Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila

Intramuros, Manila

MEC 517
Written Report
Acheson’s Process

Topic:
I.

Origin of the Acheson Process
a. Who developed?
b. When introduced?
II.
How is the Acheson process worked?
a. Identify the equipment
b. Are there stand-by/ spare equipment?
III.
Advantages/Disadvantages

Submitted to:
Dr. Reynaldo C. Sanchez
Professor

Submitted by:
Dancel, Van Vien S.
Epedillon, Enrico A.
Reyes, Joshua James L.

I.

Origin of the Acheson Process

The resultant mass exhibited some small shiny specks.The Acheson process is a process to synthesize graphite and silicon carbide. In 1891 he obtained the use of an electric generating plant of considerable power and tried to use electric heat to impregnate clay with carbon. and he determined that this crystalline substance had value as an abrasive. Edward Goodrich Acheson (1856–1931) was raised in the coal fields of southwestern Pennsylvania. In 1884 Acheson left Edison's employ to become an independent inventor. among other public places." . which he called "carborundum. he was soon successful. but devoted his evenings to scientific pursuits—primarily electrical experiments. New Jersey. In 1880 he had the temerity to attempt to sell a battery of his own invention to Thomas Edison and wound up working for Edison at his research lab in Menlo Park. After a year he was sent to Europe to install electrical lighting systems in the Hotel de Ville in Antwerp and La Scala in Milan. named after its inventor Edward Goodrich Acheson. It was actually silicon carbide. He left school at the age of 16 to help support his family after his father died.

When heated to 4150°C. often as subsidiaries of various corporations. Pennsylvania. GrafTech International. In 1895 Acheson's electrochemical company was among the first to come to Niagara Falls. whet stones. originally attempted to synthesize artificial diamond. and powdered abrasives. the silicon is removed. The process was patented by Acheson in 1896. he was not a good manager. leaving graphite. but ended up creating blue crystals of silicon carbide. Many of Acheson's original companies live on today. Acheson developed an efficient electric furnace based on resistive heating.In 1894 he established the Carborundum Company in Monongahela City. and Acheson Industries. to produce grinding wheels. Like many inventors. Acheson. and his companies were constantly being taken out of his hands by concerned investors. In its electric furnace he subsequently produced artificial graphite. which he called carborundum. the design of which is the basis of most silicon carbide manufacturing today. neither did his entrepreneurial optimism. . another product that he commercialized. in 1890. His inventive genius knew no bounds. The process consists of heating a mixture of clay (aluminum silicate) and powderedcoke (carbon) in an iron bowl. knife sharpeners. and this was the first commercial application of the Acheson process. Silicon carbide was a useful material in jewelry making due to its abrasive properties. including Saint-Gobain Corporation. and he discovered that various organic substances allowed colloidal suspension of particles of graphite mixed in oil or water. After discovering this process.

In a preferred form the invention comprises a rigid. II.In the furnace. The reach extension apparatus and the parallelogram linkage allow the horizontal position of the ladle pour spout to remain substantially constant . The process gives off carbon monoxide. The ladle is coupled to the platform by support arm structure extending from the platform which may be raised or lowered with a hydraulic cylinder. Reach extension apparatus extending between the linkage and the platform moves the ladle outwardly with respect to the base during movement to a filling position. surrounded by sand. producing a layer of silicon carbide around the graphite core. salt. A parallelogram linkage system couples the ladle to the end of the support arm structure. How is the Acheson process worked? Automatic ladle Systems adapted for use in metal die casting operations are disclosed herein. an electric current was passed through a graphite core. supporting base on which a control platform is rotatably mounted for radially moving a ladle between a metal filling and metal pouring positions. and carbon. There are four chemical reactions in the process that produces silicon carbide (SiC). The electric current heated the graphite and other materials. allowing them to react.

during raising and lowering of the ladle to prevent spillage. The reciprocating device is adapted to advance a spray head across the working surfaces of a die. such as air and/or lubricants. . Reciprocator device There is disclosed herein an improved reciprocating device for use with various forming machinery such as die casting. A tilting system interconnected with the linkage facilitates ladle draining. The apparatus employs a spray head having a plurality of nozzles. molding or other like equipment. thereby alternately extending and withdrawing the elongated arm. mold or other like forming apparatus when such apparatus is in an open position thereby allowing the spray head to spray these surfaces with a combination of fluids. In one form of the invention the hydraulic cylinder employed for raising and lowering the support arms is provided with internal cushioning. which is secured to one end of an elongated arm. The opposite end of this elongated arm is removably secured to a carriage assembly which is caused to reciprocate through the cooperation of a threaded rod and drive motor means. Electrical and hydraulic control systems are provided for operation of the device. for example.

and other control apparatus may be included to provide a wide variety of operational cycles. the drive motor means and otherwise controlling the operational cycle of the reciprocating device. The changed spraying parameters corresponding to the further spray pattern are intended as spraying parameters for the second spraying agent and are provided to the paint-spraying apparatus whenever the second spraying . and associated spray head. A known spray pattern is provided which has been determined by means of known spraying parameters for the use of a first spraying agent. Additionally.Limit switches are provided which are actuated by engagement with portions of the carriage assembly thereby providing means for controlling the flow of fluids to the spray head. valving arrangements. Various limit switches. Part Extractor. A provisional spray pattern is calculated using the known spraying parameters and the characteristics of a second spraying agent. timers. a disc brake means is provided to prevent rotation of the threaded rod when in an on position thereby preventing undesired movement of the carriage assembly. The changed spraying parameters are altered to the point where the further spray pattern is similar to the known spray pattern within a similarity criterion.an apparatus that uses centrifugal force to separate particles from a suspension Linear Die Sprayers A method for determining spraying parameters for controlling a paint-spraying apparatus using a spraying agent is disclosed. The known spraying parameters are altered in order to acquire changed spraying parameters which yield a further spray pattern. elongated arm.

Advantages & Disadvantages Advantages . sand. whichis thermally insulated by a mixture of coke. III. thus protecting the material against oxidation. usually perpendicular to theaxis of the furnace. The current is supplied to the load by two water-cooled head electrodes atthe narrow sides of the furnace. The space between these segments is filled with a resistor material consistingof acoke/graphite granular mixture. nearly all graphitising furnaces are DC-operated since powerful rectifiers are available. For fine-grained material. carbon black and/or sawdust. so that the normal maximum temperature of 2800°C can be reached within a few days. the power to the head electrodes iscontrolled adjusted by transformers.one working cycle including cooling lasts two to three weeks. an uncontrolled release of decomposition products from the charge does not cause problems. The spraying parameters comprise a plurality of air currents which influence the spraying behavior of the paint-spraying apparatus.agent is used. As the electrical resistance of the furnace decreases an increasing degree of graphitisation. Depending on the size of the furnace and its operation mode. Nowadays. Acheson Furnace The stock is arranged in blocks within a horizontal bed.

and powders. the type used to melt or refine iron in an electric furnace. electrodes of this type are  typically made using only the highest quality petroleum coke filler particles. Disadvantages  Pollutes environment.e. Silicon carbide was a useful material in jewelry making due to its abrasive  properties. calcium carbide). High conductivity and high purity are attributes of synthetic graphite. Graphite can be machined wet or dry with ordinary machine tools but is norm ally machined dry. and    other applications requiring a high temperature. clean energy source. . The chamber is roughly rectangular in outline. refining certain types of ceramic materials. Suitable for almost any type of carbon article. In terms of manufacturing conductive graphite electrode. This furnace consists of a central chamber surrounded by external walls made of some refractory material such as firebrick.  High cost of loading. granular materials. Graphite electrodes are used in metallurgical applications as a source of energy for melting scrap iron in an electric furnace.    Robust construction. manufacturing chemicals (i. Impurities vaporize. The Acheson furnace is nothing more than a room without a ceiling. designed to keep in the heat  generated by electrical resistance heating of the carbon charge. The Acheson process is performed in an Acheson-type furnace.  Poor time and space utilization. Synthetic graphite can be manufactured in any number of forms including  solid articles of varied shape and size. Virtually trouble-free operation. The top is open.

The reaction gases. The need for very high temperatures to achieve a complete reaction. The discontinuous nature of the process. ground and comminuted to yield the classified granulated end-product. The rather wide grain size distribution of the ground product. . can’t      be captured completely and are lost for an energy gain. which consist essentially of CO but also of H2S. The exact process used to manufacture synthetic graphite is varied and   quite complex. thereby  expending a large amount of energy. Higher energy needed. The large blocks of SiC product must be broken up. Inferior control of process for electrode. Raise cycle time.