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Chennai Port

Chennai Port
Chennai Port
Location
India

Country
Location

Coordinates

Chennai (Madras)
13°05′04″N 80°17′24″E /

13.08441°N 80.2899°ECoordinates:

13°05′04″N 80°17′24″E /
13.08441°N 80.2899°E
Details

Opened
Operated by
Owned by

1881
Chennai Port Trust
Chennai Port Trust, Ministry of Shipping,
Government of India

Type of harbor Coastal breakwater, artificial, large seaport
Size of harbor 169.97 ha (420.0 acres)
Land area
Size

237.54 ha (587.0 acres)
407.51 ha (1,007.0 acres)

Available berths 26
Employees

8,000 (2004)[1]

Chairman

Atulya Mishra (since 2010)
Automobiles, motorcycles and general
industrial cargo including iron ore, granite,
coal, fertilizers, petroleum products, and

Main trades

containers
Major exports: Iron ore, leather, cotton
textiles
Major imports: Wheat, raw cotton,
machinery, iron & steel

World Port
Index Number

49450[2]

UN/LOCODE INMAA

Statistics
Annual cargo
tonnage

61.46 million (2010-2011)

Annual
container

1.523 million TEUs (2010-2011)

volume
8,904.0 million (2007-08)[3]

Annual revenue

Vessels handled 2,181 (2010-2011)
Capacity
Website

Cargoes: 55.75 million tonnes (2008-09)[4]
Containers: 2 million TEUs[5]
www.chennaiport.gov.in

Chennai Port from the air
Chennai Port, formerly known as Madras Port, is the second largest port of India, behind
the Mumbai Port, and the largest port in the Bay of Bengal. Being the third oldest port among
the 12 major ports of India, it is over 125 years old, although maritime trade started way back
in 1639 on the sea shore. It is an artificial and all-weather port with wet docks. It was a major
travel port before becoming a major container port. It is a substantial reason for the economic
growth of Tamil Nadu, especially for the manufacturing boom in South India, and has
contributed in no small measure to the development of the city. It is due of the existence of
the port that the city of Chennai became known as the Gateway of South India. The port with
3 docks, 24 berths and draft ranging from 12 to 16.5 m (39 to 54.1 ft) has become a hub port
for containers, cars and project cargo in the east coast of India. From handling a meagre
volume of cargo in the early years, consisting chiefly of imports of oil and motors and the
export of groundnuts, granite and ores, the port has moved towards handling 60 million
tonnes of cargo in recent years. An ISO 14001:2004 and ISPS-certified port, its container
traffic crossed 1 million twenty-foot equivalent units (TEUs) for the first time in 2008. It is
currently ranked the 86th largest container port in the world and is expanding in the coming
years with the capacity going up to 140 million tonnes per annum.[6][7] Chennai Port has been
transformed into a main line port having direct connectivity to 50+ ports.

Contents
[hide]




1 History
2 Location and geography
3 Traffic growth
4 Port layout and infrastructure
5 Terminals
o 5.1 Container terminals
o 5.2 Ro-ro car terminal

3 Cruise terminal 6 Operations 7 Auxiliary functions o 7.2 Disease control 8 Connectivity o 8. the Portuguese built the São Tomé harbour. the British expanded the occupation by building the Fort St. The ancient town of Mylapore. George and establishing a colony on the site of the future port of Madras. Damarla Venkatadri Nayakudu. However. administrative. was an important port of the Pallavas and is now part of Chennai. the region surrounding the present-day port remained an important centre for military.1 Extra-port connectivity o 8. Thomas. the Chola. and in 1940.[8] Chief among them was the Pallava dynasty.5.[9][10][11][12] In 1522. the Pandya. the Pallava. the British East India Company bought a three-mile long strip of land lying along the coast between the Cooum delta and the Egmore River encompassing an area of about five square kilometres from the Vijayanagara King Peda Venkata Rayalu. and the Vijayanagara empires. and economic activities since the 1st century AD under various South Indian dynasties.[14] In 1746.[17] The British era Oil tanks on fire in the Madras Harbour following the bombardment by German light cruiser Emden on 22 September 1914 .[15][16] The British then strengthened the fort to defend the port not only from the French but also from the increasingly powerful Sultan of Mysore and other regional rulers. The region also attracted many distant civilisations. named after St. with the Christian apostle St. under the leadership of Admiral La Bourdonnais. In 1639. the Dutch arriving at Pulicat in 1613 and the British arriving in 1639.1 Meteorological functions o 7.3 Pipelines 9 Natural disasters 10 Lights and lighthouses 11 The future 12 Sister ports 13 See also 14 References 15 External links o           [edit] History Before 1800s Although the settlement of Madras did not form until after the mid-17th century. the British built a warehouse and factory on the site. known to Roman traders as "Meliapor". namely. the fort and surrounding villages. French forces captured and plundered Madras. which reigned from the 6th to 9th centuries AD.2 Intra-port connectivity o 8. they returned the town along with the port to the British under the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748.[13] Soon obtaining permission from the regional ruler. The following years saw the arrival of other Europeans. namely. Thomas having preached in the area between 52 and 70 AD. on the site of today's port and the São Tomé church on the grave of Saint Thomas.

again the storm of 12 November 1881 completely washed the almost-completed harbour. especially during World War II. becoming an important naval base and urban center. swept by occasional storms and monsoons. resulting in the death of at least 5 sailors. George in Chennai. SMS Emden. which is based within the Chennai Port premises. the port was well connected to the other two important cities in the British colony. the storms of 1868 and 1872 made the initial piers inoperative.[24] In 1904. shelled the oil depot within the port belonging to the Burmah Oil Company and raided vessels in 1914 disrupting trade. the year of rebuilding. and cargo was delivered to and from the shore in masula boats[20][21] and catamarans. which reduced the draft. At the time. and the pier was rebuilt in 1885. most of the southern region of India had been conquered by the British and Madras was established as the capital of the Madras Presidency. the five west quay berths between 1916 and 1920. The port was also the only operational one in eastern waters during the Second World War.By the late 18th century. A port at Madras was first suggested by Warren Hastings in 1770 when he was posted here. later christened Dr.[23] However. Ambedkar Dock. the harbour office building was constructed. major improvements took place in the port under the stewardship of the visionary Sir Francis Spring. and a 335 m (1. the north quay in 1931 and the South Quay II in 1936. and the port started handling ships inside the harbour from 1881. Being an artificial harbour. The cargo operations were carried out on the northern pier. as the starting year. In 1877. In the first couple of years the port registered traffic of 300. Work on the harbour was completed in 1911. who later became the first Governor General of India.[19][22] In 1916. it was not until the 1850s that work began on a pier to berth vessels following suggestions from the Madras Chamber of Commerce and Industry.[23] A plaque near Madras High Court From 1905 to 1919. construction of the south pier was commenced with stones brought from Pallavaram.[22] Cargo losses were high. although there was a demand for relocating the entrance. The first railway line in South India was laid between Madras and Arcot which started operating in 1856.099 ft) iron-screw pile pier capable of berthing larger vessels was built perpendicular to the shore in 1861. Bombay (Mumbai) and Calcutta (Kolkata). The port's quays (berths) were constructed at different periods—the South Quay I in 1913.000 tonnes of cargo handling 600 ships.[23] Chennai was the only Indian city to be attacked by the Central Powers during World War I[25] when a German cruiser.[19] The Chennai Port Trust has taken the year 1881. after closing the original eastern entrance. located on the northeastern side of Fort St. Till 1815. the first chairman on the Madras Port Trust who was responsible for Chennai becoming a trading hub. the natural harbor was so shallow that ships had to anchor over 1 km (0.[22] In 1911. the port was vulnerable to cyclones and accretion of sand inside the basin due to underwater currents. the port flourished under British rule.[18] During this period. However. in the Inner Harbour. was founded by Sir Francis Joseph Edward Spring. it was an open roadstead and exposed sandy coast. [23] An artificial harbour was then built and the operations were started in 1881. the Royal Madras Yacht Club (RMYC).[19] However. a new northeastern entrance was added to control siltation in the basin. So the masonry work for L-shaped breakwaters was started in 1876. breaching over half a mile of breakwater. To .62 mi) offshore. viz. By the late 19th century.

the terminal is ranked among the top 100 container ports in the world. the Jawahar dock with capacity to berth 6 vessels to handle dry bulk cargoes such as coal. renamed as Tamil Nadu in 1969.[4] During the same period. In 1991. and a 6. one of the three such facility in the country. iron ore. named Bharathi Dock. In 1972. the first oil jetty was constructed at Bharathi Dock-I capable of handling tankers up to 100.[30] To meet the demand in container handling. By the end of 1920. when India gained independence. Chennai became the capital of the Madras State. construction of signal station at north quay was completed. for handling petroleum in 1972 and for mechanized handling of iron ore in 1974.250 ft) quay. with a capacity of handling 8 million tonnes and a loading rate of 6.[28] The iron ore terminal is equipped with mechanized ore-handling plant commissioned in 1977 at Bharathi Dock-II capable of handling ore carriers of maximum size 1. a passenger station on the first floor of the transit shed at north quay was commissioned. a 51.2% share of container traffic in India. fertilizer and non-hazardous liquid cargoes was created on the southern side changing the topography of the port.[23] In the same year. The shifting of the entrance of the port from eastern side to the northeastern side protected the port to a large extent from the natural vulnerabilities.000 sq ft) container freight station.[27] In 1947. Having the capability of handling fourth-generation vessels. which was commissioned by the then prime minister Indira Gandhi on 18 December 1983 as the country's first dedicated container terminal facility. Chennai Port began handling containerized cargoes. Post-Independence Post-Independence. This oil terminal is capable of handling Suezmax vessels. In November 2001. both artificial and natural.000 tonnes per hour.000-square-metre (550.904 ft). the port's Jawahar Dock was inaugurated by the then prime minister of India. who assumed charge as the chief engineer of the port in 1906. In 1983. The terminal was provided with towshore cranes and other shore facilities. The second oil jetty was added at Bharathi Dock-III in 1986 capable of handling tankers up to 140. which was working directly under the Ministry of Shipping till the establishment of the Directorate General of Shipping at Mumbai in 1949. In the 1970s. a container terminal was built at the Bharathi Dock with a 380-metre (1. the port developed the outer harbour.[26] Additional berths were added in the 1940s with a berth at south quay and another between WQ2 and WQ3. In 1964. In 1959.2 m (53 ft) draft. the port recorded a 17. To handle vessels with as much as 16.45. the Mercantile Marine Department. the port's container terminal quay was lengthened by 220 m (720 ft) with two additional tow shore cranes.[28] In 1974. the container terminal and back-up area was privatized through a 30-year concession with Chennai Container Terminal Private Limited.000 sq ft) container yard. the iron ore berth was added to the port for exports to Japan and other countries in the Far East. Lal Bahadur Shastri. bringing the total berth length to 885-metre (2. containerisation started in India in a limited way with the creation of interim container handling facilities at Mumbai and Cochin ports in 1973.000 DWT. . Sir Francis Spring. In 1929.000-square-metre (65.[29] During 2008-09. the port had a dock consisting of four berths in the west quays.[28] The port's share of iron ore export from India is 12 per cent.charter the course of the port development. In 1961. the development of the port gained momentum. The year 1946 saw the establishment of the Port Health Organisation. one each in the east and south quay along with the transit sheds. Continually increasing container traffic resulted in another 285-metre (935 ft) extension of the quay in 2002. warehouses and a marshalling yard to facilitate the transfer of cargo from land to sea and vice versa.000 DWT to handle imports of crude oil destined for the Manali Oil Refinery (later named the Chennai Petroleum Corporation Limited). The dedicated facility for oil led to the development of oil refinery in the hinterland. drew a long-term plan in a scientific manner to overcome challenges.000 DWT to meet increasing demands for crude oil and petroleum products. was established to implement the first SOLAS and Load Line conventions.

[31] When the city of Madras was renamed as Chennai in 1996. the coast north of the harbour has been experiencing erosion at the rate of about 8 m annually.914 m to 1. taking many lives and permanently altering the coastline.219 m at spring and from 0.40 of the Indian peninsula known as the Coromandel Coast in the Bay of Bengal. the region surrounding the port falls under Seismic Zone III indicating a moderate risk of earthquake. Occasionally. wave setup.the port is added with the second container terminal with a capacity to handle 1. The port gets most of its seasonal rainfall from the northeast monsoon winds. The mean tidal range varies from 0.805 m to 0. wind setup.40 0.10 1.[33] The change in water levels combined due to astronomical tide.000 m with respect to the original shoreline in 1876. the Madras Port Trust followed suit and was renamed as Chennai Port Trust.10 0.57 m. [23] The 2004 tsunami devastated the shores of the port. About 350 ha land in the coast north of the . the port began to handle pure-carcarrier shipments of automobiles. the port was responsible for the shoreline changes in the region. with temperatures ranging from a maximum of 42°C in May to a minimum of 18°C in January. 10 m and 5 m depth contours. The climate is tropical. barometric pressure. The full project will be completed by 2017. the 200 m naval berth was given for 30-year lease. the weather is hot and humid. The shoreline has recessed by about 1. In 2000. 1. The depth of the draft is up to 17 m. and the soil in the entrance channel is predominantly sandy and silt. respectively.00 0.2 m (3 ft 11 in). The port is bordered by the Cooum delta in the south and Royapuram fishing harbour in the north.8 m at 15 m. which prevents extreme variation in seasonal temperature.50 1.[35][36] Ever since the harbour was constructed. specifically tropical wet and dry. In 2003. whereas the coast in the northern region has undergone severe erosion. [edit] Location and geography Main article: Geography of Chennai Chennai Port lies on a flat coastal plain known as the Eastern Coastal Plains on the east coast Height (m)[32] Tide Highest high water Mean high water spring Mean high water neap Mean sea level Mean low water neap Mean low water spring Mean spring range Mean neap range 1. The port is also planning a mega container terminal.54 0.68 m and 1. and for most of the year.5 million TEUs. resulting in the formation of the Marina Beach. The port is situated on the thermal equator and is also coastal. when the first phase of the project will be completed.80 0. It is estimated that 500 m of beach has been lost between 1876 and 1975 and another 200 m between 1978 and 1995. The port was developed into the sea by reclaiming land as there is no sheltered harbour.[32] The most prevailing winds in the region are the southwesterly between April and October[34] and the northeasterly during the rest of the year. Situated on a coast that constitutes chiefly of sandy shelving breaker-swept beaches. Historically. cyclones in the Bay of Bengal hit the coast. capable of handling 4 million TEUs per annum expected to be operational from 2013. and the spring tides are up to 1.610 m at neap tides. where the area south of the port has accreted significantly. The annual rainfall in the region is about 1250 mm. seiches and global sea level rise are estimated as 1. from mid-September to mid-December.

06 61. In 2010-11. the cargo handled in Madras port varied from 0.20 per cent and has set a target to handle 75 million tonnes in 2011-12 and 100 million tonnes in 2015-16.[43] During 2009-10.25 53.15 57.14 million TEUs in the previous fiscal.25 million tonnes in 2005-06. Chennai and Tuticorin. The annual growth for container volumes handled by the Chennai port during the last 5 years till 2009-10 was 13 to 14 per cent.port is lost into sea. However.[42] The port annually handles nearly 20 million tonnes of both coal (8 million tonnes) and iron ore (12 million tonnes).00 million tonnes during the previous fiscal. By 1991-92.000 TEUs and with the commissioning of the third mega container terminal being planned.000.71 43. following the transfer of coal shipments to the neighbouring . a 25 per cent growth over the previous year. the port handled 61.19 million TEUs in 2008. In 2010-11. the traffic touched 10 million tonnes and increased to 15 million tonnes in 1984-85. the capacity would go up to 8.81 47.6 36. the area south of the port is increasing 40 sq m every year due to the progradation.[40] The terminal's throughput has increased from around 829. despite the recession.66 per cent increase over the previous fiscal. the port handled 61.49 million tonnes in 2008-09 marking an increase of 6.[44] The car exports from this port touched 273. Though there was a slump in the next three years. while the average annual container growth in Indian ports is in the order of 8%.46 million tonnes. touching 41 million tonnes in 2000-01. The growth increased to 25 per cent during 2010-11.000 TEUs in 2006 to around 1. In 2009-10.51 million tonnes against a target of 64.523 million TEUs.000. the largest growth rate among the top three container ports comprising JNPT. a 0. 10.49 61.000 TEUs.[38] the port recovered to handle 47. The second terminal handled over 300.46 million tonnes.[41] Crane productivity has been improved from 22 moves per hour per quay crane in 2006 to over 27 in 2009. the volume was 25 million tonnes. the port for a brief period of time suspended shipping food grain. By 1979-80. the container traffic from the first terminal reached 1.[39] The target set for the port for 2010-11 is 65.000 TEUs during the calendar year 2010—up from 26.14 per cent more than the previous year's 248.06 million tonnes of cargo against 57.[36] [edit] Traffic growth From 1881 to 1945.[32] On the other hand.697 units. Due to excessive pollution from coal dust.[45] This is primarily due to capacity addition with the second terminal commencing operations coupled with new services starting to call the Chennai port. The port currently has the capacity to handle 3. mainly due to the transfer of about 9 million tonnes of thermal coal to the Ennore port.216 million TEUs against 1.917 units in 2009-10.1 33. this increased to 1.5 million tonnes to 1 Cargo (million tonnes)[37] Year 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 36.41 57.000 TEUs handled in the 3 months of operations since start up in 2009.

3 m (900 ft) in length with maximum permissible draft of 16. in the 3 docks. pellets.1 ft).5–12 m (28–39 ft). The dock has . handling of food grain was resumed after about 9 years in 2003. whereas Berths 8.132 502 308 559 812 2. The port hopes to handle 4 million tonnes of food grain annually over the next few years. Berth No. edible oil.. Berths 18 and 19 are naval berths.6 m (48 ft).5 m (31 ft).700 m (22. Jawahar Dock has 6 berths. Berth 14 is 179 m (587 ft) long with maximum draft of 9. Dr.9 m (54 to 1.2 m (3. cars. The dock mainly handles coal.181 A panoramic view of the container terminal at the port [edit] Port layout and infrastructure Chennai port was the second smallest in the country measured by surface area. Ambedkar Dock. and the turning basin is 560 m (1. The Bharathi Dock contains three berths with total quay length of 917.310 m (4. and half of them have maximum draft of 10.5 m (39–54.6 m (560 ft) and have maximum draft of 11 m (36 ft). granite steel. viz. and phosperic acid. fertilizer. 7 is 198 m (650 ft) long with maximum draft of 8. Bharathi Dock has 3 berths (for oil and iron ore).4 m (34 ft). The dock has car and cruise terminals and chiefly handles general cargo. All berths are 218. The Dr.840 ft) in length. central and south zones and fishing harbours.Ennore Port since 2002. and food grains. Ambedkar Dock has 13 berths with a total length of 1. The berths can handle containers as well as liquid and dry bulk and breakbulk cargoes. Dr.[48] Chennai port area is divided into north. including 21 deep-drafted berths and 2 oil jetties. through 12 are each 170. of berths 16 7 23 The Jawahar Dock has six berths with a total length of 1. encompassing only 274 hectares. the container terminal has 3 berths and the moorings has 1 berth.499 ft) and maximum permissible drafts from 8. and Bharathi Dock along with the container terminal.5 m (28 ft). The approach channel to the port is 6.5 m (31 ft).112 ft) in length with maximum draft of 14. and draft ranging from 12–16.300 ft) and maximum permissible draft of 10.000 ft) long. The longest berth is 246 m (807 ft) long with maximum draft of 9. Ambedkar Dock has 12 berths.676 m (5.078 2009-10 2010-11 494 446 489 703 2. with berths ranging from 274.[46] The following table lists the number of vessels handled in the past:[47] Commodity Liquid bulk Dry bulk Break bulk Containers Total 2008-09 441 441 486 710 2.[50] A total of 9 well-lit channels marks buoys for the approach channel.009 ft).4 m (34 ft) and 11 m (36 ft). Region Inner harbour Outer harbour Total Water spread 218 acres 200 acres 418 acres Land area 413 acres 100 acres 513 acres No.[49] The port has 26 alongside berths.5 to 338.3 m (716 ft). iron ore lumps. Satabt Jawahar Dock.

namely. and POL (petroleum.three terminals. and oil terminal. iron ore terminal. It mainly handles containers. oil and lubricants).[23] . iron ore. container terminal.

00 8.00 09.33 11.00 5950.94 14. Transit shed attached Transit shed attached Transit shed attached 218.00 16.0 12.60 12.00 11 WQ-3 General 170.0 60. Jawahar Dock Dr.50 23 CT-1 Containers 200.60 12.00 bulk General 170.50 4 JD-2 5 6 JD-4 JD-6 Coal/other liquid bulk Coal Other ores/coal 7 NQ Passenger/general 8 WQ-1 9 WQ-2 Container Terminal Approach Channel 218.5 m up to 810 m 140.00 13.50 2 JD-3 Food grains/general 218.00 20 BD-1 Oil 338.00 SQ-1 Fertilizer/general SQ-2 Fertilizer/general 2nd CT-1 2nd CT-2 2nd CT-3 Naval Berth 18 North Naval Berth 19 South 246.50 22 BD-2 Iron ore 274.0 m on HW subject to the vessel reducing the draft to permissible draft of the berth below low tide.33 11.33 11.33 11.00 560.00 13.00 12.40 285.40 Zone II to Zone VII Turning Circle 12.0 12.50 10 CB Zone I Remarks General/other liquid 170.00 13.00 12 WQ-4 Fertilizer/general 170.00 198.00 ---- 9. Ambedkar Dock Name of berth Type 1 JD-1 Food grains/general 218.40 25 CT-3 26 CT-4 Containers Containers 200.00 13 14 15 16 17 Bharathi Dock (oil & iron ore) Length Permissible (m) draft (m) Transit shed attached 11 m up to 795 m.50 12.00 179. 9.Dock/Terminal No.40 24 CT-2 Containers 200.33 11.00 218.60 12.00 17.60 11.60 11.0 21 BD-3 Oil 304.50 3 JD-5 Food grains/general 218.00 750.00 13.33 11.50 General 170. Between extreme dolphins Container freight station Container freight station .0 m during HW.32 16.50 9.

600 3.450 12.[51] The container terminal has four berths with a total quay length of 885 m (2.4 m (44 ft).2 mi) and back-up area of around 100 ha (250 acres). Berth BD2 can accommodate ore carriers up to 280. This has a volume growth of 20 per cent per year and has 59 per cent of the market share of South India. Australia and the United States. The terminal would be the first deep-water terminal of its kind in India and would be able to handle ultra-large container ships of 13.30. and a third berth can handle tankers up to 280. The terminal contains 24 container freight stations with warehouse storage and offers 24-hr customs inspection and clearance facilities.000-15. is also located at the Bharathi Dock. Thailand.000 dead weight tonnage (DWT).25. The oil terminals have capacity to handle 12 million tons of cargo per year and to pump 3.000 tons of petroleum products per hour.960 ground slots and 240 reefer plug points. 12 8 6 2 Area (sq. Berth BD1 can accommodate ships to 108.000 TEUs capacity and length exceeding 400 m (1.000 DWT. Two new breakwaters for a total length of 4 km (2.000 The port handles a variety of cargo including iron ore. The terminal's separate receiving and shipping lines can function as an interconnected system. and the berths have pipelines to convey crude oil. automobiles and several other types of general cargo items.000 DWT. With capacity to handle fifth-generation container vessels. Operated by Chennai Container Terminal Private Limited.[35] It is going through an expansion and will have a depth of 18– 22 m (59–72 ft). which can handle 6 million tons per year and can load iron ore at a rate of 6. granite. and West Africa. The berths are served by seven quay cranes.4 m (920 ft) and 140. the Mediterranean region. white oil.000 metric tons. containers. The container yard has 3.m) 65.1 m (355 ft) long. petroleum products. Due to the increase in container traffic. Myanmar.4 m (920 ft) in length. and one is 285 m (935 ft) long. the container terminal has capacity for 950.000 tons of crude oil and 1. The container terminal has direct services to Europe. a second container terminal was planned and tender works given to PSA Sical.[55] The management of the container terminal was taken over by P&O Ports of Australia. Malaysia.300 ft). a continuous quay length of 2 km (1. Thailand. China.[54] It has asked for support for a mega container terminal.5 mi) will be . It has services to Singapore. The terminal is served by rail lines and includes an ore stock yard with capacity for 544. and 24 gantry cranes. Sri Lanka.000 tons per hour. China.000 TEUs.000 43. fertilizers. including five super-post-Panamax and two post-Panamax cranes. high tide as the per the present navigational practice and also during night hours subject to fulfilment of safety considertions on a ship-to-ship basis.The oil terminals at the port's Bharathi Dock (BD1 and BD3) can accommodate tankers to 100. Each berth is equipped with five marine loading arms. three of the four berths are 200 m (660 ft) long. The port handles Suezmax tankers of up to a draft of 17 m at BD3 during day light.686 36.[52] The warehousing and storage capacity available at the port is as follows:[53] Type Covered Warehouses Transit sheds Covered area for FCI Container freight stations Open Open space Container parking area Nos. Korea. The port has a current depth of 17 m (56 ft) and is capable of handling fourth-generation vessels up to 150. Europe. The iron ore terminal. and furnace oil. Korea. the United States.000 1.904 ft) and maximum permissible draft of 13. Mediterranean. coal.

NYK.[65] It presently has four mainline services with direct connectivity to Mediterranean. with a combined capacity to handle 2. The terminal has an on-site rail track.[56] The terminal will have a continuous quay length of 2 km (1. Penang. Singapore. The approach channel to the port has two sections—the entrance channel within the protection of outer arm and the outer channel beyond the protection of outer arm. Vizag. PIL and several regional container lines. West Africa. channel length of 6. The terminal crossed the "one million TEU" mark in 2007. and yard stacking area covers 17 hectares (42 acres). CCT is managed under a 30 year buildoperate-transfer agreement set up with the Chennai Port Trust of the Government of India. The two terminals loaded 1. 240 reefer plugs.[63] It enjoys a quay length of 885 m (2.2 m. up from 886.6 m and 19. The operator has also taken over from Chennai Port 4 quay cranes. Yangon and Port Blair. it has strategic importance as 3 service berths are allotted to the Indian Navy. The operator has invested around US$128 million to get new equipment at the terminal. At present.[57] The entrance is 350 m in Bharathi Dock and 125 m in Dr.[65] It is one of the fastest growing terminals in India with a CAGR of 20 per cent. Both the terminals have daily trains to Inland Container Depots (ICDs).000 TEUs. respectively. Port Klang. Ambedkar Dock.400 TEU and has direct services to China.[58][59][60] The port is served by various container liner services. CCT is connected to 50+ ports .2 mi) with 18–22 m (59–72 ft) side along draft. Vietnam. Maersk Line. run separately by DP World Pvt. Europe.1 hectares. it handled 1. 3 reach stackers. The mega terminal will be built on a 100-hectare (250-acre) portion of this land. the third one at the port.[35] [edit] Terminals [edit] Container terminals The port has two container terminals.904 ft) and has 4 berths with an alongside depth of 13.[61] Chennai Container Terminal Chennai Container Terminal (CCT) is the first container terminal in Chennai port built in 1983.000 containers a year earlier. The total terminal area covers 21. The terminal is capable of handling fifth generation vessels up to 6. The container terminal was privatized in 2001 and is operated by DP World since 30 November 2001 with a capacity of 1. There are plans to build a mega container terminal.700 m (22. then maintains a constant width of 305 m.860 million. capable of handling ultra-large container ships carrying over 15. with a swell allowances of 3 m. with private funds worth 36.constructed — one as extension of the existing outer arm and the other extending from the fishing harbor breakwater. Ltd and Singapore's PSA International Pte Ltd. and 2 top lifters and one empty container handler. The width of channel gradually increased from 244 m to 419 m at the bent portion. K Line. The mainline services are complemented by seven weekly feeder services and one coastal service to Colombo. The consequent silting will reclaim about 300 ha (740 acres) of land.2 m (63 ft). China and Korea. Europe and the United States. 7 quay cranes with Super Post Panamax handling capacity and 24 rubber-tyred gantry cranes (RTGs) form part of the inventory. Presently. Thailand. This will help it handle the latest generation vessels.4 m (44 ft). The total length of the entrance channel is 7 km. The depth of the inner and the outer channels are 18.11 million standard containers between April and December 2010. height (ISLW to Top of Cope) of 34 m (112 ft). The draught in the navigational channel is maintained by dredging approximately 1 million cubic metres annually. namely.2 million TEUs. below chart datum.000 ft) and channel depth of 19.[62] In 2011.12 million TEUs. MOL. 10 RTGs.[64] CCT is ranked at the 79th position among the top 100 container terminals in the world. Though the port is largely a container port.8 million standard containers a year.[33] It has a berth productivity of 22 moves per hour and an average turnaround of 26 hours. APL. respectively.

000 sq ft) of land and includes a 300 m long. SCB2 and SCB3. The port handled 65 car carriers compared with 40 in the previous year. would cater to other car exporters also[75] and is expected to be completed by the end of 2012. capable of lifting two 20-ft containers per move. Ford Motor Co. The Chennai port facility is expected to be on the lines of its Ulsan Port.971 in the previous year. The export terminal at the Chennai port would cater to its total export target of 300.000 sq ft). built at a cost of about US$110 million.37. and Ford. With the addition of 4 post-Panamax quay cranes.000 m2 (110.. operates within the port offering such services as inspection.[66] Chennai International Terminal Chennai International Container Terminal view from the Marina Beach Chennai International Terminal Pvt Ltd (CITPL) is the second container terminal that started operations from June 22.[70] [71] [edit] Ro-ro car terminal Dubbed the Detroit of Asia. which would be 50 per cent of its total production by 2009-10.[73] Hyundai Motor India is coming up with a first-of-its-kind dedicated automobile terminal at the Chennai port. After Hyundai.[65] A container freight station. Ford has decided to move exports to Chennai Port by 2010. the terminal offers an annual capacity of 1. 30 m wide. LCL de-stuffing and delivery of import cargo.. the port shipped nearly 274. 2009 with berths SCB1.000 cars each. where one ship load of cars can be stacked.[68][69] Once fully commissioned. It is believed that the terminal would basically cater to its export of compact cars from India. The company has plans to develop the land into a dedicated terminal to serve as an export base. it now has 7 rail-mounted quay crane (RMQC). [72] Car export (mainly Hyundai) increased by 80. Renault SA. Nissan Motor Co.000 vehicles annually.697 during 200809 as against 1.500 m2 (70.730 ft).[67] With 35 ha (86 acres) of yard space and three berths with a total quay length of 832 m (2. the port have started attracting global manufacturers like Mahindra. The build-operatetransfer facility.500. CCT has plans to invest 1 billion to install two quay cranes. It would have two six-storey multi-level dedicated parking yard for 6.worldwide.000 cars. Chennai is base to several international car makers. being developed at a cost of 800 million. is a joint venture between PSA International and Chennai-based Sical Logistics Ltd. from where it exports half of Korea's 1. and 12 m deep ro-ro berth. Toyota. [edit] Cruise terminal .48. would be spread over 10. estimated at a cost of 400 million. In 2009. 6 reach stacker and 120 reefer plugs. and 8 RTGs.[74] The terminal.000 cars. Hyundai Motor Co. 18 RTGs.5 m (51 ft). CITPL would be able to accommodate 8. with a covered area of 6. namely.5 million TEUs. 10 per cent more than the previous year.[30] The port is now the number one ro-ro car terminal in the country.. The new terminal.000-TEU vessels with drafts up to 15.25 per cent to touch 2. coming up at the southern end of the container terminal. Daimler AG and BMW AG.

[28] The conveyor system is expected to remain functional for about 5 years. the port has installed wind curtains made of ultraviolet resistant fabric along the harbour's beachfront for over 1.7 million.[77] The country's first cruise ship. AMET Majesty. Karnataka Power Corporation. This jetty is used exclusively by Indian Oil Corporation for bunkering of Navy. [78][79] [edit] Operations The port handles around 8 million tonnes of coal for clients such as the Andhra Pradesh State Cargo-Handling Equipments Locos (diesel) Chittaranjan BHEL loco Diesel/electric loco Mobile cranes Fork lift trucks Floating crane Electrical forklift trucks Pay loaders Shore electric cranes Transfer cranes Tractor head Container quay cranes (35. namely.0 m.Chennai Port is one of the five major ports in the country that have been identified by the Ministry of Shipping for development of cruise terminals. Mumbai and Mangalore. as part of pollution-control measure.5T/40T capacity) Toplift trucks (25T and 35T capacity) Trailors Crawler-mounted cranes Empty container handler Reach stackers 10T/3T FLT Total Units 8 10 2 12 55 1 24 7 25 10 34 4 5 32 3 1 3 7 Electricity Board. till Ennore Port is ready to handle coal for all the clients. Cochin. Coal discharged into the hoppers located at the two docks is conveyed to coal plots through conveyors or tripper cars and is equipped with belt weigher. at a cost of 430 million to transfer the coal to the individual coal plots at the southern end of the port. On an average.[80][81] Bunkering at the port is currently carried out through the barge jetty in the extreme northern end of the Bharathi Dock.5 to 3. seven to eight cruise vessels dock in the port each year. cement plants of Tamil Nadu and independent power producers in northern Tamil Nadu and southern Andhra Pradesh. the port has also installed a semi-mechanised closed coal conveyor system comprising two streams with a capacity of 15 million metric tons/annum and a handling rated capacity of 1. thus preventing pollution from coal dust and eliminating movement of coalcarrying trucks within the port. This is a 30 m temporary facility with a draft of 2.500 metric tons/hour/stream and running for a length of 5 km at two berths. In 2005. is registered in Chennai and is set to start from Chennai on 8 June 2011.[76] The port has a passenger cruise terminal in the West Quay. In 2008. Coast Guard. Jawahar Dock IV and VI. bulk . The coal handling for the Tamil Nadu Electricity Board was transferred to the Ennore Port. the other four being Goa. from where the cargo will be transported by rail to respective destinations.5 km to the east of the coal terminal to prevent wind carrying coal dust into the city at a cost of 3. The conveyor runs at an elevation of 10–13 m and has provision for longitudinal movement along the road to the plots and transverse movement for stacking coal at individual plots.

[49] [edit] Connectivity [edit] Extra-port connectivity The foundation stone for the 6. The radar scans the atmosphere within a radius of 500 km. has been under implementation for the past 10 years. Indian Navy and foreign agencies through which meteorological observations from the ocean area are collected on real-time basis for operational forecasting and climatological purpose.[87] As of 2011. Mumbai. the scale of rates and facilities available at the port.500 million would be contributed each by the National Highways Authority of India and the Chennai Port Trust while 582 million would come from the Tamil Nadu government and rest by Ennore Port Ltd.[83] In the same year. The project envisages improvement of a 30. the other ports being Kolkata. which is handled by the Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation (CDSCO).[91] The India Meteorological Department (IMD) maintains Voluntary Observing Fleet (VOF) through the Port Meteorological Office comprising ships of Merchant Navy.[89] It is located atop the building at a height of about 53 m above sea level in a dome weighing 18 tonnes. the Indian government agreed to lift restrictions on concessionary Sri Lankan tea and apparel exports at the port. All dusty cargo such as coal and iron ore will be allotted to the Ennore Port. the Madras High Court directed the Shipping Secretary that only clean cargo such as containers and cars be allotted to the port for handling from 1 October 2011. the demand for bunker has outpaced the supply of infrastructure needed for bunkering in recent years. The Ennore Manali Road Improvement Project (EMRIP) is expected to be completed in 2 years.1-kilometre (18.7 mi) road network in north Chennai that connects all the container freight station . ship deratting and overall supervision of mosquito control is undertaken by the Port Health Organisation.[48] Over 5. a fully automated.[88] [edit] Auxiliary functions [edit] Meteorological functions The cyclone detection radar station of the Southern Regional Meteorological Centre is located at the Centenary Building.[93] Of the total cost of 6.[84] On 11 May 2011. Antimosquito measures are undertaken by the Port Trust while the issuance of yellow fever certificates. Nhava Sheva. However. 2.[27] Mosquito control in the port area is being undertaken by two agencies. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. the administrative building of the port. functioning under the Director General of Health Services. Kochi and Kandla ports. Chennai. the Chennai Port Trust and the Port Health Organisation. Government of India.000-million Chennai Port-Ennore road connectivity project was laid in January 2011. was established.000 container trucks move through the port every day. round-the-clock helpline for providing information on the ships berthed and waiting.[92] [edit] Disease control The Port Health Organisation.000 million. cargo movement to the port is increasing by 21 per cent. the number of containers coming into the port has dropped by 30 per cent in the same year.[85][86] The port is one of the six ports in India through which drugs are permitted to be imported.[82] In 2007. EMRIP.carriers and container ships—both coastal and foreign ships. However. namely.[90] The Port Meteorological Office also functions from the same building. which was conceived in 1998. the first of its kind in the country. was established in 1946 with an objective of preventing entry of yellow fever and other quarantinable and communicable diseases from abroad.

The work at the Maduravoyal end began in December 2010.5 km with a minimum width of 6 m and a maximum width of 26 m. 9 km (5. The project is expected to be completed by end of 2013. It would run along the banks of the Cooum up to Koyambedu and would end along the Cooum near the Koyambedu grade separator. 10 of the Chennai Port near the War Memorial and ends before Maduravoyal Interchange. Dr. the exit points would be provided on Spurtank Road and Kamaraj Salai. Manmohan Singh.6 mi) of Thiruvotriyur Ponneri Pancheti Road. The project is being implemented on a build. In January 2009.handling containers for Chennai port.1 km (5.[95][96] The project completion is expected by June 2013. 5. The project cost then was put at 14. own and transfer mode.4 mi) long. The expressway starts from Gate No.500 million but was revised due to addition of service road to the four lanes of Thiruvottiyur-Pooneri-Panchetti road. the Prime Minister.6 km (0.99 mi) of Chennai Port Trust Fishing Harbour Road. 3.300 people have been rehabilitated at Okkiam Thoraipakkam.550 million.[53] Chennai Beach Railway Station with Chennai Port in the background . About 1. 20-metre (66 ft) wide elevated road project connecting the port with Maduravoyal is under construction at a cost of 16.680 million.100 million has been set aside for land acquisition and rehabilitation and resettlement of nearly 7. From there for a distance of three km up to Maduravoyal the elevated expressway would come up on Poonamallee High Road.[98] The project has got the environment clearance in February 2011.4 km (3. provision of underpass on Ennore Expressway Road and drainage on Manali Oil Refinery Road besides escalation of cost during the intervening period.[94] The original cost of the project was 1. This includes 6 km (3. this will be the country's longest four-way elevated expressway. While the entry ramps would come up on Sivananda Salai and College Road. Of the total project cost of 16.4 mi) of Manali Oil Refinery Road.[99] [edit] Intra-port connectivity The total port roads run to a length of 27.3-kilometre (11. Upon completion.550 million. There would be a total of four entry and exit ramps as part of the project. and during the same month. 8. The project was sanctioned in June 2007 when the Tamil Nadu Government gave its 'in principle' approval to the National Highway Authority of India (NHAI) for the elevated expressway. Of 30 hectares to be acquired for the project. only 2 hectares belong to private owners. the port handed over a cheque for 500 million to the NHAI as part of its contribution to the project.7 mi) of Ennore Expressway.0 mi) of the northern segment of Inner Ring Road.400 people living along the project area. in addition to shore protection measures comprising 13 groins along the Ennore coast. laid the foundation stone for the project but the project was put on hold for want of environment clearance.[97] An 18. and 1.

This was in addition to the loss due to waiving of marine charges owing to the disaster.[102] [edit] Pipelines The port is connected to the Chennai Petroleum Corporation's (CPCL) refinery in Manali via a 30-inch-diameter pipeline. damaged the port's infrastructure. citing threats to habitation. nearly 150. internal railway lines are being augmented for the evacuation of containers from the port. the government has refused clearance to the project. one of the deadliest in the recorded history.[1] Every month. CPCL is planning to replace this with 42-inch-diameter pipeline at a cost of 1. including cranes.50.5 million cubic metres of sediments. Third and fourth railway lines are being developed by the Southern Railway to improve connectivity to the port and the rail share of container movement to 30 per cent from the current 7 per cent.[104] [edit] Natural disasters The Indian Ocean Tsunami of 26 December 2004. The beach is planned within the port's territory before the east breakwater on the seaside and would not be accessible to the public.[106] As a consequence of the tsunami. Other damages at the port include collision of three ships while being towed to deep sea resulting in the loss of about 1.6 million. 11 per cent of the containers arrived by train and the rest by road.8 mi) and handled 25 per cent of the total volume of the cargo. The high current generated by the tsunami waves dredged about 0. The port has broad gauge railway lines running up to 68. during which around 2.4 m-deep harbour by 1 to 2 m more. The port suspended operations for two days.360 rakes (239. Ambedkar Dock and the Barathi Dock. The port is one among the major ports having terminal shunting yard and running its own railway operations inside the harbour. The rest will be moved by road.[105] The total damage to property. As part of the port development. In addition. Some of the ships hit the wharves close to where they were berthed. especially along the Dr.[107] On the flip side. the port trust plans to create an artificial beach from left of the Cooum River (next to the Napier bridge) right up to fishing harbour in North Chennai covering about 10 km to protect the port from seaside from similar natural calamities. wharfs. the port is also planning to reclaim the land adjacent to the Cooum during the Tenth Plan. the depth of the entry channel. chiefly handling suburban trains on the Chennai BeachTambaram section of the Chennai Suburban Railway Network.The port is served by the Chennai Beach railway terminus in the Chennai Suburban Railway Network of the Southern Railway. The port suffered a loss of 30 million due to operational halt on 26th and 27 December 2004.260 million along the proposed Quadrilateral Road Network from Chennai Port to Ennore-Manali Highway. A bathymetry survey conducted by the National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT) to measure the depth of the sea has revealed the entry channel to the port has deepened enabling the berthing of vessels of deeper drafts.[103] However. of course.[106][108] .412 wagons) during 2009-10.000 container-laden vehicles (both import and export) transit through the port's only available gate (Zero Gate) at Royapuram.000 tonnes of container could not be serviced. 4. infrastructure and equipment at the port due to the tsunami stood at 129. Similarly. has deepened by a metre.[100][101] Per the 2004 statistics.4 to 0. which was 18. with trade of 15 vessels on sail and 10 vessels at berth affected. the disaster has made the port the deepest on the east coast. north of the port. had a devastating effect all over the region and. Rebuilding the entry channels and affected areas is expected to incur another 100 million.500 tonnes of sugar and damages to some of the cars that awaited export.6 m. moorings and some part of the ship channel and hindered the operations of the port for a brief period.8 km (42. which has deepened the 17.

the port will reclaim land by constructing groynes—rigid hydraulic structures built from an ocean shore that interrupt water flow and limit the movement of sediment. 11-storied triangular cylindrical concrete tower with lantern and double gallery. Although the plan to build a large-scale marina is at the proposal stage. The 24 m (79 ft) tall tower with a focal plane of 26 m (85 ft).75 km extension of the existing outer arm breakwater and a new northern breakwater of 1. with a 2.[113] The gigantic proportions will feature 2 km quay length in a straight line at the new outer harbour. expected to be the single largest terminal ever built in India. It was active from 1796 till 1844. red and green lights. flashing white. separate berths and other facilities to these sailors. Proposed components include ICD/off-dock CFS. [edit] The future A third box terminal has been approved by the Cabinet Committee on Infrastructure.800 million. automotive components and electronic hardware.000 TEUs and length of 400 m (1. Chennai is expected to handle 5 million TEUs by 2017. attached to a 3-story circular harbour-control building. Construction will take seven years to complete and the deep-water container terminal will have a capacity of 4 million TEU. Overall project completion is expected by 2018. The marina will provide lockers.[112] is to be developed north of existing Bharathi Dock with two new breakwaters (total length of 4.[63] The project will be the first deep-water terminal of its kind in India and can handle ultra-large container ships of capacity over 15. including land cost of 1. The port is the location of one of Chennai's earliest lighthouses—the entrance channel tower. This lighthouse. trade centre.[edit] Lights and lighthouses Main article: Chennai Lighthouse There are both historic and modern lighthouses in and around the port. George campus.[116] The Rajiv Gandhi dry port (container freight station) and multi-modal logistics hub near Sriperumbudur special economic zone (SEZ) is under development at an estimated cost of 3. rail and road connectivity to national rail and road network. Chennai Port Trust has plans to build a marina along a 200-metre (660 ft) stretch in the west quay to berth a dozen yachts.300 ft). who come in small boats. However. The second and third lighthouses are located in the Madras High Court campus near the port.2 mi) with 22 m (72 ft) alongside depth (ultimate) and a basin area of 300 hectares and back up area of 100 hectares. It is visible only from around the entrance channel.001. Mundra Port and Special Economic Zone Ltd (MPSEZ) emerged as the sole and lowest bidder for constructing the mega terminal.6 million. emitting light from a height of 57 m (187 ft) from the mean sea level. In September 2011.[114] The project also involves converting waterfront into 225 acres of land. the plan still remains on paper. the port cannot have a marina till the coal yard is vacated. the first lighthouse of the city is located just outside the port. A total of 125 acres of land at Mappedu in . continuous quay length of 2 km (1. However. It is a 46 m (151 ft) tall. in Fort St. is powered by a 440V. is located north of the port.73 km emanating from the eastern breakwater of the fishing harbour.63 mi)).[63][115] Based on earlier projections.23 km (2. warehouses for containerized cargos like leather garments. The present lighthouse is located about 6 km south of the port on the Marina Beach. as part of a 30-year concession. which is active since 1977. 50 Hz main supply.[109][110][111] The mega container terminal project. After coal handling is moved out. This will require investment of US$800 million and will be offered as a build-operate-transfer project. The sailors can then proceed inland for sightseeing. The other side of breakwater would be used by the port as a berth to handle oil vessels. container yard. some of which have been decommissioned. textiles. This tower is still active.

The need for barge facility is also due to the increasing vessel movements and vessel size. The first-of-its-kind project[48] is expected to be completed by 2014. The 200 m long barge jetty is being developed with a depth of 10 m and back area of 7.[121] The Chennai Port Trust plans to develop a barge handling facility inside the port at a cost of 260 million in Bharathi Dock through public-private partnership to meet the increase in demand for bunkering .[3] A barge handling facility at the Bharathi Dock is being developed at a cost of 250 million. In addition to bunkering fuel and edible oil.5 MW wind energy farm in Tirunelveli district at an outlay of 493. hazardous and non-hazardous materials.500 m. The jetty could accommodate barges with carrying capacity of 1. which has two bays (two each for entry and two for exit of containers).[75] The port is planning to construct a parking facility on an 11-acre stretch in Thiruvottiyur for container trucks. The jetty is proposed to be constructed between the iron ore berth and oil terminal so as to cater to barges and bunkers and similar vessels handling liquid cargo.S. cruise knowledge. the Directorate of Logistics. 16 km (9.9 mi) by National Highway 4 and balance by a single-line state highway that would be converted into two-lane soon.[119] To reduce congestion at the harbour. A barge jetty-cum-liquid cargo terminal at an outlay of 250 million is also being proposed on PPP mode.fuel oil used aboard ships.[117] This is one of the three container freight stations planned by Chennai Port Trust.[120] In December 2011.[82] [edit] Sister ports The port has sister port agreements with the following ports to cooperate in maritime transportation and port development. as part of security measures. The distance between Chennai Port and the dry port is about 50 km (31 mi).the Sriperumbudur SEZ alloted by SIPCOT of the Government of Tamil Nadu is being acquired for the project on a 99-year lease basis. Customs and Central Excise planned to get a fixed mega container scanner within the next few months at a location near the Zero Gate of the port at a cost of 600 million from a U. The proposed length of the jetty will be three times the length of the present facility. the port plans to modernise zero gate and open one more bay and widen the roads that lead to zero gate and to lay six to eight lanes from the zero gate to avoid stranding of vehicles. other cargoes that are envisaged to be handled at the proposed facility include vegetable oil (crude and refined).-based company. This will also cover technical expertise.[30] The port has decided to have a 7. furnace oil and molasses. The dry port would consist of 75 acres (30 ha) of custom-bound area and 50 acres (20 ha) of non-custom bound area and would accommodate containers. container terminal and tourism between the sister ports.1 million.[118] The port is also investing 500 million to have more berths exclusively for bunkering.000 tonne. About 19 km (12 mi) would be covered by the elevated corridor. The project is expected to be completed by 2013. Country Port State / Region Since Port of Belgium West Flanders November 2008 [122] Zeebrugge .000 tonne to 3.

Canada Port of Halifax[123] Nova Scotia January 2009 .