Breaking out of his bonds. Uccellos were commissioned for the Medici Palace in Florence by Cosimo de' Medici. His hair had grown. he pulled down the supporting columns of the Temple. Rembrandt van i6o6-i66g Ryn.SAN ROMANO-SATAN 202 delivered him to the Phihstines. the Florentines under the command of Niccolo da Tolentino defeated the Sienese and their Milanese allies. the Philistines arrested his eyes. who developed the family banking and mercantile interests and established its political power. Hostilities had been going on intermittently between Florence and Siena about two centuries. His strength gone. While he slept. particularly in wool textiles. Battle of On a battle at San Romano i June 1432 in in the fringe lands between the expanding power of Florence and the contracting power of Siena. Satan. During him and a feast in the put out Temple of brought the blind Samson out of his prison to make sport of him. .relatively bloodless as Uccello's three famous panels suggest . Blinding of Samson (detail). The two wealthy cities were largely for quarrels of the of a feudal nature. he picked up a fresh jawbone of an ass and killed a thousand Philistines. and were for control of towns and territories between them. paintings Sarah. Originally perhaps a solar myth. But Florence with its superior industrial technology. San Romano. and its had already established by the time of the Battle of San Romano. their affair she worked on him until During he finally revealed the secret of his strength. He then encountered the Philistines' greatest menace. destroying himself and more than three thousand Philistines. the story became an exemplary tale of sexual passion his captors leading to utter destruction. Dagon. see Isaac. Within two years oi the battle . and praying to Jehovah for strength. the enticing Delilah.the Medici won power in Florence and held it almost without banking its skills superiority over Siena interruption for three centuries. the Visconti. she had his hair shaved off. After a night with a Gaza whore he still had enough strength to tear up and carry away the city gates.

ter's Under Jupiwar leadership they fought a ten-year against Saturn and his Titans whom they The Romans who took God of Agriculture.). They were woodland creatures with the nether parts of a goat and the top half of a hairy human except for a set of horns and pointed ears. and was the father ofJupiter {q.) and Juno {q. Saturn ate his children as they were born (time devours everything). alive.married his sister Rhea. Saturn devouring his Children Saul. c. Goya.v.v. IJ97-1475 Paolo Uccello. In his youth he secured employment as cup-bearer to his unknowing father. their main activity seems to have been pursuing nymphs. see Dauid and Saul.). Jupiter was smuggled away at birth. 1746-1828 . The Battle oj San Romano (detail). He administered an emetic potion and Saturn regurgitated his children. or Time . over Saturn as his reign as the Golden Age. Satyr Satyrs were part of the retinue of Bacchus (q.SATURN -SAUL 203 Saturn Devouring his Children Saturn the Greek god Cronus. To defeat the prophecy that a son would supplant him. considered defeated and banished.v. When they were not accompanying Bacchus on his orgiastic processions. Francisco de (detail).

i4jol^i-i3o6 — . A cultured conciliatory man of centrist tendencies. Carthage. Eugene Delacroix. the Turkish authorities took their revenge on the natives. It inspired the painting of Delacroix which was revolutionary in technique. Publius Cornelius Scipio Aemili- anus Africanus was the adopted son of Scipio Africanus. Triumph of The Scipio.SCIO -SCIPIO 204 Massacre Scio. The Triumph of Scipio (detail). After repelling the attackers. He carried on the Scipio and fought the Carthaginians Massacre de Scio (Massacre at Chios). aroused the sympathy of many Western Europeans. his opposition to an extremist faction led to his assassination. were Scipios a distinguished themselves particularly in the wars against Carthage. Roman who family in public life. off the coast of Asia Minor from Smyrna. in 146 bc and ending their power for ever. who had been against the original attack. de During the Greek struggle for independence at the beginning of some Greek patriots in 1822 attacked the Turkish garrison of the island of the 19th century. Chios (Scio). The citizens gave him a military triumph on his return to Rome. Andrea Mantegna. finally capturing and and totally destroying their capital. and children. w^omen. slaughtering men. ijg8-i86j North tradition in Spain Africa. The punitive massacre of the natives.

Hugo van der Goes.Pieta (Lamentation). active 1467-1482 .

Marriage. accompanied by a motto such as 'Beware. St Sebastian is patron of pin-makers. See p.SEBASTIAN . St St Ambrose said that Sebas- an officer in Diocletian's Praetorian Guard. This merely confirmed what was done at the Council of Florence in 1439. The seven deadly Sins (detail). He presented himself to the Emperor to illustrate the power of Christ. Sloth (Avaritia). was born in Milan. Confirmation. i^gj-id^z Seven Deadly Sins The subject of the Seven Deadly Sins had great popularity in the Middle Ages. and Penance. Seven Sacraments Baptism. Indeed. Diocletian then ordered him to be cudgelled to death and thrown into the main sewer of Rome. Lust (Luxuria). the Holy Eucharist. A sacrament is nowhere better described than in the words of the Anglican catechism. and Hell with graphic details of the punishments meted out to sinners. his body riddled with arrows. Avarice {Ira). Hieronymus Bosch. Envy {Invidia). Holy Eucharist. Georges de la Tour.was frequently presented didactically. Peter Lombard had enumerated them we know them today. Luther accepted only the sacraments of Baptism. Left for dead. and Gluttony {Gula). Ordination. and he appears in Renaissance painting almost nude. with the sins grouped round the eye of God. *an outward and visible as sign of an inward and spiritual grace'. This he did not survive.SEVEN SACRAMENTS 206 Sebastian. 1450-1516 . God watches'. St Sebastian. Many Protestants such as the Anglicans dropped the latter but recognized the others as rites. This was often followed by scenes from the Last Judgment. On discovering that he was a Christian. and Extreme Unction. Anger [Accidia). 208. the Emperor ordered him to be shot with arrows. c. tian. Their formal basis stems from the decision of the Council of Trent which closed in 1563. Penance. by the mid-i2th century. The Golden Legend has him born in Narbonne in the south of France in the 3rd century. The Seven Deadly Sins with their Latin names in parentheses are as follows: Pride (Superbia). the widow of another martyr dressed his wounds and he recovered. His attribute is an arrow. The subject.

I3g4-i665 . Nicolas Poussin. Nicolas Poussin. I3g4~i665 The Seven Sacraments: Ordination.The Seven Sacraments : Eucharist.

/' /] Si-'F nm y ji*^ ^ ^" .

Venus.1496) Pollaiuolo . 1^03-1^72 (Left) Martyrdom of St Sebastian. Cupid. Antonio (c. Folly and Time. 1441-0. Angela Bromiiio. 1432-1498) and Piero (c.

Fortitude {Fortitude).SEVEN VIRTUES .SHEBA The Seven Virtues. to Saba or Sheba in what is now Yemen. and holds a snake and a mirror.in the words of i Kings x. Justice holds scales and a sword the Emperor Trajan sits before her. and has St Peter at her feet. Solomon . Prudence has two faces. I. Sheba. and Temperance {Temperanza). Fortitude holds a column to indicate Samson's destruction of the Philistine temple in front of her sits Samson holding the jawbone of an ass. With they are their Latin as follows: names in parentheses Prudence (Prudenza). Faith {Fides). Justice (Justitia). . Queen of News of the glory and wisdom of Solomon had penetrated down to the south-east corner of the Arabian Peninsula. Charity {Charitas). Finally. Pesellino and studio. Leandro Bassano. 15^7-1622 incongruously included in Caxton's translation of The Golden Legend. The entire symbology of the subject is summarized in Pesellino's painting of the subject. Temperance holds two vases and at her feet sits Scipio Africanus. Hope prays and has before her St James the Greater. Such was the attraction of the story of Solomon and the Queen of Sheba that it is somewhat servants The Queen of Sheba visiting Solomon. Charity holds a small child in one hand and a flame or heart in the other. It adds little to the splendidly pageantlike account in the Old Testament. 'to prove him with hard questions'. Thus Faith holds a chalice and a cross. before her is St John the Divine. or Lives of the Saints. c. The Queen of Sheba with a great train of and present-bearers paid an official visit to Solomon . 1422-1 457 Seven Virtues Fascinated by the magic nummind had ber of seven the late Middle-Age Seven Virtues to counter the Seven Deadly Sins. Solon sits before her. Hope (Spes).

the desire'.. Sibyl The Sibyls were originally priestesses of who had clairvoyant gifts for fore- telling the future during periods of ecstasy in Apollo which there was much foaming at the mouth and other motor-hysterical manifestations. Ship of Fools Writers and artists of the early Renaissance in northern Europe were fasci- nated by the idea of Folly. Two great works of the late 15th and early i6th centuries put into wide circulation in satiric fashion the sum of knowledge on that subject. They were The Ship of Fools by the Strasbourg literary scholar-humanist Sebastian Brant. and Erasmus' The Praise of Folly. fj Cumaean /i 147^-1 '475-1564 c. that commonest weakness of the human condition. Michelangelo Buonarroti . present reigning dynasty in Ethiopia claims direct descent from the from the child which resulted fulfilment of that desire. Narragonia. Brant's didactic work is pub- a long poem in which he sets out a satirical analysis of society's stupidities and hypocrisies by using the allegory of a ship of fools. published in 1494. SHIP OF FOOLS-SIBYL 211 acquitted himself well 'and gave unto the Queen of Sheba all her Indeed. 1450-1516 Sibyl. Hieronymus Bosch. en route to the fool's paradise. Ship of Fools. lished in 1509. steered by fools.

c.Tobias and the Angel. 1435-1488 . School of Andrea del Verrocchio.

totally inebriated Silenus. encountered by Aeneas in Book vi of Virgil's work. Although his father was Pan {q. Jewish prophetic literature. and Christianity. by He was man of immense knowledge and when had the gift of prophecy. These were consulted in times of trouble.) or sat insecurely a on an ass. The Sibyls had a special fascination and artists because of their alleged connection with the well-known but spurious Sibylline Books. for Renaissance thinkers Silenus Silenus was the good-natured tutor of Bacchus and a permanent member of his entourage.SILENUS 213 The most famous of an ever-expanding profession was the Cumaean Sibyl of southern Italy. i^gg-1641 .) he bore no trace of his father's goatish features.v. Anthony van Dyck. He staggered along held up Satyrs {q. The sayings of the Sibyls were recorded.v. The prophecies in these forgeries showed an apparent bond between the classic world of Greece.

. sliced into claimant. The wisdom of this poet-king (the supposed author of the Song of Songs) lar 'with an understanding heart with seven hundred wives. son of David and Bathsheba (q. Judgment. one half for each He quickly recognized the true to give up mother as the one who was willing her baby to save its life. His prowess as ruler. see Calvary. Stations of the Cross.) are colourfully described in I Kings ii-xi. OF THE CROSS Nicolas Poussin. . and host of the Queen of Sheba (q.SOLOMON .v. princesses. harlots disputed the possession Solomon ordered the child to be two pieces. . Judgment of The most spectacuof the kings of Israel was Solomon.STATIONS 214 Judgment of Solomon 1594-1665 (detail). and three hundred concubines' was celebrated by his famous . Solomon.).v. husband. of Two a baby. builder.

is described in Acts vi and Accused of blasphemy.STEPHEN . and the palm traditionally seen in paintings of martyrs. one of the first Deacons of the Christian Church. School ofPietro da Cortona. St Stephen's attributes are a stone.v. and offered him seen the light. The executioners' clothes were guarded by Paul who had not yet vii. isg6-i66g . St The martyrdom in Jerusalem of Stephen.). Martyrdom of St Stephen. At a later date St Stephen's relics were brought to Rome and buried beside those of St Lawrence {q. this first Christian martyr was given the traditional punishment of being stoned to death. It is said that when the tomb was opened St Lawrence moved over to make room for St Stephen. Styx. see Charon.STYX 215 Stephen. his hand.

Raphael.^^ X ^ Transfiguration.-<i«aBfciM. / . 1483-1520 .

story is wouldThe wise Daniel (q-v. Susanna rejected their advances and they denounced her be adulteress. 1518-1594 . Tintoretto. caught the two old men. the beautiful wife of a prominent member of the Jewish community.the told in an apocryphal his writings . 1606-1669 Susanna and the Elders.) . Susanna. see Path Susanna and the Elders (detail). Rembrandt van Ryn. Syrinx. also men of influence fancy of in their community.proved them as a addendum to by exposing liars an inconsistency in their accusations and they were executed.SUSANNA -SYRINX Susanna During 217 the Babylonian captivity.

cut off tresses of her hair to bind up the dressings of his injuries. fmding him wounded. 1394-1663 see St Antony. see Christ in the . Another beautiful Saracen lady - Erminia .2l8 T Tancred Tancred was one of Jerusalem Delivered. Temptation of Christ. Unbeknown to him she was a warrior in the Saracen army. To his horror. Desert. Before her death Tancred baptized her. Temptation of St Antony. the mortally wounded enemy turned out to be his beloved Clorinda. \icolas Poussin. fallen in love whom he eventually defeated. Tasso's He had the heroes of poem about the with a Saracen girl named Clorinda. Tancred and Erminia. He converted her to Christianity.secretly loved Tancred and. Engaged in battle. unbaptized daughter of Ethiopian Christians. however. Dying. Tancred fought a whole night with a First Crusade. she told him that she was the white. Saracen soldier.

e. 'The pain was so strong and the sweetness thereof was so passing great that no one could wish ever to lose it. Theseus Theseus had two reputed fathers: Aegeus. and Neptune (q.' This incident inspired Bernini's famous sculpture in Santa Maria della Vittoria in Rome.). She practised spiritual exercises with such intensity that she began to have visions and carry on conversations with God. St Teresa was born in 15 15 at Avila in Spain. Her health suffered. King of Athens. In her own words. She had the gift of recalling her ecstatic spiritual experiences with great clarity and was able to record them in a series of books.v. 1577-1640 Theseus killing the Minotaur (detail from a cassone panel). During the ecstasies which accompanied her mystical marriage with God an angel transpierced her with a golden spear which scarred her heart. Teresa founded the austere order of Discalced (i. Peter Paul Rubens. Against the wish of her father she secretly entered the Carmehte convent at Avila at the age of twenty. unshod) Carmelites.TERESA -THESEUS 219 Teresa of Jesus. of pious aristocratic parents. 16th century . St Teresa delivering Bernadin de Mendozafrom Purgatory. Her life and writings were much exploited during the Counter-Reformation. the most famous being the extraordinary Interior Castle.

Jupiter promised immortality to the child . IVIassacres of In 1808 the decadent. higher clergy. dim-witted Spanish royal family with the collusion of most of the higher nobility. citizens. and bureaucracy sold their country to Napoleon. monster and returned by following the thread. Francisco de Goya.v). daughter of the King of Crete. He abandoned Ariadne [cf. 3 May. Through that night and in the early hours of the morning of Monday. (See Paris) Third of May.THETIS-THIRD OF MAY 220 King of the At an early age he proved his human paternity by hfting a huge rock and finding under it the sword and sandals of his (mortal) father. the Labyrinth. He expelled her from Athens.v) tried to poison him.v) . cutting of their feet if too big. killed the after. Jupiter and Thetis. killing monsters and giant oppressors.if she immersed it in the Styx {q. Spontaneous uprisings against the French occupying troops culminated in street fighting with Murat's troops in Madrid on Sunday.v. His execution squads then massacred hundreds of them. and stretching them if too small. whose throne he then shared with his father. Murat's troops secured control of the virtually unarmed Third of May 1808 1746-1828 (detail). His most famous exploit was to end the export of Athenian boys and girls as tribute-sacrifice for the bull-headed Mino- taur of Crete. an eye-witness of the bloody events. with David's Death of Marat (q. {q. set in train the events leading to the Trojan War. With the help of Ariadne. His stepmother Medea Sea. He then set out on a hero's career. living unhappily theretrailing a thread. The omission to invite to her wedding Eris. They arranged her marriage to the mortal Peleus because of the prophecy that her child would outshine its father. 1780-1867 Thetis Thetis the Nereid was the mistress of Jupiter and Neptune. among them Procrustes who put his captives in a bed. 1808. 2 May. . Bacchus) and married her sister Phaedra.) introduced into art the principle of direct political protest. recorded the scene in a revolutionary work which.Achilles [q. Goya. he made his way into the Minotaur's lair. the goddess of Discord. Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres.

. told in John xx. St (The Apostle) One of Apostles about whom Uttle the known. and thrust my and be not faithless. . According to the Golden Christians'. c. . His reaction when other disciples told the resurrected Christ 'Except nails. Guercino. is him they had . seen shall see in his I and put my and thrust my hand into nails.: THOMAS 221 Thomas. My Lord and my God.' According to the apocryphal Acts of Thomas he travelled to south India and converted the Keralans. Stefan Lochner. it into who for Thomas side: centuries called Legend. 1400-1431 trouble through persuading the king's wife to refuse ^ marital rights to her husband. Christ sent St the themselves 'St. into much Martyrdom of St Thomas. Thomas to India to help King of India with some building prob- The Apostle got himself lems. This ^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ • (Below) The Incredulity of St Thomas. . . hands the prints of the finger into the print of the not believe . but believing. I will and said his side.*' . . He is is referred to as 'doubting Thomas'. reach hither thy fmger.^" "• -y^iM '^V^HH mt -::fm s ^^^^^^^^^^^^K''^''-"iik/^liHHHMr^ 1 r^ 4/Vyt ^ t/:pi3 / ^ ^^sam i^^^^L P^^^^o'^T' ^^^^^^^R^^^^i ^^k^^^H ['I . then came Jesus . And Thomas answered and said unto him. and behold my hands: and reach hither thy hand. 1391-1666 - . 25 fF.

He joined the Dominican Order cratic parents. Sassetta. carpenters and masons. Precociously brilliant. and canon law. Thomas Aquinas. his studies at the University in his late teens. His attributes are a carpenter's rule and a spear. . subject The of 'doubting Thomas' appealed greatly to painters. He then went to Paris where he studied under Albertus Magnus. St He was bom m southern Italy about 1225. The a Thomas Aquinas rejected all worldly honours and devoted his considerable energies to theological study and teaching which culminated in his Summa Theological the most complete and influential of the many medieval compendia of theology.THOMAS 21:1 St Thomas Aquinas (detail). He is the patron of Christian India as well as of architects. 1532-1615 He produced frequent the age of about fifty. His excessive labours during a life of saintly St great Three Graces. austerity died at ecstasies. His family tried to corrupt his religious vocation and imprisoned him but : in dream two angels gave him a girdle of perpetual virginity. Hans von Achen. philosophy. the son of aristo- he started of Naples at the age of eleven. ijg2-i430 eventually led to St Thomas' martyrdom.

Time and Truth lift a curtain to reveal that the pleasures of upper-class love are surrounded by discord. and deceit.) to a winged old man carrying an hour-glass. See p. They were frequently associated .with the Muses (?•"•)• Three Maries at the Sepulchre. and Euphrosyne (Joy). Still relentless and sometimes allied with a hard-faced figure of painters Truth. see En- tombment.THREE GRACES-TIME 223 Three Graces Three sisters who were sired on Eurynome by Jupiter.t^. 209. Thaha (Flowering). jealousy. Mannerist had transformed the pictorial conception of the figure of Time from the relentless child-devouring Cronus or Saturn (^. envy. Their names were Aglaia (Brilhant). Time By the mid-i6th century. in Bronzino's coldly erotic allegory.and confused . and sometimes a scythe. 1594-1665 . Nicolas Poussin. he appears in allegories casting some bitter reflection Thus on the way of the world. A Dance to the Music of Time (detail).

and his mother the Earth Goddess. Tobias and the Angel The exemplary story of Tobias comes from the apocryphal Book of Tobit which appeared in Alexandria in the 3rd century BC. including three with one hundred arms and fifty heads.TITANS -TOBIAS 224 Fall oj the Titans. the Starht Sky. and assumed supreme authority. Gaea. travelling incognito. There was a revolt and the youngest of the Titans. They were the six sons and daughters of Uranus.). 1377-1640 Titans The ancient Greeks considered the Titans as the first divine race. Cronus or Saturn (Time) (q.blinded by bird droppings Tobias picked up as a travelling companion th^ Archangel Raphael. Uranus buried all his children in the centre of the earth. Sent on a long business trip by his father . Peter Paul Rubens. The mythologucs consider the story as a symbol for the victory of law and order over raw nature. castrated Uranus and took his place.P.) escaped this fate and eventually started a war against the Titans. aided by his mother. defeated them. On the way Raphael showed Tobias how to . Jupiter (q. The other progeny of the union were Cyclops and miscellaneous monsters.u. Wary of his children he devoured them as they were born.

f. Transfiguration On a high mountain thought to be Mount Tabor in Galilee . 'This is my beloved Son. 212. Giovanni Bellini. Christ then spoke with Moses and Elias.t'.TRANSFIGURATION catch an aggressive fish ing only some of its 225 which they ate. Transfiguration. With the three disciples still present. See p.r. They reach the house of Tobias' cousin Sarah who had been married seven times but each ot whose husbands had died on his wedding night. i^u^-i > 16 . c. St John (</. and his raiment was white as the light' (Matthew xvii).) Christ 'was transfigured before them: and his face did shine as the sun. On his return home to his father he cured the old man's blindness by applying fish gall to his eyes.' This divine manifestation of Christ in glory with its emphasis on light. and St James (^. 2t6. the heart of the fish he had caught.). Duaio c. in whom I am well pleased: hear ye him. See p. . greatly attracted painters.and in the presence of St Peter (^/.). He then married Sarah himself. i2>.>l6o-iTii8l ig Transfiguration (detail). keep- ofFal for future use. Tobias exorcised the evil spirits around Sarah bv bumins. and a voice emanating from a cloud said.

is a Son. Understandably. mystery which human understanding. 1378I79-1444 Master ofFlemalle. God the Father. symbol of the Holy Ghost. representation of such a the Church as works dealing with that Possibly principal patron of basic subject determined its treatment. We thus find the Trinity portrayed as the three following figures: Holy Trinity adored by the heavenly choir. Trinity The Christian concept of God existing as three persons.TRIBUTE -TRINITY 226 Tribute Money. Sometimes the Three Persons are shown crowned and sitting side by less on thrones. 1518-1594 side Holy Trinity. Money. a weight- and patriarchal figure holding below him a cross on which Christ is nailed. and see Christ and the Tribute God surpasses the God the Father. Tintoretto. and above or below these two figures hovers a dove. God the Holy Ghost. Theophilus of Antioch put the term 'Trinity' into use towards the end of the 2nd century. . painters experienced difficulty in satis- factory difficult as the pictorial concept. It was elaborated fully in the 6th century in known what is Athanasian Creed.

Ulysses showed he was not mad by turning the plough aside. 227 u Ulysses Ulysses {Odysseus in Greek) the King of Ithaca was one of the most famous of the Greek heroes. 151 j . Palamedes exposed his fraud by placing Ulysses' young son Telemachus in the path of the plough. Pintoricchio active 1481. d. The Scenes from the Odyssey (detail).v. he had feigned madness to escape his obligation to help Menelaus recover his abducted wife Helen (q. During the war Ulysses avenged himself on Palamedes by concocting false charges which execution by the Greeks as a led to his traitor.). A man of peace.. Using as draught animals an ox and an ass. he ploughed his fields sowing salt in the furrows. His involvement in the Trojan War is told in the Iliad.

). Ursula. Neptune. whom he blinds. Pushed to a Penelope promises at a banquet final decision to marry the suitor who can bend Ulysses' famous bow. Each night she undid the previous day's work. Ulysses. to reach Ithaca her choice once she has finished weaving a garment for her father-in-law. the father of Polyphemus.P.).v. disguised as a beggar. The raft he had made is wrecked at sea and he is washed up on the island of Scheria (Corfu) where he is discovered by ears Her hospitable people help where he finds his faithful wife fending off suitors by promising to make Nausicaa him (q. St According to medieval legend this of Cornwall agreed to marry the English king's son if he became a Christian and waited three years until she returned from a pilgrimage to Rome with her eleven thousand virgins. As a punishment Jupiter destroys all but Ulysses. He avoids the fatal seduction of the singing Sirens by filling the of his crew with wax and having himself lashed to the mast of his ship. The Odyssey relates Ulysses' adventures during his ten-year return to Ithaca and his wife Penelope. She keeps him a prisoner of love for eight years but he finally breaks away. After escaping from the Laestry- gonian cannibals.especially princess Venetians - as it provided an opportunity to is an arrow. Polyphemus {q. The sea throws him up on Calypso's island. He then into the hands of the Cyclops.v. St Ursula's attribute . punishes Ulysses by pursuing him with storms for the rest of his falls journey. and destroy Troy. brings the story to an end by taking the bow and using it to shoot all the suitors. Passing with small losses between the man-eating Scylla and the deadly whirlpool of Charybdis he reaches the island of Thrinacia where his starving men eat one of the cattle sacred to Helios. The subject was very popular with painters .).228 URSULA Wooden idea: it Horse (see Laocoon) was Ulysses' enabled the Greeks to enter. His first adventure is the island of the Lotus Eaters his escape whose from principal food induces complete forgetfulness. Ulysses gets temporarily entangled with Circe (q. On the return journey they were met by the Huns and all slaughtered. the sun god. paint ships. capture.

1600-1682 . Claude Lorraine.Embarkation of St Ursula (detail).

). She is patroness of linen-drapers and washerwomen. When he returned the handkerchief it bore the permanent imprint of his face. see St Veronica. and her cult was probably introduced into Greece from Asia Minor where Astarte of love. St The story of St Veronica has no It got wide circulation in the early Middle Ages through the apocryphal Gospels of Nicodemus which tell of Veronica Bibhcal authority. carrying his cross up to Calvary.v. Hans Memlinc . Since the 8th century St Peter's in Rome has had a cloth Her attribute is a image of Christ's face. Her father was is said to have been born of sea foam. {q. c. She 1443-1510 ^^ . cloth bearing the Venus Venus Jupiter St Veronica. i4^ol35-i4g4 Birth of Venus. called 'Veronica's Veil'. Sandra Botticelli. c. or Aphrodite was the goddess and beauty. Veronica. offering her handkerchief to the sweating Christ.230 V Veil. fertility.

Paolo Veronese. who had been brought up by Persephone or apple thrown into the {q. and to have the remaining four months to himself.v. i5gg-i66o Toilet of when the genitals of the castrated Uranus the Titan {q. told at length by Ovid. four months with Proserpina.). Venus was married to her half-brother.). that the foam from which It is also suggested she was born was Venus (the Rokeby Venus). . of the death and rebirth of flowering Venus and Adonis nature.v.) and ancestor of Rome. The story.) were thrown into the sea.) and Mercury {q.v. the ugly Vulcan.v.). In order to gain the golden wedding feast of Thetis judgment of Paris {q. The most famous affair of Venus was with Adonis. her other halfbrothers Mars {q.) she influenced the {q. Velazquez.) by promising him Helen {q. but this did not stop her from having affairs with her father.v.v. c. From his blood sprang the anemone.v. The jealous Mars sent a savage boar to kill Adonis during a hunt. Proserpina 1528-1588 (detail). including the father of Aeneas Anchises {q.VENUS 231 has similar characteristics. and created miscellaneous who became mortals. Adonis was to spend four months with Venus. is a perfect example of metamorphosis. The dispute between the two goddesses for possession of the beautiful young man was settled by Calliope. Queen of Hades.v.

Indeed. Emphasis surroundings. Temple be- fasts and prays To both him for forty days in the wilderness. Roman protector of gardens and orchards.v. Not permitted cause of his many childless for to sacrifice in the sterility. 1300 room come show St Anne in bed in receiving friends and to congratulate her Mary. Joachim from the mountains and his solemn meeting with Anne by the Golden Gate at Jerusalem is a favourite theme with artists who returns wish to stress the supernatural element in the child's birth. Virgin Mary For the person who after Jesus Christ appears most frequently in Renaissance and post-Renaissance painting. it is surprising how little reference to the Virgin Mary can be New found in the main literary sources and death are apocryphal the Protevangelium of St James ing her birth. the science of fruit production). Vertumnus. books such as and the stories collected in the Golden Legend.) and becomes the mother of the Virgin Mary. and Anne individually an angel of the Lord proclaims that they will have a child. Nativity of the Virgin Mary Paintings of this scene Joachim and Anne meeting at the Golden Gate (detail). Vertumnus and Pomona. Pomona's attribute that she in art is a pruning knife. fmally won her by appearing as an old woman and telling her what a magnificent husband Vertumnus would make. active 148J-C. 1300-1371 Testament. Joachim years. The principal events connected with the Virgin Mary which have provided subject matter for painters are the following Parentage of the Virgin Mary The of her birth story told in the Protevangelium of St James. Her parents were the aged Joachim and Anne. St lately.VERTUMNUS -VIRGIN MARY 232 Vertumnus and Pomona Once more it is to Ovid's Metamorphoses that we owe the story of the Roman goddess of tree fruit (hence pomology. Such was Pomona's devotion to her orchards had no time for lovers. the of information concern- life. repeated with embellishments in the is Golden Legend. Anne conceives - according to the dogma of immacuthe Im- maculate Conception {q. is a sumptuous who have visitors and see the infant often given to the material . Paris Bordone. Studio of the Master of Moulins. The cult of the Virgin Mary started in the 5 th century after the Council of Ephesus proclaimed her Theo tokos (Mother of God).

L Nativity of the Virgin. d. active 1456. 1484 . Fra Carnavale.

Presentation vj lUt ^^ irgin. It is said that she remained in the Temple until she was fourteen. Cirna di Conegliano . Joseph of Nazareth. at the age of three the Virgin Mary was brought to dedicate the Temple to serve there. Betrothial and ISAarriage of tfie Virgin IVIary The Temple fourteen-year-old Virgin Mary priests girls arranged for to all the marry: but the at first refused as she considered herself dedicated to the Lord. Accordingly. In the background of this scene one usually sees the disappointed suitors breaking their Presentation of the Virgin (detail). 1459I60-1517I 18 staffs. St Anne promised that if she had a chifd she would it to the Lord. It flowered and he married the Virgin Mary. Among the men was the diffident old carpenter. According to the Golden Legend an oracle told the priests to assemble eligible men from the House of David and the one whose stafFflowered would be the husband of the Virgin Mary. He brought his staff only when forced to. .VIRGIN MARY Presentation of the Virgin l\Aary According to apocryphal literature. Andrea di Bartolo ij8g-i428 .

Raphael. c. 1483-1^20 Marriage of the Virgin.Marriage of the Virgin (detail). Bernaert van Orley. 1488-1341 .

VIRGIN MARY 236 Annunciation. 1518-1594 mi'* « Announcement by Gabriel of the Birth of Christ See Annunciation. / i- Visitation (detail). 1480-1538 Purification of the Virgin See Presentation in the Temple. IVIourning of Christ See Pieta. Christ. Elizabeth's baby 'leaped in her womb and Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Ghost. The Nativity of Christ See Adoration of the Shepherds. 39-57.v) the pregnant Virgin Mary paid a visit to Hebron to her pregnant cousin Ehzabeth '§^ 'i >fl John. . ^Kry^M^^^^^^^ i ^^^k who was carrying the future Baptist and precursor of Sensing the presence of the Divine Child. shortly after the Annunciation {q. Tintoretto.' Mary stayed about three months with Elizabeth and then returned to Nazareth. Alhrecht Altdorfer. Visitation According to Luke i. c. Christ. '"7^^^^^^^ .

Visitation (detail). pip' Visitation. 1602-1674 . 1480-1528 . Philippe de ^ JL^^^H Champaigne. Palma V'ecchio.

a significant choice of site in view of the famous cult there of Diana {q.symbol of triumph over sin and death . . One widely accepted legend has her dying in Jerusalem with all the Apostles present.often taken together .v) the virgin goddess. The story of her Dormition and Assumption . 1465-1324 der Goes. Hugo van active (Below) Death of the Virgin Mary. In painting. c. the best known (death) being those included in de Voragine's Golden Legend or Lives of the Saints. Other legends have her dying in Ephesus. the Dormition and the Assumption are divided into a series of events starting with an angel offering her a palm . Death of the Virgin 1467-1482 (detail). Hans Holbein the Elder.and ending with her soaring up into space.is based solely on legends. 14 where she is mentioned as being in the company of the Apostles and followers waiting for Pentecost and the coming of the Holy Spirit.VIRGIN MARY 238 Dormition (or Death) of the Virgin l\/lary The last Biblical reference to the Virgin Mary is in Acts i.

VIRGIN MARY 239 Assumption of the Virgin. . Assumption The Roman (now a dogma) that the Catholic bcHef Virgin Mary was taken up bodily into Heaven is necessarily vague in its details. El Greco. Assumption of the Virgin. She is usually shown being carried skywards by angels. 1541-1614 (Below right) Assumption of the Virgin 1577-1640 (detail). while the Apostles stand in amazement round her empty tomb. Peter Paul Rubens. Matteo active 1452-149$ (Above right) di Giovanni.

symbol in early of martyrdom). she is frequently shown as suspended in space. secrecy. IJ86I87-1435 Coronation of the Virgin IVIary. it was customary at one time to put a rose above the conafter Hterature the Virgin Virgin the Mary as Queen of Heaven (Madonna of Rose Garden). The rose was the flower of perfection and distributing rose wreaths (a catacomb art considered according to St Ambrose acquired its thorns Adam and Eve sinned.VIRGIN MARY 240 Coronation of the Virgin (detail). Stefan Lochner. She is also shown in a rose garden. Eros. The rose was also the flowei of Venus. In devotional Mary was referred to as 'the Rose without Thorns'. Virgin Queen of Heaven In the symbology of the Virgin Mary as Queen of Heaven. Fra Angelico. and Dionysius. or IVIary. a symbol borrowed from the Apocalypse but of extremely ancient origin. hence the expression suh rosa for . standing on a crescent moon. In spite of its pagan connections. c. 1400-1451 fessional.

Master of the St Lucy Legend. . and channel to. This enhanced the power and authority of the Church. rites like 241 Virgin Aiary Queen oj Heaven (detail). institutiona Coronation to divine personalities such as the Virgin Mary. active 1 480-1 48g . Almighty God. for only through the Church could the intercession of the Virgin Mary be obtained. The Virgin Mary's elevation by Coronation to Queen of Heaven made her the intermediary with.VIRGIN MARY The application of temporal. shows the significant role of the painter as instrument of propaganda for the power system of the medieval and Renaissance Church.

It is said that on his way to the grave his body accidentally touched a dead tree which immediately revived. especially restoring the dead to life. . Vulcan. Wooden see Venus and Mars. see Laocoon. sec Jupiter.ZEUS 242 Virtues. c. Horse.VIRTUES . He is rememat the bered chiefly for his miracles. His attribute is frequently a dead child. Seven. see Seven Virtues. Visitation. He was a bishop of Florence and one of its patrons. St Zenobius restoring a dead Sandro Botticelli . Zenobius. Zeus. or a child under the wheels of a waggon. see Virgin Mary. man 1445-1510 to life (detail). St This Florentine saint who died beginning of the 5 th century was a friend of St Ambrose.

List of illustrations .

Fresco in the Brancacci Chapel. 32x24-8. JOSE DE RIBERA: Crucifixion of St Andrew. Philadelphia Museum of Art (George W. Oil on panel. 19 ANDREA mantegna: Adoration of the Shepherds. 18 St Ambrose dissuading Oil on canvas.Anderson School of CHARLES LEBRUN: Battle of the Amazons. Oil x 23. Detail from the 'Hours of the Duchess of Burgundy'. 308 x 248. National Gallery. 27-9 x 34-5. Boymans-van Beuningen : : VAN eyck: The Annunciation. Oil on canvas. Oil on panel. : on 29 JOACHIM patinir: The Temptation of St Antony. French MSS 1362. Hotel de 14 Ville. with the Labours of Adam. Oil on wood.C. Oil on canvas. 114-5 x 146-5. 127 x 178. : . 24 ANTHONY VAN DYCK: Museum. Washington D. Prado. Kress Collection. 16 23 PETER PAUL RUBENS: Thetis dips Achilles in the Styx. Paris. Oil on panel. New York. Photo Art Institute of 27 Studio of JAN 27 FRANCESCO DEL COSSA The Annunciation. Metropolitan Museum of Art. 14 DAVID TENIERS THE YOUNGER Achilles and the daughters of Lycomedes (detail). Oil on panel. Photo: A. 22 : Bruges. 21 CLAUDE LORRAINE: The Landing of Aeneas in Italy (detail). Munich. 131 x 118.L. Roxana Rome.C. Oil on canvas. Samuel H. The numbers refer to pages. Dresden. Kress Collection. Maria del Carmine. 40 x 53-6. : 23 sodoma: The Wedding of Alexander and (detail). Villa Farnesina. Oil on canvas. 21 JOSE DE ribera: St Agnes. Musee Conde. 26 GEORGES DE LA TOUR: The Education of the Virgin (detail). Florence. Gemaldegalerie. Oil on panel. National Museum. : New York. 16 PETER PAUL RUBENS Battle of the Amazons (detail). Oil on panel. Height precedes width. National Gallery. Vienna.C. Oil on canvas. Cain and Abel. 285-5 x 183.244 List of illustrations Measuretnents in centimetres. Samuel H. 102 x 131. Musee des Beaux-Arts. Kunsthistorisches Museum. 63 x 80. Photo Mansell. 22 EL GRECO The Agony in the Garden (detail). Madrid. : 19 Maximus. 33-8 H. 149 x 57. Seattle. Dresden. 120-7 X 163-8. Pitti Palace. Courtrai. 121 x 166. 28 ANTONIO CORREGGIO: The Dream of Antiope.C. Metropolitan Museum of Art. 27 GIOVANNI Dl PAOLO The Annunciation (detail). 26 PETER PAUL RUBENS Sleeping Angelica and the Hermit. Oil canvas. Rome. National Gallery of Art. Kress Collection. Oil on panel. Oil on Boymans-van Beuningen Museum. National Gallery of Art.L. : Temptation and Fall. 15 Museum. London. Washington D. Oil on canvas. Art Institute of Chicago. Alte Pinakothek. 44 x 57-5. 43 x 36-5. The Samuel Seattle Art Museum. 43 x 66. 29 viNCENZO foppa: St Antony of Padua (detail). Oil on canvas. Lisbon. Rotterdam. PETER PAUL RUBENS panel. Collection: Lord Fairhaven. 190 x 124. Oil on canvas. National Gallery of Art. NICOLAS POUSSIN on 17 : 25 panel. 30 GIOVANNI BATTiSTA TiEPOLO Apollo and Daphne. : : : ANON The : Expulsion. 82-5 x 121. Photo: Giraudon. : PAOLO VERONESE Diana and Actaeon. 77-5 x 64-4. Photo Mansell-Alinari. Eve. Elkins Collection). Washington. Oil on canvas. 177-5 X225. Photo Mansell-Anderson. Washington D. 83-8 x 100-4. Oil on panel. National Gallery. 20 Christ and the woman taken in panel. Florence. 202 x 152. Fresco on ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. Dresden. 20 LUCAS CRANACH Oil on Budapest. SEBASTIANO DEL PIOMBO: The Martyrdom of St Agatha (detail). Johnson Collection. Photo: A. 137-5 x 113. The Expulsion from Paradise. 155 x 173. Fresco. Oil on canvas. Tempera and oil on panel. Achilles kills Hector. 40 x 47. Photo Giraudon. 25 FRA BARTOLOMMEO: The Creation of Eve. Oil on canvas. 17 24 : Rotterdam. Photo: Deutsche Fotothek. Oil on Vienna. Philadelphia. Chicago. Budapest. The Frick Collection. Louvre. adultery. London. National Gallery. Ryerson Collection. Detail from the central panel of the Temptation of St Antony triptych. 15 MICHELANGELO: The Creation of Adam.C. Samuel H. LUCAS VAN leyden: Adoration of the Magi (detail). S. MASACCio Triumph of Neptune and Amphitrite. Kress Collection. HUGO VAN DER GOES The : panel. ANDREA MANTEGNA: The Agony in the Garden. Gemaldegalerie. 68-8 x 87-2. Oil on panel. Oil on panel. Kunsthistorisches Vienna. Kunsthistorisches Museum. New York. Photo: Royal Academy of Arts. John G. Chantilly. : 28 HIERONYMUS BOSCH: Black Mass.

93 x 68. Alte Pinakothek. Oil on panel. Fresco. f. Madrid. Dresden. Antwerp. Oil on canvas. 53 Copy on Leonardo da vinci: Leda (detail). Photo: Annan. Uffizi. 8i-8 : x : Mansell-Alinari. 41 SANDRO BOTTICELLI St Augustine in his Study. 141 -2 X 141-2. Prado. 32 VELAZQUEZ : The Spinners. 117 x 178. anon: 58 59 MASACCio: The Tribute Money (detail). 98 x LUCAS CRANACH THE ELDER Catherine. Oil on panel. London. National Gallery. Madrid. 43-2 X 46. 1202 Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana. 57 DUCCIO Temptation of Christ (detail). Prado. 38 PETER PAUL RUBENS Bacchanal. : TADDEO GADDi The : of a Florence. Samuel H. Photo Mas. after panel. Louvre. Rome. . 89-5 X77. Gemaldegalerie. Predella panel from an altarpiece. 74 x 58. 58 EL GRECO : : Christ healing the Blind Man (detail) . Washington D. 52 35 ERA riLiPPO LLPPi: St Augustine and Hermitage. : : 54 HANS MEMLINC: The Tempera and oil on Museum Bacchus and Ariadne. Gemaldegalerie. Oil on canvas. Oil on canvas. Kress Collection. London. 410x265. Oil Prado.C. Photo: Bayerische Staatsgcmaldesammlungen.: : : 245 30 PIERO DELLA TRANCESCA: St ApoUonia. Illuminated manuscript. Louvre. : 35 DI PIETRO St Bernardino preaching of St Francis (detail). 56 JAN VAN EYCK: St Barbara (detail). : 34 : UGOLINO DI NERio: Deposition. Collection of the Duke of Sutherland. CONRAD VUTZ The miraculous draught offishes (detail). Dresden. on Presentation in the Temple. Naples. London. 191 3. : Geneva. Leningrad. Oil on wood. 50 TITIAN: Diana and Callisto. 214-5 X76. Photo: A. Corona. Photo Mansell-Alinari. North Carolina Museum of Art. Paris. Chiesa di S. : 49 SANO 49 FRANCISCO DE ZURBARAN Papal : in the Square Election through intervention of St Bonauentura (detail). 32-2 x 18-6. Alte Pinakothek. Photo Mas. National Gallery. 200x215. Oil on canvas. Musee des Beaux-Arts. Oil on panel. Dresden. : on PAOLO VERONESE The Marriage at Cana (detail). Collection.C. Philadelphia. Florence. 46 DANTE GABRIEL ROSSETTi: canvas. Photo : Mansell-Alinari. Photo 3 2 33 34 : 47 ERA FILIPPO LIPPI The Vision of St Bernard (detail). Vat. Oil 114x86. Oil 59-7. Rome. National Gallery. 96-5 on : panel. 37 the child (detail). 755 x 105. National Museum. 64 x 103. The Hermitage. Oil on wood. Gemaldegalerie. Gallotti Spiridon Collection. Oil on panel. Alte Pinakothek. Gemaldegalerie. on canvas. Florence. Oil on canvas. 69 X73. 307 X 367. Gemaldegalerie. : FRANQOIS BOUCHER: Jupiter and Callisto. Oil on canvas. Oil on wood. 56 CARLO DOLCi: St Cecilia playing the Organ. panel. Oil on canvas. Munich. Oil St Benedict blessing Desiderius (detail). Oil on canvas. 31 ALBRECllT DURER: The Four Apostles (detail). 59 TITIAN: The Tribute Money. panel. 126 Martyrdom of St x 139-5. 75 x 56. Photo: Bulloz. 132 x 154. Munich. Photo: Alinari. Photo Bayerische Staatsgemaldesammlungen. on loan to the National Gallery of Scotland. 41 x 427. The Frick Collection. 40 CARAVAGGio : Young Bacchus. Stockholm. Fresco. John G. Paris. Vicenza. Mas. Photo Deutsche Fotothek. : JOACHIM patinir: The Crossing of the River Styx (detail). 85 x 121. NICOLAS POUSSIN 'Et in Arcadia Ego'' (detail). Photo Scala. Oil on canvas. Collection of the Duke of Sutherland. Oil on canvas. : 239 X 222. London. Betrothal of St Catherine. Florence. 96-5x81. REMBRANDT VAN RYN The Ascension. 167 x 60. bequest of Benjamin Altman. 51 TITIAN: Christ carrying the Cross. BARTHOLOMEW: MASTER OF s. Photo: Deutsche Fotothek. 39 TITIAN 52 FRANCISCO DE ZURBARAN: St Casilda (detail). JAN VAN EYCK panel. on loan to the National Gallery of Scotland. 188 x 211. Edinburgh. S. Dresden. Munich. 27 x 42. 40 54 NICOLAS POUSSIN Aurora and Cephalus. Capodimonte Museum. HiERONYMUS BOSCH: St Bavon. Photo Mansell- 51 : : : North Carolina. Musee d'Art et d'Histoire. Raleigh. Dresden. 48 VELAZQUEZ: Surrender of Breda (detail). 86 x 46 46 on 'Beata Beatrix'. Brancacci Chapel. 34-5 x 52-5. New York. Louvre. 45 REMBRANDT VAN RYN: Bathsheba. Oil on canvas. Sta Maria del Carmine. Oil on canvas. UfFizi. Dresden. National Gallery. 57 St Bartholomew. Oil on panel. Dresden. 220x289. Gemaldegalerie. Madrid. Kunsthistorisches Museum. Dresden. Prado. Johnson Art : Doctors. Oil on canvas. Domenico. 55 FRANCESCO VANNi St Catherine of Siena (detail). Oil on panel. series : Mansell-Alinari. 129 x 161. Oil 66. 205 x 192-5. Oil on panel. of quadrilobes. Oil on wood. HIERONYMUS BOSCH (copy) Christ among the Oil on panel. 85. Dresden. on wood. Prado. Inst. 65-5 X84. Fresco. One c. 208 x 299. Photo: Giovanni Arnolfini and his wife. Oil : canvas. Paris. Oil 44 GIOVANNI BELLINI: The Baptism of Christ. Florence. 39 X 28. 36 MARTEN VAN VALCKERBORCH The Tower of Babel. Photo 43 43 PETER PAUL RUBENS: Bathsheba. Ognissanti. Photo Scala. Oil on panel. Tate Gallery. Oil on x 130-5. Chiesa di Badia. 69 x 75. z r. 142 x 114. Gemaldegalerie. Oil on canvas. 184x90. Metropolitan of Art. : Alinari. 44 x 46. 50 GUIDO RENi Atalanta and Melanion (Hippomenes). London. Oil on wood. Madrid. Siena. Leningrad. Vienna. Edinburgh. 175 X 126. Madrid.L. : : 42 42 55 NICOLAS POUSSIN The Baptism of Christ (from the Seven Sacraments). Oil on panel. Accademia. Florence. National Gallery of Art. 666x990. Oil on canvas. PETER PAUL RUBENS Atlas. SANDRO BOTTICELLI: St Augustine in his Cell. Photo: Mas.

Oil on panel. 65 HIERONYMUS BOSCH Christ carrying the Cross. Allentown. National Gallery of Art. Munich. 67 : Frankfurt. : . National Gallery. Oil on wood. Oil on canvas. Oil on panel. Oil on panel transferred to canvas. Hermitage. Rome (detail). Paris. London. Oil on 96x116. Melbourne. Borghese Gallery. Munich. Venice. GIOVANNI BELLINI: Christ descending into Limbo. Paris. Oil on canvas. 743 x 362. Louvre. Kress Collection. Fine Art Gallery. Oil on panel. : : Dublin. Oil on panel. National Gallery of Art. London. 82 HENRI BELLECHOSE Martyrdom of St Denis. London. Accademia. 233 x 349. GIOVANNI BELLINI Museo 70 70 : Crucifixion. 258-5 X 180. Oil on canvas. National Gallery of Art. National Gallery. Gemaldegalerie. Samuel H. 125 x 91. Berlin-Dahlem. Accademia. Venice. Madrid. : 74 PIETER BRUEGHEL THE ELDER Land of Cockaigne. Alinari. Washington D.C.C.C. Oil on canvas. Photo Archives Photographiques. Kunsthistorisches Museum. 81 REMBRANDT VAN RYN David playing the Harp for Saul. Oil on panel. Photo Bildarchiv Foto Marburg. Rome. Dresden. 83 HANS BALDUNG GRIEN Death and the Maiden. 62 62 London. National Gallery of Art. Marco (detail). Oil on canvas. Photo: Mansell- 74 LUCA SIGNORELLI: to spare 125-5 X Coriolanus persuaded by his family Fresco transferred to canvas. 62 x 50. Madrid. Paris. 282-9x60-3. 95 X73. 30 x 14-5. 117 x 162. 63 HIERONYMUS BOSCH The Betrayal of Christ. TINTORETTO: Christ washing his Disciples' Feet (detail). 116 X205. Oil on panel. Correr. Samuel H. Kunsthistorisches on canvas. 125-5. Oil on panel. Oil on panel. Gallery. Dresden. loi x 135. : 118-3 X : Flagellation (detail). Fresco. Prado. 161 x 210. Kress Collection. London. : HANS MEMLINC St Christopher. Oil on panel. Amsterdam. Vienna. Kress Collection. Washington 68 REMBRANDT VAN RYN: The Vision of Daniel. Oil on canvas. 36 x 46. Museum. : LUCA SIGNORELLI The Circumcision (detail). Samuel H. 54 EUGENE DELACROIX Dante and Virgil in Hell (detail). Oil on canvas. : : : MASTER OF HEILIGENKREUZ: The Death of St Clare (detail). National Gallery Of Ireland. 64 HANS MEMLINC The Presentation in on panel. 77 After PALMA VECCHio Venus and Cupid. Photo Giraudon. 51 X 81-5. National Gallery. 63 Duccio : Christ before Pilate (detail). 73 x 59.C. 84 PETER PAUL RUBENS Diana returning home from the Hunt (detail). 86 : : his Lantern in the Oil on canvas. : 82 PIETER BRUEGHEL THE ELDER Triumph of Death (detail ) Oil on panel. Vienna. 66 TINTORETTO : the Temple. San Diego. Washington D. Photo: : x PAOLO VERONESE 81 CARAVAGGIO David with the Head of Goliath. BERNARDO CAVALLINO: Christ cleansing the Temple. Art Museum of the Socialist Republic of Romania. City Art Gallery. Oil on canvas. Gallery. Five D. Photo: Mas. Oil on wood. Vienna. Louvre. Oil on wood. Oil on canvas. 60 PAOLO VERONESE: The Feast in the House of Levi. : : : : : : : California. Kress Collection. : : 85 LiBERALE DA VERONA Dido's Suicide (detail). 57 x 32. Accademia. Bruges. Madrid. 42-5 x 123. Oil on canvas. Photo: Mansell-Alinari. Washington D. Samuel H. : : : : : 71 71 71 72 73 DOSSO DOSSI Circe and her Lovers in a Landscape (detail). Market Place. 52 X78. Prado. 61-6 x 46. Padua. Samuel H. Bucharest. 51-2 x 36-8. Venice. canvas. 135 x 65-3. Oil on wood.C. National Gallery of Victoria. 132 x 159. loi x 128.246 6o GIOVANNI BATTiSTA TiEPOLO (after Veronese) Christ in the House of Simon the Pharisee (detail). 200-6 x 408-3. GlOTTO: Christ entering Jerusalem (detail). Photo: Meyer. 220x262. Prado. Oil on panel. The Family of Darius III before Alexander (detail). National Gallery. Washington D. Museum. Gemaldegalerie. Oil on canvas. National Gallery of Ireland. 188 X246. London. Cathedral 63 REMBRANDT VAN RYN: The Denial of Peter. 84 ROGIER VAN DER WEYDEN Deposition. Rijksmuseum. National 76 SEBASTIANO Ricci The Finding of the True Cross. Louvre. Photo Anderson. 61 75 PRA GIOVANNI ANGELICO The attempted Martyrdom of SS.C. Dresden. 234x473.L. Oil on canvas. Oil 136. 67 x 49. 78 TITIAN: Danae. 66-4 x 54-5. Venice. Photo Bildarchiv Foto Marburg. BENVENUTO Di GIOVANNI: HIERONYMUS BOSCH: The Crowning with Thorns. National Gallery of Art. QUENTiN MASSYS St Christopher (detail). Tempera on panel. Oil on canvas. Dublin. Allentown Art Museum. Kunsthistorisches Museum. Oil 78 JAN GOSSAERT called MABUSE Danae. London. 79 67 67 MATHIS grunewald: The Small Crucifixion. Oil on canvas. Alte Pinakothek. Gemaldegalerie. FRANCESCO PARMIGIANINO Cupid cutting his Bow. 85 JACOB JORDAENS: Diogenes with GIOVANNI BATTISTA TIEPOLO: The Banquet of Cleopatra (detail). 136-5 x 182. Photo A. Samuel H. Vellum glued to wood. Fresco. Memlinc Museum. Cappella degli Scrovegni all'Arena. Oil on canvas. National 80 Passion of our Lord. London. 249 x 346. 129 x 194. Oil on wood. Siena. panels framed. 154x169. National Gallery. 84 x 35. Stadelsches Kunst- : : : institut. 113 X 95. National Gallery. 75 GENTILE BELLINI Procession in Piazza S. 69 80 Giraudon. Leningrad. Kress Collection.Alte Pinakothek. BONiFAZio VERONESE: The Parable of the Rich Man's Feast. Offentliche Kunstsammlung. 163-7x203-7. Kress Collection. Pennsylvania. Bristol. Cosmas and Damian with their brothers (detail). Photo Deutsche Fotothek. 30. 77 ANTOINE WATTEAU Embarkation from the Island of Cythera (detail). Basel. Oil on canvas. 79 REMBRANDT VAN RYN: Belshazzar's Feast.

54' 5x65. Oil on panel. Milan. Oil on panel. Fresco. Frick Collection. : Tempera on wood. Leningrad. National Gallery of Art. St Pierre.R. Flight into Egypt. : Louvain. bequest of Mary Stillman Harkness. Oil on panel. Oil on canvas. Kress Collection. 112 RAOUX Pygmalion and 99 sodoma: The 149. Photo: Mas. UfFizi. the Eagle. Budapest. : three Fates. Oil on canvas. National Gallery of Art. canvas.C. LEONARDO DA VINCI : Last Supper. GERARD DAVID Archangel Gabriel. 87 88 55. Oil on panel. Photo O. Louvre. TITIAN: Rape ofEuropa. Fresco. Photo delle Grazie. Art Museum Socialist Republic of Romania. Galleria Nazionale. Oil 112 REMBRANDT VAN RYN: Ganymede being carried off by Oil on panel.National Gallery. 115 x 161. 325 X245. : : : : : 93 PAOLO VERONESE: Entombment.5. Florence. Musee Mayer van den Berg. Margaret and Donor. GUIDO RENi: The Building of the Ark. Bache Collection. Photo Giraudon. Washington D. Photo: A. Kunsthistorisches Museum. Oil on canvas. : : 134 X 100. Boston. Washington D. Oil on canvas. St Pierre. 90 Ecce Howo. 170 x 188. Savio. PIETER : 103 (detail). Samuel H. Prado. National Oil on panel. Photo A. 174-6 x 264-8. Washington D. 124-4 x 141 -9.C.247 86 LIPPO Di VANNi: St Dominic (detail). 108 RAPHAEL La Fornarina. : Deutsche Fotothek Dresden. 102 giorgione: Concert Champetre (detail). 98 ANTONIO PISANELLO Vision of St Eustace. The Metropolitan Museum of New York. 90 NICOLAS POUSSIN Echo and Narcissus (detail Oil on canvas.C. New London. John G. HIERONYMUS BOSCH SEBASTIEN (detail). Rome. Oil on canvas. REMBRANDT VAN RYN : Flora. Madrid. Paris. (detail). 117 x 168-5. Photo 104 JAN BRUEGHEL 105 BONAVENTURA BERLiNGHiERi : ). 45 x 44-5. iiox 138. Hermitage. : Christ at the Sea of Galilee (detail). 75 x6l. Florence. WelHngton Museum. 12-7 x 146. PETER PAUL RUBENS: Miracles of St Francis Xavier (detail). 45 X42-7. iii x : 134. Louvre. : Photo : 102 Alinari. University of Miami. 105-5x74. Oil on panel.C. Oil on canvas. Samuel H. London. 95 REMBRANDT VAN RYN Haman begging Esther for forgiveness. Gemaldegalerie. Mary Magdalene. Louvre. on canvas. 253 x 141. : Gables.C. Philadelphia. Louvain. 78x68. Anthony and Matthew and Donor. 107 ALBRECHT ALTDORFER Recovering the Body of St Florian (detail from Florian Altar). Gemaldegalerie.C."" S. 200x212. Antwerp. Uffizi. : S. Louvre. 92 BARTOLOME MURILLO St Elizabeth of Hungary (detail). National Gallery. National Gallery. The Metropolitan New York. Tempera and oil on wood. Oil on panel. 33 X20-5. no Ill Maria 97 MICHELANGELO Entombment. 76x61. Dresden. 92 CARAVAGGIO The Supper ct Emmaus. diameter 38.): Entombment (detail). Widener Collection. Museum of Art. Oil on canvas. Paris. : . Ducal Palace. 171-5 x 130. 103 cosimo tura: HUGO VAN DER GOES panel. : PAOLO VERONESE: Rape ofEuropa (detail). London. 66x51.L.C. Photo: Alinari. Galatea. 285 x 227-5. Oil on panel. 85 x 60. Oil on 60x75. 139 X 195. Mellon Collection. FRANCESCO DI GIORGIO Christ. Oil on panel. Left wing of Portinari Altarpiece. 82 x 80. 89 : BRUEGHEL THE ELDER Dulle Griet (Mad Meg) Oil on panel. Johnson Art Collection. New York. ERA ANGELICO (attrib. National Gallery of Ireland. Oil on canvas. Bucharest. 109 GIOVANNI BELLINI: 5( Francis in ecstasy (detail). Nuremberg. : 113 PETER PAUL RUBENS Garden of Love. National Gallery of Art.L. Madrid. : of the 96 St Francis renounces his earthly father c. Right wing of Portinari Altarpiece. : receiving the Stigmata Oil on panel. 89 x 55. Museum of Art. SANDRO BOTTICELLI: Adoration of the Magi. loi 87 HUGO VAN DER GOES 5S.C. Venice. Uffizi. Oil on canvas. Photo Mansell-Anderson. Oil on panel. Oil on canvas. London. National Gallery of Art. Samuel H. 97 x 135. Washington D. : on canvas. Paris. 96 : (detail). 135 X45' Prado. Vienna. Oil on panel. Florence. Photo 99 on canvas. Rome. Jules S. BOURDON Massacre of the Innocents : Hermitage. I Collecting the Animals for the Ark. ANTOINE WATTEAu: Fete Champctre (detail). 74 x 100. 151 : : x 116. Photo: Giraudon. Joe and Emily Lowe Art Gallery. 93 94 SASSETTA Gallery. Kress Collection. Geneva. Sta Alinari. National Gallery. 5f Francis preaching Francesco. Oil Paris. Photo Giraudon. 193-5 X 154-5. Deutsches Nationalmuseum. 91 106 GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIAZZETTA Elijah taken up in a Chariot of Fire. : the birds. 185 X205. to : 106 91 HIERONYMUS BOSCH: Expulsion from Eden (detail from left wing o( Haywain triptych). Leningrad. Prado. Photo: Mansell- Anderson. Pescia. Apsley House. Florida. Madrid. Frankfurt. Oil on panel. Musee d'Art et 109 d'Histoire. 89 St Dorothea and the Infant Oil on panel. DIERIC bouts: Martyrdom of St Erasmus. Metropolitan York. : 111 NICOLAS POUSSIN Acis and Galatea. Oil on canvas. Art. Oil 96-4x91-7. 107 NICOLAS POUSSIN: Triumph of Flora (detail). Coral 100 DIERIC BOUTS Last Supper (from the Mystic Meals Altarpiece). 112 TINTORETTO : GIOVANNI BELLINI Feast of the Gods (detail). Washington D. Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum. Oil on panel. Dresden. Stadelsches Kunstinstitut. : Galleria Nazionale. Oil on canvas. 161 x National Gallery. 253 X 141. 87-5 x 52-5. 236 x 186. London. Oil on canvas. Kress Collection. London. Oil on 103 GERARD DAVID Rest on the Flight into Egypt (detail). Dublin. 65 X94-9. National Gallery of Art. no JAN VAN EYCK: St Francis 94 JACOPO DEL SELLAio: Esther and Ahasuerus (detail).

One of 22 panels from the ceiling of the Palazzo del Magnifico. Oil on canvas.L. National Gallery. 52 x 44.184-5 X I49'5. From an altarpiecc from the Jesuit Church in Antwerp. Kress Collection. 161 X 97-5.Louvre. Oil on canvas. National Gallery of Art. irregular octagon. York. Gift of J. painted for Pandolfo Petrucci. despot of Siena. Dresden. Oil on canvas. National Gallery of Art. Oil on canvas. Rogers ALBRECHT ALTDORFER Battle of the Issus (detail). Washington D.L. 130 JOSE DE ribera: Dream ofJacob. National Gallery of Ireland. 114 MASTER of ST GILES St Giles and the Hind (detail). 179 X 233. 129 ANTOINE WATTEAU Italian Comedians (detail). 114 NICOLAS poussin: Death of Germanicus (detail). Oil on panel. 157-5 x 100-3. Paris.R. Oil on canvas. 122 ANON: Holy Family with St John in a landscape. Musees Royaux des : Beaux. : : : Fuhd. 51 x6l.Kunsthistorisches 115 : London. 119 HANS BALDUNG GRIEN: Hercules and Antaeus. 123 15TH-CENTURY FLEMISH school: Conversion of St Hubert. John G. London. National Gallery. New York. 123-8x83. 131 EUGENE DELACROIX Jacob wrestling with Chapel of the Holy Angels. Gemaldegalerie. Oil on canvas. Mansell-Anderson. National Gallery of Art. 125 EL GRECo: St Ildefonso (detail).C. Samuel H. Kress Collection. Minneapolis Institute of Arts.C. story of the Argonauts (detail). 213 X 159. Castiglione d'Olona. 54-5 X 43-5. Gemaldegalerie. 79 x 106. Oil on canvas. Photo: Giraudon. Photo: Service de Documentation Photographique. FRANCISCO DE ZURBARAN St Jerome with St Paula and St Eustochium (detail). NICOLAS POUSSIN The Holy Family. 330x427. 132 GIOVANNI BATTISTA TIEPOLO: St Jamcs Fresco in the Baptistery. 46-1 x66-7. : Hermitage. Oil on canvas. St Sulpice. 126 EL GRECO: Crucifixion (detail). Denver. 57-8 x 34-8. Oil on panel. PETER PAUL RUBENS Miracle of St Ignatius Loyola (detail).C. Madrid. Oil on panel. National Gallery. Paris. 154x214.C. Musees Royaux des BeauxArts. Oil on canvas. Oil on panel. 112x65. 245-1 x 173. 132 MASTER OF ST FRANCIS Stjames the Less (detail). Photo: Giraudon. 31 X23. 97-5 x 114-3. National Gallery. Paris. National Gallery. London. Madrid. York. London. 85 X73. 163-5 X74. 127 GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIAZZETTA: Rebecca at the Well (detail). Gemaldegalerie. Oil on panel. 100x71. Museum. Photo Bildarchiv Foto Marburg. Oil on canvas. 128 x 217. 131 120 PETER PAUL RUBENS: Nessus and Dejanira. Cassel. 61-5 X 46-5. Oil on panel. Photo: S. 317X 162. Photo: Bildarchiv Foto Marburg. Mellon Collection. National Gallery of : Art. CLAUDE LORRAINE: Hagar and the Angel (detail). Philadelphia. Oil on canvas. William Dunwoody Fund. 279 x 152. London. 127 School of ANTONELLO DA MESSINA: Abraham visited by three Angels. Oil on panel. Louvre. 64 x 76. 121 MASOLINO : : The Banquet of Herod (detail). Copper. Photo: Bulloz. Oil on canvas. Photo A. PIETER BRUEGHEL THE ELDER The Fall of the Rebel Angels. Kress Collection. : 50 X 142-5. 153-6x66-5.R. Prado. Oil on wood. 125 GIOVANNI BATTISTA TIEPOLO: The Immaculate Conception. Leningrad. New 124 PIETER BRUEGHEL THE ELDER: Fall of Icarus (detail). Washington D. Brussels. Brera. The Metro- Beaux-Arts. Fresco transferred to canvas. Budapest. : Musce Fabre. National Gallery. Brussels. National Gallery of Ireland.C. Oil on panel. Oil on canvas. Oil on canvas. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 50 x 24. Paris. Dublin. . Washington D. 526-2 x 388-7. Munich. Photo: : the Angel. London. Oil on The Meeting ofJacob and Rachel canvas. Vienna. Oil on canvas. Montpellier. Milan. Dublin. : the Greater of Compostela (detail). London.248 113 TINTORETTO: St George and the Dragon (detail). 122 : 133 HENDRICK TERBRUGGHEN Jacob reproaching Laban. Alte Pinakothek. 146 x 250. Photo: Deutsche Fotothek Dresden. 117 x 162. Prado. 117 x 159. 127 ANDREA DEL SARTO: Sacrifice of Isaac. NICOLAS poussin: Adoration of the Golden Calf (detail). Samuel H.Arts. Oil on panel. Washington D.C. Munsey Fund. 120 FRANCESCO ALBANi: Salmacis and Hermaphroditus. 121 PETER PAUL RUBENS: Hero and Leander (detail). Frank A. 115 ANTOINE WATTEAu: Gi7/e5 (detail). 34x25-5. Oil on panel. 1914. 102 x 137. National Gallery. Samuel H. Johnson Collection. Oil on panel. Dresden. National Gallery of Art. : Dresden. 119 128 Brussels. 124 EL GRECO: Adoration of the Name ofJesus (detail). Tempera on wood.C. 126 ANTONIO CORREGGIO: lo embraced by Jupiter (detail). Oil on canvas. Vienna. Follow^er of fra angelico Rape of Helen by Paris (detail). Oil on canvas. Louvre. Washington D. 128 BARTOLOME MURILLO : : 1X6 117 117 : JACQUES-LOUIS DAVID Hector. Oil on canvas. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. : : 134 Follower of pesellino : Cassone panel: scenes from the Tempera on wood. National Gallery. 132 SIMONE MARTINI and assistants: St James the Greater. Photo: Mansell-Alinari. 1909. Oil on canvas mounted on wood. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Gemaldegalerie. : : 129 ANTOINE WATTEAU Mezzetin. PALMA VECCHio (detail). Kress Collection. Siena. Pierpont Morgan. Kunsthistorisches Museum.C. Photo Mas. National Gallery. National Gallery of Art. 148 x 196-5.C. 123 JACQUES-LOUIS DAVID Oath of the Horatii. 118 118 PAOLO VERONESE: St Helena's Vision of the Cross. New York. BERNARDINO PINTORICCHIO Hercules and Omphale. 116 MASTER OF FLEMALLE Mass of St Gregory (detail). Oil on canvas. Photo: S. 196 x 114. Photo 124 : 135 A. London. London. 73-5 x 112 Musees Royaux des SANDRO BOTTICELLI: Last Communion of St Jerome (detail). Samuel H. Oil on canvas. Isaac blessing Jacob. politan 135 Museum New of Art. Photo: Mas.

Musees Brussels. Photo Manscll-Andcrson.L. Collection of the Marquess and Marchioness of Normansby. 112 X95. 144 x 112. Oil on panel. Oil Royaux on des Beaux-Arts. : 150 Terripera on Satan smiting Job with sore boils. Photo: Scala. 282 x 226. Photo Photo Studios Ltd. 161 EL FRANCISCO DE ZURBARAN St Lawrence. Tate Gallery. PETER PAUL RUBENS Juno and Argus.C. Berlin-Dahlem. Oil on canvas. Alte Pinakothek. 137-5 x 172-5. : : GRECO St Martin and the Beggar. (detail). : Photo Deutsche Fotothek Dresden. : 156 FRANCISCO DE ZURBARAN: St Margaret (detail). Oil on panel. 155 REMBRANDT VAN RYN The offering ofManoah (detail). Oil on canvas. Kunsthistorisches Museum. : NICOLAS POUSSIN The Nurture ofJupiter (detail). Rijksmuseum. Oil on panel. Musee d'Art et : MASACCio Head of St John : : MATTEO Di GIOVANNI Judith with the head of on panel. Maria del Carmine. HUBERT VAN EYCK Last Judgment. : oil ERA ANGELICO: St Lawrence distributing alms (detail).C. Oil canvas. National Gallery. 71 x 260. Oil on canvas. 59-5x44. John G. Oil on panel. Oil on canvas.C. Uffizi.C. mahogany. National Gallery of Art. St Nicholas Chapel. 153 FRANCESCO DEL cossA StLucy. Oil on panel. Photo Bildarchiv Foto Marburg. National Gallery of Ireland. Manscll-Alinari. National London. 152 x 191. Oil 144 WEYDEN Oil on panel. 153 ROGIER VAN DER 142 REMBRANDT VAN V. Louvre. : PETER PAUL RUBENS : Apollo and Marsyas. 136x242.C. 79 x 56. Photo A. Oil on canvas. Kress Collection. National Gallery. 150 JACQUES-LOUIS DAVID canvas. Oil on panel. 138 WILLIAM BLAKE 150 PETER PAUL RUBENS: Rape of the Daughters of Leucippas (detail). Musee Royal des Beaux-Arts.YN: Joseph relating his Dreams. Kunsthistorisches Museum. Indiana. Washington D. Oil on panel. 32 x 25 -5. London. 187 x 120. Brussels. HANS memlinc: Madonna and Child with Angels (detail). National Gallery of Art. Dresden. 155 bacchiacca: The Gathering of Manna (detail). Washington D. 56-5 x 19-7. Leningrad. 62x41. Oil on panel. 152 LORENZO lotto: A Lady as Lucretia.L. 151 ANDREA orcagna: The Crucifixion (detail). Dublin. Indiana University. Vienna. 72 X 182. 222 X209. National Gallery of Art. 91 x8i. 135-3 x 108-8. Leningrad. Oil on Royaux des Beaux-Arts. 33-8 x 23. Oil on panel. 154 142 REMBRANDT VAN RYN Judas returning the thirty pieces of silver (detail). 163 HANS BALDUNG GRIEN: St George and St Maurice (detail from wing of an altarpiece). National Gallery. Oil on panel. 59x48. Cologne. St Bavon. Musees Royaux des Beaux-Arts.L. Photo: A.C. Oil on canvas. Photo A. Fresco. 175 x 134. 265 X38. 79. Boston. Photo Bildarchiv Foto Marburg. 88 X47. 151 ALBRECHT ALTDORFER Lot and his daughters. iii x 100-5. Oil on panel. d'Histoire. Gemaldegalerie. 162 TITIAN NICOLAS froment: Raising of Lazarus (detail). London. Hermitage. Vatican. 260x325. Oil on canvas. : : 159 QUF.L. Washington D. Geneva. : ANTONIO CORREGGIO: Leda with the Swan (detail). Kress Study Collection. Washington D. Courtesy of the Museum of Fine Arts. Oil on panel. Oil on panel. Hermitage. PIERO DI cosiMO Battle between the Lapiths and Centaurs (detail). Oil on canvas. New York. : EUGENE DELACROIX Liberty Leading the People (detail). Ghent. Antwerp. 137 GIOVANNI BATTISTA CIMA St Jerome in a Landscape. 104 X 60. Gemaldegalerie. National Gallery of Ireland. Vienna. Munich. 96 x 119 -7. Photo Bayerische Staatsgemalde: sammlungen. Gallery. Musees Brussels. : Lamentation (detail). Photo: 162 MARINUS VAN ROYMERSVAELE: The Calling of St Matthew (detail). Oil on panel. Photo Bulloz. Fresco in the Brancacci Chapel. Photo A. National Gallery of Art.NTiN MASSYS: St Mary of Egypt. Oil on panel. HIERONYMUS BOSCH: St John at Patmos (detail). Philadelphia. 108 x 84. 95-9 X 110-5. GIOVANNI BATTISTA ROSSO Moses defending the Daughters ofjethro. 160 x 117. 146 HUBERT and JAN VAN EYCK : : Adoration of the Lamb of central panel of the Ghent Altarpiece).C. 32 X43. S. Detail from the Rendering of the Tribute Money. Oil on canvas. Johnson Collection. Oil on panel.C. : : Mary Magdalene. Oil on canvas. Andrew Mellon Collection. Kress Collection. BerlinDahlem. 121x28. 107 x 189. 106-7 x 8o-6. 149 JEHAN fouquet: Madonna and Child. Gemaldegalerie. 147 EL 147 HUGO VAN DER GOES: 154 RAPHAEL: The Small Cowper Madonna. Samuel H. (detail 149 the Virgin : 145 149 Luke painting 154 : 148 St : : 148 : : Holofernes. Florence. Uffizi. Florence. 156 TINTORETTO: Martyrdom of St Mark (detail). Gemaldegalerie. : 157 158 158 : The death of Marat. Gemaldegalerie. Oil on panel. Oil on panel. Oil on canvas. Oil on panel. Samuel H. 64x61. Kunsthistorisches Museum. 108-5 x 125. Dulwich College Picture Gallery. main part. Oil on canvas. 139 139 140 141 JUAN DE FLANDES Decapitation ofJohn the Baptist (detail). Washington D. panel. Oil on panel. Tempera and on canvas. 83 x 109. : : London. 31-1x21-1. Berlin-Dahlem. Vienna. Paris.: 249 on 136 LUCA GIORDANO: Martyrdom of St Jamiarius. Kress Collection. Florence. Oil on canvas. 51 X39. Wood.C. 165 x 128. National Gallery of Art. Dublin. Photo Photo Meyer.5 x 102. Widener Collection. 255 X 348. Washington D. Samuel H. Berlin-Dahlem. National Gallery. London. : 143 : (detail). Oil on canvas. Bloomington. Rome. 160 PETER PAUL RUBENS Christ in the House of Martha and Mary. Wallraf-Richartz Museum. PIERO DI COSIMO Venus and Mars. 242 x 283. National Gallery of Art. London. National Gallery. 56 x 46.C. London. London. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. : PAOLO VERONESE Judith with the head of Holofernes. Oil on canvas. 143 : . Amsterdam. transferred from wood. GRECO Laocoon.

Basel. 226 x 176. Oil on canvas. 173 Paul. : 174 NICOLAS POUSSIN Narcissus. : : : : : : 169 182 TINTORETTO Venus hunted by Minerva (detail). National Gallery. : EUSTACHE LE SUEUR Thalia (detail). 184 PETER PAUL RUBENS Judgment of Paris (detail).Judgment of the Emperor Othon (detail). 85. Washington D. Hermitage. Oil on canvas. 491 x 717-5. Photo National Gallery. 230x175. 180 GIOVANNI BELLINI: Orpheus (detail). Prado. diameter 55-5. New York. London. CARAVAGGIO Martyrdom of St Peter. the Earl of Derby. Uffizi. : 172 REMBRANDT VAN RYN Moses with the Ten Commandments. 167 DOMENICO GHIRLANDAIO: St Michael (detail). Fletcher Fund. Oil on canvas. London. Transferred from wood to canvas. Gemaldegalerie. 194x257. M. Photo: GUST AVE MOREAU Oedipus and the Sphinx. 182 JACOB JORDAENS Pan and Syrinx. Kunsthistorisches Museum. 168 x 113. Florence. Hermitage. 70-7X4i-i.C. Brussels. Metropolitan Museum of Art.C. Munich. 189 HANS ROTTENHAMMER Fall of Phaeton. Washington D. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Luton Hoo.C. : Odysseus and Nausicaa. Oil on canvas. South Carolina. 180 DIERIC BOUTS '. 65 x 97. Photo Fotografico Nazionale. Prado. 168 BARTOLOME BERMEjo St Michael. Photo: Portland Art Museum. Oil on panel. 39-5 x 81. 173 X 136. : : 175 SALVATOR ROSA : PIERRE-NARCISSE GUERIN Phaedra and Hippolytus. 130 x 130. Chester Dale Collection. 1924. Widener Collection 1942. Rome. Sistine Chapel. Oil on canvas. Oil on canvas.C. Oil on canvas. 190 NICOLAS POUSSIN 176 : Amphitrite. Brussels. : : 183 170 TINTORETTO The Finding of Moses. National Museum. London. REMBRANDT VAN RYN Philemon and Baucis (detail). Euterpe and on panel. Stadelsches Kunstinstitut. Schilderijen. Oil on 194x64. 287 x 175. Copper. National Gallery. 178 PIERRE-AUGUSTE RENOIR Odalisque. Alte Pinakothek. COSIMO ROSSELLI Paradise Garden (Hortus Conclusus). Oregon.C. 324 x 182. 179 NICOLAS POUSSIN Blind Orion searching for the Rising Sun (detail). Madrid. Tempera on panel. New York. London. National Gallery of Art. Oil on panel. Wentworth Fund. 117 x 183. 176-5 x 192-5. 99' 5 x 139. Louvre. : canvas. Koninklijk Kabinet van The Hague. 186 : BARTOLOME ZEITBLOM Descent of the Holy Ghost. 72 x 96-5. 163 Paris. Oil on canvas. London. 121 x 176. 185 ANDREA mantegna: Pamassus. Oil on canvas. Photo Deutsche Fotothek Dresden. National Gallery of Art. Oil canvas. Portland. Fresco. National Gallery. 176 PAOLO VERONESE: Consecration of St Nicholas. 155 xpi-s. Photo : Mansell-Brogi. 187 Perseus and Andromeda. Crossing of the Red Sea (detail). Offentliche : : Kunstsammlung. Washington D. 179 ANTONIO CORREGGIO: Mercury instructing Cupid before Venus. Kress Collection. Oil on transferred to canvas. Photo: Archives Photographiques. Kunsthistorisches Museum. Berlin. 1950. London. Musees Royaux des THEODORE GERICAULT The Raft of the Medusa. Gemaldegalerie. 145 x 194. Oil on canvas. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Widener Collection.5. 23 X26-5. 203 : : Giraudon. 223 x6o. : MATHIS grunewald: The Meeting of St Erasmus and St Maurice. Kress Collection. 167 NICOLAS POUSSIN Midas and Bacchus (detail). Oil on canvas. Palazzo Medici-Riccardi. LO SCARSELLINO : : Gabinetto : 39x54-1. Oil on canvas. Photo 158-7. Florence. Oil on canvas. Tempera and oil on panel. Photo: Joachim Blauel. Wood. Oil on canvas. Paris. 257x355. Stockholm. Alte Pinakothek. Paris. : . 169 TINTORETTO: Origin of the Milky Way (detail). : Vienna. Catherine D. 186 NiccoLO dell'abbate Conversion of St : canvas. National Gallery of : Ireland. 164 165 166 tangere. A. Oil on canvas. Maria del Popolo.C. CARAVAGGio: Mcdusd. National Gallery of Art. 174 A The Muses Clio. : Follower of Giovanni antonio boltraffio on panel.L. Oil on canvas. National Gallery. Musees Royaux des Beaux-Arts. Photo: Bulloz. : : Gathering of the Ashes of Phocion Oil on canvas. 77' 5 X 34. LUCA siGNORELLi: Pan. : on Vienna. 175 mabuse Oan gossaert) Neptune and Staatliche Museen zu Berlin. 183 170 anon: BENOZZO GOZZOLi: Paradise (detail). National Galley. 122 x Louvre. Oil on canvas. Louvre. Vatican. PETER PAUL RUBENS wood : Narcissus. National Gallery. Oil panel. Destroyed. Oil Paris. Photo A. 171 172 FELDC CHRETIEN: The Dinteville Brothers before Francis I as Moses and Aaron before Pharaoh. 148 x 165. 350 X Wernher Collection. Beaux-Arts. Dublin. 121 x 66. Munich. Photo Mansell-Alinari.250 i63 EUGENE DELACROIX: Medea. Photo Mansell-Alinari. 166 : HANS BALDUNG GRIEN Mercury (detail). Museum of Art. 26-3 X33-4. Samuel H. London. 68-6x123-3. : DOMENICO FETI Moses and the burning bush. on Frankfurt. : Leningrad. Oil on canvas. Church of S. : panel. Louvre. Columbia. 181 EUGENE DELACROIX Ovid among the Scythians (detail). Oil on canvas. Oil on x 1O3. Paris. Berlin-Dahlem. Oil on canvas. Madrid. 88 x 130. New York. 184 NiKLAUS MANUEL DEUTSCH Judgment of Paris (detail). Oil on oak panel. Oil on 160 x 192. Collection of The Right Hon. Photo Mansell-Anderson. 177 Noli me tangere. 98 x 134-5. 190 PIETRO CANDIDO The Charity of St Nicholas. Rome. Oil : Leningrad. Dresden.The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Formerly Kaiser Friedrich Museum. 167 x 135. 177 ANTONIO CORREGGIO Noli me 130 X 103. (detail).L. Oil on panel. 54-5 x 68. Louvre. Oil on panel.. 177-5x128-5. Photo Giraudon.

: 251 ipi ERCOLE ROBERTi P/efd. 219 anon: Theseus killing the Minotaur (detail from a cassone panel). 211 HIERONYMUS BOSCH: Ship of Fools. Munich. 59-5 X67. : 207 M. 210 PESELLINO AND STUDIO: The Seven Virtues. Sistine Chapel. Oil on panel. National Gallery.L. 291-5 x 202-5. Frankfurt. New York. Oil on panel. Stadelsches Kunstinstitut. Gemaldegalerie.C. Photo Mansell-Alinari. Vatican Galleries. 191 J. Paris. 198 ANTHONY VAN DYCK wood. Bologna. Oil : London. Brussels. 195 NiccoLO dell'abbate: Rape of Proserpina Louvre. 68 x 120. Dresden. 214 199 NICOLAS POUSSIN Rape of the Sabine Women (detail). Oil on panel. Budapest. On loan to the National Gallery of Scotland. 205 PETER PAUL RUBENS: St Teresa delivering Bernadin de Mendoza from Purgatory. Kunsthistorisches Museum. Berlin-Dahlem. Photo Bulloz. On loan to the National Gallery of Scotland. Walker Art Gallery. 73-5x268. Oil on canvas. Prado.C. 137 x 196. London. 203 FRANCISCO DE GOYA 204 : Oil on Saturn devouring his Children canvas. Oil on x 40. 204 219 FRANCISCO DE GOYA: Third of May 1808 (detail). : NICOLAS POUSSIN Judgment of Solomon (detail). Fresco. : EUGENE DELACROEX Massacre de Scio (detail). Photo Anderson. panel. Stadelsches Kunstinstitut.C. Louvre. Oil on canvas. Photo Bildarchiv Foto Marburg. 192 London. 314. Photo: Giraudon. Samuel H. . National Gallery of Ireland. : (detail).Anderson. Folly and Time. 266x345. Photo Annan. National NICOLAS POUSSIN: The Seven Sacraments: Eucharist. Oil on panel. Hermitage. Photo Giraudon. : ANDREA MANTEGNA Introduction of the Cult of Cybele at Rome {the Triumph of Scipio) (detail). loi x 150. Oil on canvas. 217 201 JACOPO BASSANO The Good Samaritan. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Oil on panel. Alabama. Florence. Oil on 220 London. : on : : : Transfiguration. Prado. 115 The Incredulity of St Thomas. Berlin-Dahlem. Paris. 65 x 183. Edinburgh. 221 HIERONYMUS BOSCH: The seven deadly sins (detail). 84x66. 154-6x210. Phillips Collection. Duke of Sutherland Collection. Paris. Rome. National Gallery of Art. Samuel H. Photo: Giraudon. Fresco. Oil canvas. 209 ANGELO BRONZiNO Venus. 211 MICHELANGELO: Cumaean Sibyl. Frankfurt. 218 202 REMBRANDT VAN RYN Blinding of Samson (detail). Gemaldegalerie. Borgo S. 44-5 x 149. 203 PAOLO UCCELLO The Battle of San Romano (detail). Hermitage. 198 : S.Arts. Paris. 221 206 206 HUGO VAN DER GOES Museum. : 210 LEANDRO BASSANO: The Queen of Sheba visiting Solomon. Oil on panel. sassetta: St Thomas Aquinas (detail). Musee des Beaux-Arts. National Gallery. Paris. London. Oil on canvas.C. Panel. Photo A. 98-5 : Frankfurt. : (detail). 132-5 x 203-5. Photo A. Petronio. Gallery. 102 x 80. Tempera on panel. Collection of the Duke of Sutherland. : ANTHONY VAN DYCK Triumph of Silenus.L. panel. National Gallery. Antwerp. Oil on panel. turner: Ulysses deriding Polyphemus Oil on canvas. Oil on Musees Royaux des Beaux. Oil on 56 X 32. 222 : GUERCINO : canvas. 168 x 112. 194 PIERO DI COSIMO Allegory of Prometheus. 215 School of PIETRO DA CORTONA Martyrdom of St Stephen. Sepolcro. Oil on canvas. Oil on canvas. : PARMIGIANINO St Roch. Birmingham Museum of Art. Aix-en-Provence. 207 DIRCK baegert: Pilate washing his hands (detail). 120 x 150. National Gallery. 23-8 X 34-3. 76-5 X92-8. : 196 NICOLAS POUSSIN Pyramus and Thisbe (detail). Oil on canvas. Musee. London. 192-5x273-5. Musces Royaux des BeauxArts. Oil on panel. Photo: Mas. Oil on x 140. PIERO DI COSIMO: A Mythological Subject: Death of Procris. Vatican. Kunsthistorisches : GEORGES DE LA TOUR St Sebastian. 143 x 83. 56-5 X 41 -5. 220 jean-auguste-dominique INGRES Jupiter and Thetis. Brussels. Washington D. Oil on x 146-5. Louvre. Kress Collection. 60x45. Photo Annan. Oil on panel. (detail). 132 X78-5. : (detail). Oil on panel.L. Oil on canvas. w. Cupid. : the Angel. 194 DOMENico FETTi: Return of the Prodigal Son. : 213 Photo A. Palazzo Communale. Madrid. National Gallery. Scala. Alte Pinakothek. Birmingham. 45 x 62. : 212 School of ANDREA DEL VERROCCfflO Tobias and on panel. 160 x 129. NICOLAS POUSSIN : : : 192 SANDRO BOTTICELLI 203 X 193 Primavera. panel. Oil on canvas. Dublin. National Gallery. Gemaldegalerie. 117 x 178. Vienna. Leningrad. : REMBRANDT VAN RYN Susanna and the Elders Oil on panel. 33-7 x 306. National Gallery. Private Collection. Edinburgh. 146x193-6. Washington D. 194 x 139. : canvas. : : London. Photo Bildarchiv Foto Marburg. Stadelsches Kunstinstitut. Oil on panel. Oil on panel. 23-6x39. Oil on wood. London. Oil on canvas. Oil on canvas. Madrid. 329x228. Vienna. 117 x 178. Photo 217 405 x 278. The Seven Sacraments : Ordination. : : NICOLAS POUSSIN Tancred and Erminia. Oil on canvas. 216 RAPHAEL 200 PAUL CEZANNE: La Montagne Sainte-Victoire au Grand Pin. London. 40 Lamentation. TINTORETTO Susanna and the Elders. Kress Collection. 326-5 x 253. Leningrad. 200 benozzo gozzoli: Dance of Salome. National Gallery. Photo Giraudon. 417x354. Photo Mansell. Uffizi. National Gallery. Oil canvas. London. : on : : 197 PIERO DELLA FRANCESCA Resurrection.C. STEFAN lochner: Martyrdom of St Thomas. Louvre. : : : : canvas. Rinaldo and Armida. Liverpool. National Gallery. Louvre. 183 x 319-5. Oil on canvas. Oil : on 208 ANTONIO and piero pollaiuolo Martyrdom of St Sebastian.

Washington D. 142-5 X94. Transfiguration of Mount Tabor Civico. 225 A Music of Time (detail). Holy Trinity adored by : on canvas. London. Louvre. Kress Collection.5 Musees Royaux des Beaux. 101-5 X77-5. Toilet of 239 PETER PAUL RUBENS Assumption of the Virgin (detail). Ohio. Oil on panel. Vienna. National Gallery of Art. London.C. VELAZQUEZ: on : London. Photo: Carlfred Halbach. Metropolitan Museum of Art. National Gallery. 2097 X 138-6. 236 TINTORETTO Annunciation. Samuel H. 67 x 150-5. 147 x 227. 226 235 : (detail). 230 SANDRO BOTTICELLI 238 : - : Birth of Venus. Bruges.Arts. 53-7 x 32-3. Pinacoteca di Brera. 164 X 206. DI GIOVANNI Assumption of the Virgin. Tempera and oil on panel. (Central panel from an altarpiece. Diisseldorf. 232 : : Dl BARTOLO : D. London. : 237 . Studio of the master of moulins Joachim and Anne meeting at the Golden Gate (detail).Arts. New York. Oil on panel.L.C. Stockholm. Photo A.C. Oil on canvas. 130 x 124. : CIMA Di CONEGLIANO: Presentation of the Virgin. Gemaldegalerie. National Gallery. 149 X 122. Courtesy of the Cleveland Museum of Art. 72 x 59. : 230 HANS MEMLDSfC St Veronica. Oil on panel. National Gallery of Art. Art Museum of the Socialist Republic of Romania. 240 STEFAN LOCHNER Madonna of the Rose Garden (detail) Oil on panel. National Gallery of Art. 5 X 77.252 222 HANS VON ACHEN Three Graces. 401-3 X228-6. 231 PAOLO VERONESE: Venus and Adonis (detail). Photo Mansell-Anderson. Musees Royaux des Beaux-Arts. HANS HOLBEIN THE ELDER Death of the Virgin Mary. canvas.National Gallery.) Oil on panel. 116-5 x 236 ALBRECHT ALTDORFER Visitation (detail). Brussels. Cologne. Photo A. Oil on canvas. Fresco transferred to canvas. Oil on panel. Geneva. Metropolitan Museum of Art. 175 X278. Kress Collection. 233 FRA carnavale Nativity of the Virgin. Oil on canvas. GIOVANNI BELLINI: Museo DUCCio: Transfiguration. Brussels. Oil on canvas. 3 1 1 x 24-2. Nationalmuseum. 108-5. Paris. Oil on panel. Courtesy of the Art Institute of : Venus (the Rokeby Venus). Dresden. Washington D. 237 PALM A VECcmo the heavenly : Visitation (detail).C. 331 X 173. Art Museum of the Socialist Republic 223 NICOLAS POUSSIN : 234 of Romania. 125-5 x 152. Oil on canvas. Venice. Kress Collection. Tempera on wood. 239 MATTEO 239 EL GRECO Assumption of the Virgin. : : Chicago. 232 PARIS BORDONE Vertumnus and Pomona. : Photo A. • : Bucharest. Uffizi. National Gallery of Art. Oil on canvas. Oil on panel. 170 x 118. 44x32.L. Oil on panel. PHILIPPE DE CHAMPAIGNE 94x75-5. Oil on canvas. 83 x 105. London. Photo Deutsche Fotothek Dresden. Reproduced by permission of the Trustees of the Wallace Collection. National Gallery. c. d'Histoire. 100 x 124. National Gallery of Art. Museum. Oil on w^ood. Milan. Florence. 234 ANDREA 242 SANDRO BOTTICELLI Three Miracles of St Zenobius (detail). 240 FRA ANGELICO: Coronation of the Virgin (detail). Oil on canvas. Kress Collection. London. Oil on canvas. Washington D. Kennedy Fund. Oil on panel. Paris. Kress Collection. Bucharest. Oil on panel. Photo: Alinari. Samuel H. National Gallery. Oil : MASTER OF FLEMALLE Holy Trinity. Oil 226 RAPHAEL: Marriage of the Virgin (detail). Photo: Service de : Documentation Photographique. Columbia Museum of Art. Samuel H. Photo Giraudon. National Gallery. : 23! 228 PINTORICCHIO Scenes from the Odyssey (detail). London. : : : Presentation of the Virgin Oil on panel.C. 225 Dance PETER PAUL RUBENS Fall of the Titans. 50-5 X40.C. Louvre. Oil on panel. Washington (detail). : Budapest. Oil TINTORETTO on panel. Samuel H. Kunsthistorisches Carolina. Musee Communale des Beaux. Oil 122-5 x I77. 145 x 173. Photo Rheinisches Bildarchiv. Cleveland. Kunstmuseum. Wallraf-Richartz Museum. 229 231 HUGO VAN DER GOES Death of the Virgin (detail). 26-5 X42S. Wallace Collection. 113 x 149. 215-9 x 185-4.C. South 93 : : Choir. Visitation. Musee d'Art et : on canvas. 105 x 145. 168 X 354. : : . Columbia. 44x66. Oil on canvas. 191 1. : CLAUDE LORRAINE Embarkation of St Ursula (detail).L. 224 : to the 235 BERNAERT VAN ORLEY Marriage of the Virgin. 241 MASTER OF THE ST LUCY LEGEND Virgin Mary. Queen of Heaven.

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he has written books on a wide range of subjects. where he works as a senior official of the United Nations Economic Commission Europe.Y. John Berger was born As an art critic. Callot more than a Guide to and Gallery- himself an inveterate gallery visitor travel (1949). Art and Revolution (1969). has been known to thousand miles to see a new museum. worked He is also a novelist in television. and has His published works include Success and Failure of Picasso (1965). Write for a complete catalogue of ABRAMS ARTBOOKS HARRY N. 10022 Printed in Great Britain . and The Moment of Cubism and Other Essays (1969). including the first mono- graphs in English on Hieronymus Bosch and Jacques (1947) Adventures A Art: in He is who going (i960). for Since his major first contribution to the world of art (smuggling Germany out of Nazi the manuscript of work on the late Oskar Fischel's great Raphael). no East 59th Street New York. in London in 1926. ABRAMS.About the authors Howard Daniel (above) is an Australian of French-Irish origin who hves near Geneva. N. he has written for news- papers and magazines in the United States and Europe. INC.