Lars Falka, Claes Arvidssonb, Sven Berglundb and Anders Enerothb

FOI, Swedish Defence Research Agency, 172 90 Stockholm, Sweden,
FOI, Swedish Defence Research Agency, 581 11Linköping, Sweden,

Radar seeking missiles represent a serious threat
towards ships and aircraft. False targets can be produced
electronically by crosseye jamming, a technique where
small changes are introduced in the wave front to deflect a
monopulse radar seeker. Experiments performed by FOI
have confirmed the possibility of crosseye jamming using
precise cancellation of phase between two transmitters.
The principle of reciprocity has been used to analyse the
conditions necessary to ensure equal path lengths and the
limitations introduced by scattering from the terrain and
non-reciprocal components in the crosseye system.



Radar seeking missiles represent a serious threat towards
ships and aircraft. The superior acceleration of missiles
makes them difficult to evade. They are also cheaper than
their targets and can be shot in salvos.
A radar seeker with monopulse antenna is particularly
difficult to deflect. It will track all wave forms and noise
jamming is consequently ineffective. The missile will
keep tracking the signal by moving in a direction
orthogonal to the phase front to reach the target.
Missiles are traditionally deflected by chaff or noise
jamming, but such methods are becoming ineffective.
Modern techniques are based on towed decoys and range
gate or velocity gate pull off. Imperfections in the target
seeker can be used to introduce break-lock, but individual
weaknesses are increasingly difficult to identify in a
complex battle field.
It is necessary to develop new methods of defence
which are independent of the technical level of the target
seeker. Crosseye jamming is a technique using two
antennas onboard to modify the direction of the phase
front in order to create a false target near the real one.
The process is also called phase front distortion, since
the principle is based on the general technique of tracking
a target. If the false target is more powerful than the real
echo it will attract the missile from the platform.



The basic idea of crosseye jamming is to produce a false
target sufficiently far away from a platform using
antennas onboard a ship or aircraft (Figure 1). The false
target is produced by repeating radar signals in order to
make it as realistic as possible. It is also possible to add
modulations and fluctuations to make the signal similar to
a real target. This process is easily performed with digital
components. Analogue components have been used in
many previous crosseye experiments, but digital radio
frequency memories (DRFM) are superior in this



Figure 1. A sea missile attacking a ship equipped with a
crosseye system will detect a false target beside the ship.

The idea of crosseye deflection is old, but electronic
technique has only recently reached a level where
jamming can be successfully performed in practice.
Research programs have been going on in several
countries, but most of them failed due to technical
problems. Only recently Italy and Sweden demonstrated
that crosseye may work in practice [1-9].
Crosseye targets are produced by interference
between two signal sources of similar strength. The
interference leads to angular glint of the same type as in
complicated radar targets. If two signals nearly cancel
each other the phase front will be distorted and the
direction of the target is seen to fluctuate.
This effect can be used to produce a false target
some distance away from a ship or aircraft using two
antennas onboard. The method avoids expensive off
board decoys, which often require preparation. Crosseye
is cheap, but there are many practical problems, like the
need for calibration.
The theoretical requirements for crosseye to function
in complex environment were first clarified in a
Swedish paper [4]. Representatives of many countries
declared that crosseye is interesting but can not work in
practice. This conclusion was based on the difficult
problem of balancing amplitude and phase using
analogue components, while wing tip vibrations and
propagation were also mentioned as possible sources of
error. However, Elettronica demonstrated a digital
crosseye system produced for the Italian navy and the
Italian version of the Eurofighter (EFA). Experiments
have demonstrated a considerable deflection of missile
radar seekers in air as well as close to sea and land [3,7].
Progress was based on the appearance of digital
radio frequency memories (DRFM). Improved tactical
analysis was also important to clarify under which
conditions crosseye jamming may be used. By selecting
phase and amplitudes correctly one can produce a false
target with optimal parameters instead of requiring a
system to work under all circumstances.
Tactical considerations had previously been
neglected in favour of fanciful constructions based on
analogue components [11]. These experiments produced
poor results, though the reasons for failure remained

This problem occurs in another form when monopulse systems are used against targets close to a water surface where reflections take place [12]. Reflected signals will affect missiles seekers as well as a radar onboard a ship. This resolution is attainable with a monopulse radar system if the target is powerful enough and only a single target is located within the lobe. The angular error may be computed from formulas describing radar glint [12]. The Falkland war clearly demonstrated the reality of the missile threat. A target located directly in front of the radar will give the same phase in both receivers. Phase difference ∆ϕ Phase difference ∆ϕ ∆ ϕ Phase front 1 2 Seeker antennas 1 2 Figure 2. If the signals are in phase the target seeker will indicate a position somewhere between the antennas as shown in Figure 4. Radar is suitable for locating ships and aircraft at large range in view of all weather capability. The sum is small but the direction of this arrow (the phase of the signal) is sensitive to the difference in direction between the two arrows (phase difference) and their length (amplitude difference). 3. since the angular resolution of individual antennas is insufficient. The principle of monopulse measurements. Target T T ∆ρ Direction of propagation. 3. Signals are shown in a polar diagram. The direction is obtained by comparing the phase difference of two signals as shown in Figure 2. which has to locate targets within a tenth of a degree. If one monopulse antenna receives two components the other antenna will measure a small phase difference as shown in Figure 6. Figure 3. A crosseye system consists of two antennas placed at some distance from each other. A radar seeker is equipped with two receiver antennas to locate the target by monopulse technique. The question was how to construct a system that would produce an angular deflection of required amount for any missile. Phase errors will destroy the performance of a crosseye system and probably attract the missile towards the antennas. Both antennas repeat the incoming radar signals. The antenna is limited by the size of the missile.unclear in many cases. but it is more instructive to give a geometrical derivation [9]. The false target is produced by two antennas transmitting nearly out of phase in order to produce a displaced target. Two out of five Exocet radar missiles launched during the conflict destroyed British ships. If the two signals are out of phase a crosseye target will appear (Figure 5). . while a slightly displaced target will give a phase difference proportional to angle. If the signals are in phase the monopulse receivers will indicate a small phase difference equivalent to a forward position. This ability is exploited in the crosseye system by introducing a false target that the monopulse system can not reject. 1 2 Dashed: Dash-dotted: Antenna 1 Antenna 2 Figure 4. A monopulse system can not resolve several targets. RADAR TARGET SEEKERS Most missiles use radar or IR to locate targets.1 A geometrical derivation A monopulse seeker affected by noise jamming can switch to Home On Jam mode and continue tracking the target. The length of the arrows corresponds to signal strength and the direction indicates phase. This is the basis of crosseye jamming because the two antennas cannot be separated. Two antennas transmitting in phase will produce a target between the antennas according to a monopulse seeker.. even if the radar waves were being scattered during propagation. The components nearly cancel and the sum is given by the difference between arrows pointing in the same direction.

the antenna diameter is less than a meter. Phase and amplitude for waves produced by one transmitter and two transmitters out of phase (Hyberg [ 10. The radar wavelength is just a few centimetres.3. because the target seeker can not resolve crosseye antennas until a few hundred meters from the platform. X. ∆ρ ∆ϕ ∆θ = Figure 5. A monopulse target seeker measuring the phase difference created by a crosseye system. The sum signal has small amplitude and its phase depends sensitively on amplitude (∆ρ) and phase (∆ϕ) differences.1 Amplitude and phase The traditional view insists that phase and amplitude differences must be extremely small to create crosseye. The miss distance is computed by noticing that the angle between two components (long arrows) corresponds to a measurement of the distance (D) between crosseye antennas.02 ≈ 2o 0. which explains the term phase front distorsion: two crosseye antennas produce a signal which locally has an oblique phase front (Figure 7). The sum arrow will obviously rotate faster than the individual components. X. is ∆ρ Monopulse antenna 1 λ D ∆p The false target will appear several antenna base lengths D away from the antenna system if the signals have about the same amplitude. The miss distance is independent of range. The deflection angle is small and may be difficult to observe from a ship until the missile is very close. Direction of propagation. A detailed geometrical derivation gives the same result as the formulas for angular glint [12]. CHOICE OF PARAMETERS 4.]). A crosseye target is produced by two almost equally strong components nearly out of phase. The geometrical analysis indicates that this is not the case.2 Miss distance A false target produced by phase front distortion will look like a target. The phase difference (∆ϕ) just has to be smaller than the amplitude difference (∆p). X= Crosseye phase Monopulse antenna 2 Figure 6. which involve both phase difference (∆ϕ) and amplitude difference (∆p). Direction of propagation. X = D ⋅ cosψ ⋅ ∆p ∆p + ∆ϕ 2 2 The expression D ⋅ cosψ is the projection of the base length in direction of the missile. One jamming antenna Two sources of almost equal strength and nearly out of phase Figure 7. which gives an antenna lobe several degrees wide... It appears as target in a direction different from the real one. The sum arrow turns at a rate proportional to the distance between the receiver antennas and inversely to amplitude in Figure 6. d ≈ 0. In general X/D = 5-10 would be enough to protect a ship. The sum arrow turns approximately 1/∆p faster than two components and this means that the maximum miss distance. 4. The two signals received by antenna 1 are exactly out of phase. Both must be small enough to give a sufficient small miss distance.5 Crosseye antennas are located 10-20 meter apart and can be resolved only if the missile is less than 200 meter away. .

D B C Pout = (Flux )in ⋅ RCS ∆ϕ = π The power emitted by a crosseye system is determined by wavelength. Moreover. The reversibility of ray paths ensures equal phase change in both directions. D CONSTRUCTION OF A CROSSEYE SYSTEM Crosseye jamming is based on phase cancellation. transmit in all directions (Figure 10). antenna gains. r1 G r2 Power returned by a target and crosseye system. since this would inevitably deflect the missile towards the platform. The effect depends on the reversibility of ray paths and reciprocity shows . Crosseye systems based on analogue components have been constructed by using the geometrical fact that total propagation paths will be equally long from transmitter to receiver (Figure 9). The phase difference is compensated on receive and ∆ϕ = π Figure 10. 4π The false target should be at least 10 times stronger than the real target to deflect the missile. A G π Gamp RCS Figure 8.4. which placed unrealistic demands on amplifiers and other components. Components must also be reciprocal in order to ensure reliable function. RECIPROCITY Crosseye systems can be effectively analysed by applying the principle of reciprocity. A much better solution is to use digital components and avoid the apparent advantages of geometrical effects by storing the signal in DRFM. there will be problems with circulators and other components which lack the required isolation at high power. a construction still mentioned in the literature [11]. No additional phase differences may be introduced. A crosseye system based on analogue components requires linear amplifiers. The geometry guarantees that no phase differences are introduced. The power reflected from a target may be written. This wasteful method was compensated by enormous amplification. λ. It is important to determine the miss distance in advance to allow the amplitude factor ∆p to be as large as possible. G. 5. phase differences will appear if receiver and transmitter antennas are separated as in Figure 9. Interference is particularly sensitive to path length. but the argument does not apply directly to radio waves. and the amplitude cancellation factor. A crosseye system based on TWT can handle several missiles transmitting on different radar frequencies. Crosseye system based on analogue components. e g by scattering. The main advantage of a construction using wide lobe antennas is that the system can decoy several missiles attacking from different directions if the band width is large. The two paths ABCA and ACBA differ by half a wavelength introduced by a phase shifter. Early systems attempted to cover large angles by using low gain antennas. Pout = (Flux )in ⋅ G 2 ⋅ Gamp ⋅ (∆p )2 ⋅ λ2 Figure 9. but this is only possible for limited field strengths. ∆p = p-1.2 Signal strength The main difficulty is to produce a false target that can compete in strength with a real target in spite of the necessary phase cancellation. However. 6. amplification Gamp. This means that many constructions suggested in the literature are invalid [11]. This means that a crosseye system must have high antenna gain and amplification.

even if they pass a highly asymmetrical water wave.that the false target can appear even under adverse conditions. The following conditions are necessary for the principle of reciprocity to apply [1]. The principle of reciprocity. The principle of reciprocity ensures that the phase differences will be the same both ways for an ideal monopulse system and an ideal reciprocal crosseye system even in the presence of scattering outside the direct propagation path. Figure 14. Scattering of radar pulses from water waves and foam may affect a crosseye system. 1. The speed of sound is slow and conditions will usually change during propagation. An ideal monopulse system used for analysing crosseye. Presented in this way the principle of reciprocity appears unlikely. Sequential lobing ensures that the propagation paths are equal in both directions. The principle of reciprocity expresses ray reversibility in general form [1]. This can easily be done by using an oldfashioned form of scanning. It is obviously important that the environment is stable so that no phase changes are introduced. The final condition shows that crosseye is ineffective against torpedoes. Wave propagation between two points will thus produce the same change in phase and amplitude in both directions. Water waves and foam can affect radar propagation in a complicated manner (Figure 11) and thus influence crosseye. Instead of using the reversibility of ray paths one can apply the principle of reciprocity for electromagnetic waves [1]. Sea missiles travel close to the surface of the sea and the formation of a false target depends sensitively on cancellation between two sources. This principle ensures that signals transmitted and received by two antennas are equal if the feeds are swapped. If the cancellation does not take place the missile will probably attack the antenna system. Scattering Figure 11. 4. In order to apply the principle of reciprocity one can define an ideal radar seeker where the propagation paths are equal. 2. The argument will be presented in improved form compared with previous presentations [2. since signals may be scattered from distant points in the terrain. Rays of light and signals on communication lines are reversible because they are restricted to one dimension. Wave propagation in three dimensions is different. where the same antenna is used for transmit and receive. 3. Radar waves are one millon times faster than sound and the environment remains essentially frozen during a two-way pulse trip. The environment is stationary. This may happen if a wave is propagating close to ground or over a water surface. π Waves and foam. Losses are linear functions of the field. ABSORBERS RAIN REMSOR CHAFF TRANSMITTER (RECEIVER) RECEIVER (TRANSMITTER) REFLECTORS WATER WAVES Figure 12. Even if a scatterer affects the propagation of radar waves it will not necessarily affect the function of the crosseye system. The medium is linear (superposition applies). This is far from obvious: radar waves propagating over sea will experience the same phase shift in both direction.4]. for instance by moving the antenna in a circle (Figure 13). Cross eye system The equations for electromagnetic waves must be linear and invariant under time reversal. because phase changes will be equal in . If the feeds of transmitter and receiver antennas are swapped the signal remains the same in spite of the presence of linear absorbers and scatters. sequential lobbing. If the cables feeding the two antennas are swapped the received signal will be the same in spite of the presence of scatterers and linear absorbers. In practice the function of this system will not differ from an ”ideal monopulse system” if the targets do not fluctuate. The significance of reciprocity is illustrated in Figure 12. Seeker antennas Figure 13.

The important question is when such a contribution will affect the false target. M. Many constructions found in the literature and based on analogue components fail to satisfy this condition. 178 – 181. 14 – 16 June 1999. in particular • distance between antennas • use of digital components • use of phased arrays ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS [ 10. This argument requires that the crosseye system is completely reciprocal and that wave reciprocity ensures reversibility in the terrain.] [ 8. Neri. Johansson. As shown in Figure 15 scatter from areas outside the propagation path. pp.] [ 2. RadioVetenskap och Kommunikation 99. May 2004. since this case would be particularly sensitive to nonreciprocity and scattering as shown in Figure 15. Hyberg. F. It is sensible to avoid signals of nearly equal strength.both directions (Figure 14). will now give a non-reciprocal contribution to the signal. L.] [ 11. B. L.” RadioVetenskap och Kommunikation 99. december 1993. The reciprocity condition shows how to estimate under which conditions crosseye will work and when the system is affected by the choice of components. Lägesrapport”. L. Introduction to Electronic Defense Systems (Artech House 1991). (FOA Reprints. December 2000). Arvidsson. 2000. A. 8.” AOC Conference. Falk. Vittorio Rossi and Andrea Di Martino at Elettronica S.” AOC Conference. Sweden. It is not difficult to estimate the amount from the scattering geometry. FOA-B--00-00617-170--SE. Sweden.” AOC Conference. “Experimental testing on cross-eye jamming. REFERENCES [ 1. In this figure the non-reciprocity is illustrated by an antenna where the phase centre is displaced between transmit and receive. All real systems contain some kind of non-reciprocity. RVK-99. . F. This condition depends on how close the signals are in amplitude. e g water waves. 14 – 16 June 1999. Karlskrona.] [ 9. Falk.] [ 6. P. A. A crosseye system should in general be reciprocal.] [ 5. pp. 126 – 130. “Physical basis for credibility of cross-eye for ship defense. Figure 15 illustrates how such an analysis may be performed. L. "Vinkelvilseledning mot monopulsradar. Zürich. Rome. C. Falk.” FOA Rapport A 10052-1. L.] [ 12.] [ 4. p.] L. Neri. “Cross-eye jamming in Complicated Environments. Falk. Sherman. and our colleague Per Hyberg for valuable discussions.” Invited paper. Falk. AOC Conference.] [ 3. e g when a missile is propagating over rough sea. May 2000 (FOA Reprints. FOI rapport FOI-RH—0148 (November 2002). “Reciprocity in wave propagation. S. Monopulse Principles and Techniques (Artech House 1984). FOA-B--00-00616-170--SE. “Cross-eye jamming.] Figure 15. Many practical considerations are important for the function of a crosseye system. Karlskrona. They must be related to tactical requirements. “Cross-eye jamming and the principle of reciprocity. C. which should be used to test real monopulse seekers and crosseye system by comparing them with an ideal case.1. L. ”Kompendium i Radarmotmedelsteknik. Applied ECM (EW Engineering 1995). This is particularly valuable in those applications where scattering takes place in a complicated environment. Las Vegas. Eneroth. Las Vegas. May 2002. Van Brunt. CONCLUSIONS Crosseye jamming can be based on general principles. L. since opposite paths are no more equal. 7. RVK-99.” 3rd International AOC Conference. The quality of components depends on scattering and can be analysed in general terms as shown in this report. We are indebted to Filippo Neri. Falk. Falk. December 2000). I Figure 15 this is illustrated by a displaced phase centre for transmit and receive.] [ 7. Stockholm. This argument gives an exact formulation of the conditions. A slightly non-reciprocal crosseye system will be affected by scattering. “The reciprocity principle and cross-eye jamming of monopulse radar seekers. 2000.