You are on page 1of 16



R E S E A R C H , 2 014


psychology and sociology.” HBS Working Paper 13036. 2014. 112-064.. 2014. who often become important mentors. 2011. Suraj Srinivasan. George Serafeim. Boston: Harvard Business School. Boston: Harvard Business Welch. 2010. Sa-Pyung Sean Shin. Robert G. “Dow Chemical: Innovating for Sustainability. colleagues. and collaborators. degrees.) Gow.” HBS Working Paper 11-088.) Brochet. ABSTRACT R E S E A R C H . Henry C. “Allied Electronics Corporation Ltd: Linking Compensation to Sustainability Metrics. Beiting. undergraduate schools. “Securities Litigation Risk for Foreign Companies Listed in the U. and George Serafeim. “Unexploited Efficiencies in Higher Education.. The Landscape of Integrated Reporting. Henry C. eds. “Private Equity’s Diversification Illusion: Economic Comovement and Fair Value Reporting. “Pay for Environmental Performance: The Effect of Incentive Provision on Carbon Emissions. Beiting Cheng. and disciplines­—including economics.S. (Revised 2013. engineering. and Alan Knight. Robert G.. Cheng. Eccles.” HBS Working Paper 14-071. 412-075. 2012. no. and Daniela Saltzman..” HBS No. Eyring. Ian D.” HBS Working Paper 13-043. 2012. Robert G. Eccles. They examine the most critical issues in business management through rigorous research.The Doctoral Programs at Harvard Business School educate scholars who make a difference in the world through rigorous research that influences practice. “Consequences to Directors of Shareholder Activism.. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing.” Strategy & Innovation 6. Shelley Xin Li. Robert G. and Renee Hopkins Callahan. Shelley Xin Li.” HBS No. By the time they graduate. students will have co-authored publications with faculty members. Eccles. Francois.. Kyle Travis. and Shelley Xin Li. Eccles. (Revised 2013. 2011. “Top Executive Background and Financial Reporting Choice. George Serafeim. Ioannis Ioannou.” Working Paper. More than 140 strong. Eyring. mathematics. 2 014 . ACCOUNTING AND MANAGEMENT School Publishing. Suraj Srinivasan and Gwen Yu. HBS doctoral students represent diverse backgrounds. “Let Disruption Fix Education.” Contemporary Issues in Education Research 4. 7 (July 2011): 1–18. 2012. and Kyle Travis Welch. creating and disseminating new knowledge as the next generation of thought leaders. 6 (September 2008): 1–6. no. physics.

We also find that director election results matter for director retention: directors are more likely to leave in the year following activism when they receive lower shareholder support. Hauser. David Laibson. “Private Equity’s Diversification Illusion: Economic Comovement and Fair Value Reporting. 3 (2011): 115-119. as a result of shareholder activism. a finding at odds with public market research. Benjamin Hébert. and Parag A. Robert M.E. Sa-Pyung Sean Shin. Pathak. “Energy Policy with Externalities and Internalities”. “MBS Ratings and the Mortgage Credit Boom” Journal of Finance (Revise and Resubmit). Laibson. a proxy for reputational consequences. Robert M. let alone winning. I show increased market beta and increased correlations. Adam.” American Economic Review: Papers and Proceedings 99. Taissa S. Alvin E. Benjamin. Yang. Susan Athey. Paul Goldsmith-Pinkham. Atwood. and David Laibson. Adam. Chabris. Hauser. Duncan S. Atwood. Christopher F. Christopher F. Itai. we find no evidence that directors lose seats on other boards. Suraj Srinivasan. Taissa S. Gilchrist. Nikhil. Ashlagi. Beauchamp. Rees. Paul. “Skewed Bidding in Pay-per-Action Auctions for Online Advertising. Craig S. Covert. Peter Hull. Tamara B. Nicholas A. and Michael A.” Journal of Financial Economics [Internet]. Benjamin. Despite research showing that private equity lacks unique economic exposure. “Credit Ratings and Security Prices in the Subprime MBS Market. private equity firms and trade associations continue to promote private equity’s diversification as a key investment benefit. Ashcraft. Au.” HBS Working Paper 14-071.107(1):155-182. Alvin E. Hauser. Ashlagi. Jeremy Freese. Magnusson.” Psychological Science (September 2012). I show that returns based on prior methods of valuation understate the economic comovement of private equity with the market. Hunt. 2 (May 2009): 441–447. as they rarely succeed in getting a majority of shareholder support. Lenore J. Jonathan Beauchamp. no. Hultman. David Cesarini. Thomas R. Craig S. “The Market for Borrowing Corporate Bonds. Albert Vernon Smith. Using a comprehensive sample of shareholder activism between 2004 and 2011. Christopher F. proxy contests. and David C. Jonathan P. Roth. and James Vickery. “Most Reported Genetic Associations with General Intelligence Are Probably False Positives. Magnusson. “NEAD Chains in Transplantation. 2014. Private equity firms also encounter higher – not lower – costs when accessing capital. While it has been argued that proxy contests are an ineffective mechanism for replacing directors. Matthijs van der Loos. Vilmundur Guðnason. Allcott. no. Chabris. “Consequences to Directors of Shareholder Activism. Christakis.. Rees. and James Vickery. The Promise and Pitfalls of Genoeconomics. Paul Goldsmith-Pinkham. Daniel J. Morris. “The Allocation of Time in Decision-Making.” American Journal of Transplantation 11 (December 2011): 2780-2781. Roth. Sendhil Mullainathan.” American Journal of Transplantation 11. Hauser. Nicholas Christakis. “Nonsimultaneous Chains and Dominos in Kidney Paired Donation—Revisited. Kyle Travis. Gilchrist. no.” Working Paper. David Cesarini. 2014. Patrik K. creating a diversification illusion. Benjamin M. Magnus Johannesson. David I. 2013. Shaun Purcell. Agarwal. Ashcraft. Chabris. Andrea S.. Journal of Public Economics 112 (2014): 72-88. Edward L. Patrik K. Asquith. We examine how shareholder activist campaigns affect the careers of directors of the targeted firms. Duncan S. Magnus Johannesson. Daniel J. As private equity valuation methodologies have changed. Contrary to consequences on the targeted firm’s board. This study examines how financial reporting practices have shaped private equity’s claims to diversifIcation. we find that directors are almost twice as likely to leave over a two-year period if the firm is the subject of a shareholder activist campaign. Glaeser. Schuldt.BUSINESS ECONOMICS Gow. and Dmitry Taubinsky. Paul Lichtenstein. Itai.” Annual Review of Economics 4 (July 2012): 627-662. Performance-sensitivity of director turnover is also higher in the presence of shareholder activism. Jeremy Freese. Dmitry Taubinsky. and Michael A. Christina M. our results suggest that director turnover takes place following shareholder activism even without shareholder activists engaging in. and Paul Lichtenstein. Harris.” The American Economic Review 101. Carrie L. Hébert. Launer. and Jonathon P.” Jour- H ARVA R D BU SI N ESS SCH OO L D O C T O R A L P R O G R A M S .. E. Ian D. Alexander Grankvist. 5 (May 2011): 984–994. ABSTRACT Welch.

Coles. Andreas. Robert Slonim. Mira. Frick. Michael Luca. 1880-1980. Fuster. Chernyakov. Jingsan Zhu. 2014. James. Kruger. “Natural Expectations. Hébert. 2013.” Working Paper. Donaldson. Frick. Andreas. Gilchrist. Judy Shea. and Guido W. Claudio. 3 (2013): 253-264. and Kevin Volpp. and James Lee.” Working Paper.” Working Paper.” NBER Working Paper Series. Lee. James. Heather Schofield. “A Warring Selves Model of Random Choice and Delay. Laibson. Gilchrist.” Economic Letters 120. Peter. “Moral Hazard and the Optimality of Debt. Dragusanu. and Oren Ziv. Dragusanu. “Innovation Adoption under Forward-Looking Social Learning. Gilchrist.” Journal of Public Economics 96. no. 2013. Richard Hornbeck. March 13. 2014 (submitted).” International Journal of Central Banking. 26 (2011): 1-48. Samuel. Paul. “Human Capital for the Long Run: the Frick. “Individual Laboratory-Measured Discount Rates Predict Field Behavior. Fred Finan. “Railroads and Resources: the Development of American Manufacturing in the Latter Half of the 19th Century. Mira. Andrea Troxel. 19953. Lee. “The Denser the Better? Manufacturing Productivity and Urban Growth during US Zoning Law Expansion. and Assaf Romm. “A Preference for Shared Experience: Network Externalities in Movie Consumption. Samuel. 24. Foley. Lee.” Working Paper.” HBS Working Paper 14-030. March 2014. nos. Carrie Morris.” Working Paper. David Asch. “Opting Out of Good Governance. Jay Driggers. and Ran Shorrer. and Eric Zwick. Dragusanu. Paul Goldsmith-Pinkham. 2 (April 2009): 628-637. “A Randomized Controlled Trial of Employer Matching of Deposit Contracts to Promote Weight Loss. 9–10 (October 2012): 712–726. “Optimal Truncation in Matching Markets. “Investment Dynamics with Natural ExpecR E S E A R C H . tations. 2013. 2014. Christopher. Dave. Goldsmith-Pinkham. 2 (December 2008): 237-269. 2013..” Working Paper. 1910-1940. “Changes in US Manufacturing Agglomeration. Imbens. and Emily G. “An Approximate ‘’Law of One Price’’ in Random Assignment Games.” Games and Economics Behavior (forthcoming). and Asset Pricing. Sands. Thomas Pellathy.” NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2011. Chabris. James. 2013. Duncan S. Duncan S. and David I. “Corrupting Learning: Evidence from Missing Federal Education Funds in Brazil.” Working Paper. 2014. no.” February 2014. “Endowment Effects? Local Economic Impacts from the Shale Gas and Oil Boom. and Duncan S. Frick. Jeffrey. “Is Real Interest Rate Risk Priced? Theory and Empirical Evidence. “The Multidimensional Effects of a Small Gift: Evidence from a Natural Field Experiment. 2013.” Working Paper. Macroeconomic Dynamics. (forthcoming. Benjamin M. Ellen. and Deepak Malhotra. Mira.nal of the European Economic Association 7. Hassidim. Kullgren. 2014. no. C. Yuanyuan Tao. “When 3+1>4: Gift Structure and Reciprocity in the Field.” Information Economics and Policy. “The Impacts of Fair Trade Certification: Evidence from Coffee Producers in Costa Rica” Working Paper. Garbarino. Edelman. Avinatan and Assaf Romm. Daniele Giovannucci and Nathan Nunn. Alexander. Laibson.. and Carmen Wang. 2014. “The Economics of Fair Trade” Journal of Economics Perspectives.” Working Paper.” Working Paper. and David I.” Journal of Business & Economic Statistics 31. Lee. 2014. and Nathan Nunn. and Samuel Kruger. Raluca. Raluca. George Loewenstein. 2014. Mira. no.” Working Paper. 2014.) Kruger. Raluca. and Dmitry Taubinsky. Jonathon Schuldt. “Monotone Threshold Representations. James. and Yuhta Ishii. (January 2012): 75-89. “Advertising Disclosures: Measuring Labeling Alternatives in Internet Search Engines.” Working paper. Fritz. 2014.” Working Paper. and Diana Moreira. Benjamin Hébert. (January 2012): 243-264. “Rational Behavior under Correlated Uncertainty. 1 (July 2013): 83–86.” Working Paper. Benjamin Hébert. Mimeo. Laurie Norton. 2014. “Disagreement and Liquidity. 2 014 . “Firm-to-Firm Matching along the Global Supply Chain. and Ryota Iijima.” Working Paper.” Journal of Risk and Uncertainty 37. Benjamin G. David Laibson. No. Fuster. “The Effect of Mortgage Securitization on Foreclosure and Modification. Jonathan Greenstein. Dana Gatto. “Social networks and the identification of peer effects. Ferraz.

“Network Architecture and the Left-Right Spectrum. then with high probability all workers are paid roughly equal wages. Bryce Millett.” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 90 (June 2013): 43–70. “Optimal Truncation in Matching Markets. David C.” March 2014. both in symmetric and general settings. “Two-period Approximations for Estimating Dynamic Games. there is often room in matching markets for strategic misrepresentation (Roth). Eric. Tabakovic.2 Puzzle: Borrowing in the Limit as Our Nerdiness Goes to Infinity. and M. 2014. 2013. Thomas . and Danielle Merrett. Wollmann. we demonstrate the existence of an equilibrium where all agents use truncation strategies. we show that the less risk averse a player. David C.” Working Paper. Powers. Romm. H ARVA R D BU SI N ESS SCH OO L D O C T O R A L P R O G R A M S ABSTRACT Coles. agents on one side of the market (“the women”) optimally submit some truncation of their true preference lists. Assaf. Avinatan. Peter. “Derivatives and Disagreement. and Ran Shorrer. Assignment games represent a tractable yet versatile model of two-sided markets with transfers. “Opting-in: Participation Biases in Economic Experiments. Yang. “Implications of Capacity Reduction and Entry in Many-to-One Stable Matching. 2012. and Thomas Wollmann. the greater the degree of her optimal truncation. “Financial Constraints and Risk-Taking: Evidence from the Film Industry. “Trucks Without Bailouts: Equilibrium Product Characteristics for Commercial Vehicles.” Games and Economics Behavior (forthcoming). Finally. “Regulators vs. 2013. players should truncate less.” SIGecom Exchanges 11. “An Approximate ‘’Law of One Price’’ in Random Assignment Games. “Do Call Centers Promote School Enrollment? Evidence from India. Zwick. Nathanson. 2013. 1 (2011): 1-23. Roth and Rothblum prove an important but abstract result: in certain symmetric. This implies that core allocations vary significantly in balanced markets. 2014. Zwick. “Solution to Exchanges 10. the potential for manipulation can be significant. incomplete information settings. David C. Zombies: Loss Overhang and Lending in a Long Slump” (forthcoming). Emily. David C.. no. when agents must submit preference lists to the Men-Proposing Deferred Acceptance Algorithm. our results serve as a reminder that without the pre-conditions ensuring truthful reporting.” Working Paper 2014. but . If the joint productivities of every firm and worker are i.E. Slonim. Carmen Wang.” NBER Working Paper Series No. Haris. Thomas. Robert. Taubinsky.Working Paper 12-063. 2014. We study the likely properties of the core of randomly generated assignment games.” Working Paper. and Thomas Wollmann. “Do Options Impact the Stock Market?”. In this setting. While several recent papers have focused on the limits of strategic manipulation. welfare diverges for men and women: women prefer the truncation equilibrium. and all firms make similar profits. Dmitry.” Working Paper. while men would prefer that participants truthfully report. ABSTRACT Hassidim. Working Paper. and Fan Zhang. Richard. and Assaf Romm. Yang. Ran I. 15922 (2010). Assaf.. Shorrer.” Working Paper. Mimeo.i.” Working Paper. “Can the Equity Risk Premium be Negative?” Working Paper. Romm. Eric. Yang.. when other women are truthful. Charles G. (Revise and Resubmit). when correlation in preferences increases. in any equilibrium in truncation strategies.” B. Journals of Theoretical Economics: Contributions to Theoretical Economics 11. 2014. Oster. Sweeney. We first characterize each woman’s truncation payoffs in an incomplete information setting in terms of the distribution of her achievable mates.” Social Choice and Welfare (forthcoming). In a general environment. even in settings where agents have little information. Yang. In this paper we put structure on this truncation. and Fan Zhang. Ellen Garbarino.” February 2014. Mimeo.” Working Paper. 2014. and Eric Zwick. Compared to truthful reporting. “Arrested Development: Theory and Evidence of Supply-Side Speculation in the Housing Market. In this paper we study a natural form of strategic misrepresentation: reporting a truncation of one’s true preference list. The optimal degree of truncation can be substantial: we prove that in a uniform setting.d bounded random variables. 2014. “Firesales and Primary vs Secondary Market Interventions. no. “Do Financial Frictions Amplify Fiscal Policy? Evidence from Business Investment Stimulus. Journal of Public Economics. and James Mahon.” Working Paper. “Building Reputation at the Edge of the Cliff. “Rose Bowl to Research Budget: Measuring Returns to University R&D Using College Football. the optimal degree of truncation for an individual woman goes to 100% of her list as the market size grows large. 1 (June 2012): 39–41. Since no stable matching mechanism can induce truth-telling as a dominant strategy for all participants.

2009. Alyna T. matching is stronger—and more sensitive to downstreamness—when the demand elasticity faced by the U. Nava Ashraf and Oriana Bandiera. Jung.. Barro. I develop a model of sequential production in which buyers (importers) engage in costly search for suppliers (exporters) to control a production stage and optimally decide the amount of investment in search. Antoinette S. 2013. there is positive assortative matching between U. Song. Raluca. Gunnarsson. Lyen Huang. R. Hummy Song. and Patient Care Coordination among Primary Care Providers. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization (forthcoming). Hummy. “Embracing Complexity: Towards Integrated Biosocial Platforms for Health Service Delivery. “Team Dynamics.S. the matched data highlights three key facts that are consistent with the model predictions and are robust to different empirical strategies. Finally. Peters.” In Structural Approaches to Public Health. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing. Lee. Singer.. & Nigam. We present simulation results suggesting that the phenomena analyzed appear even in medium-sized markets.S. William R. Chawla. Andrew. “The Diseconomies of Queue Pooling: An Empirical Investigation of Emergency Department Length of Stay. Julia Martin. 2014.” HBS No.” Working Paper. buyer is high. Scott S. The model shows that the marginal benefit of assigning a high-productivity supplier to a given stage increases with the downstreamness of the stage of production. and relatively more when the final product is less differentiated. G. Michael E. Lee. HEALTH POLICY MANAGEMENT David.” Health Services Research (Revise and Resubmit). Singer. Berry. and Sara J.” Working Paper. and Karen L. Selection. Rosenthal. “Cohort Turnover and Productivity: The July Phenomenon in Teaching Hospitals. Robert S. we briefly discuss the effects of unbounded distributions and the ways in which they may affect wage dispersion. Tucker. R E S E A R C H . 2014. importers from the Census Longitudinal Business Database. Olivia S. (Revised 2010). Song. Wei Jiang. Second. “Development and Validation of the Primary Care Team Dynamics Survey. Lizabeth Edmondson. 2014. Murrell. “Intrinsic Incentives: A Field Experiment on Leveraging Intrinsic Motivation in Public Service Delivery. our understanding of the matching process between importing and exporting firms remains limited. Focusing on firm size as a proxy for firm performance. Meredith B. First. Scott S. 2014.5 when Indian firms supply final products to U. Lee. Rosenthal. customs data to match firm-level information of Indian manufacturing exporters from the CMIE-Prowess database with firm-level information of their U. edited by Marni Sommer. Chien. Anita L. Scott S. Antoinette S. Karen Hacker. The elasticity of average buyer size with respect to Indian firm size is around 0. C.” Working Paper. Philip Saynisch.S. Work Satisfaction. “Awards Unbundled: Evidence from a Natural Field Experiment.. Hummy.. “Firm-to-Firm Matching along the Global Supply Chain.” Working Paper.. Finally. Kiang. Scott S. Meredith B. Alyna T. I use confidential U. S. The magnitude of the buyer size elasticity is 0.S.” Working Paper. Huckman. and Sara J. “Do Patient-Centered Medical Homes Reduce Emergency Department Visits?” December. Porter.” Management Science (Revise and Resubmit). Dante Conley. 709-474. ABSTRACT Dragusanu. To shed light on this question. and Sara J. firms. buyers and their Indian suppliers. Joseph Rhatigan and Jim Yong Kim. Christine Pace.2. 2 014 . Despite its importance for international trade. 2014. and Performance in Public Service Delivery. Julia Martin.optimal core allocation. Jonathan Weigel. (under review. and close to zero when they supply intermediate products. 2013. Singer. Karen Hacker.” with Nava Ashraf and Oriana Bandiera. Ashley Kay Childers. the strength of positive matching increases with the proximity to final use of the product traded. Mathew V. and Richard Parker. Lee.. Hummy. We provide a tight bound for the workers’ share of the surplus under the firm. Song.that there is core convergence in even slightly unbalanced markets. Josephine Fisher. Lee. Peters. Josephine Fisher. 2014. Scott S. “Partners in Health: HIV Care in Rwanda. “Do-gooders and Ladder-climbers: Career Incentives. “Factors Associated with Successful Implementation of Delivery System Innovations: Lessons From Safe Surgery 2015. Chien. New York: Routledge Press.) Ellner.” Working Paper. Julia Kite. and Paul Farmer.S. and Jason R.

Matthew. “Mission and Markets? The Organizational Viability of Hybrid Social Ventures. and not by other mechanisms such as providing implicit extrinsic incentives and facilitating social visibility. Hila. I develop a mobile phone-based “intrinsic incentive” technology designed to increase agents’ intrinsic returns to effort. 2014. Elizabeth J. Michael Tushman. In a randomized experiment. edited by Anna Grandori. Lakhani. 2013. resource utilization. (under review. edited by C. Consistent with social loafing theory. such as stinting on care and decreased quality of care. we find that patients’ lengths of stay (LOS) were longer when physicians were assigned patients under a pooled queuing system. This effect appears to be mediated purely by making effort more intrinsically rewarding. Altman. MA: Edward Elgar Publishing. Zhou. Northampton.” HBS Working Paper. “Innovating How to Innovate: Evolutionary Model of Dynamic R&D Paths with Shifting Loci of Innovation. “Intrinsic Incentives: A Field Experiment on Leveraging Intrinsic Motivation in Public Service Delivery. “Technology and Innovation Management. edited by Ricky W. H ARVA R D BU SI N ESS SCH OO L D O C T O R A L P R O G R A M S Altman. Andrei. Shalley. and Mary Tripsas. and Entrepreneurship: Multilevel Linkages. Hitt & J. Lifshitz-Assaf. Matthew. Lee. ABSTRACT Song. the experiment reveals that demand for both technologies is high.” HBS Teaching Note 714-477. and Innovation when Information Costs Approach Zero. Similarly regarding performance. We conduct additional analyses to rule out alternate explanations. Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation likely jointly explain the effort of many agents engaged in public service delivery. Summer 2012: 51-55. In the context of a maternal health program in rural India. and Elizabeth J. 714-433. “In Search of the Hybrid Ideal. I test one version designed to have a larger effect on intrinsic utility against another designed to be less powerful. Hagiu.081) from 2007 to 2010.) Lifshitz-Assaf. Altman. Cheryl Dorsey and John Walker. Knowledge Distribution and the Locus of Innovation. UK: Oxford University Press. Zhou.MANAGEMENT ABSTRACTS Lee. although average treatment effects are muted. No. After one year. The dedicated queuing system resulted in a 10 percent decrease in LOS—a 32-minute reduction in LOS for an average patient of medium severity in this ED. Battilana. Scott S. forthcoming. and Elizabeth J. Julie.” In Handbook of Economic Organization: Integrating Economic and Organization Theory. and Julie Battilana.” In Oxford Bibliographies: Management.” Working Paper. and Karim R. 2013.. Oxford. “Product to Platform Transitions: Implications of Organizational Identity. M. edited C. “Intuit QuickBooks: From Product to Platform. Elizabeth J. 2013. but is higher for the high-powered incentive in a manner that interacts positively with health workers’ intrinsic motivation. “The Diseconomies of Queue Pooling: An Empirical Investigation of Emergency Department Length of Stay. 14-005. New York: Oxford University Press.” Working Paper. “Innovating without Information Constraints: Organization. Andrei. “How the Zebra Got its Stripes: Imprinting of Individuals and Hybrid Social Ventures. Altman. Hila Lifshitz-Assaf. and costs. Matthew Lee. Griffin.. 2014. Anita L. Matthew. Using an Emergency Department’s (ED) patient-level data (N = 231. Frank Nagle. “Found in Translation: Decoupling . Organization Science. UK: Oxford University Press. 2013.. the high-powered intrinsic incentive is most effective when it leverages pre-existing intrinsic motivation. and Michael Tushman. “Open Innovation and Organizational Boundaries: Task Decomposition. compared to when each physician operated under a dedicated queuing system. Frank Nagle. We conduct an empirical investigation of the impact of two different queue management systems on throughput times. 2013. Hummy. Innovation. and Christopher Marquis. Lee. and Michael Tushman.” In Oxford Handbook of Creativity. and Michael Tushman. Hila. “Intuit QuickBooks: From Product to Platform.” In Oxford Handbook of Creativity.” (Job market paper). Hagiu. Oxford.” Stanford Social Innovation Review. Lee.” Academy of Management Journal (Revise and Resubmit).” Management Science (revise and resubmit). Lakhani. Social Capital and Community Social Welfare: Evidence from Organized Community Philanthropy. “Large Corporations. Communities. 1948-1997. M. it produces a 38. Elizabeth J. Tucker.. Shalley. 355–382.4% increase in performance in the top tercile of intrinsically motivated workers. Murrell. forthcoming. our analysis shows that patients were treated and discharged at a faster rate in the dedicated queuing system than in the pooled queuing system. Karim R. and Entrepreneurship: Multilevel Linkages. Our paper has implications for health care organizations and others seeking to reduce throughput time.” HBS No. and Karen L. We propose that the dedicated queuing system yielded shorter throughput times because it provided physicians with greater ability and incentive to manage their patients’ flow through the ED from arrival to discharge. Altman. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing. Hitt & J. Innovation.

2013. Based on an in-depth longitudinal field study of NASA’s experimentation with opening knowledge boundaries through Web platforms and communities. (Job market paper. (Job market paper. hiring of the first employee. identity work. 3 (April 2012): 384–392. “Beyond Individual Creativity: The Superadditive Benefits of Multicultural Experience for Collective Creativity in Culturally Diverse Teams. including the acquisition of external capital. Using a novel. This opening of knowledge boundaries. 2014 (under review). 2013. However. Jeffrey Polzer. “From Problem Solvers to Solution Seekers: The Co-evolving Knowledge Boundary and Professional Identity Work of R&D Organizational Members at R E S E A R C H . I discuss implications of these findings for theories on knowledge and innovation and suggest directions for future research. challenged both the fundamental way these engineers and scientists worked as well as their professional identity.) Neeley. Sujin Jang. results also suggest that these effects are mitigated for ventures in which the social mission is achieved through integrated practices that simultaneously advance the goals of both business and charitable forms.” Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 43. and innovation. Lifshitz-Assaf. and Michael I. Tadmor. longitudinal dataset of nascent social ventures. and attainment of legal status. This paper investigates the consequences of commercialization for early-stage social ventures. A separate group of scholars have studied how innovation outcomes are shaped by identity of organizational members. NASA. Hila. The opening of knowledge boundaries produced important scientific breakthroughs rapidly and with few resources. Satterstrom. “Mission and Markets? The Organizational Viability of Hybrid Social Ventures. When such ventures solve social problems by incorporating aspects of the business form. Patricia Satterstrom. I find that commercialization reduces the rate at which ventures reach these milestones.” Working Paper. Norton.” Working Paper. Carmit. “Reframing Hierarchical Interactions as Negotiations to Promote Change in Health Care Systems. Prior literature on knowledge boundary work and professionalism predicts a boundary protection reaction to such a challenge. Patricia. “When (Talking) Less is More: Decreasing Communication in the Face of Language Barriers Improves Team Performance. and Jeffrey Polzer. in preparation for submission to Administrative Science Quarterly. Matthew. and Robert Wei. Many of these studies have investigated the relationship between knowledge boundary crossing mechanisms and innovation outcomes.” Handbook of Conflict Management (forthcoming). no.” Working Paper.) Scholars have long examined the organizational knowledge creation processes related to innovation. Indeed some organizational members did act to protect their knowledge boundaries and professional identity as “problem solvers. I examine the impact of commercialization on the achievement of important entrepreneurial milestones. Tsedal. I observe this reaction but I also find a powerful contrasting reaction: boundary dismantling. ABSTRACT Lee.Problem Formulation from Problem Solving and Opening the Solution Space. “From Problem Solvers to Solution Seekers: The Co-evolving Knowledge Boundary and Professional Identity Work of R&D Organizational Members at NASA. ABSTRACT Lifshitz-Assaf. however. 2 014 . in preparation for submission to Administrative Science Quarterly.” but others deliberately dismantled their knowledge boundaries and reconstructed their professional identity from “problem solvers” to “solutions seekers. while also creating conditions for the emergence of internal conflict. I illustrate the co-evolving relationship between knowledge boundary work. They consequently risk being undervalued by external resource providers. they introduce ambivalence of goals and depart from well-accepted templates of organization. 2013.” Working Paper. Patricia Satterstrom.” This was a significant transformation both in the R&D knowledge creation process and the members’ professional identity and capabilities. Hila.” (Job market paper).

“Separating Homophily and Peer Influence with Latent Space.” In preparation for submission at the Journal of Consumer Research. and in the absence of expected norms and shared standards of formal conduct. Vineet Kumar. 2013. Clarence. Francesca Gino.” (Revise and Resubmit at Marketing Science. Mohan. Todd Rogers. 2014. and Thomas Steenburgh. To identify social influence properly.” Working Paper. 2014. and Anita Elberse. Bellezza. Sunil Gupta. and Mikolaj Jan Piskorski. “The Surprising Benefits of Nonconformity. and Jason Riis. Davin.” (Job Market Paper. Lee. and Joshua M. Ryan W. Joseph P.” HBS Working Paper. 2014.” Journal of Consumer Research 41 (June 2014). Leslie John. as costly and visible signals. These positive inferences derived from signals of nonconformity are mediated by perceived autonomy and moderated by individual differences in need for uniqueness in the observers. Francesca Gino. Koen Pauwels. such as entering a luxury boutique wearing gym clothes rather than an elegant outfit or wearing red sneakers in a professional setting. 2013. Francesca Gino. 2013.” Psychological Science (Revise and Resubmit). Anat Keinan. The intuition is that latent coordinates act as proxy variables for hidden traits that give .” Journal of Consumer Research (revise and resubmit). “Conspicuous Consumption of Time: When Busyness Becomes a Status Symbol. Bhavya. can act as a particular form of conspicuous consumption and lead to positive inferences of status and competence in the eyes of others.” In preparation for submission at Management Science. and Anat Keinan. “A Present for the Future: The Unexpected Value of Rediscovery.) Lee. Silvia. Ackerman. Silvia. “Separating Homophily and Peer Influence with Latent Space. and Referral Dynamics. M. Bellezza. “Lifting the Veil: Cost Transparency as Intimate Firm DisH ARVA R D BU SI N ESS SCH OO L D O C T O R A L P R O G R A M S Zhang. 2013. No. “Designing Freemium: a Model of Consumer Usage.” Working Paper.. and Sunil Gupta.. Zhang. “What Voting Begets: Understanding and Managing the Unintended Consequences of Empowerment. (Revise and Resubmit at Management Science. Baucells.MARKETING closure. Tami Kim. and Anat Keinan. Clarence. Silvia.) Kim. and Michael Norton. and Anat Keinan.” Working Paper. Elberse.. Silvia. An investigation of boundary conditions demonstrates that the positive inferences disappear when the observer is unfamiliar with the environment. Pierre Chandon. “Brand Tourists: How Non-Core Users Enhance the Brand Image by Eliciting Pride. 2013.” MIT Sloan Management Review (Spring 2014). and Anat Keinan.) Mohan.” HBS Working Paper 13–070. we introduce latent space as an approach to control for latent homophily. Francesca Gino. “Creating Value Through Reciprocal Transparency. “’Be Careless with That!’ Availability of Product Upgrades Increases Cavalier Behavior toward Possessions. “Improving Consumer Evaluation of Marketing Offers Framed in Terms of Percentage Changes in Cost vs. Ryan Buell. Silvia. No. Upgrade.” Journal of Consumer Research 41 (2014). “Where do the Most Active Customers Originate and How Can Firms Keep Them Engaged?” Working Paper. Lingling. when the nonconforming behavior is depicted as unintentional. Kireyev. Silvia. We study the impact of peer behavior on the adoption of mobile apps in a social network. we show that latent space coordinates significantly reduce bias in the estimate of social influence. and Sunil Gupta. and Michael Norton. 2013. Sunil Gupta.” HBS Working Paper. the idea that “birds of a feather flock together.” In a series of simulations. Tami Kim. Alison Wood Brooks. Tami. Joseph P. and Chia-Jung Tsay. Bellezza. “Viral Videos: The Dynamics of Online Video Advertising Campaigns. A series of studies demonstrates that people confer higher status and competence to nonconforming rather than conforming individuals. Bellezza. “The Red Sneakers Effect: Inferring Status and Competence from Signals of Non-conformity. ABSTRACT Davin. Elie Ofek. Anita. and Lingling Zhang. Clarence Lee.” Journal of Consumer Research 42 (August 2014). “Do Display Ads Influence Search? Attribution and Dynamics in Online Advertising.. “The Red Sneakers Effect: Inferring Status and Competence from Signals of Non-conformity. Buell. Pavel. and Leslie John. “Blurred Lines: Do Live-Music Sales Drive Recorded-Music Sales?” Working Paper. Ting. 14053. This research examines how people react to nonconforming behaviors. “Temporal Profiles of Instant Utility during Anticipation and Recall. Benefit: The Role of the Availability and Type of Rate Information. ABSTRACT Bellezza. Bhavya. and Neeru Paharia. Nonconforming behaviors. Bellezza. 14053. and Silvia Bellezza. and Mikolaj Jan Piskorski.” Working Paper.

Franz Wohlgezogen. no. We then apply the latent space approach to identify social influence on installation of mobile apps in a social network. Catarina R. Kwan. Preparatory Power Posing Affects Nonverbal Presence and Job Interview Performance. Polzer.. 40. and Erin L. “CDG: Managing in China’s Economic Transformation. 2 (2013): 326-328. 2 014 . “Diversity in Groups. Ranjay. Yap. Cuddy.” Journal of Management History 19. Cuddy. John Humphreys. ignoring latent homophily can result in overestimation of social effects by over 100%. no. 2013. Cuddy.” Journal of Management History (revise and resubmit). Elizabeth. “Invisible Work. “At the Cutting Edge of Comparative Cultural Sociology: A Mini-Conference Report from the 2013 Eastern Sociological Society Annual Meeting”. Gulati. Stefan. Heidi K. and Stephen M. Russell Clayton. Carney.” Academy of Management Annals 6 (2012): 531–583..J. “Viewing the Work of Lillian M. Wilmuth. Inc (under review). Beljean. Gibson.C. no.. Poker Players. “Expertise Dissensus: A Multi-level Model of Teams’ Differing Perceptions about Member Expertise. random effects. Culture: American Sociological Association Section on the Sociology of Culture Newsletter 26. Chan. Henry. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Scott.. edited by Robert A. and Elizabeth Baily Wolf. The approach outperforms existing methods such as including observed covariates. In Gender and Work: Challenging Conventional Wisdom. Curtis K. 1 (2013): 15. “Book Review: Money At Work: On the Job with Priests. Chan. In some samples. Jacqueline Einstein. Delaney. Erin L. CA: Sage Publications. Henry. Michel and Curtis K. Roy Y. and Yunshan Lian. Gardner. Caroline A. NJ: Wiley & Sons. Thousand Oaks.” In Emerging Trends in the Social and Behavioral Sciences. and Curtis K. and Dana R. Gibson. and Lisa B. Jane Whitney. We find that peer influence accounts for 27% of mobile app adoptions. Journal of Applied Psychology (Revise and resubmit). or fixed effects.rise to latent homophily. ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR Anteby. and Hedge Fund Traders. by Kevin J. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing. Jack Deem. Chan. Hoboken. 2013. Gilbreth Through the Lens of Critical Biography. Shaohui Chen.” HBS No. Kosslyn. Hansen. “Diving into the Garbage Can: R E S E A R C H .” In Sociology of Work: An Encyclopedia.” HBS Working Paper 12-070. Jane Whitney. 4 (2013): 441-458. Amy J.” Work & Occupations. 2010. 411-067. edited by Robin Ely.. and Jeffrey T. and that latent homophily inflates this estimate by 40% (to 38%). J. and Pavel Zhelyazkov. and Amy J. and Lisa Kwan. edited by V. Punishment and Prescribed Overcompensation for “Deviant Moms”: How Race and Work Status Affect Judgments of Moms. Chua. Amy J. Wei Chen.C. “Mary Parker Follett: Examining Her Work Through Critical Biography. Smith. “The Two Facets of Collaboration: Cooperation and Coordination in Strategic Alliances. 2012. Fernandes.C.

Faaiza. edited by Michael Benoliel. 2014. “A Place for Emotion: How Space Structures Nurse-Parent Interactions in West African Pediatric Wards. “Work.” In Looking Back. Polzer. and Amy C. 2011. Jeffrey T. Thousand Oaks. Sujin. “EPB: Energizing Chattanooga.” HBS No. 2013. “From Seeing Dots to Perceiving Social Cues: Mapping the Relationship between Visual Processing and Social Perceptiveness. Henderson. “Thin Slices of Teams.” Working Paper.” Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 43. Manning. NJ: World Scientific Publishing Company.” Working Paper. Rashid. “Risky Trust: How Teams Develop Trust in High-Risk Endeavours. CA: Sage Publications. Rashid. es and the Recreation of Work in a Professional Service Firm. Faaiza. Julie Battilana. 2012.” In Encyclopedia of Social Networks. Hansen. and Melissa Mazmanian. 2012. “Global Language Mandates Create Status Differences for Nonnative Speakers. and Information Collide: How Subgroups Create Hidden Profiles in Teams. “We’re Halfway There? The Effects of Time on Group Processes and Outcomes.. Dennis Rodgers. New York: Routledge. and Lakshmi Ramarajan. Erin L. 2011. “Communicating Change: When Identity Becomes a Source of Vulnerability for Institutional Challengers. 2012. Amy C. Chao.” Working Paper. and Lisa Kwan. (Revise and Resubmit). Manning. GA: Greenway Communications. Sujin. 7/8 (July–August 2013): 113–119. and Jeffrey T. New York: Oxford University Press. Moving Forward: A Review of Group and TeamBased Research (Research on Managing Groups and Teams. UK: Emerald Group Publishing. Norcross.Com: International Development in the Blogosphere. Sam Ten Cate. Henry. “Collective Action and Social Movements. “Leadership Lessons from the Chilean Mine Rescue. Jeffrey T. Rashid.” Working Paper. “Overcoming the Outcome Bias: Making Process Matter. and George Alvarez. Henry. Richard Hackman. Ovul. edited by George Barnett. CA: Sage Publications. edited by Roderick Kramer and Todd Pittinsky. Leslie.” HBS Working Paper 11-089. “Developing a Case Study for Interactive Learning: Purpose. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing. 2013. Polzer. 2011. Edmondson. Faaiza. edited by George Barnett. and Herman B. Sujin Jang. Carmit. Patricia Satterstrom.3 (April 2012): 384-392. Tadmor. and Ian McKown Cornell. no.” Academy of Management Review. Faaiza. and Max Bazerman. Edmondson. Jang. Lisa Kwan. 2012. . Thousand Oaks. Faaiza. and Roy Chua. Technology and the Expressive Value of Temporal Resources.” American Sociological Review. 2011. 2014. Neeley. and Jeffrey T. Manning. Jang. and J. Lakshmi Ramarajan. “Building Intercultural Trust at the Negotiating Table. Fon Wiruchnipawan. Interests. edited by David Lewis. Jang. Ying-yi Hong. Rashid. Form and Methodology. Ting Zhang. Ryann. and Best Paper Proceedings of the 2014 Academy of Management Meeting. Rashid.” Working Paper. and Amy C. Television. Rashid.IntDev. “FollowMe. Films. Polzer. 2012. Melissa Mazmanian and Elizabeth Hansen. and Best Paper Proceedings of the 2014 Academy of Management Meeting. 2013. 2014. “Risky Trust: How Multi-entity Teams Develop Trust in a High Risk Endeavor. “When Identities. Jang. “Not Just Keeping the Lights On: Stakeholder Engagement for Mutual Gain at a Utility. Polzer. Melody M. nos. 2013. and Social Media.” Working Paper. edited by Barbara Bryson and Canan Yetmen. Sezer.” In Popular Representations of Development: Insights from Novels.” In Restoring Trust: Challenges and Prospects Restoring Trust in Organizations and Leaders: Enduring Challenges and Emerging Answers. Erin L.” Academy of Management Proceedings (January 2013). Sujin. N9-313-097. “You Are Who You Befriend: How Online Social Networks Shape Perceptions. Hackensack. 2014. Elizabeth. Ryann. Sujin. Neale and Elizabeth A. Sujin. “Self-Organizing Networks. “Risky Trust: How Multi-entity Teams Develop Trust in High Risk Endeavors.” In Negotiation Excellence: Successful Deal Making. Perlow. Jang. 2010.. Carmit T. Leonard.Organizational Identity and Social Defenses Against Decision-Making in a High-Technology Firm. Bingley. Polzer. edited by Margaret A. “Team Time: Collective Temporal ResourcH ARVA R D BU SI N ESS SCH OO L D O C T O R A L P R O G R A M S Tadmor. Rebecca. Edmondson. Tsedal. Justin Monticello.. Patricia Satterstrom.” Working Paper. and Jeffrey T. Volume 15). Rashid. (Spring 2012).” Working Paper.” Working Paper. and Fon Wiruchnipawan. Faaiza. “Beyond Individual Creativity: The Superadditive Benefits of Multicultural Experience for Collective Creativity in Culturally Diverse Teams. Faaiza.” In Encyclopedia of Social Networks.” In The Owner’s Dilemma: Driving Success and Innovation in the Design and Construction Industry.” Working Paper. Mannix. Ryann.” Rotman Magazine.” Harvard Business Review 91. 2013. “Bringing Worlds Together: Cultural Brokerage in Multicultural Teams. and Michael Woolcock. Edmondson. and Amy C. (Revise and Resubmit).

2 014 .” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 103(2012): 750–772. Workers who regularly confront the realities of life and death. Ting. (forthcoming). back stage areas and the presence of visibility without control – shape nurse-parent interactions and influence how nurses express and manage emotions. CA: Sage. edited by A. “A Place for Emotion: How Space Structures Nurse-Parent Interactions in West African Pediatric Wards. and Max H. Quantity. “When Does the Glue of Social Ties Dissolve? Syndication Ties and Performance Cues in Withdrawals from Venture Capital Syndicates. Fon. Liou. edited by E. “Intercultural Relationships and Creativity: Existing Research and Future Directions.” In Handbook of Culture and Creativity: Basic Processes and Applied Innovations. Zhang. 2014. tient deaths with public displays of anger and frustration toward the parents of their patients than to comfort or reassure them. The findings demonstrate the limits to the power of embeddedness to increase the stability of interorganizational collaboration. and Best Paper Proceedings of the 2014 Academy of Management Meeting.J. and A.or professionally-defined feeling rules while deftly managing the emotions of patients or clients.” American Sociological Review. (Revise and Resubmit). to be experts at emotion management – to align their own emotions with organizationally. the effect disappears in cases of negative collaboration-specific cues.” Working Paper. I show that two features of these hospital wards – the absence of private.” HBS Working Paper 14-105.” Working Paper. Bazerman. Wiruchnipawan. are often expected. “Involuntary Distractions: Cognitive Stimulation or Disruption for Creativity. Fon. 2013. but does provide a place for anger and frustration. Zhelyazkov. Fon.” Academy of Management Best Paper Proceedings (forthcoming). Chua. and Wei Wang. Wiruchnipawan.. Combining literatures on emotion management and on the impact of place and space on social life. Zhang. “Multicultural Experiences Reduce Intergroup Bias through Epistemic Unfreezing. “When Does the Glue of Social Ties Dissolve? Syndication Ties and Performance Cues in Withdrawals from Venture Capital Syndicates. Kwan and S. Jeffrey T. Thousand Oaks. It finds that higher embeddedness decreases the probability of withdrawal. Using observational and interview data from three pediatric hospital wards in West Africa. Kessler. Ryann. 2013. and Max H. “Managerial Decision Biases. L. Fon. Wiruchnipawan. 1985-2009. Ting. H. by themselves and others. 1985-2009. Pavel. and Roy Y. Caroline A.” Best Paper Proceedings of the 2014 Academy of Management Meeting (forthcoming). My findings address important gaps in our understanding of the spatiality of emotion and extend our knowledge of workplace emotion management to a new social.” In Encyclopedia of Management Theory. “Morality Rebooted: Exploring Simple Fixes to Our Moral Bugs. however. and organizational environment – one which provides little space for processing emotions behind the scenes. The present study integrates the economic and social perspectives on the stability of collaboration by exploring how performance cues interact with interorganizational embeddedness in affecting firms’ withdrawals from venture capital coinvestment syndicates. “Does Help Matter? When and How Receiving Help Affects Work Performance. and Complexity of Information. Yap. including health workers in high mortality settings. Pavel. ABSTRACT Zhelyazkov.Fon Wiruchnipawan.J.” (forthcoming). 2014. Wilmuth. “Unlocking the Power of Dialectical Thinking: Moderating Effects of Supervisor Leadership Styles on Creativity. Oxford: U. however. and Roy Y. “Variations in the Memory Accuracy-confidence Relationship: The Effects of Context. ABSTRACT Manning. 2013. Francesca Gino. I find that nurses are twice as likely to respond to emergencies and paR E S E A R C H . Leung. Y-Y.” Working Paper. Chua.J. Modality. cultural. especially in the face of negative general performance cues.: Oxford University Press. Polzer. Bazerman.K. Wiruchnipawan.

and Entrepreneurship: Multilevel Linkages. “The Downside of Legitimacy Building for a New Firm in a Nascent Industry. 2013 (under revision). Tucker. Andrea. 2014. and Michael L. and Ananth Raman. By providing the first comprehensive and systematic findings on supply chain auditing practices. Tiona Zuzul. Griffin. Economist: The Ideas Economy (blog).”) Supply chain auditors provide companies with strategic information about the practices of suppliers. Craig. and Daniel Schodek. M. Altman.” HBS Working Paper. Berry Jaeker. Jodi L. Craig. Eccles. Anita L. Jillian. and Anita Tucker. and Diego Klabjan. including an auditor’s experience.” HBS Working Paper 14-033. 13-052. Tushman. Frank Nagle. “Learning from Sustainable Community Experiments. we theorize and investigate the factors that shape the practices of private supply chain auditors. Annissa Alusi. Greenstein. Shane.” HBS Working Paper 11-099.” In Oxford Bibliographies in Management. Frank Nagle. 2013. 2013 (under review). Oxford. Nicole DeHoratius. Anil R. S. “Increased Speed Equals Increased Wait: The Impact of a Reduction in Emergency Department Ultrasound Order Processing Time. Amy C. illegal. New York: Routledge. 2013 (revised 2014. and Michael L. Edmondson. “What Shapes the Gatekeepers? Evidence from Global Supply Chain Auditors.. Elizabeth J.” Working Paper. “Commercial Property Rent Dynamics in U. and Andrea Hugill. Doshi. Yan Jiang. Metropolitan Areas: An Examination of Office. our study suggests strategies for designing more credible monitoring regimes. 2010 (revised 2011).” In Palgrave Encyclopedia of Strategic Management. “How firms respond to mandatory information disclosure. Amy C. “Sustainable Cities: Oxymoron or the Shape of the Future?” In Infrastructure Sustainability and Design.. Lee. forthcoming.STRATEGY Alusi. Tiona. 2012 (revised 2013). gender.” Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics 46.” In Oxford Handbook of Creativity. and Michael W. Edmondson. and Amy C. and Michael H. Kristina. Previously titled “What Shapes the Gatekeepers? Evidence from Global Supply Chain Auditors. January 10. Nathan. . 2013 (under revision). Shalley.. “Sustainable Cities: Oxymoron or the Shape of the Future?” Harvard Business School Working Paper 11-062. “Monitoring the Monitors: How Social Factors Influence Supply Chain Auditors. and Steven Kahl. 2011 (revised 2013). “Digital Dark Matter and the Economics of Apache.” Working Paper. Robert G. Innovation. Communities.. Anil R. Teece and Mie Augier.” Early Ecocities. “Inventory Management with Purchase Order Errors and Rework.. and Tiona Zuzul.. “Blending Quantitative and Qualitative Methods in Organizational Research. and Ananth Raman. Palgrave Macmillan (forthcoming).” Working Paper. and Robert Eccles. Annissa.” HBS Working Paper 14-032.Chain Based Network Effects in Information Technology Adoption. Andreas Georgoulias. “An Empirical Study of the Spillover Effects of Workload on Patient Length of Stay. edited by Ricky W. Maria. and Anthony Pennington-Cross. Edmondson. TECHNOLOGY & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Altman. and Frank Nagle. McElheran. Hugill. We find evidence that their reporting practices are shaped by an array of social factors.. and professional training. “Improving Store Liquidation. Zhou. Industrial.” Working Paper. Frank Nagle. no. Toffel. Robert G. Firms or Countries?” HBS Working Paper 13–055. Ibanez. Amy C.” Strategic Management Journal 34 no. “Innovating without Information Constraints: Organization. Berry Jaeker. Glenn W. Flex and Retail Space. UK: Oxford University Press. Toffel. and unethical behavior at factories. Short. edited by C. and gender H ARVA R D BU SI N ESS SCH OO L D O C T O R A L P R O G R A M S diversity on audit teams. Jillian. Nathan. yet little is known of what influences auditors’ ability to identify and report dangerous. Michael W. Craig. and Jordan Siegel. ongoing relationships between auditors and audited factories. 2013. Dowell. Edmondson. Drawing on insights from the literatures on street-level bureaucracy and on regulatory and audit design. Hitt & J. 2011. 2013. Michael W. and Innovation when Information Costs Approach Zero. No. Zuzul. and Tiona Zuzul. edited by David J. “Technology and Innovation Management. edited by Spiro Pollalis. ABSTRACT Short.” Research Policy 43 (4) (May 2014): 623-631. and Andrea R. “Superstar Effects on Platforms. Eccles. and Tiona Zuzul. 2 (February 2013): 232–259.. Nicole DeHoratius.S. 2012. Stephen Ramos. Toffel. Hugill. “The Impact of Supplier Reliability on Retailer Demand.” HBS Working Paper 14-032. Nathan. Edmondson. “Supply. Jodi L. New York: Oxford University Press. “Which Does More to Determine the Quality of Corporate Governance in Emerging Economies. Elizabeth J. Tushman. Doshi. Amy C. 10 (2013): 1209-1231. 2013.” Working Paper.

but these contributions may be difficult to measure when they take a non-pecuniary form. Frank. Shane and Frank Nagle. otherwise known as Apache. and Christopher Riedl.” Research Policy 43 (4) (May 2014): 623-631.” Best Paper Proceedings of the 2014 Academy of Management Meeting. and retail). “Digital Dark Matter and the Economics of Apache. Industrial.Nagle. 2013.” Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics 46. 2 (February 2013): 232–259.S. and private company R&D contribute to economic growth. specifically. We argue that these findings point to a large potential undercounting of the rate of return from IT spillovers from the invention of the Internet. Frank. This paper is concerned with the market rental rate R E S E A R C H . which equates to between 1. In general. and Christopher Riedl. This study asks whether this experience could produce measurement issues in standard productivity analysis. omission and attribution issues. Rental rates reflect the value of the services provided by the property and can have a significant impact on the ability of its owners to make monthly debt obligations. May 2013 (revised January 2014) (re-submitted to Management Science). ABSTRACT Greenstein. Flex and Retail Space.3% and 8. the speed of adjustment is substantially faster within quality segments and is strongest for grade A properties. and. for space offered by commercial property and how that rental rate evolves over time. Nagle. Frank. “Online Word of Mouth and Product Quality Disagreement. university. Maria. Metropolitan Areas: An Examination of Office. The findings also suggest a large potential undercounting of “digital dark matter” in general. ABSTRACT Ibanez. forthcoming. “Stock Market Prediction via Social Media: The Importance of Competitors. Nagle. We find that use of Apache potentially accounts for a mismeasurement of somewhere between $2 billion and $12 billion. Frank. “Online Word of Mouth and Product Quality Disagreement. There is substantial heterogeneity in both the long and short run responses to changing demand and supply conditions. and Anthony Pennington-Cross.” HBS Working Paper 13-091.” Working Paper. flex. Nagle. 2014.S. “Commercial Property Rent Dynamics in U. “Public Digital Goods and Firm Productivity.7% of the stock of prepackaged software in private fixed investment in the United States and a very high rate of return to the original federal investment in the Internet. as illustrated by the deployment of the descendent of the NCSA HTTPd server. industrial. the office market is the slowest to adjust back towards equilibrium while industrial and flex markets adjust back to the long run equilibrium very quickly. if so.” Working Paper. 2 014 . whether the magnitude is large enough to matter. no. The growth of networking devices and the Internet in the 1990s and 2000s magnified these challenges. The dynamics are studied from the second quarter of 1990 through the second quarter of 2009 and the results are compared across four property types or uses (office. The study develops and analyzes a novel data set consisting of a 1% sample of all outward-facing web servers used in the United States. Researchers have long hypothesized that research outputs from government. For industrial and office types. We investigate commercial property rent dynamics for 34 large metropolitan areas in the U.