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**(a) Linear programming is a method to achieve the best
**

outcome (such as

maximum profit or lowest cost) in a mathematical model

whose

requirements are represented by linear relationships. Linear

programming

is a special case of mathematical programming (mathematical

optimization).

More formally, linear programming is a technique for the

optimization of a

linear objective function, subject to linear equality and linear

inequality

constraints. Its feasible region is a convex polytope, which is a

set defined

as the intersection of infinitely many half spaces, each of

which is defined

by a linear inequality. Its objective function is a real-valued

affine function

defined on this polyhedron. A linear programming algorithm

finds a point in

the polyhedron where this function has the smallest (or

largest) value if

such a point exists.

Linear programming can be applied to various fields of study.

It is used in

business and economics, but can also be utilized for some

engineering

problems. Industries that use linear programming models

include

transportation energy, telecommunications, and

manufacturing. It hasa

Koopmans formulated classical economic problems as linear programs. who in 1827 published a method for solving them and after whom the method of Fourier–Motzkin elimination is named. who also proposed a method for solving it.proved useful in modelling diverse types of problems in planning. When Dantzig arranged meeting with John . About the same time as Kantorovich. routing. C. Hitchcock had died in 1957 and the Nobel prize is not awarded posthumously. How it started? LEONID KANTOROVICH The problem of solving a system of linear inequalities dates back at least as far as Fourier. In 1941. the Dutch-American economist T. In 1947. George B. Dantzig also invented the simplex method that for the first time efficiently tackled the linear programming problem in most cases. During 1946-1947. Kantorovich and Koopmans later shared the 1975 Nobel prize in economics. scheduling. The first linear programming formulation of a problem that is equivalent to the general linear programming problem was given by Leonid Kantorovich in 1939. assignment and design. Frank Lauren Hitchcock also formulated transportation problems as linear programs and gave a solution very similar to the later Simplex method. He developed it during World War II as a way to plan expenditures and returns so as to reduce costs to the army and increase losses incurred by the enemy. Dantzig independently developed general linear programming formulation to use for planning problems in US Air Force.

8y ≤ 7. The linear-programming problem was first shown to be solvable in polynomial time by Leonid Khachiyan in 1979. many industries found its use in their daily planning. the number of possible configurations exceeds the number of particles in the observable universe.von Neumann to discuss his Simplex method. However. The computing power required to test all the permutations to select the best assignment is vast.2 0. it takes only a moment to find the optimum solution by posing the problem as a linear program and applying the simplex algorithm. Postwar. but a larger theoretical and practical breakthrough in the field came in 1984 when Narendra Karmarkar introduced a new interior-point method for solving linear-programming problems. x + 2y ≤ 14 Total Space ≤ 7.6x + 0. Neumann immediately conjectured the theory of duality by realizing that the problem he had been working in game theory was equivalent. Ratio: 3x + 4y ≤ 36 x y ≥ 3x ≥ 2y 2y ≤ 3x (b) x + 2y = 14 2 3 .2 x 5. 1948. Dantzig provided formal proof in an unpublished report "A Theorem on Linear Inequalities" on January 5. Dantzig's original example was to find the best assignment of 70 people to 70 jobs. (b)(i)(a) Total Cost ≤ RM1400 100x + 200y ≤ 1400 ÷ 100. The theory behind linear programming drastically reduces the number of possible solutions that must be checked.

x 0 14 y 7 0 3x + 4y = 36 x 0 12 y 9 0 2y = 3x x 0 4 y 0 6 (ii) .

0) 4.Finding maximum storage volume First Method: Find all corner points Corner Points are: 1. (0. we use the assistance of a set square to find the maximum storage volume.2 We will then subtitute the values from each corner points to Corner Points (0.8x + 1.5. To get this value we have to use 8 cabinets of x and 3 cabinets of y to achieve maximum storage value.5.0) 3.8(12) + 1. ax + b γ .2(3) Answer(s) 0.5) + 1. we have to use and objective function. Second Method: Using set square In this method.2(0) 0. 5.25) find the maximum storage value.8x + 1.8(3.5. To do this.6 10 Therefore.0) (12.3) (3. the maximum storage volume is 10.8(8) + 1.25) 34.0) (8. (8. (3.25) We want to maximize storage volume according to the function: V = 0.2(0) 0. 0.3 0 9.2(5.2 γ 0.8(0) + 1.3) 2. (12.

we put in the value of k as 10 to get the new equation 8x +12 γ = 10. We then have to draw a line. The new graph is as follows. From the new line. with the aid of a set square. (iii) Cabinet x Total price of Balance money Cabinet γ can be Total area Total volume Final combination .3). the maximum storage volume is 10.8(8) + 1. we move it from the new line until it touches the last point in the feasibility region. the maximum storage is. To obtain 10. the value is 0. k = 0.8x + 1. Therefore.2 γ = k.So. we have to use 8 cabinets of x and 3 cabinets of γ .2(3) = 10 Therefore. The last point is (8.

.6) + (3 × 0.2 m² (3 × 1.8) + 7x + 3y Area = 6.6 (7 × 0.2 (8 × 0. My reasons are as follows.8) + 5x + 4y Area = 6.8) = 7.6 m² (3 × 1.It uses the maximum space that can be held in the office room.6) + (3 × 0.2 metres squared.6) + (4 × 0.8) + 6x + 4y Area = 6.8) =7 (4 × 0.6 iv) Justification If I was Aaron.8) = 6. .2 m³ = 9. which is 7.8) + 8x + 3y Area = 7.8) + 9x + 2y Area = 7 m² (2 × 1.2) Volume = 10 m³ = 10 (9 × 0.2) Volume = 9.8) = 6.8) = 6. .6) + (2 × 0.4 m² (5 × 1. which is the maximum storage volume.2) Volume = 9.8 m³ = 8.6 m³ = 9.8 (6 × 0.2 (5 × 0.2) Volume = 9.4 (5 × 0. I would choose the fifth combination.8) + 4x + 5y Area = 6.2 m³ = 9. which is 8 cabinets of x and 3 cabinets of γ .6) + (5 × 0.8 m² (4 × 1.8 (7 × 0.6) + (4 × 0.It can store up to 10 cubic metres of file.2 m² (4 × 1.6 m³ = 9.2) Volume = 9.2) Volume = 8.cabinet 4 5 6 7 8 9 RM 400 purchase RM 1000 RM 500 RM 600 RM 700 RM 800 RM 900 RM 900 RM 800 RM 700 RM 600 RM 500 100 200 =5 900 =4 200 800 200 =4 700 =3 200 600 200 =3 500 =2 200 (4 × 0.8) = 6.2 (6 × 0.6 (8 × 0.2 (9 × 0.

It comes at a reasonable price at RM 1 400.. which is not too expensive. . .It is the most suitable combination for the future of Aaron’s company.

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