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Rizal leaving the Philippines for the Second Time

Rizal’s reasons for leaving the Philippines
1. His presence in Calamba was jeopardizing the safety and happiness of his family and friends.
2. He could not fight better his enemies and serve his country’s cause with greater efficacy by writing in foreign
countries.
Farewell Philippines
 On February 3, 1888 Rizal left his country with a heavy heart.
 But this is for his own good and the safety of his family and friends.

Hounded by powerful enemies, Rizal was forced to leave his country for the second time in 1888.
He was 27 years old, a practicing physician, and a recognized man of letters.

Rizal in Hong Kong and Macau
• After six months of staying in the Philippines Rizal left via the steamer Zapiro bound for Hong Kong.
• Amoy – the first stop over of the ship
– Rizal did not get off the ship for the following reasons:
1. He was not feeling well
2. It was raining hard
3. He heard that the city is dirty.
Hong Kong
• A British colony
• Rizal stayed in Victoria Hotel
• According to Rizal in his letter to Blumentritt, is a small, but very clean city.
• Many Portuguese, Hindus, English, Chinese and Jews.
• There are some Filipinos exiled in Marianas Islands since 1872, they were former financiers and rich but now
poor, gentle and timid.
• He met Jose Maria Basa, Balbino Mauricio, and Manuel Yriarte (son of the alcalde mayor in Calamba)
• Jose Sainz de Varanda – A Spaniard and former secretary of Governor-General Terrero shadowed Rizal’s
movement in Hong Kong.
– It is believed that he was commissioned by the Spanish authorities to spy on Rizal.
Rizal’s Visit to Macau
• A Portuguese colony near Hong Kong.
• Rizal together with Basa boarded a ferry named Kiu-Kiang going to Macau.
• Jose Sainz de Varanda – among one of the passengers
• Don Juan Francisco Lecaros – a Filipino gentleman who is married to a Portuguese lady.
– Rizal and Basa stayed in his house for two days while they were in Macau.
• During Rizal’s two week vacation in Hong Kong, he studied Chinese life, language, drama and customs and
found out the following which he wrote in his diary:
– The celebration of the Chinese New Year was quite very noisy due to the continuous explosion of firecrackers
on the streets.
– The lauriat party, wherein the guests were served a variety of dishes, shows lavishness and hospitality among
the Chinese.
– The Dominican Order, the richest religious order in Hong Kong, had millions of dollars deposited in various
banks earning very high interests.
– The graveyards for Catholics, Protestants and Muslims were well maintained.
Rizal in Japan
• The Land of the Cherry Blossoms
• Rizal left Hong Kong on board of the Oceanic, an American steamer on his way to Japan.
• He arrived in Yokohama, Japan and stayed for one day in Grand Hotel.

Rizal in Tokyo
• After spending a day in Yokohama, Rizal went to Tokyo and stayed in Tokyo Hotel for five days.
• Juan Perez Caballero – secretary of the Spanish legation visited him in the hotel inviting him to stay in the
Spanish legation.
• Knowing that it is a plot to monitor him, Rizal accepted the offer for the following reasons:
– He could economize his living expenses
– He had nothing to hide from the prying eyes of the Spanish authorities.
– He and Caballero became good friends.
• In Japan, Rizal was embarrassed because he did not knew how to speak Nihonggo (Japanese Language)
• He was mistaken as an Europeanized Japanese because he looks like a Japanese and yet speaks in different
tongue.
Rizal’s Impression of Japan
• The scenic beauty of the country
• The cleanliness, politeness and industry of the Japanese people.
• The picturesque dress and simple charm of the Japanese women.
• There were few thieves in Japan.
• Beggars are rarely seen in the city streets.
Rickshaw
• a popular mode of transportation which he did not like in Japan.
Rizal and O-Sei-San
• A samurai’s daughter of 23 years old and had never experienced true love.
• A woman of beauty, charm, modesty and intelligence.
• Speaks French and English
• When Rizal first introduced himself to her, he took of his hat as a sign of respect ( A German custom)
O-Sei-San
• Was more than Rizal’s girlfriend for she was his guide, interpreter and tutor.
• She improved his knowledge of the Japanese language.
• She eases the pain left by Leonor Rivera.
• Rizal fell greatly in-love with O-Sei-San that he was tempted to leave the Philippines and settle down in Japan.
• He was offered a job in the Spanish Legation
• Paciano – wrote to him reminding him of his duty and why he left the Philippines in the first place.
• Rizal left Japan via the ship Belgic, an English steamer in Yokohama bound for United States.
• It ended 45 days of his unforgettable stay in Japan and his relationship with O-Sei-San.
O-Sei-San after Rizal’s departure
• Alfred Charlton – became the husband of O-Sei-San in 1897, one year after Rizal was executed.
– He was a British teacher of chemistry in Peers’ School in Tokyo.
• They had a daughter named Yuriko, who married a son of a Japanese senator
• Seiko-Usui died in 1947 at age 80 and was buried beside her husband.
Rizal in steamer Belgic
• He met a semi-Filipino family – Mr. Reinaldo Turner and his wife Emma Jackson, their children and maid from
Pangasinan.
• Tetcho Suehiro
– a fighting Japanese journalist, novelist, champion of human rights, who was forced by the government to
leave Japan.
– Became a member of the Japanese Imperial Diet (Parliament)
– Wrote to novels:
1. Nankai-no-Daiharan (Storm Over the South Sea) – 1891 resembling Noli Me Tangere
2. O-unabara (The Big Ocean) – 1894 – resembling El Filibusterismo

Died in 1896 at age 49 due to heart attack.

Rizal in USA
• Via the steamer Belgic, Rizal arrived in San Francisco, USA on April 28, 1888.
• Cholera
– Raging epidemic in the Far East according to the Americans
– All passengers are quarantined for safety
– Rizal was surprised because there is no outbreak of the disease in the Far East, thus he joined other passengers
in protest.
• 643 Chinese coolies boarded the ship
– the coolies from China were displacing white laborers in railroad construction camp.
• But Rizal was questioning how come 700 bolts of silk were unloaded without fumigation.
• After a week Rizal together with other first class passengers were permitted to land. But the Japanese and the
Chinese and passengers belonging to the second and thirds class remained aboard.
• Rizal stayed in Palace Hotel (then a first class hotel) in San Francisco
– He stayed there for two days
• Grover Cleveland was the president when Rizal visited the United States
• Leland Stanford – the founder and benefactor of the Stanford University was then a senator representing
California.
Rizal toured the United States
• Oakland – first stop via ferryboat
• Via train
– Sacramento – where he ate his supper 75 cents and slept at his couch.
– Reno, Nevada – where he had his breakfast
– Utah – where he saw Mormons, thickly populated
– Colorado – a lot of snow and pine trees
– Nebraska – Omaha City, as big as San Francisco
o Missouri River – twice as big as Pasig River
– Chicago – a lot of Indians in cigar stores
– Albany – where he saw the Hudson River
– New York – which he considers a big city
o Where he stayed for three days
• He left the United States for Liverpool, London on board the City of Rome, the second largest ship in the world.
• Great Eastern – largest ship in the world during his time.
Rizal’s impression of America (Good)
• Material progress of the country as shown in its cities, farms, and industries
• The drive and energy of the Americans
• The natural beauty of the land
• The high standard of living
• The opportunities for better life offered to poor immigrants.
Rizal’s impression of America (Bad)
• Non-existence of true civil liberty, as Negro cannot marry an American and vice versa.
• The existence of racial prejudice as shown in their hatred of the Chinese, Japanese and Negroes.
• The valuing of money over human life
America for Rizal
• The land par excellence of freedom but only for the whites.