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Facial planes according to Simon

Median plane
= sagital plane

Dental cast
analysis

G
T
Or

Frontal plane
Horizontal plane
= Frankfurt plane

Orbital plane

Agnieszka Pernak, PhD.S.
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Agnieszka Pernak 2007/2008

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1. to the median plane
b) the width of the dental arches

a) the symmetry of the dental arches

- in the relation to each other

- in relation to each other

Symmetry
maintained

Lack of symmetry

the maxilla should be wider then the mandible
in approximately 1-2mm on each side

- in relation to the face

Agnieszka Pernak 2007/2008

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Agnieszka Pernak 2007/2008

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- in the relation to the dentition

- in the relation to the basal bone

the buccal cusps of maxillary molars and
premolars covers the buccal surface of the
teeth in the mandible

normal

narrow

Agnieszka Pernak 2007/2008

wide

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Agnieszka Pernak 2007/2008

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c) mezjalization in a III quadrant.in a single dental arch (sagital line and mesio-distal line) semielliptic parabolic Agnieszka Pernak 2007/2008 Agnieszka Pernak 2007/2008 9 a b c d 10 .in the permanent dentition .c) the mesiomesio-dystal angulation of the teeth d) the shape of the arches (angulation and inclination) the gingival part of the crown should be more distal then the occlusal part . d) dystalization of premolars Agnieszka Pernak 2007/2008 11 Agnieszka Pernak 2007/2008 12 2 .in the primary dentition (semicircular) Agnieszka Pernak 2007/2008 Agnieszka Pernak 2007/2008 7 8 e) the arch symmetry . b) mezjalization of premolars and transversal crowding.incisors and canines in relation to the sagital plane maxilla mandibula a) mezialization of molars.

to the frontal plane a) OVERJET – is defined as horizontal overlap of the incisors – the incisal edge of lower incisors contacts the palatal surface of the upper incisors Increased overtet Negative overjet – the 2-3mm overjet is the normal relationship Agnieszka Pernak 2007/2008 17 Agnieszka Pernak 2007/2008 18 3 .2.second physiological deepbite Agnieszka Pernak 2007/2008 13 Agnieszka Pernak 2007/2008 14 b) the occlusal plane and the curve of Spee THE TYPES OF OVERBITE is created by the contact points of the upper and lower teeth in primary dentition is flat in permanent dentition is curved Increased overbite ”DEEPBITE” Decreased overbite ”OPENBITE” in the maxilla – is convex in the mandible – is concave 1.5-2mm Agnieszka Pernak 2007/2008 15 Agnieszka Pernak 2007/2008 16 THE TYPES OF OVER OVERJ JET 3.first physiological deepbite . to the horizontal plane a) OVERBITE – is a vertical overlap of the incisors – the incisal edge of lower incisors contacts the palatal surface of the upper incisors – the 2-3mm overbite is the normal relationship Exceptions: .

MESIAL OR DISTAL DRIFT) Agnieszka Pernak 2007/2008 22 Width of the dental arch Width of the face (Zy 23 X 100 = 50% Zy) – 10mm Agnieszka Pernak 2007/2008 24 4 .ARCH ASYMMETRY .Angle’s Angle ’s classification b) the occlusal relationship of molars I CLASS Baum’s classification (Class I) FLUSH TERMAL PLANE – in a 3 years old patients MESIAL STEP – in a 5 years old patients 5 4 6 the mesiobuccal cusp of the upper first molar occludes with the mesiobuccal groove of the lower first molar 5 4 6 II CLASS the mesial buccal cusp of the first upper permanent molar contacts the interdental space between the lower second premolar and the first molar 5 4 6 5 4 6 III CLASS the mesial buccal cusp of the first upper permanent molar contacts the interdental space between the the lower first and the lower second molar Agnieszka Pernak 2007/2008 19 5 4 6 7 6 5 4 Agnieszka Pernak 2007/2008 20 c) the canine rule DENTAL CAST MEASUREMENTS the long axis of the upper canine is running in between the lower canine and the lower lateral premolar ANALYSIS OF SYMMETRY THE EVALUATION OF WIDTH AND LENGTH OF THE DENTAL ARCHES SPACE ANALYSIS TOOTH SIZE DISCREPANCY TEETH ROTATIONS DENTAL AGE EVALUATION 7 1 5 4 2 7 3 4 5 Agnieszka Pernak 2007/2008 21 Agnieszka Pernak 2007/2008 THE EVALUATION OF WIDTH ANALYSIS OF SYMMETRY A TRANSPARENT RULED GRID IS PLACED OVER THE DENTAL ARCH.ARCH FORM DISTORTION .ASYMMETRICAL POSITION OF THE TEETH WITHIN DENTAL ARCH ( ROTATIONS. Izard’s analysis IN THE UPPER ARCH POSITIONED IN RELATION TO THE MIDPALATAL RAPHE Zy Zy TO DETECT: .

0 42.0 42.5 51.2 50.5 32.SUM OF MESIODISTAL WIDTH OF EACH TOOTH BETWEEN THE INTERPROXIMAL SURFACES (BUT PROTRUSION OR RETRUSION OF ANTERIOR TEETH ) TO EVALUATE SPACE REQUIRED .0 37.5 32.2 54.5 27.5 nica 43.PREDICTION OF SIZE OF PERMANENT CANINES AND PREMOLARS ACCORDING TO PROPORTIONALITY ON RADIORGAPHS WITH PROPORTIONALITY TABLES ACCORDING TO MOYERS WITH PROPORTIONALITY RULE ACCORDING TO TANAKA & JOHNSTON Agnieszka Pernak 2007/2008 29 Agnieszka Pernak 2007/2008 30 5 .0 46.5 38.0 30.0 36.5 49 40.2 54.5 42.5 39.2 50.5 43.5 29.4 36.5 36.5 49.2 37.0 28.0 36.0 43.5 53.0 41.0 48.0 41.5 37.5 42.0 33.0 39.0 52.5 29.0 +2 Agnieszka Pernak 2007/2008 of width of 1.0 37.0 UI Agnieszka Pernak 2007/2008 3.0 54.Pont Measurements Measurements The evaluation of width of dental arches P= 1 M= 1 upper incisors x 100 80 upper incisors x 100 64 4–4 6–6 27.5 43.5 47.5 55.5 42.0 41.0 41.0 54.0.0 34.5 50 37 51 4.5 51.0 43.0 46.0 32. how to write = 32 4 4 6 6 4 6 4 6 pomiar 31 SI 4– 4 6– 6 27.5 31.0 29. insisors 2.5 40.7 45.8 31.5 34.2 37.0 35.5 30. how to read .5 46.0 44.5 33.5 34.5 53.0 40.5 38.0 37.0 52.5 55.0 33.8 35.5 36.3 28.5 32.0 33.5 Pont Measurements Measurements 4 2 4 = L (anterior length of the upper arch) U LU .2 mm = LL (anterior length of the lower arch) LU LL 27 SPACE ANALYSIS Agnieszka Pernak 2007/2008 28 SPACE ANALYSIS IN MIXED DENTITION PERIOD TO EVALUATE THE AMOUNT OF CROWDING OR SPACING COMPARISON BETWEEN THE AMOUNT OF SPACE AVAILABLE (WHICH ALREADY EXISTS) AND THE AMOUNT OF SPACE REQUIRED (TO ALIGN TEETH PROPERLY) TO EVALUATE THE AMOUNT OF SPACE NEEDED FOR PROPER ALIGNMENT OF PERMANENT CANINES AND MOLARS SPACE AVAILABLE = ARCH PERIMETER (*IN SEGMENTS = SEGMENTAL ARCH ANALYSIS *BY CONTOURING A PIECE OF WIRE *WITH CATENOMETER = A PIECE OF A CHAIN) COMPARISON BETWEEN THE AMOUNT OF SPACE AVAILABLE (WHICH ALREADY EXISTS) AND THE AMOUNT OF SPACE REQUIRED ( TO ALIGN TEETH PROPERLY) SPACE REQUIRED .0 51.5 46.5 47.3 28.0 35.5 49 37.5 43.5 31.0 33.0 32.5 33.5 57.0 43.0 30.0 32.0 56.5 39.5 42.5 34.8 29.5 36.5 57.5 32.5 36.0 44.5 27.0 +1 .7 45.0 35.8 31.0 34.3 30.0 40.0 35.0 35.0 48.0 43.0 37.0 51.5 34.5 49.4 36.0 32.5 39. Agnieszka Pernak 2007/2008 25 26 THE EVALUATION OF LENGTH According to KORKHAUS ró 33.5 34.5 34.3 norma 28.0 56.0 33.6.

22)) 35 Agnieszka Pernak 2007/2008 36 6 .2% (±0. . 1974 Agnieszka Pernak 2007/2008 33 Agnieszka Pernak 2007/2008 34 Bolton’s Analysis Bolton’s .2% (±0.22) 91.PREDICTION OF SIZE OF PERMANENT CANINES AND PREMOLARS PREDICTION OF SIZE OF PERMANENT CANINES AND PREMOLARS ACCORDING TO PROPORTIONALITY ON RADIORGAPHS WITH PROPORTIONALITY TABLES ACCORDING TO MOYERS RTG CAST . (four incisors) (canine.3% (±0. Johnston LE: J Am Dent Assoc.22 0.anterior ratio TO EVALUATE PROPORTIONALITY IN SIZE OF UPPER AND LOWER TEETH Sum of mesiodistal width of six lower teeth Sum of mesiodistal width of six upper teeth 77.26) Anterior ratio Overall ratio Agnieszka Pernak 2007/2008 X 100% = 77. 88: 798. first and second premolar) 1 3 2 2 1 = 4 PROPORTIONALITY TABLE ACCORDING TO MOYERS 4=x 3 Agnieszka Pernak 2007/2008 31 PREDICTION OF SIZE OF PERMANENT CANINES AND PREMOLARS Agnieszka Pernak 2007/2008 32 TOOTH SIZE DISCREPANCY WITH PROPORTIONALITY RULE ACCORDING TO TANAKA & JOHNSTON Bolton’s Analysis Tonn’s Analysis From Tanaka MM.

3% (±0.35 SI = MESIODISTAL WIDTH OF FOUR UPPER INCISORS si = mesiodistal width of four lower incisors Agnieszka Pernak 2007/2008 39 Agnieszka Pernak 2007/2008 40 DENTAL AGE EVALUATION THE LAST FULLY ERUPTED GROUP OF TEETH + ALL OTHER ERUPTING GROUPS OF TEETH DIVIDED BY THE NUMBER OF EVALUATED GROUPS (SEPARATELY FOR YEARS AND MONTHS) TOOTH TYPE Nr of teeth I1 I2 C P1 P2 M1 M2 THE END! AGE IN YEARS AND MONTHS FOR BOYS 1 6'8 7'4 10'8 10'5 10'10 6'0 12'9 2 6'10 8'4 11'6 10'8 11'11 6'4 12'10 3 7'0 8'10 12'2 11'10 12'5 6'8 13'6 4 7'11 9'0 12'6 12'0 13'0 6'10 14'0 1 6'6 7'5 9'10 9'2 10'5 6'3 11'11 2 6'10 7'8 10'2 10'2 11'1 6'3 11'11 AGE IN YEARS ADN MONTHS FOR GIRLS 3 7'4 8'6 11'3 10'5 11'5 6'8 12'10 4 7'8 8'7 11'8 11'3 12'2 6'10 13'5 Agnieszka Pernak 2007/2008 41 Agnieszka Pernak 2007/2008 42 7 .overall ratio Sum of mesiodistal width of lower teeth Sum of mesiodistal width of upper teeth X 100% = 91.26)) Agnieszka Pernak 2007/2008 37 Agnieszka Pernak 2007/2008 38 TEETH ROTATIONS Tonn’s Analysis TO EVALUATE PROPORTIONALITY IN SIZE OF UPPER AND LOWER INCISORS si = 74% SI si x 4/3 = SI SI = si x 1.Bolton’s analysis Bolton’s .26 0.