Training Report

Turbine Blade Shop-Block 3
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited
Ranipur, Haridwar (Uttrakhand)



Abhishek Nagar

Mr. Arun Kumar

B-Tech 4th Year (ME)

Lecturer (ME Deptt.)



I Shivali Singh student of b-tech 4th year of Dewan Institute Of Engineering
And Technology, Meerut hereby declare that the training report entitled
“Turbine blade shop” is an original work and the same has not been
submitted to any other institute.


It gives me immense pleasure to present my Project Report before
you. I thankfully acknowledge the staff of BHEL, Haridwar
for giving me so much co-operation and taught lots of new things
to me, which I am sure will help me in my war future.

A special thanks to Er. Jaikesh Kumar for his support during my
Industrial Training. I pay my sincere regards to him. Without his
support I was not able to accomplish my training. I also thanks to all
the working staff of fabrication block for their helpful guidance and
support during the period .I extend my thanks to my college for giving
me such an opportunity.


S. No.



Overview to BHEL


Various locations of BHEL


Companies vision, mission and values


Business activities


Manufacturing facilities


Classification of product


Description of 8 blocks


Description of block with machines


General description


Turbine blades




commissioning and servicing of a wide range of products and services for the core sectors of the economy.BHEL is engaged in the design. Oil & Gas and Defence. BHEL was established in 1964.a dream that has been more than realized with a well-recognized track record of performance. It has established a Heavy Electrical Equipment Plant or HEEP and a Central Foundry Forge Plant or CFFP in Haridwar.H. The BHEL plants in Haridwar have earned the ISO . engineering.L. The Heavy Electrical Equipment Plant in Haridwar designs and manufactures turbo generators. With two large manufacturing plants. Power. Transmission. two repair units.9001 and 9002 certificates for its high quality and maintenance. four regional offices. The Central Foundry Forge Plant in Haridwar deals with steel castings and manufacturing of steel forgings. manufacture. BHEL in Haridwar is among the leading industrial organizations in the state. gas turbines and huge steams. The company has been earning profits continuously since 1971-72 and paying dividends since 1976-77 . Industry. BHEL is an integrated power plant equipment manufacturer and one of the largest engineering and manufacturing companies in India in terms of turnover. eight 5 . Renewable Energy.E.BHEL has 15 manufacturing divisions. These two units have also earned the ISO . testing.B. the Bharat Heavy Engineering Limited employs over 8. ushering in the indigenous Heavy Electrical Equipment industry in India .000 people. Situate in Ranipur near Haridwar.An Overview BHEL or the Bharat Heavy Engineering Limited is one of the largest engineering and manufacturing organizations in the country and the BHEL. viz. construction. AC and DC motors.14001 certificates. Haridwar is their gift to Uttaranchal. Transportation.

Alstom SA. including Malaysia. Iraq. Our research and development (R&D) efforts are aimed not only at improving the performance and efficiency of our existing products. The high level of quality & reliability of our products is due to adherence to international standards by acquiring and adapting some of the best technologies from leading companies in the world including General Electric Company. Egypt and New Zealand. This enables us to have a strong customer orientation. BHEL has a share of around 59% in India's total installed generating capacity contributing 69% (approx. BHEL places strong emphasis on innovation and creative development of new technologies. together with technologies developed in our own R&D centres. the UAE. We have exported our products and services to more than 70 countries. but also at using state-of-the-art technologies and processes to develop new products. eight overseas offices and 15 regional centres and currently operate at more than 150 project sites across India and abroad.500 MW outside of India in 21 countries.) to the total power generated from utility sets (excluding nonconventional capacity) as of March 31. Environmental Management Systems (ISO 14001:2004) and Occupational Health & Safety Management Systems (OHSAS 18001:2007). Siemens AG and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. to be sensitive to their needs and respond quickly to the changes in the market.service centres. 6 . 2012. We had cumulatively installed capacity of over 8. Our physical exports range from turnkey projects to after sales services.. We have been exporting our power and industry segment products and services for approximately 40 years. Most of our manufacturing units and other entities have been accredited to Quality Management Systems (ISO 9001:2008).

a positive work culture and participative style of management . Our greatest strength is our highly skilled and committed workforce of over 49. career planning. Continuous training and retraining. 7 .all these have engendered development of a committed and motivated workforce setting new benchmarks in terms of productivity.000 employees. committed to enhancing stakeholder value.BHEL work with a vision of becoming a world-class engineering enterprise. Every employee is given an equal opportunity to develop himself and grow in his career. quality and responsiveness.

it is particularly suited to be used to drive an electrical generator – about 80% of all electricity generation in the world is by use of steam turbines.STEAM TURBINE A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam. The steam turbine is a form of heat engine that derives much of its improvement in thermodynamic efficiency through the use of 8 . and converts it into rotary motion. Its modern manifestation was invented by Sir Charles Parsons in 1884. It has almost completely replaced the reciprocating piston steam engine (invented by Thomas Newcomen and greatly improved by James Watt) primarily because of its greater thermal efficiency and higher power-to-weight ratio. Because the turbine generates rotary motion.

A cross compound Steam turbines are made in a variety of sizes ranging from small 1 hp (0. Steam Supply and Exhaust Conditions These types include condensing.000 hp (1. There are several classifications for modern steam turbines.500. compressors and other shaft driven equipment. The exhaust pressure is controlled by a regulating valve to suit the needs of the process steam pressure. tandem compound and cross compound turbines. Tandem compound are used where two or more casings are directly coupled together to drive a single generator.000 kW) turbines used to generate electricity. Condensing turbines are most commonly found in electrical power plants.75 kW) units (rare) used as mechanical drives for pumps. In a reheat turbine. Casing or Shaft Arrangements 9 . to 2. reheat. The steam then goes back into an intermediate pressure section of the turbine and continues its expansion. steam flow exits from a high pressure section of the turbine and is returned to the boiler where additional superheat is added. Reheat turbines are also used almost exclusively in electrical power plants. extraction and induction. pulp and paper plants.000. non-condensing. typically of a quality near 90%. Single casing units are the most basic style where a single casing and shaft are coupled to a generator. and desalination facilities where large amounts of low pressure process steam are available. These turbines exhaust steam in a partially condensed state. Non-condensing or backpressure turbines are most widely used for process steam applications. at a pressure well below atmospheric to a condenser. These are commonly found at refineries.multiple stages in the expansion of the steam. Types These arrangements include single casing. district heating units. which results in a closer approach to the ideal reversible process.

the rotor blades themselves are arranged to form convergent nozzles. The interior of a turbine comprises several sets of blades. 10 . Impulse Turbines An impulse turbine has fixed nozzles that orient the steam flow into high speed jets. however. with a net increase in steam velocity across the stage. Reaction Turbines In the reaction turbine. Typically. A pressure drop occurs across only the stationary blades. convert into shaft rotation as the steam jet changes direction. One set of stationary blades is connected to the casing and one set of rotating blades is connected to the shaft. No steam turbine is truly “isentropic”. This type of turbine makes use of the reaction force produced as the steam accelerates through the nozzles formed by the rotor. or “buckets” as they are more commonly referred to. higher pressure sections are impulse type and lower pressure stages are reaction type. shaped like buckets. or constant entropy process. These stages are characterized by how the energy is extracted from them and are known as impulse or reaction turbines. Principle of Operation and Design An ideal steam turbine is considered to be an isentropic process. with typical isentropic efficiencies ranging from 20%90% based on the application of the turbine. in which the entropy of the steam entering the turbine is equal to the entropy of the steam leaving the turbine. Most modern steam turbines are a combination of the reaction and impulse design. The sets intermesh with certain minimum clearances. Turbine Efficiency To maximize turbine efficiency. generating work. A cross compound turbine is typically used for many large applications. These jets contain significant kinetic energy. in a number of stages. the steam is expanded.Turbine arrangement features two or more shafts not in line driving two or more generators that often operate at different speeds. with the size and configuration of sets varying to efficiently exploit the expansion of steam at each stage. which the rotor blades.

SPECIFICATIONS OF MACHINES AVAILABLE IN BLOCK-III: Vertical Boring Machine :  Max diameter of work piece accommodated 12500mm  Max height of work piece :10000mm to :5000mm  Diameter of table :8750mm  Max travel of vertical tool head RAM slides :3200mm  Max travel of vertical tool heads from centre of Table :5250mm  Max weight of work piece :200 T For N<=6rpm. reflecting the work performed in the driving of the rotor.Steam is directed onto the rotor by the fixed vanes of the stator. It leaves the stator as a jet that fills the entire circumference of the rotor. with no net change in steam velocity across the stage but with a decrease in both pressure and temperature. with steam accelerating through the stator and decelerating through the rotor. A pressure drop occurs across both the stator and the rotor.100T for any speed  Diameter of boring spindle of combined head  Travel of boring spindle :160mm :1250mm  Taper hole of boring spindle :100metric Centre Lathe :(Biggest of all BHEL)  Max diameter over bed  Max diameter over saddle :3200mm :250mm  Length between centers :16m 11 . The steam then changes direction and increases its speed relative to the speed of the blades.

Germany  Turning diameter  Turning length Weight capacity :5. Italy  Swing over carriage  Centre distance :3500mm :9000mm  Weight capacity :120 T  Spindle power :196KW  External chucking range :250-2000mm  Hydrostat steady range :200-1250mm  Max spindle rpm :200  CNC system 840D :SINUMERIK CNC Indicating stand : Manufacturer : Heinrich Georg. Max weight of work piece :100 T  Spindle bore :96mm CNC Lathe : Manufacturer: Safop. Italy  Machine model 6500  Table diameter :AP 80TM:6500mm 12 .3m :15m :160 T CNC Vertical Borer : Manufacturer : M/S Pietro Carnaghi.

4-400rpm  Main spindle drive :95.4-3000 rpm at40KW :BT 50 :SINUMERIK 840D CNC Facing Lathe : KH-200-CNC  Swing over bed :2300mm  Swing over carriage :1800mm  Max distance between faced plate and carriage :2000mm  Max weight of job held in chuck :6000kg  Face plate diameter :1800mm  Spindle speed :1.2-50 rpm  Table load capacity :200 T  Milling spindle speed  Spindle taper  CNC system :3. Max turning diameter :8000mm  Min boring diameter :660mm  Max height for turning and milling :7000mm  Table Speed :0.5KW Step boring Machine :  Max boring diameter :2500mm  Min boring diameter :625mm  Table :4000mmx4000mm  Max weight of job :100 T Headstock travel :4000mm Double Column Vertical Borer :  Table diameter  Max travese of cross rail :4250mm :4000mm 13 .

3m CNC Lathe : 1-120 Manufacturer : Ravensburg  Main spindle bore :150mm  Distance between centers :12m  Turning diameter over bed cover :1400mm  Turning diameter over carriage :1100mm  Workpiece weight unsupported :4000kg  Workpiece weight between centers :20 T 14 .P. Outer Horizontal Borer : LSTG 8006  Spindle diameter :250mm  Height of machining bed :600mm  Max boring depth with spindle :2000mm  Max extension of RAM :1600mm  Width of bed guide ways :2500mm  Actual length of headstock with vertical lift :2150mm  Actual length of column horizontal feed :15000mm  Lowest position of spindle axis upon bed guideways :1475mm  Machine weight with electrical equipments :140 T  Height of machine :10. Max weight of work piece  Max weight of job CNC Skoda Horizontal Borer :  Spindle diameter  Taper spindle  RAM size  RAM length  Spindle length  Headstock  Table  CNC system  Job :4200mm :50 T :200mm :BT 50 :450x450mm :1600mm :2000mm :5000mm :4000x3500mm :SIMENS 850mm : I.

USSR  Max diameter over bed  Max diameter over saddle  Length between centers  Max weight of work piece  Spindle bore  Machine wattage Horizontal Boring Machine : 1-28  Diameter of spindle  Working surface of table  Max travel of table  Max vertical travel of headstock Horizontal Boring Machine :  Boring spindle taper  Boring spindle diameter  Headstock vertical travel  Longitudinal RAM travel  Longitudinal spindle travel  Column cross travel  Rotary table travel  Table load Horizontal Boring Machine : 1-11  Boring spindle internal taper material  Boring spindle diameter  Max spindle travel :2500mm  Vertical head travel  Transverse column travel :6000mm  Max longitudinal column travel  Machine wattage :1250mm :900mm :6300mm :25 T :80mm :55KW :150mm :2250x1250mm :1200mm :2000mm :BT50 :160mm :3000mm :700mm :1000mm :10m :3000mm :40 T :200 :320mm :6000mm :800mm :90KW 15 .Centre Lathe : 1-23 Manufacturer : K3TC.

100T for any speed  Diameter of boring spindle of combined head :160mm  Travel of boring spindle :1250mm  Taper hole of boring spindle :100mm Horizontal borer : 1-2  Spindle diameter  Working surface  Max vertical travel  Max transverse travel of column  Max longitudinal travel of column  Max longitudinal travel of spindle CNC Lathe : 2-360 Manufacturer : Hoesch  Max load  Max length between centers  Swing over bed Horizontal Borer : 2-198  Spindle diameter  Max vertical travel  Max transverse travel of column  Max longitudinal travel of column  Max longitudinal travel of spindle  Working surface Creep Feed Grinding Machine :  Diameter of job  Job height  Table rpm :220mm :8100 x 5000mm :3mm :6m :6m :1.8m :1800x500mm :2m :2.25m  Max weight of work piece :200T for N<=8rpm.75m  Max travel of vertical tool head RAM slides :3.8m :320 T :18m :3.Double Column Rotary Table Vertical Borer :  Max diameter of work piece accommodated :10m/12.4m :10rpm(max) 16 .5m  Max height of work piece accommodated :5m  Diameter of table :8.2m :220mm :3m :6m :6m :1.2m  Max travel of vertical tool head from centre of table :5.

Max 320 MT :Max 6900mm :Min 250mm. Table diameter  Swing diameter  CNC control Broaching Machine :  Broaching capacity  Broaching stroke  Broaching slide width  Broaching specific cutting stroke  Broaching specific return stroke  Max diameter of disc  Max move of table  Helix angle/skew angle setting  Cone angle CNC Lathe : Manufacturer : Innse Berardi.25m/min :60m/min :2300mm :600mm :+45/-45 :0-20 :1500mm :2000mm :30 T :16 crore :SINUMERIK 840D :DH 90/DH 12 :Min 4 MT.Max 950mm :Min 3000mm.Max 15700mm :180-3600rpm :1 micron :1 torr :19000mm 17 . Italy  Swing over carriage  Swing over bed  Capacity  Cost  CNC system Over Speed Balancing of Turbines : Main features :  Type of pedestials  Rotor weight  Rotor diameter  Rotor journal diameter  Bearing centre distance  Balancing speed  Min vibration limit  Max vacuum Tunnel Features :  Tunnel length :2050mm :2500mm :SIEMENS-3GG :32 T :10.3m 1500mm :1.

 Tunnel diameter  Max thickness of tunnel  Steel plate thickness  Cost of balancing equipment(FE)  Total cost of balancing tunnel Main Features of Drive :  Drive motors (2 no.9MW.05 micron Max weight of job: 2250 kg Accuracy: 1.500rpm :950V. 500rpm.500rpm.3.3.) :6900mm :2500mm :32mm :444 lakhs :770 lakhs :950V DC.5) :11 KV.5 micron Resolution: 0.5 MW :7 MW(2x3.) each  Total drive power MG set of Drive :  Synchronous motors  DC Generator (2 no.5+L/350 micron Application: dimensional and profile management of turbine moving and guide blades HOW IT WORKS 18 .8MW each 3d coordinate measuring machine in new blade shop: Model refrence: 22129 LIETZ Germany Plan no 3-068 Measuring range: X axis 2200mm Y axis 1200mm Z axis 900 mm Volumetric error: (max) 1.50Hz.

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LP rotor with moving blades various blade profiles 21 .


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GERMANY  CNC Fir Tree Root Milling machine  CNC Gantry Milling machine Major Facilities for New Turbine Shop:  CNC V Borer-Table diameter-7500mm  CNC V Borer-Table diameter-4000mm  CNC H Borer Spindle Diameter-200mm.160mm 27 . ITALY  CNC Horizontal Boring machine for machining of casing from PAMA.Modernization of Facilities:  CNC Lathe for LP Rotor from SAFOP. ITALY  CNC Indicating Stand for LP Rotor Blade machining from GEORG.

a new work center machine called RAMBHOR machine(No. GT rings on Band Saw milling machine. 2473 Tool Brands:      Widia Sandwick Seco Isear Addisson 28 . CFFP  Process Improvement :  Slitting of casing.80T  CNC Fir Tree Root Milling machine  CNC Gantry Milling machine Highlights:  Imported Substitutions :  Hybrid burner for gas turbine  E ring for gas turbine  Deep hole drilling in HP outer casing supplied by Machine Shop. the productivity in joint plane drilling of casing and LP Rotors has increased  Seeing the congestion on KOOP milling machine. thus saving the time on critical machines such as Ram Borers  Using KOMET drilling systems. thrust rings. CNC Lathe capacity-120 T.

cel :86400 Kg :4.15m  LP Turbine:      Module Weight Length of Rotor Width Height :N30-2x10sq.8m 29 .cel :537 deg.7m :4.7m :10.m :3.5 T :8.6m  IP Turbine:    Length Width Height :4.61m :537 deg.   Guhring Indian tools Mitutoyo Tool Instruments:      Die ring spanner Hack saw frame Burr cutter Solid tap (carbide) Hand tap Grinding Cutters:         Combination cutter-140x40mm Fillet cutter-160x32mm Hand mill cutter End mill cutter Internal profile cutter Shell end mill cutter-63x80mm Ball nose Slab mill 500 MW Steam Turbine:  HP Turbine:        Module Steam Pressure Steam temperature Reheating temperature Weight Length of Rotor Height :H30-100-2 :170Kg/sq.425m :5m :4.

cel Milling Cutters: 1) Side end face milling cutter 2) Interlocking side and face milling cutter 3) Shell end mill cutter 4) Metal slitting saw 5) Single angle milling cutter 6) Double unequal angle milling cutter 7) Double equal angle milling cutter 8) Keyway milling cutter 9) Milling cutter for chain wheels 10) Single corner rounding milling cutter 11) Convex milling cutter 12) Concave milling cutter 13) T slot milling cutter with plane parallel shank 14) T slot milling cutter with Morse taper shank having tapered end 15) Cylindrical milling cutter 16) Slot milling cutter with parallel shank 17) End mill with parallel shank 18) Ball nosed end mill with parallel shank 19) Flat end tapered die sinking cutter with plane parallel shank 20) Ball nosed taper die sinking cutter with plane parallel shank 21) Slot milling cutter with morse tapered shank having tanged end 22) End mill with morse tapered shank having tanged end 23) Ball nosed end mill with morse tapered shank having tanged end 24) Flat end tapered die sinking cutter with morse tapered shank having tapped end 25) Ball nosed tapered die sinking cutter with morse tapered shank having tapped end 26) Slot milling cutter with morse tapered shank having tapped end 27) End mill morse tapered shank having tapped end 28) Ball nosed mill morse tapered shank having tapped end 29) Roughing end mill with parallel shank finishing type 30) Roughing end mill with parallel shank roughing type 31) Slot milling cutter with 7/24 taper shank 32) End mill with 7/24 taper shank 33) Ball nosed end mill with 7/24 taper shank 34) Woodruff key slot milling cutter with parallel shank 35) Screwed shank slot drill 30 .cm :537 deg.  Steam pressure Steam temperature :41Kg/sq.

Major Components of Steam Turbine:                    LP Rotor LP Inner Casing Upper Half LP Inner Casing Lower Half LP Outer Casing Upper Half LP Outer Casing Lower Half IP Rotor IP Inner Casing Upper Half IP Inner Casing Lower Half IP Outer Casing Upper Half IP Outer Casing Lower Half HP Rotor HP Inner Casing Upper Half HP Inner Casing Lower Half HP Outer Casing Upper Half HP Outer Casing Lower Half Diffuser GBC (Guide Blade Carrier) IVCV (Intercept Valve Control Valve) ESVCV (Emergency Stop Valve Control Valve) Auxiliary Parts of Steam Turbine: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Valve Seal U-Ring Piston Rod Base Plate Sealing Ring Liner Guide Ring Valve Cover Guide Blades :  Fixed Blades  Moving Blades 10) Support 31 .

11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) Bearing Bearing Shell Angle Ring Sleeve Pin Taper (25x140) Journal Bearing Shell Casing Guide bush Piston (500MW) Valve Cone Yoke Mandrel Support Ring Thrust Ring Adjusting Ring Shaft Sealing Cover Types of Blades:           T2 blades T4 blades TX blades 3DS blades F.blades GT-Compress blades Brazed blades Russian design blades Z-Shroud blades Compressor blades (Sermental coated) LP Moving blade 500MW New Blade Shop:  First Generation Blades :  T2 Profile Blades  Cylindrical Profile Blades (1970)  Second Generation Blades :  T4 Profile Blades  Cylindrical Profile Blades ( late 1980)  1% Gain in Stage Efficiency over T2 Profile Blades  TX Profile Blades  Cylindrical Profile Blades ( late 1990) Gains : 32 .

P Turbine  Middle Stage of L.Blades Gains :  Reduces Indirect Flow Losses  0.P.P Turbine  F.2% Gain in Stage Efficiency over T4 Profile Blades Applications :  Middle Stage Of H.P. and I. Turbine  3DS Blades : Gains :  Reduces Secondary Flow Losses  0.P. Turbine Sequential operation for machining of TX blades: Operation 1) Blanking 2) Rhomboid machining Machine Band saw CNC rhomboid machine cell 33 .5 – 1.P.P. and I. Reduces Profile Losses  0.5 – 1.0% Gain in Stage Efficiency over TX Profile Blades Application :  Initial Stage of H.P Turbine  Initial Stage of L. and I.0% Gain in Stage Efficiency over TX Profile Blades Applications :  Rear Stage of H.

3) Removal of tech allowance/parting off 4) Root machining 5) Profile and expansion angle(internal and external) 6) Shroud copying 7) Taper grinding 8) Grinding and polishing 9) Final fitting of blades 10) Vibro finishing of blades 11) Final inspection band saw CNC high speed root machining CNC heavy/light duty machine or CNC profile and fillet machining center CNC heavy/light duty machine CNC creep feed grinding machine Polishing machine Vibro finishing equipment - Sequential operation for machining of 3DS and F blades: Operation Machine 1) Blanking Band saw 2) Preparation of technological ends for work piece holding 3) Complete blade machining(with normal shroud/Z shroud) 4) Inspection 5) milling off technological ends at root and shroud radius machining 6) Fitting 7) vibro finishing for surface finishing improvement 8) Inspection CNC machining center CNC 5 axis machining centre 3D CMM CNC machining centre Vibro finishing equipment - Number of advance design blades: Blades 250MW 500MW TX Profile blade F and 3DS blade Free standing blade 10390 3100 224 6820 2852 252 34 .

The material used was 12Cr-Mo martensitic steel.028 Carbon 0.which is a very high temperature resistant material. Healthiness of the control system and other equipment to withstand external grid transients was remarkable.2 Manganese 0.019 to 0.30 to 0.40 to 0. May 1998.1 to 0. and based on its success. Grid-induced Outages Grid disturbance induced outages were overcome by house load schemes and in one-month viz.. high residual stresses etc. The sharp corner in the root section of the blade causes the blade to crack..05 Molybdenum 0.magnetic flaw&radiography) Failure of the turbine blades was one of the challenges addressed with the help of BHEL by modifications of LP stage-5 blade. These blades were used for the present investigation techniques.03 Phosphorus 0.20 to 0. fatigue.24 Chromium 12.. the same technique was used for other plants to sort out inherent problems.52 Vanadium 0.43 Nickel 0. fretting.NON. the same technique was used for other plants to sort out inherent problems. shroud modifications etc. The microstructure was observed was tempered martensitic structure. firtree design.54 Silicone 0.DESTRUCTIVE TESTING (Liquid penetration .8 + 1. as many as 150 house load operations took place and units operated withstanding these transients.019 to 0. of defects Turbine using blades are ultrasonic known phased to fail array due to and X-ray tempered radiography martensite embrittlement. These blades were found to be failed.13 Iron Balance 35 . high temperature creep age hardening. These turbine blades were collected from Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS) for analysis. shroud modifications etc. Failure of the turbine blades was one of the challenges addressed with the help of BHEL by modifications of HP stage-5 blade.45 to 0. Chemical compositions of the turbine blade: Element Weight % Sulphur 0. and based on its success.

As a result.TURBINE MATERIALS In the case of turbine. Similarly. the advancement in steam conditions mainly affects its high pressure (HP) and intermediate pressure (IP) sections.750 kg in weight. One of the rotor-related problems is the maximum size that can be produced from the 12Cr and austenitic steels. It is estimated that a large advanced plant would require a one-piece super-alloy HP rotor forging weighing 11. Due to severe segregation in conventional ingots. in increasing the size as well as the quality of the forging by employing modern steel making techniques 36 . A286 and X8CrNiMoBNb 16 16 offer better creep strength for an HP rotor of advanced sets operating at 649°C. X12CrMoWVNbN 10 11 and austenitic stainless steel must be considered. particularly during 593°C contemplate the use of 12Cr steel rotor with steam cooling to bring the rotor temperature down to 566°C. Significant progress has been made. which would require to start with an ingot size of 63. presently several super 12Cr steels with much superior creep resistance are available and they should also be considered before a final decision is taken. However. a double-flow reheat rotor made of 12Cr steel is expected to be about 1150mm in diameter and 31. it became necessary to divide the HP turbine into two stages.300 kg with a barrel diameter of 890mm. as a result of which. in recent years. Since they operate well within the creep range. the size of the austenitic steel rotors used in earlier supercritical units was limited to small size. their design is based primarily on the long-term creep strength ofthe material. but the stress levels during steady and non-steady operating conditions. Amongst the austenitic steels. where its creep strength is adequate to meet the design pressure. Above 593°C steam temperature. the associated rotations as well as stationary parts of these sections experience more severe service conditions than that of conventional sets.500 kg .

But a wide variety of high-temperature blade materials with proven service performance in large gas turbines are available. Nimonic 80A. as it requires usage of long blades at high temperature. either individually or in combination. the maximum operating temperature of the LP rotor made of this steel is generally limited to about 350°C [9]. Another approach to the problem would be to render LP rotor material more resistant to temper 37 . The latter approach would be a difficult design task.5NiCrMoV steel is widely used for LP rotor throughout the power industry. By employing these techniques. 105. These include super 12Cr steels. whereas the former approach has to sacrifice a part of the thermal efficiency. is dictated by the exhaust steam from the second IP section. and they should be considered for more advanced steam conditions. vacuum carbon deoxidation (VCD). austenitic steels. on the other hand. To avoid temper embrittlement. To maintain the inlet steam temperature of LP turbine at its present maximum allowable limit. 40] demonstrate that the rotors of the candidates materials can be made to the required size and quality without experiencing much problems.such as low sulfur silicon deoxidation (low S). LP Rotor The principal requirements of material for lowpressure (LP) rotor are high yield strength to withstand the high stress imposed on it by long blades and high fracture toughness to minimize subcritical flaw growth so as to avoid the possibility of fast fracture. production experience with low-alloy ferritic [39]. it would be necessary to cool the steam either through cooling of the rotor or by adding an additional stage of expansion to the IP turbine. The IP-LP crossover temperature from advanced supercritical units at steam temperatures of 593°C and above would be 400-455°C [9]. 3. vacuum oxygen decarburization (VOD). In718 and precision casting alloys such as Udimet 500 and IN 738LC. central zone refining (CZR). 12Cr as well as austenitic steels [4. The inlet steam temperature to LP turbine of the supercritical units. Blading Conventional 12CrMoV steel blades are adequate to meet the steam temperature at 566°C. electro slag hot topping (ESHT) and electro slag remelting (ESR). 90. 115.

it is now possible to decrease both Mn and Si contents to levels of.embrittlement [41]. By utilising the modern steel making technologies. therefore.002%.0. The interaction between Mn. 38 .5NiCrMoV rotor steel with low Mn and low Si contents was found to have greatly improved as compared to conventional steel [9]. Si. Resistance to temper embrittlement of 3. P and Sn was shown to have promoted the degree of temper embrittlement. Efforts are. being made to improve the fracture toughness of the IP rotor steel by improved steel making technology and closer control of chemical composition.