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. etc. illustrative examples. The content is developed in Islamic and cultural context to ensure value oriented learning with a strong connection to the real world. Algebraic Concepts. an interesting introduction depicting the connection of the concept with the real life. giving interesting information. Do You Know. yearly planners. Unit Summary includes a review of the main concepts. thinking and problem solving skills. Research Definitions and formulae are highlighted throughout the content so that students spot them easily in the text. Do You Know?: Any interesting information about a concept is given under this heading. having open ended questions to check the understanding of the pupils. unit summaries and unit review exercises. problem sets .Preface About This Book AFAQ Mathematics Sun Series provides a comprehensive course for Pre-Primary. class activities. The Series ensures activity-based learning while nurturing mathematical communication. Students Learning Outcomes direct the teachers and the students in a precise manner about the objectives to be achieved after the completion of a unit. The structure of the series (grade 6-8) has been made meaningful with the student's learning outcomes in the start of each unit. Maths History: provides the contribution of famous mathematicians to the specific area. May Allah guide and help us. Geometry and Spatial Sense. and Handling Data. stating the important results or conclusions. Besides this. It will be a stimulus for students to go ahead. It covers all the basic concepts and skills necessary to build a solid foundation for today's young mathematicians. Measurements. An interesting introduction of each unit depicts the connection of the concept with real life. familiar language and logical approach of the content attracts the pupils as well as promote independent and self-directed learning. The Series focuses on five core areas of Mathematics: Numeration System. recapitulating the background knowledge. and Try Yourself. Try Yourself: open ended questions about a topic are asked here to promote independent learning and check understanding of the concept. Recall. Unit Review Exercise serves as a cumulative checkpoint to assess whether the learning outcomes have been achieved or not. Recall: captures the prerequisite or background knowledge regarding a concept. We will appreciate the valuable feedback of the respectable teachers and other maths lovers to make the Series more useful. highlighted key words. Word problems along with almost each concept are specially designed to apply Mathematics to the real life situations as well as to integrate it with other disciplines. flashcards. Appealing layout. AFAQ Mathematics Sun Series will also be supported with the teacher's guides and support material i. Class activities are specially designed to provide immediate practice of a concept to have a quick feedback. (Ameen) Director. definitions and formulae. Regular feature boxes in the side bar include Maths History. it informs about the advancements in various fields of Mathematics. Point to Remember. assessment sheets and examination papers. informing about the contribution of famous mathematicians in the specific area.e. Primary and Secondary level.

! define union. U Europe B Australia Antactica North America A Asia Africa South America Venn Diagram 01 . ! define and identify disjoint and overlapping sets ! define a universal set and compliment of a set. e. B = Set of the continents whose names start with the letter A.Visit to a Dentist Contents Unit 1 Sets Students Learning Outcomes (SLOs): Unit No.g. the sets U = Set of continents of the world. intersection of two or more sets and difference of two sets. can be shown with the help of the diagram given. Description Page No. intersection and difference of two sets. +. Similar as the algebraic operations are introduced with the help of illustrative presentation. We are familiar with the four fundamental algebraic operations i.e. ! find union of two or more sets. set builder form and tabular form. ! through Venn diagrams. difference and compliment of two sets A and B when A is a subset of B ! A and B are disjoint sets ! A and B are overlapping sets. Area and Volume 147 12 Data Handling 160 Answers 167 Web Resources 174 Index 175 After completing this unit. operations on sets can also be visualized to have a better understanding with the help of Venn Diagrams. difference and compliment. For example. intersection . etc. 1 Sets 01 2 Rational Numbers 13 3 Exponents 34 4 Ratio and Proportion 44 5 Square Root 57 6 Financial Arithmetic 70 7 Algebraic Expressions 81 8 Algebraic Equations 104 9 Fundamentals of Geometry 115 10 Practical Geometry 133 11 Circumference. In set theory we come across some different operations known as union. ! verify different properties involving union of sets. ! perform operations of union. intersection. A A' = ! represent sets through Venn diagrams. A = Set of the first and second largest continents. intersection of sets. students will be able to: ! express a set in descriptive form. x. difference of sets and compliment of a set. -. ¸.

7. There is also another method to describe sets. {xIx W x 10} v. defined in descriptive form. means ‘belongs to’.g. {xIx W x 5} We read this set as “x such that x is an element of whole numbers and x is less than or equal to 5. {xIx N x 9} ii. ! The set of days in a week ! The set of the first five natural numbers ! The set of the provinces of Pakistan 1. Sets can be represented through various ways.21} ii. 20. sets have also some special operations. {3. 6. ! Descriptive form ! Tabular form 1. we make use of variables. 4. the above set can be represented as. Tabular form iii. NWFP. 6. 5} ! {Punjab. 18. 1. We have already learnt two methods to describe sets. …30} iii. 8. 6. iv.1. 02 Class Activity Express the following sets in set builder notation: i. iii. {xIx Z –10 x 10} 3. Balochistan} Point to Remember Example 3: The set {10. Saturday} ! {1.1. 7. 5} In set builder form. Set builder notation 2. 12. 5} and B= {4. 4. can be written as {xIx E 10 x 22} and read as. 17} iv.1 How to Express a Set Recall i. 9. 3. 2. Sindh. C. The set of whole numbers between 20 and 50 v. x such that x is an even number and 10 is less than or equal to x and x is less than or equal to 22. {a. The set of prime numbers between 11 and 33 ii. The set C is known as the union of the sets A and B. 8.2 Operations on Sets As operations on whole numbers. sets are defined in words e. 3. 12} Since 4 is the common element of both sets. 10. 5. 4. means ‘or’. Example 2: 1.1 Descriptive Form In descriptive form. 2. fractions and decimals are carried out. 10. ! {Monday. etc.” 1. Friday. 03 . Therefore. We have the set C= {1. can be represented as. 3. Y. A= {1. {xIx C 1 x 15} v. Write five sets of your own choice in the following three ways: i. o. so we write this common element only once. ….2 Tabular Form In tabular form. Each object or number in a set is known as the element or member of the set. which are. 4. Write the following sets in set builder notation: i. {0. Sets are usually denoted by capital letters. Let us learn. Descriptive form ii. 3. The set of factors of 24 1.1 Union of Sets Consider the following sets. 6. e. 12} Combining the elements of both sets. means ‘and’. 2. the elements of sets are enlisted within braces and separated by commas. 7. Express the following sets in tabular form and descriptive form: i. The set of consonants in English alphabets. 14. It is called set builder notation. i. 9.1 1. Example 1: The above three sets given in descriptive and tabular forms can be represented in set builder notation as follows: ! {xIx is a day in a week} ! {xIx N x 5} ! {xIx is a province of Pakistan} Let us see some more examples of sets having numerical elements in set builder form. Tuesday. {xIx P x 20} iii. 9. 5. 11. ii. in set builder notation.3 Set Builder Notation I means ‘such that’. 10} Exercise 1. In set builder form. B. X. 2. 8. a single variable is used to represent the elements of a set. e. 12. A. 3. 16.2. the above three sets. As we know that a variable represents different values within a range. 3. A and B. 5. 4. 2. {3. 22} In set builder notation. We know that a set is a well-defined collection of distinct objects.g.1. {2. means ‘less than or equal to’. Thursday. 5.1. The set of even numbers less than or equal to 100. u} v. {1. 1. Wednesday. {xIx E 2 x 15} iv.

10. 3. 9. 8. 3. 16. 30}. B = {1. 7. 8. 5} {4. Let us consider the following example to understand the difference of two sets. 04 We are familiar with the term difference. 2. Also find a set whose union with any other set is the set itself. 12. 6. 7. 2. 2. 10. Therefore. Example: The sets F = {1. 8. 3.e. 4. 10} and Y = {5.3 Difference of Two Sets Point to Remember The difference of a set A and the set B. 11}. 10. u}. 12} = {1. H = {a. 7. 5. 6. 11}. 5. A= {1. q. 8. 7. 2. 15} Disjoint and Overlapping Sets Disjoint Sets Find the intersection of the following sets. 2. 7. 8. the term difference refers to a different meaning. we proceed as follows. 24} 1. 12} Can you find something common to the two sets? The numbers 2 and 7 are common to both sets. 12} The union of more than two sets can be found in the same way. 13} J = {2. z} Overlapping Sets Two sets A and B are said to be overlapping sets if there exists at least one element which is common to the sets A and B. Set of vowels iii. 18. Two sets A and B are said to be disjoint sets if they have no element in common. C = {1. 7} ii. 5. 4. then A is said to be the superset of the set B. 05 . 10}. B = {1. 8. 4. Find a pair of sets whose union and intersection are the same. 8. 4. i. 5. Try Yourself 1. 7. 9} The difference of the set Y from the set X. G = {a. 9} iv. 6. 11} {2. 8} Class Activity Find the difference of the second set from the first set in each of the following pairs: i. Set of consonants ii. 20}. is a set having only those elements of the set A which are not present in the set B. {2. These are common elements of the two sets. 1. denoted by A\B or A – B. 2. Recall If the set B is a proper-subset of the set A. X = {1. 3. 2. X \ Y = {1. 8. 5. 7} The intersection of more than two sets can be found in the same way. 7. E = {2. we proceed as follows. 20}. 3. A = { 1. 6.2 Intersection of Sets Consider the following sets. A B = {1. E F = {2. 8. 6. 2. 6. 5. But in sets.…. 7. this set is the overall set containing all subsets under discussion. …. 8. 4. 6. 5. 4. d. i. 4. is found as follows. 7. 4. Set of English alphabets Which of the sets is the super set of the other two sets? In fact. 4. E = {2. denoted as E F. 6. 3. 5} ii. i. 16. the set of consonants and the set of vowels are both subsets of the set of English alphabets. 11}. e} v. 8. b. Class Activity Find the union and intersection of the following sets: i. 10} iii. 6. i. 5. e. 3. 9} – {1. e. 4. 5. If we have the sets. 7. E = {4. 5. b. 10}. 4. N = {x. 9}. 3. y. D = {2. e} v. 7. 3. Can you find a pair of sets whose intersection is an empty set? 3. 2. H = {a. 6} In fact. u}. I = {1. 10} And the difference of X from Y is found as Y \ X = {5. 9. 3. 10} iii. 6. 4 and 10. because there is no element common to these sets. D = {2. In whole numbers difference means taking out a number from the other. c. 10} = {7. r}. 12} E F = {2. 6.2. 4. 7. 7. G = {a. 10} – {5. 9. 3. 10} iv. F = {2. 7} This set is called the intersection of the sets E and F. A = { 2. 6. 2. 10} are overlapping sets as they have two common elements. J = {1. Another example of disjoint sets is. 9}. c. hence known as a universal set. 12. The set consisting of common elements of both sets is written as. 6. the intersection of the two sets is an empty set. I = {6. 2. 9. Universal Set Let us consider the following three sets. 3. 6. o. K={8.16. 9. 4. 10. 12. 5. 24. 5}. d. 5. 8. B = {2. 9} = {1. J = {4. M= {p.Symbolically. 3. Symbolically. 10. F = {1. F = {2. o.2. C = {1.

10}. 3. 5} {4. 11. 9. Set of 2-digit even numbers iii.digit prime numbers Among the sets. 5. a. 2. 5} {4. 9. 7} = {4. 3. 8. 9. A =A ii. 9. 15} Try Yourself If the set of whole numbers is considered as the universal set. ‘ = U ii. 5. Set of 2-digit odd numbers iv. A (A B) = A ii.5 } A (A B) = {1. 2. 2. 9. 7. 4. 2. 6. A A' = U ii.{1. 9. 11} And U = {1. 7. 6. 7. 2. 5. 6. 2. 4. 9. 15} – {1. 8. 10} A' = U\A = {1. 23} b. 5. 7. 07 . 5} ÞA =A ii. 4. Try Yourself Take any sets A and U and verify the following: i.{6. 2. 2. 5. 2. verify the property (ii). 3.25} c. 8. Let A = {1. U’ = Verification: i. 5. 4. 3. i. 2. 4. 3. 6. 5. 4. 7. 7. 5. 5} {6. 6. Set of students in your school ii. 3. 8. 7. 6. 4. 19. 3. …. 9. 4. 3. 10} And (A')' = U\A' = {1. 5}. 9. 2) i. Set of students in class 7 and 8 c. 3. 4. 7. 8. Set of students in your class b. 2. the compliment of the set A is the set containing all elements of the set U which are not in the set A. 10} (A')' = {1. 5} A = {1. 6. the following identities hold: 1) i. 8. 4. 3. 5. 11} A' = {2. 6. 6. 5} A (A B) = A Now verify the property (ii) for the same sets. 13. …. 10} L. 3. 9. a. 4. 2. 10} . what will be the compliment of the set of natural numbers? 06 1. Consider another example. 2. 4. 5}and U = {1. Set of 2. 4. 2. A' = U\A = U – A A'= {1. Assuming A = {1. 9. 2. 8. P = { 2.15} Then. 7. 3. …. A A' = Verification: i.2. 4. 7. 4. A Ç f = f 3) i. 9. A U = A Verification: i. 3. 7}. N ={1. 4) (A')' = A Verification: If A= {1.S = A (A B) A B = {1. B = {4. Compliment of the set A is denoted by A' or Ac. 8. O = {1. For A = {1. A (A B) = A Verification: i. 2. 10. 3. 9. 3. 3. 7. 4. 8. 4. 2. 8. 3. 2. 25} 1. 7. 3.16} d. 10} . 3. 8. 5. 5} A' = {6. 5. 6. 4. 8. 3. 5}and U = {1.5} A (A B) = {1. ‘ = U\ = U – { }= U ‘=U Now verify the property (ii). 4.{1. 2. 2. 5. 5} A = {1. 7.2. 13. 3. 4. 5} And U = {1. 2. 4. 2. 9. 5. 3. 4. 8. A È U = U iv. 4. 3. 3. 5} A' = {6.H. 3. 4. 6. 7. 7. E = {2. 2. 2. 3. 4. A = {1. 8. A Ç A = A iii. 5} (A')' = A 5) i.A universal set is the set of all objects that are under discussion in a particular context. ….….4 Compliment of a Set If a set A is the subset of the universal set U. 10} A' =U\A = {1. 2. Can you tell why? Class Activity Sort out universal sets in each of the following: i. Set of 2-digit whole numbers ii. 3. 3. 14. 17. 5. 10} A A' = {1. A È A = A ii. 12. 10} A A' = U Now. and U= {1. 3. the set of 2-digit whole numbers is the universal set for rest of the sets. 10} A A' = {1. 6.5 Properties involving Operations on Sets For any subset A of the universal set U. 10} Verify the property (ii). Example: If A = {1. 4.

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