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Optical Data Security

ABSTRACT
Due to the development digital computer technologies and
digital television for the next generation, there is a growing demand to
store large sizes of data. Optical technology can provide a number of ways
to solve the problem of large storage and fast transmission of data.
Unlike bit-oriented optical memories such as DVD and CD, in optical
storage two-dimensional data is stored as a hologram on a photosensitive
crystal, by illuminating the interference pattern formed by an object beam
and a reference beam. Using angle wavelength, and phase multiplexing
techniques, one can store multiple images at the same position, thus
increasing the storage capacity.
In practical systems, data security is an important issue. Optical encryption techniques
provide a high level of security because there are many degrees of freedom with which to
encode the information, such as amplitude, phase, wavelength, and polarization. To protect the
stored information it is required to encrypt the data. Here the encryption means that the original
data is converted into stationary white-noise data by key codes, and unauthorized users cannot
obtain the original data without knowledge of the key code.
Original data may be encoded optically by using various encryption techniques. Double
random phase encryption, three dimensional position encryption and wavelength-code
encryption are some of the major techniques of encryption available at present.

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SeminarsTopics.com

Optical Data Security

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Acknowledgement……………………………………………………………………………(i)
Abstract……………………………………………………………………………………… 1
Table of contents……………………………………………………………………………. 2
1.Introduction………………………………………………………………………………… 3
2.Optial data storage principle. ……………………………………………………………… 5
3.Basic components …………………………………………………………………………. 6
3.1.LASER…………………………………………………………………………… 7
3.2.Lens and Mirrors………………………………………………………………… .7
3.2.1.Lens as Fourier transform……………………………………………… 8
3.3.Spatial light modulators………………………………………………………….. 9
3.4.Photosensitive materials………………………………………………………….10
3.4.1.Photorefractive crystals………………………………………………...10
3.4.2.Photopolymers………………………………………………………… 11
3.5.Charge coupled devices………………………………………………………… .12
3.6.Phase masks for encryption…………………………………………………… 13
4.Recording and reading of data …………………………………………………………… 15
4.1.Optical recording of data ……………………………………………………… 15
4.2.Optical reading of data ………………………………………………………… 16
5.Encryption techniques……………………………………………………………………. 16
5.1.Encryption using double random phase masks………………………………... 17
5.2.Encryption using 3-d keys in the Fresnel domain……………………………
23
5.3.Encryption using wavelength code and random phase masks…………………. 25
6.Applications……………………………………………………………………………… 27
6.1.Applications in ultra short communications…………………………………… 27
6.2.Applications in optical drive …………………………………………………… 28
7.Conclusions………………………………………………………………………………... 29
8.References………………………………………………………………………………… 30

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Optical memory lies between main memory magnetic disk in regards to data access times. A new high capacity form of data storage must be developed to handle these large files quickly and efficiently. CPUs can perform an instruction execution every nanosecond. As the computer evolves. Optical memory is a technology that uses a three dimensional medium to store data and it can access such data a page at a time instead of sequentially. data storage has struggled to close the gap. Optical Data Security INTRODUCTION Optical data storage is an alternative to magnetic disk data storage. 3 . Such systems exploit the optical properties of these photosensitive materials along with the behavior of laser light when it is used to record an image of an object.SeminarsTopics. which leads to increases in storage density and access speed.com 1. Optical data storage systems are very close to becoming economically feasible. As processors and buses roughly double their data capacity every three years (Moore’s law). especially with large data and multimedia files. Currently data access times are extremely slow for magnetic disks when compared to the speed of execution of CPUs so that any improvement in data access speeds will greatly increase the capabilities of computers. data storage density. greatly increasing the need for high capacity data storage and data access. so do the applications that computers are used for. which is six orders of magnitude faster than a single magnetic disk access. data transfer rates. Photorefractive crystals and photopolymers have been used successfully in experimental optical data storage systems. Recently large binary files containing sound or image data have become commonplace.

SeminarsTopics. 4 . Currently. The nature of the photosensitive material is such that the recorded interference pattern can be reproduced by applying a beam of light to the material that is identical to the reference beam. and sensitivity of recording materials. Many holograms can be recorded in the same space by changing the angle or the wavelength of the incident light. optical memory techniques are very close to becoming technologically and economically feasible. this may become a feasible alternative to magnetic disk in the near future. The resulting light that is transmitted through the medium will take on the recorded interference pattern and will be collected on a laser detector array that encompasses the entire surface of the holographic medium. Optical memory is a promising technology for data storage because it is true three dimensional storage system. data can be accessed an entire page at a time instead of sequentially. pixel sizes. Optical memory uses a photosensitive material to record interference patterns of a reference beam and a signal beam of coherent light. where the signal beam is reflected off of an object or it contains data in the form of light and dark areas.com Optical Data Security Optical memory uses the basic principles of holography for the recording purposes and hence it is also called as holographic memory system. An entire page of data is accessed in this way. and there are very few moving parts so that the limitations of mechanical motion are minimized. temporal decay of holograms. degradation of holograms during access. The major obstacles to implementing optical data storage are recording rate. laser output power. At an estimated cost of between $161and $236 for a complete optical memory system.

5 . Hence we get an image of the original diffracting object as a real 3 dimensional object. Holography was invented by Deni Gabour in 1948. When this hologram is illuminated.Holographic method was a two step coherent image forming process in which a record is made of the interference pattern produced by the interaction of the waves diffracted by the object and a coherent background or a reference wave.com 2. Optical Data Security Optical Data Storage Principle The basic principle of optical data storage is that of holography. the original wave front is reconstructed.SeminarsTopics.

Now. in order to regenerate the original beam i. Now if a photosensitive material or medium is placed at the position of the interference then these interference patterns are recorded on the material in the form of change in refractive index or the absorption property. interference in space then form an interference pattern of alternate bright and dark fringes as shown in the diagram. The material in turn diffracts this beam inside its structure so as to replicate the original beam.SeminarsTopics. 6 . the source beam from the object. This is the basic principle used to record and read data in the case of optical storage system. the reference beam alone is Made to be incident on the photosensitive material.com Optical Data Security When two light beams one from the object whose image is to be recorded and the other being a reference beam.e.

1. coherence and brightness. performance. These attributes make it ideal for optical recording.Lens and Mirrors 3.LASER 2. monochromaticity. size.Charge Coupled Devices (CCD) 6.Photopolymers 5.SeminarsTopics.1.Photorefractive crystals 4. More than two hundred types of lasers have been fabricated which range in power. krypton lasers and diode lasers are used. use and cost. LASER Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation is abbreviated as LASER. nearly monochromatic and highly directional electromagnetic radiation emitted. The important components required for the optical data storage are: 1. somewhere in the range from sub-millimeter through ultraviolet and X-ray wavelengths. To record holograms on the crystals usually argon ion lasers.Basic Components Optical data storage system requires certain important materials for its data storage and retrieval processes.Photosensitive materials 4. Laser is a device for the generation of coherent.Phase masks for encryption 3. 7 .com Optical Data Security 3.2.Spatial Light Modulators (SLM) 4. Fundamental attributes of a laser are directionality.

1.2.Lens and Mirrors Mirrors are used to reflect laser beams to the desired direction.com Optical Data Security 3.2. Lenses are usually used to converge the laser to a point. 3.SeminarsTopics.The lens as a Fourier transform system 8 . The lens has the property of obtaining the Fourier transform and the inverse transform system is described below. A special type of lens is used in the case of optical recording called the Fourier lens.

This cleaning of the beam is achieved by using a spatial filter. The transform lens causes parallel bundles of rays to converge in the back focal plane of the lens. A collimated beam is projected through a signal. This analog optical system 9 .SeminarsTopics. In this plane the spatial image is transformed into spatial frequency spectra. The intensity of the pattern is related to the square of the amplitude of the Fourier Transform of the input signal. In affect the lens has carried out a two-dimensional Fourier transform at the speed of light. The lower bandwidth is limited by the ability of the user to discriminate all but the zero order diffraction information. f(x. The diameter and quality of the lens limit the upper frequency bandwidth. A far field diffraction pattern is observed by placing a screen in the transform plane. thus removing the noise from the image.com Optical Data Security Figure 2: Two spatial signals and their optical Fourier Transforms Figure 1 show how a Fourier transform and inverse transform can be achieved optically. contained on a transparency.y). This back focal plane is known as the Fourier transform plane. By placing a stop at a particular frequency lobe in this plane a spatial frequency can be removed from the image. Typically all but the zero order diffraction is removed.

The radial distance between these spots and the DC term represents the spatial frequency of the input signal. 3.3. Figure 3 show a 3d model of a spatial light modulator. It basically consists of an array of pixels which are usually microscopic shutters or LCD displays. These can be controlled by a computer. The computer sends binary data to the SLM.The aperture of the lens limits the resolution of the Fourier transform. The access of a complete page at a time accounts for the increase in the access speeds of the optical storage system. or will be open or shut in the case of microscopic shutters. If the input signal is a sinusoidal grating. Each pixel of the SLM corresponds to bit of data. The white or the transparent pixels allows the light beams incident on it to pass through it while the dark or opaque pixels restrict the transmission of light through it. The second lens forms the inverse transform and recovers the original signal. there will be two spots either side of the central DC component. So depending on whether the bit is a 1 or a 0 the pixel will go dark or transparent in the case of a LCD.Spatial Light Modulators (SLM) SLM is an optical device that is used to convert the real image or data into a single beam of light that will intersect with the reference beam during recording. In effect the light beam coming out of the SLM contains the binary information transmitted to the SLM by the computer. The two spots correspond to the spatial frequency content of the input signal. The white pixels represent a binary 1 while the black pixels denote a binary zero. indicating the presence of harmonics of the fundamental frequency.com Optical Data Security is difficult to adapt into alternative kinds of filters and so is not very versatile .Photosensitive materials 10 .4. Ther3e will be a row of spots in the transform plane of the square wave bar grating. 3. Another important point to be noted here is that a complete page of binary date is converted to a single beam at a time. figure2.SeminarsTopics.

The donor level is created by impurity ions or defects.com Optical Data Security 3. real time image 11 . Stored holograms are permanent and do not degrade over time or by read out of the hologram. high resolution. permanent storage until erasure. the more decay of the holograms occurs due to the interference from the superimposed holograms. so photopolymers are suited for read only memory (ROM). At the steady state. Characteristics such as good light sensitivity. These characteristics include high diffraction efficiency. Typically the thickness of the photopolymers is much less than the thickness of photo refractive crystals because the photopolymers are limited by mechanical stability and optical quality. The photo-excited electrons can move in the crystal by the diffusion. and can be erased and written to many times. the interference pattern is imprinted into the photopolymer by inducing photochemical changes in the film.4. One characteristic of the recording medium that limit the usefulness of holographic storage is the property that every time the crystal is read with the reference beam the stored hologram at that location is disturbed by the reference beam and some of the data integrity is lost.2. The recording medium usually used is a photo refractive crystal such as LiNbO3 or BaTiO3 that has certain optical characteristics.Photorefractive crystals There are two main classes of materials used for the holographic storage medium. illumination with a sufficient wavelength content excites the electrons in the conduction band from the donor level between the valence band and conduction band. The created refractive index distribution is proportional to the interference pattern and can be stored for along time (more than two months) in the dark in LiNbO3 crystal. which is greater than DVD-ROM by a factor of two. This space charge density creates the space charge field that can cause the refractive index change via the electro optic effect. Photo refractive crystals are suitable for random access memory with periodic refreshing of data. the refractive index of the crystal is changed by migration of electron charge in responds to imprinted three-dimensional interference pattern of the reference and signal beams. recorded holograms in Fe-and Tb-doped LiNbO3 that use UV light to activate the Tb atoms can be preserved without significant decay for two years.SeminarsTopics.During hologram recording.The refractive index modulation is changed by changing the density of exposed areas of the film. These are photo refractive crystals and photo polymers. With current technology. In a photo refractive crystal. and fast erasure on the application of external stimulus such as UV light. When a hologram is recorded. An example of a photopolymer is DuPont’s HRF-150.4. Photopolymers are systems of organic molecules that rely on photo-initiated polymerization to record volume phase holograms. Also holograms are degraded every time they are read out because the reference beam used to read out the hologram alters the refractive nature of the crystal in that region. and the photovoltaic effect and then get trapped in the ionized donors. the space charge density is proportional to the interference pattern in the diffusion-dominant region. 3. the drift.1. Photopolymers Photopolymers have been developed that can also be used as a holographic storage medium. The most commonly used photo refractive crystals used are LiNbO3 and BaTiO3.This film can achieve12bits/ μm2 with a 100 m thickness. As more and more holograms are superimposed into the crystal.

good image stability and relatively low cost. Vinyl monomers that polymerize through a free radical mechanism. implants (for vertical confinement). good optical properties. the most common mechanism for converting optical images to electrical signals. large dynamic range. volume shrinkage distorts the recorded interference pattern and prevents accurate recovery of the data. such as acrylate esters. The Polaroid polymers uses monomers that polymerize using a cationic ring-opening (CROP) mechanism to replace more conventional free-radical monomers. Each pixel is typically 15 to 30 μm square. are used in most photopolymer systems. Shrinkage during hologram recording for CROP monomers is partially compensated by a volume increase produced by the ring-opening polymerization mechanism. by far. make photopolymers promising materials for write once. 4 x 3 Light sensitive parallel array or vertical CCD Signal Amplifier Special cell used for read out 12 . Unfortunately volume shrinkage during optical recording is a series problem for many free-radical-based photopolymer systems. which contain an array of potential wells created through a series of column. Charge Coupled Devices (CCD) The charge-coupled device is. Current CCD’s have formats or resolution better than 2048 *2048 pixels. with a size of about 25mm square. Each time a monomer adds to a growing polymer chain. In severe cases. format flexibility.com Optical Data Security development. read many times (WORM) optical data storage applications. CCD’s are silicon devices. Polaroid Corporation recently developed a holographic recording system that exhibits significantly less shrinkage than conventional photopolymers. the volume of the system decreases as a covalent chemical bond replaces a non-bonded contact. A CCD is a silicon-based semiconductor arranged as an array of photosensitive elements. 3.5. each one of which generates photoelectrons and stores them as a small bucket of charge or potential wells.SeminarsTopics.

4. The advantages inherent in the optical approach to encryption. copying or falsification and the possibility of including biometrics are widely recognized. The mask and key can be placed. By using a spatial light modulator the phase key can be scrolled electronically until it overlies the phase pattern of the encrypted mask removing the necessity for precise mechanical positioning in the optical system. resulting in the decryption of information completely within a phase-only domain. The encryption technique could equally well be applied to systems in which multiple phase levels are used for the masks and keys. Phase Masks There is wide spread interest in the development of encryption systems. In the case of encryption. either directly in contact with one another so that the decryption takes place in the same image plane. a plane polarized monochromatic wave front illuminates the encrypted phase mask.6. the charge transfer process is essentially noise-free and all most all of the noise contributed to the signal by the CCD is from the out put stage. These phase-masks are produced by electronically scrambling the original information. to be encrypted. down the columns and horizontally along the final row.SeminarsTopics. a process which is known as clocking. such as a high space-bandwidth product. to ensure that only positive numbers result from this analog to digital conversion process a fixed offset known as the bias level is introduced.1. Recording And Reading Of Data 4. Optical recording of data 13 . 3. which operate in the optical domain. in this case corresponding to the pixels. we wish to encode information in such a fashion that even if it is viewed or copied only the application of the correct key will reveal the original information. the fabrication issues involved in the production of a multiple phase level fixed phase mask are more complicated than for the production of a binary mask. The decrypting key effectively reverses the scrambling operation in the optical domain and results in the production of a wave front in which the information of interest is encoded as a relative phase shift between different sections of the wave front. Presently encryption approach is based on the direct mapping of an encrypted phase-mask and a decrypting phase key. the difficulty of accessing. The value in each pixel is measured in turn and recorded digitally. However. or alternatively they can be imaged on to one another with an optical system. In an encryption system. so for the purposes of the experimental demonstration of decryption binary __ phase masks and phase keys have been used. with a random pattern and using this to generate an encrypted phase mask.com Optical Data Security When requested the elements form a bucket brigade. each row of charges is passed from element to element. which consists of a random array of phase-shifting pixels.

Digital data to be stored are “ encoded” onto the signal beam via a spatial light modulator. The data or strings of bits are first arranged into pages or large arrays.2. This encoded beam then interferes with the reference beam through the volume of a photosensitive recording medium. light from a coherent laser source is split into two beams. signal (data-carrying) and reference beams. 4.com Optical Data Security In holographic data storage. storing the digital data pages.SeminarsTopics. The o’s and 1’s of the data pages are translated into pixels of the spatial light modulator that either or transmit light . The light of signal beam traverses through the modulator and is therefore encoded with the “checkerboard” pattern of the data page. Optical reading of data 14 .

This process of multiplexing data yields the enormous storage capacity of holography. The reconstructed array is projected onto a pixilated detector that reads the data in parallel. for example by changing its angle of incidence or wavelength. Encrypted Memory Using Double Random Phase Encryption 2. This parallel readout of data provides holography with its fast transfer rates. 5. Encrypted Memory Using Three-Dimensional keys in the fresnel Domain 3. Encrypted Memory Using Double Random Phase Encryption 15 . Many different data pages can be recorded in the same volume of material and read out by applying a reference beam identical to that used during writing.SeminarsTopics. Encryption Techniques There are many different types of encryption techniques available. Here three main techniques used for encryption has been described. The reference beam is used during readout to diffract off of the recorded gratings. reconstructing the stored array of bits.By varying the reference beam. They are : 1.com Optical Data Security The interference pattern induces modulations in the refractive index of the recording material yielding diffractive volume gratings. Encrypted Memory Using Wavelength-Code and Random Phase Masks 5. The readout of data depends sensitively upon the characteristics of the reference beam .

(2) In Eq . Here. exp{-jni(x.y)} and exp{-jhi(n.y)exp{ jni(x. The original data is converted into a whitenoise-like image by using two random phase masks. The Fourier transform of the input data is multiplied by another random phase function H(v.The original data is illuminated by a collimated light beam and multiplied by a random phase function exp{-jni(x. And  is the focal length of the Fourier-transform lens.(3) Where  denotes the convolution . Here. x and denote the spatial –domain coordinates.).Wecan do Encryption and decryption of optical memory using double random phase encryption Let gi(x.y) And hi(.Equation (3) shows that the two phase functions. ni(x.F[] denotes the Fourier transform operation .y) and hi(v.2].)=exp{-jhi(v.y) denote ith positive real-valued image to be encrypted.. Note that v and  denote Fourier domain coordinates.com Optical Data Security Figure 4 shows an illustration of the encrypted optical memory system.convert the original data into stationary-white-noise-like data.SeminarsTopics.) are two independent white sequences that are uniformly distributed on the intervel [0.)} and is given by Si(v.dy……….y)=[gi(x.y)]  F[exp{ jh(v. The Fourier-Transformed pattern of the encrypted data that is described in Eq-(1) 16 . located at the input and Fourier planes.y)exp{-jn(x. I(x.y)}.)…………………………………………………………………(1) Where Gi(v.y)exp{-jn(x. )}] …………………………………. (2).h)}.y)}] =gi(x.)Hi(v..y)}exp –j(2 π/λf)(xν+yη) dx. )=F[gi(x. Each encrypted data frame is obtained by taking another Fourier transform: si(x.)=Gi(v.is the wavelength of the light.y)}expjn(x.

) is written as Di (.)={Gi(.)=Hi(. the space charge density is proportional to the interference pattern in the diffusion-dominant region.the read out beam is the conjugate of the reference beam. Experimental Setup 17 .When phase key Ki(.)  hi(.)……………(5) Where Ki (.)}]………(8) In Eq-(8)  denotes correlation.com Optical Data Security Is stored hollographically together with a reference beam in a photo refractive material. The created refractive index distribution is proportional to the interference pattern and can be stored for a long time(more than 2 months) in the dark in LiNbO3 crystal.(6) The asterisk in EQ-(5) denotes the complex conjugate and Ki (. the original data cannot be recovered. the conjugation of the original data is successfully recovered because Eq-(8) becomes a delta function.angular multiplexing is employed.)+Ri (.y)}.It is able to use the same random phase mask in the encryption and decryption process.In a practical system the oprating at a high speed detection of the reconstructed data. The interference pattern (.The reconstructed ith image Di(x.).) to be stored in a photo refractive material is written as (.When one uses an incorrect phase key.) Hi (.In a photorefractive crystal illumination with a sufficient wavelength content excites the electrons in the conduction band in the donor level between the valence band and the conduction bands.)}……………….SeminarsTopics.y) is written as di(x.may be removed by an intensity sensitive device such as charge coupled device (CCD) camera. The random phase function in the input plane. We can reconstruct the image by Fourier transforming Eq-(5).) is a phase key used in the decryption process.)}* Ki (.)}] F[exp{-jki(.y) ……………(7) Where Ci(x.The data of the ith stored image can be reconstructed and the read out beam is incident at the correct angle.)=i=1 to m|Si(. The read out using the conjugate of the reference beam offers advantages.To store many frames of data. In the descryption process.y)exp{jni(x.y)=[g*(x.exp{-jni(x.).key ki(.y)=F[exp{-jhi(.)=exp{-jki (. the parallel detection at each pixel of two-dimensional data is desirable. At the steady states. and it eleiminates aberration of the optical system.)|2………….index change via the electro-optic effect.Di (.This space charge density creates the space charged field that can cause the refractive.(4) where M is the total number of stored images and is a reference at specific angle used to record the ith encrypted data .y)}]Ci(x. The reconstructed data in the FourierPlane(FP).

RPM denotes random phase mask. L2 and L3 are 400mm. the readout beam is the conjugate of the reference beam used for recording. Shutters SH1 and SH2 are open. The encrypted image is observed by a CCD camera (CCD1) after the Fourier transform is produced by the lens L3. BE denotes beam expander. In the experiments we use a pair of counter propagating plane waves as the reference and the conjugate beams. BS denotes beam splitter. The crystal is mounted on a rotary stage and a threedimensionally movable stage. We denote an encrypted memory system based on double random phase encryption. The input image is multiplied by an input random phase mask (RPMI) and is then Fourier transformed by lens L1.% Fe is used as the recording medium.003mol. All of the beams are ordinarily polarized due to the creation of an interference fringe pattern.SeminarsTopics. The focal length of L1. For holographic recording the object and reference beams interfere at an angle of 90i in the LiNbO3 crystal. A 101010mm3 LiNbO3 crystal doped with 0. The reference beam is again divided into two reference beams. the original data may not be recovered.5nm is used as a coherent light source. In the decryption process. L denotes lens. the original image is reconstructed at CCD2. The Fourier transformed image is imaged at the reduced scale in the LiNbO3 crystal by the lens L2.This is because the ideal reconstructed beam read out by using the conjugate of the reference beam eliminates the phase modulation caused by the random phase mask. while SH3 is open. 58mm. The light beam is divided into an object and a reference beam by abeam splitter (BSI) for holographic recording. Shutters SH1 and SH2 are closed. If the same mask is located at the same place as the one used to write the hologram. SH denotes shutter. CCD denotes CCD camera.An input image is displayed on a liquid-crystal display that is controlled by a computer. 18 . The c axis is on the paper and is at 45 with respect to the crystal faces. Experimental setup. Figure 5 shows the experimental setup. One of the beam is used for the conjugate readout by another beam splitter (BS2).com Optical Data Security Figure 1. Otherwise. M denotes mirror. An Ar+ laser beam of wave length 514. The Fourier-transformed input image is multiplied by another random phase mask (RPM2) at the Fourier plane. and 50mm respectively. while Sh3 is closed.

we confirmed that there is no bit error in the four output digital data. Two diffusers are used as the random phase masks. In the recording process. 6(a).Angular multiplexing was achieved by rotating the LiNbO3 crystal in the plane of figure(5).The angular separation between adjascent stored images was 0.This key is the same as the phase mask in the Fourier plane used to record the hologram. The size of the liquid crystal display that shows the input image is 28.5mm 20mm.SeminarsTopics. respectively.Fig 7(a) shows the reconstructed images obtained using the correct key.The resolution of the reconstructed image is determined by the crystal size and the space-bandwidth product of the optical system.The exposure time of each image was 60s. RPM1 and RPM2.com Optical Data Security Angularly multiplied recording of four digital images is demonstrated.This image consists of 32 32 randomly generated pixels.This angular separation is enough to avoid the crosstalk between the reconstructed images. One of the original digital images is shown in Fig. Random noise like images were observed. 6(b) shows the intensity distribution of the encrypted image.Fig 7(b) shows the reconstructed images when 19 .4mW/cm2. the optical intensities of the object and the reference beams were 78mW/cm2 and 1.After the binarisation of the reconstructed images.No noise due to crosstalk between the reconstructed images was observed.This result shows that the stored images were reconstructed successfully. fig.2j.

In the recording process the optical powers of the object and the reference beams were 4mW/cm2 and 500mW/cm2 respectievely.as shown in fig(5).respectievely.Random –noise.The average bit error rate obtained using incorrect keys was 0.The positions of the masks have as many as three degrees of freedom.The experimental setup is the same as that shown in fig(5).384.respectievely.com Optical Data Security incorrect keys were used.y&z axes are defined as shown in fig(5).RPM1&RPM2 were located at a distance of 100mm from L1& at the center of L1 &FP. is written by 20 .When a number of Nz resolvable positions along the optical axis can be used for the encryption key. The exposure time was 110s.Fig(8d) shows the reconstructed image when the two phase masks were incorrectly located.the positions of two phase masks are used as encryption keys.In addition to the phase information.We can see that the reconstructed image is still a white.(b) encrypted image.SeminarsTopics. Encrypted Memory Using Three-dimensional keys in the Fresnel Domain.We have demonstrated encryption and decryption of three binary images by using angle multiplexing.This result shows that the original image was successfully reconstructed.No part of the original image can be seen.the total number of three dimensional positions to be examined in a three dimensional key.Fig(8b)shows an encrypted image of fig(8a).P.Even if the phase masks are stolen. We estimate the available number of three dimensional positions of two random phase masks. Experimental results (a) Original image .like images were observed. One can make the memory system more secure by using random phase masks in the Fresnel Domain.Fig(8a) shows one of the three original images.Let the dimensions of random phase masks be L x x Ly.The X.the unknown positions of the masks can protect the data.Fig(8c) shows one of the reconstructed images obtained by using the same masks located at the same positions used in the recording.(c) and (d) are reconstructed images when positions of the phase masks are correct and incorrect respectively.noise –like image.and Δx and Δy be the correlation lengths of the random phase masks along the X & Y axes.

the original image cannot be recovered. 21 .it takes 95 years to finish the whole search.SeminarsTopics.3 ENCRYPTED MEMORY USING WAVELENGTH CODE AND RANDOM PHASE MASKS The wavelength of recording beams can be used as a key for security in a holographic memory system.It is practically impossible to decrypt without the knowing position of two three dimensional keys.the total number of three dimensional positions to be examined is given by N=P2………………………………….Δx=Δy=6Δm & Δz=4mm.The wave length code increases the key space by one dimension. 5.If substantial part of the phase modulation at the Fourier plane is not cancelled .Due to the incorrect waveleng6h the phase modulation at the Fourier plane is not completely cancelled because of a scale mismatch.Since two three dimensional keys are used in this system.When the wavelength of the read out beam is different from that of the recording beam the wavelength mismatch modifies the scale of the coordinates at the Fourier plane in the read out process.. because the volume grating structure of the hologram is complex.Note that Δx&Δy were calculated from the measurement of an auto correlation fuction of the phase masks used in the experiments.com Optical Data Security Whereƒ is the focal length of L1 in fig(5) & Δz is computed according to the sensitivity of the decryption to the shifts of the keys along the Z axis.When one searches 106 position/s.L=400mm.In this mrmory system shown in fig(5) one original data frame is stored by using a set of two random phase masks at the input and Fourier planes as well as a wavelength key.N=3x1018 when Lx=Ly=25mm.Since an optical storage medium such as photo refractive material dopped with impurities has broad spectrum sensititvity we can use any wavelengths of light emitted from tunable laser sources such as a Dye-Laser.We note that the wavelength mismatch results in decreased diffraction efficiency due to the Bragg condition .The wave length key can be protect the decrypted data evev if the phase masks have been illegally obtained.(11) In the memory system shown in fig(5) .

Note that in both cases th Bragg conditions are satisfied.8 nm are used recpectievely.com Optical Data Security Fig 9(a) & fig 9(b) show an original and an encrypted image.8 nm.5 nm.When the wavelength of the read out beam is same as that of the recording beam and when the same masks is located at the sae place as that used to record the hologram .SeminarsTopics.1 Applications in ultra short communications Encrypted memory used double random phase encryption cann be used in secure communication network using ultra short pulses. 6.One can use many wavelengths by utilizing the small pixel size of the random phase masks.Fig 9(c) & (d) shows the reconstructed images when wavelengths of 514.Applications 6.In this system the original data is stored in an 22 . as shown in fig(10).we use two read out beams at wave length of 514.The encrypted image is stored hollographically using recording beams at a wavelength of 514.5nm and 632. In the dcryption process. we can obtain the rconstructed original image. Fig 10 (a) & (b) shows block and schematic diagrams of the secure communication systems using the encrypted memory and spatial temporal converters.5 nm &632.The wave length selectivity depends on the pixel size of the random phase masks at the Fourier plane .

At the receivers the temporal signal is converted again into a spatial signal by the time to space converter. their three dimensional positions. and wavelengths of light.com Optical Data Security encrypted memory system. This system can be expected to communicate at an ultra high speed of more than 1 Tb/s. These systems are secure because the total number of mathematical possibilities of the multidimensional keys. It is expected that the encrypted memory system is to play an important role in ultra-fast secure communication systems using the spatial temporal converters with ultra short pulse that enable communication at ultra high speed of more than Tb/s. The experimental results are very encouraging. The authorized users can decrypt the data using the correct key. is extremely large. The encrypted data read out from the memory is converted into a one dimensional temporal pulse using the space to time converter and then is transmitted to users via optical fibers. Conclusions Three encrypted optical memory systems have been discussed here. which consists of two dimensional phase masks.SeminarsTopics. recording methods and the demonstrated densities of > 30 channel Gbits/in2 coupled with the recent commercial availability of system components remove many of the obstacles that previously prevented the 23 . It is believed that the substantial advances in recording media.

es www. 5.ieee.bell-labs. 3.laser2000.uk 24 .org www.com www.uk www.le. 2.co.iac.src.SeminarsTopics.ing. References 1. www. 8.com Optical Data Security practical consideration of optical data storage and greatly enhance the prospects for Hollography to become a next generation storage technology.ac. 4.

2. Optics letters Vol. Optical Data Security Journals O.38 F.SeminarsTopics. Applications of Optics Vol. “ANGLE MULTIPLEXED STORAGE OF 5000 HOLLOGRAMS IN Lithium Niobate” . “ENCRYPTED OPTICAL STORAGE WITH ANGULAR MULTIPLEXING” .H Mok .Matoba &B.11 25 .com 1.Javidi .