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Tunneling
Definition
 Tunnels are artificial underground
passages opened at both ends constructed

for different purposes.
 Required for highways, railways,
sewerage, water supply, public utilities
and canals.
 Necessitated when open excavation of
strata becomes uneconomical, not only
construction cost but for maintenance as
well.

History
 The oldest tunnel was constructed 4000 years
ago in ancient Babylon to underpass the bed
of river Euphrates and to establish an

underground connection between the royal
palace and Temple of Jove.
 The length of the tunnel was 1 km and it was
built with the considerable cross-section
dimensions of 3.6 m by 4.5 m.
 In the second half of the 20th century, with
the progress in development of both
explosives and equipment, underground
construction became feasible.

Geological Considerations or ground
properties before constructing any tunnel
project:
 The engineering properties of a rock
generally depend not only on the matrix

(structure formed by the minerals) but
also imperfections in the structure such
as voids (pore space ),cracks ,inclusions,
grain boundaries and weak particles.
 Pore spaces are largely made up of
continuous irregular capillary cracks
separating the mineral grains.

 Introduction of defects into the rock mass due to human activities that alter the properties of the rock material. Physical discontinuities are present in all rock masses as a result of geological activities. .  The mechanical breaks in the rock have zero or low tensile strengths. increase rock deformability and provide pathways for water to flow.

•Springline : The line at which the tunnel wall breaks from sloping outward to sloping inward toward the crown Terminology: Crown: The uppermost part of the tunnel Transportation tunnel cross-sections Top heading Core (strozze) Springline Wall Crown Bottom Invert Circular Invert : The bottom (floor) of the tunnel Horseshoe Vertical walls arch roof Heading : The excavated face of the tunnel Station : The distance measured from the portal (chainage) Wall : The side of the tunnel Bench Portal : The tunnel entrance Drift : A horizontal excavation .

The choice of tunnelling method may be dictated by:  geological and hydrological conditions  Weak rock under high stresses leads to squeezing ground conditions.  cross-section and length of continuous tunnel  local experience and time/cost considerations (what is the value of time in the project)  limits of surface disturbance.  Brittle strong rock high stress conditions may lead to rockbursting. and many others factors Choice of method depends upon nature of strata and geometry of tunnel section .

Special treatment required before starting excavation .  Soft ground.Conventional support can not be installed.reasonable time available for installing conventional support.Classification of Tunnelling Methods based on type of strata:  Methods divided into three categories  Firm ground.  Running ground.

 Immersed tunnel: lowering prefabricated tunnel elements into a dredged channel and joining them up under water • Concrete • Steel . . hammer.. and then backfilling earth over it. roadheader.  Cut and cover: trenching to excavate and construct a tunnel...Tunnelling Methods Rough classification of methods  Excavation: An excavation process without removing the overlying rock or soil • Steps: excavating-remove muck-supportinglining-ventilation-draining • Drill & Blast.

and the tunnel is constructed within. The tunnel may be of in situ concrete. precast arches. precast concrete. The trench is then carefully back-filled above the tunnel roof and the surface is restored. or corrugated steel arches. . with ground support as necessary. Bottom-up method: The main site is excavated.

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Coffer Dam and hydroelectric Tunnel .

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The surface is then restored except for access openings. services and other surface features. Then a shallow excavation allows making the tunnel roof of precast beams or in situ concrete. This allows early reinstatement of roadways. Excavation then takes place under the permanent tunnel roof. and the base slab is constructed. or secant piling. Top-down method: Here side support walls and cap beams are constructed from ground level typically with slurry walls. .

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In firm soils where full face excavation can hold it self for sufficient time to allow mucking and supporting operations. workers excavate the entire diameter of the tunnel at the same time. . This is most suitable for tunnels passing through strong ground or for building smaller tunnels. Tunnelling in Firm ground  Traditional methods. Involving drilling and blasting    Full Face Method. In the full-face method.

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Once the top heading has advanced some distance into the rock. workers dig a smaller tunnel known as a heading.  In this technique. Top Heading and benching. When full face excavation is not possible. workers begin excavating immediately below the floor of the top heading. Heading should be sufficient distance ahead of benching. .  One advantage of the top-heading-and-bench method is that engineers can use the heading tunnel to gauge the stability of the rock before moving forward with the project. this is a bench.

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.  Different ‘drift methods’ depending on location of drift can be used. Drift is made and then expanded. There can be more than one drifts. In case of large or pilot tunnel . Excavation by tunnelling Methods  Drift Method.

Way to provide support are:  Suitably spaced bents of wood  Suitably spaced bents of steel for lagging (covering)  Liner plates  Fore poling placed to retain material between adjacent bents  Temporary supports must be designed for higher working stress compared to those in permanent designs. .Tunnelling in Soft Strata  Tunnels constructed in soft materials require temporary support immediately or shortly after excavation.

   Boards are driven ahead of the last ‘rib’. Tunnelling in Soft Ground  Instantaneous support is required  No drilling and blasting. around periphery Forepoles act as cantilevers beyond breasting Soil is excavated after removing the breast board and new rib is erected .  Forepoling is done.

cave-ins are a constant threat. .  A shield is an iron or steel cylinder literally pushed into the soft soil.  When the workers complete a section. engineers use a special piece of equipment called a shield. To prevent this from happening. Because stand-up time is generally short when tunneling through soft ground. It carves a perfectly round hole and supports the surrounding earth while workers remove debris and install a permanent lining made of cast iron or precast concrete. jacks push the shield forward and they repeat the process.

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Linear plates are pushed in starting from crown  Cavity is excavated  Additional linear plates are pushed one by one and bolted  Arch section gradually widened down to springing line. . Tunnelling in Running Ground  Many methods  Principle is.

Tunnelling in Rocks  Tunnels are driven in rocks by drilling holes in the rock face. cross section.  Drilling pattern for holes of explosives may differ depending upon rock type. loading the holes with explosives. experience expertise and type of explosive suggested.  Methods are similar in principle like    Full Face Method Top Heading and benching Drift Method . or one or more drifts may be there. blasting and removing the broken rock  Each sequence full cross section of the tunnel may be excavated.

The depth of the holes can vary depending on the type of rock. using carts. After vacuuming out the noxious fumes created during the explosion. workers can enter and begin carrying out the debris. but a typical hole is about 10 feet deep and only a few inches in diameter. workers pack explosives into the holes. . Workers use a scaffold. evacuate the tunnel and detonate the charges. known as muck. called a jumbo.  Then they repeat the process. to place explosives quickly and safely.  Next. Tunneling through hard rock almost always involves blasting.  The jumbo moves to the face of the tunnel. which advances the tunnel slowly through the rock. and drills mounted to the jumbo make several holes in the rock.

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very hard rock may measure in centuries. the tunnel wall is heated with fire. Fire-setting is an alternative to blasting. and then cooled with water. so engineers must add additional support in the form of bolts. extra support for the tunnel roof and walls may not be required. However. In this technique. most tunnels pass through rock that contains breaks or pockets of fractured rock. The Cloaca Maxima. In most cases. The rapid expansion and contraction caused by the sudden temperature change causes large chunks of rock to break off. they add a permanent concrete lining . In this environment. was built using this technique. sprayed concrete or rings of steel beams. one of Rome's oldest sewer tunnels.  The stand-up time for solid.

 Setting up and drilling  Loading explosive and blasting  Removing the foul gases  Checking  Scaling  Mucking  Rock bolting and lining . Sequence of operation in Rocky Strata (Drill and Blast)  Marking tunnel profile.

Modern Tunnel Construction Methods:  Drill and blast  Mechanical drilling/cutting  Cut-and-cover  Immersed tunnels  Tunnel boring machines (TBMs)  New Austrian Tunnelling Method (NATM) .

Road headers .

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Types of support Steel arches  Steel ribs are used for reinforcement of weaker tunnel sections. The ribs are made from I-beam or H-beam structural steel bent to conform to the requirements of a particular tunnel crosssection. . However. and give rigid to semi-rigid support.  Timber may be used for packing between the beams and the rock. providing continuous bedding against the rock may considerably increase the load-bearing capacity of the arches.

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Rock bolts  Steel bolts are frequently set in holes drilled into the rock to assist in supporting the entire roof or individual rock slabs that tend to fall into a tunnel. Rock bolts maintain the stability of an opening by suspending the dead weight of a slab from the rock above .

 A combination of rock bolts and shotcrete has proved an excellent temporary support for all qualities of rock.  Shotcrete is best known in tunnelling as an integral component of the NATM (New Austrian Tunnelling Method).Shotcrete  Pneumatically applied mortar and concrete are increasingly being used for the support of underground excavations. . and rapidly hardens to form a preliminary support until the final lining of conventional poured concrete can be installed.  Quick-setting concrete is sprayed onto the bare rock surface immediately after excavation.

tends to be flexible and strong  weld mesh.  Two types of wire mesh  chain link mesh commonly used for fencing and it consists of a woven fabric of wire. welded at their intersection points.Wire mesh  Wire mesh is used to support small pieces of loose rock or as reinforcement for shotcrete. . commonly used for reinforcing shotcrete and it consists of a square grid of steel wires.

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and other operations  To remove obnoxious gases and fumes of explosives  How done?  Mechanical ventilation is usually supplied by electric fans. . blasting.Ventilation during construction  Why required?  To furnish fresh air for the workers  To remove the dust caused by drilling. If air is exhausted. diesel engines. it may be forced through a lightweight pipe or fabric duct.   If air is blown into a tunnel.  The exhaust method has the advantage of more quickly removing objectionable air from spaces occupied by the workers. as for example axial flow pressure fans. mucking. it is necessary to use a rigid duct that will not collapse.

Ventilation of tunnels  Mechanical ventilation systems provide the temperature. the system must also provide a safe evacuation route for tunnel users and access for fire fighting services.  The choice and design of a ventilation system depends on these main factors:  tunnel length and volume  admissible air pollution around tunnel portals  fire safety considerations. nitrogen dioxide.  Better understanding of ventilation techniques  Awareness of new safety and environmental legislation. . humidity and air velocity conditions necessary to give tunnel users a reasonable degree of comfort during normal operation. nitrogen oxides. hydrocarbons PM10 and lead.  When a fire occurs in a tunnel.  Key pollutants include carbon dioxide.

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Geological Survey For Tunneling
 A geological survey is the systematic investigation
of the subsurface and surface of a given piece of
ground for the purpose of creating a geological map
,model and feasibility studies.
 A geological survey employs techniques from the
traditional walk-over survey, studying outcrops and
landforms, to intrusive methods, such as hand
auguring and machine driven boreholes, use of
geophysical techniques and remote sensing
methods, such as aerial photography and satellite
imagery etc.

engineering properties etc  Subsurface Geological Survey: : includes on underground geology and geological structures.landforms.subsurface rock or soil pattern etc .outcrop pattern .Types Of Geological Survey  Mainly geological surveys are classified into two types: Surface Geological Survey Subsurface Geological Survey  Surface Geological Survey: includes on land geology and geological structures.Geo-hydrogeology.hydrology.

Surface Geological Survey Geological profile is prepared along line of tunnel. .stream.faults.spring.river alignment and any seepage etc Trial boring plan is prepared along the tunnel line.joints. Geological observations are done along this profile like engineering properties of rock/soil. geological structures like fold.

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permeability.  GWT(Ground Water Table) is noted and water bearing strata is marked in geological profile.compre ssive strenght.  Different rock and soil samples are collected from subsurface and their physical and chemical properties are observed.Subsurface Geological Survey  Trial boring is done along the tunnel line.and other test are performed. .porosity.strenght.  Some samples are sent to laboratory for determination of engineering properties like shearing.

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GPR(Ground Penetrating Radar) and bor hole logging etc are also done. Different geophysical surveys like refraction.  A geological/feasibility report comprising all information . resistivity.photographs. hydro fracturing.  In situ testing like Packer-testing. load-testing etc are performed. profile and others necessary data are presented for final tunnel design and construction. .

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Subsurface Profiling/3 D modelling .