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CHOCOLATE – Utilities & Medicinal value as study.

Process of Chocolate
BALAJI.R

How Chocolate is made?
Growing Cocoa
Origins of Cocoa and Its Spread around the World:

The genus Theobroma originated millions of years ago in South America, to the east of the
Andes. Theobroma has been divided into twenty-two species of which Theobroma cacao is the most
widely known. It is the Maya who have provided tangible evidence of cacao as a domesticated crop.
Archaeological evidence in Costa Rica indicates that cacao was drunk by Maya traders as early as 400
BC. The Aztec culture, dominant in Mesoamerica from the fourteenth century to the Conquest, placed
much emphasis on the sanctity of cacao.
The first outsider to drink chocolate was Christopher Columbus, who reached Nicaragua in
1502 searching for a sea route to the spices of the East. But it was Hernan Cortés, leader of an
expedition in 1519 to the Aztec empire, who returned to Spain in 1528 bearing the Aztec recipe for
xocoatl (chocolate drink) with him. The drink was initially received unenthusiastically and it was not
until sugar was added that it became a popular drink in the Spanish courts.

Caribbean and South America:
There were attempts to satisfy Spanish domestic demand by planting cacao in Spanish
territories like the Dominican Republic, Trinidad and Haiti but these initially came to nothing. More
successful were the Spanish Capuchin friars who grew criollo cacao in Ecuador in about 1635. The
rush by European, mercantile nations to claim land to cultivate cacao began in earnest in the late
seventeenth century. France introduced cacao to Martinique and St Lucia (1660), the Dominican
Republic (1665), Brazil (1677), Guianas (1684) and Grenada (1714); England had cacao growing in
Jamaica by 1670; and, prior to this the Dutch had taken over plantations in Curaçaowhen they seized
the island in 1620.

Africa:

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eastern Nigeria established by ChiefIboningi in 1847. Light and shade: Page 2 . Climate Conditions: The natural habitat of the cocoa tree is in the lower storey of the evergreen rainforest and climatic factors. falling to 70-80% during the night.CHOCOLATE – Utilities & Medicinal value as study. Dry spells where rainfall is less than 100mm per month should not exceed three months. cocoa was introduced during the colonial period of 1925 to 1939. particularly temperature and rainfall. Geographical Indications Where is Cocoa Produced? Cocoa is produced in countries within 10°N and 10°S of the Equator where the climate is appropriate for growing cocoa trees. Rainfall should be plentiful and well distributed through the year. The seeds planted in Ghana were brought from Fernando Po by TettehQuarshie or his apprentice Adjah. as well as other plantations run by the Coker family established by the Christian missions. The main cacao-producing countries are the Ivory Coast and Ghana. then in Nigeria in 1874 and Ghana in 1879. In Cameroon. Sao Tomé in 1830 and Fernando Po in 1854. after previous attempts by the Dutch (1815) and the Swiss (1843) to introduce cocoa in Ghana had failed.R Later the explosion in demand brought about by chocolate's affordability required yet more cacao to be cultivated. are important in encouraging optimum growth. Process of Chocolate BALAJI. often as much as 100% during the day. An annual rainfall level of between 1. Temperature: Cocoa plants respond well to relatively high temperatures with a maximum annual average of 30-32°C and a minimum average of 18-21°C. There was already a small plantation in Bonny. Humidity: A hot and humid atmosphere is essential for the optimum development of cocoa trees. Ghana and Indonesia. The largest producing countries are Côte d'Ivoire.000mm is generally preferred. Trees are very sensitive to a soil water deficiency. Amelonado cacao from Brazil was planted in Principe in 1822.500mm and 2. Rainfall: Variations in the yield of cocoa trees from year to year are affected more by rainfall than by any other climatic factor. although there are numerous smaller markets in South America and Africa. In cocoa producing countries relative humidity is generally high.

Cocoa is tolerant of acid soils provided the nutrient content is high enough. the most delicate and rare tree.0 and below) or alkalinity (pH 8. It can therefore cope with both acid and alkaline soil. Shading is indispensable in a cocoa tree's early years. It's natural environment is the Amazonian forest which provides natural shade trees. with a heavily perfumed fruit. The cocoa tree is sensitive to a lack of water so the soil must have both water retention properties and good drainage.5m to allow the development of a good root system. a hybrid between the Forastero and the Criollo that displays characteristics of both trees. Chemical properties . Soils for cocoa must have certain anionic and cationic balances. surrounded by a mass of sticky. Traditionally. white pulp.5. Cocoa will withstand waterlogging for short periods but excess water should not linger. Process of Chocolate BALAJI. and  The Trinitario. The pods are cut open with machetes to reveal between 20 to 40 beans each. The soil should also have a high content of organic matter. this was done immediately after harvest. Below that level it is desirable not to have impermeable material so that excess water can drain away. Exchangeable bases in the soil should amount to at least 35% of the total cation exchange capacity (CEC) otherwise nutritional problems are likely. Breeding: Cocoa is raised from seed.CHOCOLATE – Utilities & Medicinal value as study.The chemical properties of the topsoil are most important as there are a large number of roots here for absorbing nutrients.  The Criollo. but excessive acidity (pH 4.Cocoa needs a soil containing coarse particles to leave free space for roots and with a reasonable quantity of nutrients to a depth of 1. Cocoa tree varieties: There are three types of cacao trees:  The Forastero. Page 3 . Cocoa can grow in soils with a pH in the range of 5.5% in the top 15 centimetres of soil. Seeds will germinate and produce good plants when taken from pods not more than 15 days under ripe. The optimum total nitrogen/total phosphorus ratio should be around 1:5. Soil Conditions: Cocoa is grown in a wide variety of soil types.0 and above) must be avoided. having an average yield of moderately aromatic beans.0-7. 3. Physical properties .R The cocoa tree will make optimum use of any light available and has been traditionally grown under shade. the most common and robust variety with the least remarkable flavor.

The area will produce roots and the branch can then be chopped off and planted.Layering) . The share of fine or flavour cocoa in the total world production of cocoa beans is just under 5% per annum. As a generalisation. and "bulk" or "ordinary" cocoa beans. Marcotting (Air . The budding patch is then bound with raffia. produced by Trinitario-type trees and whose cocoa powder has a distinct and sought-after red colour. waxed tape of clear plastic to prevent moisture loss. There are. Categories of Cocoa Beans: The world cocoa market distinguishes between two broad categories of cocoa beans: "fine or flavour" cocoa beans. considered to be Forastero-type trees.A bud is cut from a tree and placed under a flap of bark on another tree.Tree cuttings are taken with between two and five leaves and one or two buds.R Cuttings . Budding . however. Process Page 4 . On the other hand.A strip of bark is removed from a branch and the area covered in sawdust and a polythene sheet. Cameroon cocoa beans. The leaves are cut in half and the cutting placed in a pot under polythene until roots begin to grow. fine or flavour cocoa beans are produced from Criollo or Trinitario cocoa-tree varieties. Virtually all major activity over the past five decades has involved bulk cocoa. Nacional trees in Ecuador. When the bud is growing the old tree above it is cut off. produce fine or flavour cocoa.CHOCOLATE – Utilities & Medicinal value as study. Process of Chocolate BALAJI. known exceptions to this generalisation. while bulk cocoa beans come from Forastero trees. are classified as bulk-cocoa beans.

which can be tasted in the floral. the beans would be too astringent and bitter to enjoy.CHOCOLATE – Utilities & Medicinal value as study. as the fermentation process mellows the flavor of the beans and imparts the fruity undertones of the pulp. First. to determine the wage of the harvester. before transferring it to the fermentation bin. the pods are split open to reveal the cocoa beans instead. Many high-quality chocolates undergo a long fermentation process. Fermenting begins when the beans come into contact with the air. Process of Chocolate BALAJI. as it has a pleasant fruity taste with subtle chocolate flavor. a worker uses a stick to gauge the depth of the mass in a vara. During Page 5 . most harvesting is done by hand with machetes. This pulp is sometimes used to make drinks or desserts. Because the pods grow in all degrees of ripeness and at any location on the tree. or measuring box. Here. Without fermentation.R Harvest: Chocolate begins with the harvest of the cacao pods. fruity notes of the final product. Fermentation: The beans and pulp are scraped from the pods and left to ferment in baskets for two to eight days. surrounded by the fruity pulp of the pod. This step is crucial. Two important steps must happen before the cacao can be packaged and shipped to the manufacturer.

umber. After roasting. cocoa butter will be re-added to the chocolate liquor. the beans are spread in a single layer and left to dry completely. As the beans dry. which leaves a powdery disc known as “cocoa press cake”. rich paste called chocolate liquor (a misleading term. the pulp disintegrates. and at last begins to resemble and smell like conventional chocolate. along with other ingredients like sugar. and mocha. the beans are transferred to a winnower that removes the shells of the beans and leaves the “nibs”—the essence of the cocoa bean that’s full of cocoa solids and cocoa butter. Winnowing:(the shells are removed from the roasted beans called "winnowed"). This liquor is the foundation for all chocolate products. when pulverized. If the chocolate is going to be higher quality. the pulverized presscake will be mixed with vegetable fats.The beans are spread out evenly and raked periodically so that they dry uniformly. At this point.They are packaged and shipped to chocolate manufacturers around the world. usually in direct sunlight. the chocolate process differs depending on the recipe and formulation of the manufacturer. yeasty. and flavorings to become substandard chocolate. since the product contains no alcohol). Drying of the beans after fermentation is done on slatted wooden trays in the open air. If the chocolate is low quality. It is at this point that the beans first develop their complex characteristics. The newly Page 6 .R fermentation. Pressing: The liquor is pressed to remove the cocoa butter. except it does not contain chocolate liquor or cocoa powder. sour smell. White chocolate undergoes a similar process. Process of Chocolate BALAJI. Roasting: After the beans arrive at the manufacturing facility. vanilla. their colors deepen. they are roasted to bring out the most intense chocolate flavors and colors. Drying: After fermentation. and milk. Press cake. The time and temperature of the roasting depends on the type of beans and their relative moisture levels.CHOCOLATE – Utilities & Medicinal value as study. turning them into a carpet of sepia. Grinding & Liquefying: The nibs are ground to a thick. becomes common cocoa powder. sugar. producing steamy heat and a pervasive.

However. and ready for shipping to eager consumers around the world. Process of Chocolate BALAJI. and length of the couching process determines the final texture and flavor of the chocolate. as couching smooth’s the chocolate and mellows any remaining acidic tones. Next. the chocolate is cooled to about 27 °C (81 °F).  Stirring solid chocolate into molten chocolate to "inoculate" the liquid chocolate with crystals (this method uses the already formed crystals of the solid chocolate to "seed" the molten chocolate). The couching machine. the chocolate is then gently warmed to working temperature. there are other methods of chocolate tempering used. The chocolate is then heated to about 31 °C (88 °F) to eliminate any type IV crystals. such as a stone slab. Page 7 . until thickening indicates the presence of sufficient crystal "seeds". At this temperature. which will allow crystal types IV and V to form. kneads and massages the chocolate mixture for a period of time ranging from several hours to several days. A sample cup is filled with the chocolate and placed in the unit which then displays or prints the results.CHOCOLATE – Utilities & Medicinal value as study. The speed. Tempering and Molding: The chocolate is first heated to 45 °C (113 °F) to melt all six forms of crystals. the chocolate is tempered in large machines that cool the chocolate to precise temperatures in order to produce shiny. smooth bars. Two classic ways of manually tempering chocolate are:  Working the molten chocolate on a heat-absorbing surface. wrapped. temperature. Couching: Couching is the final step in determining the ultimate flavor and texture of the chocolate. so-called because the original designs resembled seashells. the chocolate is poured into molds. the chocolate is agitated to create many small crystal "seeds" which will serve as nuclei to create small crystals in the chocolate. After this point. leaving just type V. The most common variant is introducing already tempered. Finally. After couching. any excessive heating of the chocolate will destroy the temper and this process will have to be repeated. The temper of chocolate can be measured with a chocolate temper meter to ensure accuracy and consistency.R mixed chocolate travels through a series of rollers to smooth out the texture before traveling to the couching machine. solid "seed" chocolate.

particularly for large volume applications.CHOCOLATE – Utilities & Medicinal value as study. best snap. melts too easily III 26 °C (79 °F) Firm. Tempering/depositing machine Crystal Melting temp. melts too easily IV 28 °C (82 °F) Firm. melts too easily V 34 °C (93 °F) Glossy. crumbly. melts near body temperature (37°C) Page 8 . Process of Chocolate BALAJI. firm. melts too easily II 21 °C (70 °F) Soft. crumbly.R Chocolate tempering machines (or tempers) with computer controls can be used for producing consistently tempered chocolate. Notes I 17 °C (63 °F) Soft. good snap. poor snap.

CHOCOLATE – Utilities & Medicinal value as study. which has a higher acidity. This gives a darker color and a stronger flavor. takes weeks to form Manufacturing Cocoa High quality cocoa powder must be easily dissolved and have good flavor. The heat which is generated melts the cocoa fat thus generating liquor. The remaining cocoa solid contains 10-25% cocoa butter depending on brand. Therefore baking soda may be used in recipes with natural cocoa. e. After roasting and winnowing (removing the outer shell from the cacao beans) they are ground making cocoa liquor. The beans used for the manufacture of cocoa are selected especially for this purpose. and sometimes additional heating is employed. The solids are then ground to cocoa powder. Baking soda should not be used with Dutched cocoa unless an acid ingredient is added. Pressure is employed to the cocoa liquid (while slightly heated) to remove some of the fat which is also called cocoa butter. American recipes are usually made for natural cocoa powder.g. Manufacturing Chocolate Page 9 . Cocoa used for cooking is normally unsweetened.R VI 36 °C (97 °F) Hard. Process of Chocolate BALAJI. orange juice or sour cream. The liquor hardens to unsweetened chocolate when it cools below 95 degrees F / 35 degrees C. Sometimes the cocoa is made alkaline by treatment with potassium carbonate. this is called Dutched cocoa.

These trees are grown mainly in equatorial regions under bigger trees to protect them from direct sunlight. they are ground into chocolate liquor. Once picked. The beans are fermented under banana leaves. 2.CHOCOLATE – Utilities & Medicinal value as study. Then they are packed in big jute sacks and dispatched to chocolate-producing countries. the pods are opened to extract the cocoa beans. and then dried in the sun.When they arrive at the manufacturer. For black chocolate: sugar. Finally. powdered milk and lecithin. and then roasted like coffee beans.Chocolate is mainly made of cocoa beans. they are sorted and cleaned.R 1. vanilla and lecithin. Page 10 . 3. taken from the pods of cocoa trees. For milk chocolate: sugar.That liquor is then mixed with different ingredients depending on the chocolate to be produced. which grows on their trunks and bigger branches. They take 7 years to produce their first fruit. Process of Chocolate BALAJI.

the ideal working temperature. which is mainly used to manufacture chocolate drinks. This process evaporates the acidity in the cocoa beans and ensures the mellowness of chocolate.In order to be used. 6. cooled back down to 20°C and finally warmed back up again to 32°C. as cocoa butter seeps to the surface. Types of Chocolate Page 11 .CHOCOLATE – Utilities & Medicinal value as study.e. If chocolate is too cold it becomes dull. which is then mixed with sugar. The left-over of the pressed liquor is cocoa powder. and if it is too warm it becomes grey. heated to 50°C. powdered milk and lecithin. and grinds the mixture at 45°C for 72 hours. This process gives a chocolate that has a glossy sheen and breaks perfectly under your teeth. 5. blends.R 4. the chocolate has to be "tempered". i. Process of Chocolate BALAJI.Next. For white chocolate the liquor is pressed to extract cocoa butter. the chocolate is "couched" in a large vat containing a marble roller which kneads.

vanilla and sometimes other flavorings. In some countries white chocolate cannot be called 'chocolate' because of the low content of cocoa solids. emulsifier. Panna Cotta and other desserts. sugar. Some brands from around the world: Milk chocolate Sweet chocolate which normally contains 10-20% cocoa solids (which includes cocoa and cocoa butter) and more than 12% milk solids. semisweet chocolate. bittersweet chocolate and unsweetened chocolate. except for cookies. These types of chocolate may be produced with ordinary cacao beans (mass-produced and cheap) or specialty cacao beans (aromatic and expensive) or a mixture of these two types. The composition of the mixture.CHOCOLATE – Utilities & Medicinal value as study. Process of Chocolate BALAJI. milk chocolate. and the treatment and roasting of beans. It does not contain any non-fat ingredients from the cacao bean and has therefore an offwhite color. White chocolate: Chocolate made with cocoa butter. origin of cacao beans.R The main types of chocolate are white chocolate. It has a mild and pleasant flavor and can be used to make Chocolate Mousse. milk. and the types and amounts of additives used will significantly affect the flavor and the price of the final chocolate. It is seldom used for baking. Page 12 .

R Some brands from around the world: Dark chocolate: Sweetened chocolate with high content of cocoa solids and no or very little milk. Dark chocolate can either be sweet.CHOCOLATE – Utilities & Medicinal value as study. If a recipe asks for sweet dark chocolate you may also use semi-sweet chocolate. it is not always possible to distinguish between the flavor of sweet and semi-sweet chocolate. It is frequently used for cakes. it may contain up to 12% milk solids. It has a good. Semi-sweet chocolate: This is the classic dark baking chocolate which can be purchased in most grocery stores. Page 13 . Process of Chocolate BALAJI. If a recipe specifies 'dark chocolate' you should first try semi-sweet dark chocolate. bittersweet or unsweetened. Contains often 40-62% cocoa solids. Sweet dark chocolate: Similar to semi-sweet chocolate. Contains often 35-45% cocoa solids. sweet flavor. cookies and brownies. semi-sweet. Can be used instead of sweet dark chocolate.

Page 14 . Bittersweet chocolate is often used for baking/cooking. Please ensure that you buy the correct type! European types of bittersweet chocolate usually contain very large amounts of cocoa solids. intense and more or less bitter chocolate flavor. Some examples: Unsweetened chocolate: A bitter chocolate which is only used for baking. and some of them have quite bitter taste. so it is not suitable for eating. The flavor is not good.CHOCOLATE – Utilities & Medicinal value as study.R Some examples: Bittersweet chocolate: A dark sweetened chocolate which must contain at least 35% cocoa solids. about half of it might be fat (cocoa butter). If a recipe specifies bittersweet chocolate do not substitute with semi-sweet or sweet chocolate. Use it only if a recipe specifies 'unsweetened chocolate'. Process of Chocolate BALAJI. giving a rich. If the content of cocoa solids is high the content of sugar is low. It contains almost 100% cocoa solids. Good quality bittersweet chocolate usually contains 60% to 85% cocoa solids depending on brand.

CHOCOLATE – Utilities & Medicinal value as study. Process of Chocolate BALAJI.R Some examples: Page 15 .