Learning outcomes
By the end of the session, you should be able to:

• Discuss how to assess student work
accurately and fairly
• Identify types of unfair means
• Identify the characteristics of good
feedback

Session overview
• Assessment:
• Marking student work
• Using assessment criteria
• Moderation and external examiners

• Unfair means: identification and action
• Feedback to students:
• The role of feedback in learning
• Giving useful feedback

Assessment and Feedback
What is the role of assessment and feedback
in HE?
What role do you play in:

• Assessing students
• Giving students feedback

Responsibilities “Departments are responsible for ensuring that all staff and any postgraduate research students involved in marking and moderation are adequately prepared for this activity.ac.uk/lets/pp/assessment/marking .” From: Guidance for departments on the internal moderation of summative assessment tasks and assessed work http://www.sheffield. particularly those with less experience or who are new to the department.

as an individual and among markers .Assessment: Key concepts Validity: The assessor is measuring what the assessment is intended to measure Reliability: Consistent marking .

Constructive Alignment Biggs (2011) Intended Learning Outcomes Teaching & Learning Activities Assessment Tasks .

Example Learning outcome • Students will be able to identify different types of unfair means Teaching and learning activities • A lecture on types of unfair means Assessment task • Multiple choice exam questions which require identification of types .

Decision makers and processes Who decides • Learning outcomes • Assessment tasks • Teaching and learning activities When and how? .

Answer… • Course Directors/Module convenors • When programmes/modules created or revised • Approval via a university process • Not part of your remit. but marking validly and reliably is(!) .

Validity • So how can we ensure the assessor (you as marker) is measuring what the assessment is intended to measure? • Time to do some marking… .

The illustration should use a range of colours and the design should be flexible to enable adaptation to a range of card formats.The design brief Create an illustration for a greeting card using the theme “Emotions”. .

Grade the illustration • Merit? • Pass? • Fail? .

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have we marked accurately? • Ask yourself how would we know? (think about evidence) .Marking outcome • Did we all agree on the grade to be awarded? • Why. why not? • If we all agree.

What were we measuring (outcomes)? • Communicates specific emotions clearly • Uses an appropriate range of emotions • Uses a range of colours • Uses space in a flexible way to enable adaptation to alternative card formats • Mark again using these .

• Communicates specific emotions clearly • Uses an appropriate range of emotions • Uses a range of colours • Uses space in a flexible way to enable adaptation to alternative card formats .

why not? • If we all agree. have we marked accurately? • What else do we need to know? .Marking outcome • Did we all agree on the grade to be awarded? • Why.

Assessment criteria specify • The evidence used to determine the achievement of the learning outcomes • Evidence used to determine the level of achievement .

a high level of ambiguity is evident. The illustration fits within the chosen format (rectangle or square or circle) but some work would be required to adapt the illustration to fit in either of the other formats. Use of space The illustration fits within the chosen format (rectangle or square or circle) and could fit in either of the other formats with little or no work required. represent more than two) Use of colour More than four colours have been used (not including the background). The illustration fits poorly within the chosen format (rectangle or square or circle) and a significant amount would be required to adapt the illustration to fit in either of the other formats. Emotions are not clearly identifiable with viewers highly unlikely to agree on any of the emotions represented. but a level of ambiguity is evident. . ambiguity is very unlikely. Range of emotions More than four different emotions are evident (the artist has attempted to represent more than three). Less than two colours have been used (not including the background). Three or four colours have been used (not including the background). Three different emotions are evident Less than three different emotions are (the artist has attempted to represent evident (the artist has not attempted to three).Descriptor Merit Pass Fail Clarity of emotions Emotions are clearly identifiable with viewers highly likely to agree on all of the emotions represented. Emotions are clearly identifiable with viewers highly likely to agree on some of the emotions represented.

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How did we do this time? • Did we all agree? • What issues does this raise for you? • What can you do about them? .

your opinion of the criteria is irrelevant from a marking point of view • To ensure valid marking you must use the criteria .Valid marking • Discuss any concerns about the criteria to your Module contact (this can help for the future) • However.

Checklist for markers: • What is the assessment task? • What teaching and learning activities have led to the assessment task? • What learning outcomes are being assessed? • What are the assessment criteria evidence for achievement and levels .

as an individual and among assessors (markers) …and consistency across assessment activities e.Review: Key concepts Validity: The assessor is measuring what the assessment is intended to measure Reliability: Consistent marking . exam papers across cohorts (but not your remit!) .g.

.brainstorm the factors that can affect reliability in assessing student work.. …. ….identify what can be done to improve reliability? .Factors Affecting Reliability With your neighbours….

samples of work) Moderation • Consistency among markers .Processes Standardisation • To the marking criteria for individual marker consistency • Ask how your department does this (e.g.

Internal Moderation “The process of summative assessment should involve internal moderation wherever practical to ensure that the initial judgements/marks have been arrived at accurately.uk/lets/pp/assessment/marking . From: Guidance for departments on the internal moderation of summative assessment tasks and assessed work http://www. The method of moderation may vary.sheffield.ac. and it is for the department to determine the most appropriate method for the type of assessment”. consistently and fairly in accordance with the assessment criteria/marking scheme.

postdoctoral research associates. part time tutors or any new members of academic staff.lets.uk/flats/guidance_internal_moderation.shef.ac. This might apply to postgraduate research students. http://www.Support for the less familiar (you?) Particular arrangements for moderation of work that is first marked by those who may be less familiar with the assessment process/the use of the department’s assessment criteria.dept.pdf .

• student performance and degrees awarded are of an appropriate standard and are comparable nationally . equitable and is fairly conducted.External Examiners The purpose of the external examiner system is to ensure: • the assessment system is rigorous.

Add to your checklist… • What is the assessment task? • What teaching and learning activities have led to the assessment task? • What learning outcomes are being assessed? • What are the assessment criteria -evidence for achievement and levels • How will you be inducted? • How will you be standardised (e.g. examples of assessed work) • How will the assessment be moderated (and what is your role?) .

Summary So far we have looked at: • Validity in Assessment • Reliability in Assessment .

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4. 6. Plagiarism (either intentional or unintentional) Submitting bought or commissioned work Double submission (or self plagiarism) Collusion (distinct from collaborative group work) Fabrication Facilitating the use of unfair means . 2.Unfair Means 1. 5. 3.

Plagiarism (either intentional or unintentional) 2.Is it unfair means? Which one? 1. Double submission (or self plagiarism) 4. Collusion (distinct from collaborative group work) 5. Submitting bought or commissioned work 3. Fabrication 6. Facilitating the use of unfair means .

Submitting bought or commissioned work 3. Plagiarism 2.Detection? 1. Fabrication 6. Facilitating the use of unfair means . Collusion 5. Double submission (or self plagiarism) 4.

shef.If you suspect unfair means… • Do not approach the student • Your department will have process for reporting suspected Unfair Means • Find out who you should raise them with (e.uk/lets/design/unfair . Module Tutor) • Do not hesitate to raise suspicions.g. it will not be up to you to investigate – doing nothing will not help the student • Find out University’s policy and procedures at http://www.ac.

Summary So far we have looked at: • Validity in Assessment • Reliability in Assessment • Unfair means .

Types of Assessment and Giving Feedback .

Forms of assessment • What forms/types of assessment do you use? • When do they occur within the teaching/learning experience? .

Modes of Assessment Summative assessment Formative assessment • Sums up achievement • Informs students • Performance indicator • Emphasis on feedback. • High-stakes (this is it – cannot address issues) • Lower stakes (time to address issues) • ‘Low level learning’ • ‘High level learning’ .

Formative or summative? • Final grade from a module • Feedback on an essay which is not graded • Feedback on a mid-term exam which is graded • Which would you find most useful form a student perspective? .

Detailed opportunities for the receipt of feedback by students will therefore vary across the University. It can take many forms.Definition of feedback Feedback exists in any process. University of Sheffield’s Principles of Feedback . It can be provided individually or to groups. It is responsive to the developmental expectations of particular programmes and disciplines. and at different stages of students’ programmes. activity or information that enhances learning by providing students with the opportunity to reflect on their current or recent level of attainment.

How and Why? • How do they use the feedback? .Feedback types? In your experience… • What sort of feedback do you give students? When.

Problems with feedback • Comes too late to be applied elsewhere • Focuses on presentation/superficial learning • Quantity: Too much or too little • Justifies the “loss of marks” • Doesn’t lead directly to improved future performance (Glover 2006) .

Leads to useful information for teachers Adapted from : Nicol. Motivates students 7. Gives high quality information 4. (2006). . Encourages students to talk about their work 6. J. D. “Formative assessment and self-regulated learning: a model and seven principles of good feedback practice. Clarifies good performance 2. 199-218. D. & Macfarlane-Dick.” Studies in Higher Education. Helps students to assess themselves 5.What is good feedback? 1. Helps close the gap between current and desired performance 3. 31(2).

and be specific about how to improve • Don’t focus on excuses for poor performance • Use learning outcomes and assessment criteria!! .Tips for effective feedback • Tell your students you’re giving feedback • Be specific • Concentrate on points not person • Be positive about things to continue • ….

ac.shef.uk/ssid/ourcommitment • Principles of Feedback Acting on feedback: • Some students may have little experience with thinking about what feedback means • Personal tutors can help .Student engagement Responsibilities for students around feedback: • Our Commitment http://www.

Principles of Feedback • The University of Sheffield has Principles of Feedback • Approved by Senate • A definition and six Principles • Staff and student versions • Your department’s processes should be aligned with these .

uk/lets/toolkit • School of Architecture Feedback Handbook http://feedbackhandbook.ac.Feedback resources For further information and guidance on feedback. take a look at: • Feedback and Assessment section of the online Toolkit for Learning and Teaching www.shef.com .wordpress.

Sessions Learning outcomes Can you: • Discuss how to assess student work accurately and fairly? • Identify types of unfair means? • Identify the characteristics of good feedback? .

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Learning and Teaching Professional Recognition Scheme (LTPRS) • Started 1 September 2014 • Provides a framework that enables our staff achieve recognition from the HEA at: – Associate Fellow – Fellow – Senior Fellow • Encourages all who teach and/or support learning to align their practice with the UK Professional Standards Framework for teaching and learning in HE • Provides national recognition of your commitment to professionalism • It is a portable asset that has UK-wide relevance to .

non-credit bearing route to recognition as Associate Fellow • For any member of staff or PGR student who teaches/supports learning • Assessed by Portfolio comprising three main components: – Workshops and self-evaluation (including some STA sessions) – Teaching observations – Developing teaching philosophy • BUT. and apply current and emerging methods/strategies appropriate to their particular subject and teaching context to help students learn. • Structured.Foundation Pathway The aim of the Foundation Pathway is to enable staff who teach or support learning to consider learning as a process. can only include activities completed after 1 September 2014 .

uk/lets/cpd/ltprs/foundation If you have completed some of the STA workshops prior to 1 September 2014 and have teaching experience.uk/lets/cpd/ltprs/mypathway .shef.30 • Full information including the Foundation Pathway Handbook is available at www.ac. Initial dates are: – Thursday 16 October 2014 9.shef.30-12.What next? If you wish to apply for recognition via the Foundation Pathway: • You will need to attend an Orientation Workshop.30-16.ac. you may wish to apply for recognition via the Personal Pathway.30 – Tuesday 21 October 2014 13. Further information is available at www.