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Organizational Behavior, 14e (Robbins/Judge

)
Chapter 14 Conflict and Negotiation
1) If no one is aware of conflict, it is generally agreed that ________.
A) employee-employer relations will be good
B) conflict is subversive
C) no conflict exists
D) conflict is inevitable
E) conflict is psychologically driven as opposed to physically manifest
Answer: C
Explanation: Common to most is the idea that conflict is a perception. If no one is aware of a
conflict, then it is generally agreed no conflict exists.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 454
Topic: A Definition of Conflict
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Conflict
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 1
2) Which of the following is not included in the definition of conflict?
A) perception
B) disruption of tasks
C) something that is cared about
D) negative effects
E) incompatibility
Answer: B
Explanation: Conflict is defined as a process that begins when one party perceives that another
party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares
about. Disruption of tasks is not a part of the definition.
Diff: 1 Page Ref: 454-455
Topic: A Definition of Conflict
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Conflict
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 1

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3) The traditional view of conflict is the belief that conflict is ________.
A) harmful
B) natural
C) necessary
D) situationally-dependent
E) neutral
Answer: A
Explanation: The traditional view has argued that conflict must be avoided, that it indicates a
malfunctioning within the group. In this school of thought conflict is viewed negatively and
discussed with such terms as violence, destruction, and irrationality to reinforce its negative
connotation.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 455
Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Traditional View of Conflict
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 2
4) The traditional view of conflict argues that conflict ________.
A) cannot be avoided
B) helps to generate discussion
C) can be avoided
D) improves productivity
E) must be avoided
Answer: E
Explanation: The traditional view has argued that conflict must be avoided, that it indicates a
malfunctioning within the group. In this school of thought conflict is viewed negatively and
discussed with such terms as violence, destruction, and irrationality to reinforce its negative
connotation.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 455
Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Traditional View of Conflict
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 2

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5) Which one of the following is not a term used to describe conflict in the traditional view?
A) violence
B) apathetic
C) destruction
D) harmful
E) irrationality
Answer: B
Explanation: The traditional view has argued that conflict must be avoided, that it indicates a
malfunctioning within the group. In this school of thought conflict is viewed negatively and
discussed with such terms as violence, destruction, and irrationality to reinforce its negative
connotation.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 455
Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Traditional View of Conflict
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 2
6) Which of the following is not a cause of conflict, according to the traditionalist view?
A) general poor communication between people
B) lack of openness in the organization
C) trust between people in the organization
D) management failure to be responsive to employee needs
E) management failure to be responsive to employee aspirations
Answer: C
Explanation: According to the traditionalist view, conflict is a dysfunctional outcome resulting
from poor communication, a lack of openness and trust between people, and the failure of
managers to be responsive to the needs and aspirations of their employees.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 455
Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Traditional View of Conflict
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 2

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7) According to the interactionist's perspective, a group that functions without conflict is
________.
A) living up to behavioral ideals
B) prone to becoming static and apathetic
C) likely to be responsive to the need for change and innovation
D) the most productive
E) a rare phenomenon
Answer: B
Explanation: The interactionist view of conflict encourages conflict on the grounds that a
harmonious, peaceful, tranquil, and cooperative group is prone to becoming static, apathetic, and
unresponsive to needs for change and innovation.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 455
Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Interactionist View of Conflict
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 2
8) The ________ view of conflict argues that conflict is necessary for a group to perform
effectively.
A) human relations
B) interactionist
C) traditional
D) functional
E) reactive
Answer: B
Explanation: The interactionist view of conflict encourages conflict on the grounds that a
harmonious, peaceful, tranquil, and cooperative group is prone to becoming static, apathetic, and
unresponsive to needs for change and innovation. The major contribution of this view is
recognizing that a minimal level of conflict can help keep a group viable, self critical, and
creative.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 455
Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Interactionist View of Conflict
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 2

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9) Encouraging group leaders to maintain an ongoing minimum level of conflict is part of the
________ view of conflict.
A) functional
B) traditional
C) human relations
D) interactionist
E) conjunctivist
Answer: D
Explanation: The interactionist view of conflict encourages conflict on the grounds that a
harmonious, peaceful, tranquil, and cooperative group is prone to becoming static, apathetic, and
unresponsive to needs for change and innovation.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 455
Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Interactionist View of Conflict
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 2
10) Which of the following types of conflict identified by the interactionist view is the least
functional and the most damaging to productivity?
A) task
B) organizational
C) relationship
D) process
E) institutional
Answer: C
Explanation: Relationship conflict focuses on interpersonal relationships. Studies demonstrate
that relationship conflicts are almost always dysfunctional. It appears that the friction and
interpersonal hostilities inherent in relationship conflicts increase personality clashes and
decrease mutual understanding, which hinders the completion of organizational tasks.
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 455
Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Interactionist View of Conflict
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 2

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A) Formal B) Informal C) Functional D) Dysfunctional E) Reactive Answer: C Explanation: The interactionist view does not propose that all conflicts are good. functional conflict supports the goals of the group and improves its performance and is. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 455-456 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Process Conflict Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 2 6 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. Low to moderate levels of task conflict stimulate discussion of ideas. This means task conflicts relate positively to creativity and innovation. A conflict that hinders group performance is a destructive or dysfunctional conflict. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 455 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Functional Conflict Quest.11) ________ conflict supports the goals of the group and improves its performance. . Inc. a constructive form of conflict. A) job B) task C) relationship D) process E) communication Answer: B Explanation: Task conflict relates to the content and goals of the work. but not to routine task performance. Task conflict is related to positive outcomes only when all members share the same goals and have high levels of trust. Rather. thus. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 2 12) Conflict that relates to the content and goals of work is termed ________ conflict.

For process conflict to be productive. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 2 14) For process conflict to be productive. Studies demonstrate that relationship conflicts are almost always dysfunctional. A) Task B) Job C) Relationship D) Process E) Functional Answer: C Explanation: Relationship conflict focuses on interpersonal relationships. but only in very specific cases. Inc. . Diff: 2 Page Ref: 455 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Relationship Conflict Quest.13) ________ conflicts are almost always dysfunctional. it must be ________. which hinders the completion of organizational tasks. It appears that the friction and interpersonal hostilities inherent in relationship conflicts increase personality clashes and decrease mutual understanding. it must be kept low. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 455 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Process Conflict Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 2 7 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. A) kept high B) kept low C) kept at low-to-moderate levels D) kept at moderate levels E) subject to managerial control Answer: B Explanation: Low levels of process conflict and low to moderate levels of task conflict can be functional.

respect. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 2 8 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education.15) For task conflict to be productive. but not to routine task performance. and cohesion in groups. A) kept high B) kept low C) kept at low-to-moderate levels D) kept at moderate levels E) subject to managerial control Answer: C Explanation: Task conflict relates to the content and goals of the work. which reduces their long-term viability. it should be ________. . Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 2 16) Which of the following is not one of the problems that occurs when conflict is encouraged? A) increased group viability B) time lost on the job C) lingering hurt feelings D) increased employee stress E) reductions in cooperation Answer: A Explanation: Workplace conflicts are not productive. and hurt feelings and anger often linger. This means task conflicts relate positively to creativity and innovation. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 455 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Task Conflict Quest. Low to moderate levels of task conflict stimulate discussion of ideas. Conflicts produce stress. Task conflict is related to positive outcomes only when all members share the same goals and have high levels of trust. Studies show that all conflicts reduce trust. they take time away from job tasks or interacting with customers. Inc. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 456 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Traditional View of Conflict Quest.

Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 3 9 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. A) interactionist conflict B) task conflict C) managed conflict D) process conflict E) traditional conflict Answer: C Explanation: The managed conflict perspective does recognize that conflict is probably inevitable in most organizations. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 2 18) The first stage of the conflict process is termed ________.17) The ________ perspective focuses on productive conflict resolution starting both before and after the behavioral stage of conflict occurs. and it focuses more on productive conflict resolution. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 457 Topic: The Conflict Process Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Potential Opposition or Incompatibility Quest. potential opposition or incompatibility. It strives to find constructive methods for resolving conflicts productively so their disruptive influence can be minimized. but one of these conditions is necessary if conflict is to surface. They need not lead directly to conflict. Inc. A) cognition and personalization B) behavioral manifestation C) potential opposition or incompatibility D) intention E) habituation Answer: C Explanation: The first step in the conflict process. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 456-457 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Traditional View of Conflict Quest. is the appearance of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise. in order to minimize the negative effects on the organization. .

. Group interaction is not considered a source of conflict. the potential for conflict is greatest when group members are younger and when turnover is high.19) The categories of causes or sources of conflict include all of the following except ________. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 3 10 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 457 Topic: The Conflict Process Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Sources of Conflict Quest. Tenure and conflict have been found to be inversely related. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 457-458 Topic: The Conflict Process Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Sources of Conflict Quest. Size and specialization can stimulate conflict. Value similarities do not cause conflict. and personal variables. Inc. structure. A) communication B) structure C) group interaction D) personal variables E) All of the above are causes or sources of conflict. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 3 20) Which of the following is not considered one of the potential sources of conflict? A) too much communication B) group size and specialization C) value similarities D) short job tenure E) too little communication Answer: C Explanation: The potential for conflict increases when either too little or too much communication takes place. Answer: C Explanation: The conditions (causes or sources of conflict) have been condensed into three general categories: communication.

Because a conflict is a perceived conflict does not mean it is personalized. A) perceived and felt B) apparent and experienced C) expressed and perceived D) overt and covert E) internalized Answer: A Explanation: The potential for opposition or incompatibility becomes actualized in the second stage. tension. It is at the felt conflict level. or hostility. A) communication B) structural C) personal-variable D) job-related E) team Answer: B Explanation: Structural conflict includes variables such as size. and the degree of dependence between groups. . reward systems. jurisdictional clarity. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 3 22) Stage II of the conflict process deals with conflict being ________.21) High job specialization can lead to ________ conflict. degree of specialization in the tasks assigned to group members. frustration. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 459 Topic: The Conflict Process Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Perceived Conflict and Felt Conflict Quest. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 458 Topic: The Conflict Process Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Structure Quest. leadership styles. Inc. when individuals become emotionally involved. that parties experience anxiety. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 3 11 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. member–goal compatibility.

This is the point when the parties decide what the conflict is about. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 3 24) ________ intervene(s) between people's perceptions and their overt behavior. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 459 Topic: The Conflict Process Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Intentions Quest. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 459 Topic: The Conflict Process Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Cognition and Personalization Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 3 12 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. We separate out intentions as a distinct stage because we have to infer the other's intent to know how to respond to his or her behavior. A) Intuition B) Intention C) Cognition D) Attributions E) Attitudes Answer: B Explanation: Intentions intervene between people's perceptions and emotions and their overt behavior. . Inc.23) In which stage are conflict issues defined? A) potential opposition B) cognition and personalization C) intuitions D) behavior E) reaction and transference Answer: B Explanation: Stage II is important because it's where conflict issues tend to be defined. They are decisions to act in a given way.

and assertiveness is the degree to which one party attempts to satisfy his or her own concerns. . Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 3 13 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education.25) In assessing intentions. and assertiveness is the degree to which one party attempts to satisfy his or her own concerns. Inc. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 459 Topic: The Conflict Process Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Cooperativeness Quest. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 459 Topic: The Conflict Process Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Assertiveness Quest. cooperativeness is the degree to which ________. A) one party attempts to satisfy the other party's concerns B) one party attempts to resolve conflict C) both parties work toward a common goal D) there is an absence of conflict E) one party can empathize with the other Answer: A Explanation: Cooperativeness is the degree to which one party attempts to satisfy the other party's concerns. A) in which one party attempts to satisfy his/her own concerns B) in which there is an expression of competition C) involving a major behavior change D) that lead to conflict E) in which one party behaves generously Answer: A Explanation: Cooperativeness is the degree to which one party attempts to satisfy the other party's concerns. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 3 26) The dimension of assertiveness refers to situations ________.

Inc. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 3 14 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 459 Topic: The Conflict Process Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Collaborating Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 3 29) The conflict-handling intention of avoiding is ________. A) assertive and uncooperative B) assertive and cooperative C) unassertive and uncooperative D) unassertive and cooperative E) affective and reflective Answer: B Explanation: Collaborating intentions are assertive and cooperative. accommodating (unassertive and cooperative). collaborating (assertive and cooperative).27) Which is not one of the five conflict-handling intentions? A) collaborating B) competing C) accommodating D) avoiding E) resisting Answer: E Explanation: We can identify five conflict-handling intentions: competing (assertive and uncooperative). avoiding (unassertive and uncooperative). A) assertive and uncooperative B) assertive and cooperative C) unassertive and uncooperative D) unassertive and cooperative E) assertive and reflective Answer: C Explanation: Avoiding intentions are unassertive and uncooperative. . Diff: 3 Page Ref: 459 Topic: The Conflict Process Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Avoiding Quest. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 459 Topic: The Conflict Process Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Conflict-Handling Intentions Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 3 28) The conflict-handling intention of collaborating is ________. and compromising (midrange on both assertiveness and cooperativeness).

If you attempt to find a win-win solution that allows both parties' goals to be completely achieved. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 3 31) Which of the following conflict-handling orientations might involve attempting to find a win-win solution? A) avoiding B) collaborating C) accommodating D) compromising E) mollifying Answer: B Explanation: In collaborating. that's collaborating. Inc. . A) assertive and uncooperative B) assertive and cooperative C) unassertive and uncooperative D) unassertive and cooperative E) reflective and emotional Answer: D Explanation: Accommodating intentions are unassertive and cooperative. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 3 15 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. the parties intend to solve a problem by clarifying differences rather than by accommodating various points of view.30) The conflict-handling intention of accommodating is ________. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 459 Topic: The Conflict Process Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Accommodating Quest. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 460 Topic: The Conflict Process Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Collaborating Quest.

Inc. . However. is accommodating. but she has decided it's simply not worth the trouble to talk to her neighbor. Category: Application LO: 3 16 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education.32) Angelina feels that her cubicle neighbor talks too loudly on the phone. Angelina gets annoyed every time her neighbor's phone rings. Examples of avoiding include trying to ignore a conflict and avoiding others with whom you disagree. she discussed the items with the team and told them that she realized she was in the minority and that she would adapt the new procedures to maintain smooth operations within the team. This type of intention is called ________. for example. Category: Application LO: 3 33) Irma does not like a few of the standard operating procedures adapted for the new project. Angelina's conflict intention is called ________. Supporting someone else's opinion despite your reservations about it. but in other ways she is a great neighbor. We refer to this intention as accommodating. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 460 Topic: The Conflict Process Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Avoiding Quest. A) competing B) avoiding C) accommodating D) compromising E) collaborating Answer: B Explanation: A person may recognize a conflict exists and want to withdraw from or suppress it. A) sacrificing B) accommodating C) collaborating D) compromising E) competing Answer: B Explanation: A party who seeks to appease an opponent may be willing to place the opponent's interests above his or her own. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 460 Topic: The Conflict Process Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Accommodating Quest. sacrificing to maintain the relationship.

A) resolve B) stimulate C) lead to a higher probability of concurrent D) both resolve and stimulate E) none of the above Answer: D Explanation: Techniques of conflict management include major resolution and stimulation techniques that allow managers to control conflict levels. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 3 35) Conflict management techniques can ________ conflict. usually as overt attempts to implement their own intentions. The behavior stage includes the statements.34) In which stage of the conflict process does conflict become visible? A) illumination B) intentions C) potential opposition or incompatibility D) behavior E) cognition and personalization Answer: D Explanation: When most people think of conflict situations. actions. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 461 Topic: The Conflict Process Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Behavior Quest. Conflict-handling intentions are a person's methods of translating intentions into comparable behaviors. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 461 Topic: The Conflict Process Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Conflict-Management Techniques Quest. they tend to focus on Stage IV because this is where conflicts become visible. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 3 17 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc. and reactions made by the conflicting parties. .

attitudes. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 3 37) Which of the following is a conflict-stimulation technique? A) expansion of resources B) compromise C) bringing in outsiders D) exercising authoritative command E) problem solving Answer: C Explanation: Bringing in outsiders. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 3 18 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. as is avoidance. Inc. that cannot be attained without the cooperation of each of the conflicting parties is one conflict management technique. or a superordinate goal. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 462 Topic: The Conflict Process Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Conflict-Stimulation Technique Quest. or adding employees to a group whose backgrounds. or managerial styles differ from those of present members creates a conflictstimulation. Management also uses its formal authority to resolve the conflict and then communicates its desires to the parties involved. When a conflict is caused by the scarcity of a resource. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 462 Topic: The Conflict Process Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Conflict-Resolution Techniques Quest. expansion of the resource can create a win-win solution. .36) Which of the following is not a conflict-resolution technique? A) creating superordinate goals B) appointing a devil's advocate C) avoiding the conflict D) exercising authoritative command E) generating additional resources Answer: B Explanation: Creating a shared goal. values.

Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 3 19 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. and fosters an environment of self-evaluation and change. provides the medium through which problems can be aired and tensions released. . Diff: 2 Page Ref: 462 Topic: The Conflict Process Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Functional Outcomes of the Conflict Process Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 3 39) Which one of the following might not be a functional outcome of the conflict process? A) stimulates creativity B) increases innovation C) fosters environment of self-evaluation D) relieves tensions E) avoids risk Answer: E Explanation: Conflict is constructive when it improves the quality of decisions. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 461 Topic: The Conflict Process Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Conflict Management Quest. encourages interest and curiosity among group members.38) What is the overall goal of conflict management? A) achieving the desired conflict level B) resolving conflict C) stimulating conflict D) identifying conflict E) assessing the source of conflict Answer: A Explanation: Conflict management is defined as the use of resolution and stimulation techniques to achieve the desired level of conflict. Inc. stimulates creativity and innovation.

and subordination of group goals to the primacy of infighting among members. The terms negotiation and bargaining can be used interchangeably. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 464 Topic: The Conflict Process Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Dysfunctional Outcomes of the Conflict Process Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 4 20 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. . reductions in group cohesiveness. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 465 Topic: Negotiation Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Negotiation Quest. A) the exchange rate for those goods and services B) acceptable bargaining strategies for obtaining the goods and services C) a model of the negotiation process for resolving differences D) effective arbitrators for disputes E) the monetary value of the exchanged items Answer: A Explanation: Negotiation can be defined as a process that occurs when two or more parties decide how to allocate scarce resources and agree on an exchange rate for the resources. Inc. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 3 41) Negotiation can be defined as a process in which two or more parties exchange goods or services and attempt to agree upon ________. A) provides a medium to release tension B) reduces group cohesiveness C) fosters an environment of self-evaluation D) provides a means for expressing frustration E) leads to change Answer: B Explanation: Among the more undesirable consequences of dysfunctional conflict are hampered communication.40) Conflict is dysfunctional when it ________.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 466-469 Topic: Negotiation Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Bargaining Strategies Quest. Answer: C Explanation: There are two general approaches to negotiation. With integrative bargaining negotiation seeks one or more settlements that can create a win-win solution. The terms negotiation and bargaining can be used interchangeably. E) legal and restrictive. distributive bargaining and integrative bargaining. A) win-lose B) bargaining C) collaboration D) accommodating E) arbitration Answer: B Explanation: Negotiation can be defined as a process that occurs when two or more parties decide how to allocate scarce resources and agree on an exchange rate for the resources. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 4 43) The two general approaches to bargaining are known as ________. . In distributive bargaining negotiation seeks to divide up a fixed amount of resources into a win-lose situation.42) The terms negotiation and ________ are used interchangeably. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 5 21 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. B) affective and reflective C) distributive and integrative D) formal and informal. A) emotional and rational. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 465 Topic: Negotiation Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Negotiation and Bargaining Quest. Inc.

. Today she is meeting with management to discuss the new five year contract. or parties believe it is. This example of labor-management negotiations over wages exemplifies which type of bargaining? A) integrative B) reflective C) distributive D) restrictive E) affective Answer: C Explanation: Probably the most widely cited example of distributive bargaining is labormanagement negotiations over wages. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 467 Topic: Negotiation Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Distributive Bargaining Quest. they tend to bargain distributively. When the pie is fixed. Inc.44) ________ bargaining is negotiation that seeks to divide a "fixed pie. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 5 45) Emma is the labor union negotiator. Fixed pie refers to a set amount of goods or services to be divvied up. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 467 Topic: Negotiation Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Distributive Bargaining Quest." A) Distributive B) Integrative C) Reflective D) Affective E) Conjunctive Answer: A Explanation: The essence of distributive bargaining is negotiating over who gets what share of a fixed pie. Category: Application LO: 5 22 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. including wages and benefits.

leaves one party a loser. integrative bargaining is preferable to distributive bargaining because the former builds long-term relationships. Each also has a resistance point. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 5 47) Integrative bargaining focuses on ________. all things being equal. which marks the lowest outcome that is acceptable. Distributive bargaining. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 467 Topic: Negotiation Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Distributive Bargaining Quest. A) resistance point B) distribution C) target point D) bargaining point E) fixed point Answer: C Explanation: Each party in a negotiation has a target point that defines what he or she would like to achieve. Inc. however. or the point below which the party would break off negotiations rather than accept a less favorable settlement. A) competition B) short-term benefits C) zero-sum gains D) ensuring balanced inputs E) long-term relationships Answer: E Explanation: In terms of intraorganizational behavior. Integrative bargaining bonds negotiators and allows them to leave the bargaining table feeling they have achieved a victory. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 469 Topic: Negotiation Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Integrative Bargaining Quest.46) The idea of what a person would like to achieve out of a negotiation is called the ________. . Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 5 23 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education.

Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 5 49) Which bargaining strategy is preferable for use in intraorganizational behavior? A) positive negotiation B) distributive bargaining C) integrative bargaining D) equal bargaining E) equity splitting Answer: C Explanation: In terms of intraorganizational behavior. Distributive bargaining. A) resistance B) refusal C) target D) negative E) assistance Answer: A Explanation: Each party in a negotiation has a target point that defines what he or she would like to achieve. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 469 Topic: Negotiation Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Integrative Bargaining Quest.48) The point below which either negotiating party would break off negotiations is known as the party's ________ point. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 5 24 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. or the point below which the party would break off negotiations rather than accept a less favorable settlement. however. Inc. integrative bargaining is preferable to distributive bargaining because the former builds long-term relationships. Each also has a resistance point. leaves one party a loser. Integrative bargaining bonds negotiators and allows them to leave the bargaining table feeling they have achieved a victory. which marks the lowest outcome that is acceptable. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 467 Topic: Negotiation Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Resistance Point Quest. all things being equal. .

(3) clarification and justification. (4) bargaining and problem solving. A) BATNA B) margin of error C) bid price D) asking price E) hidden value Answer: A Explanation: As part of your strategy. and (5) closure and implementation. (2) definition of ground rules. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 6 51) Your ________ determines the lowest value acceptable to you for a negotiated agreement. Inc. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 6 25 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. you should determine your and the other side's best alternative to a negotiated agreement (BATNA).50) Which of the following is not a step in the negotiation process? A) definition of ground rules B) clarification and justification C) bargaining and problem solving D) process evaluation E) preparation and planning Answer: D Explanation: Negotiation is made up of five steps: (1) preparation and planning. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 470 Topic: Negotiation Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: The Negotiation Process Quest. . Diff: 2 Page Ref: 470 Topic: Negotiation Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: BATNA Quest. Your BATNA determines the lowest value acceptable to you for a negotiated agreement.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 470 Topic: Negotiation Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: The Negotiation Process Quest. both parties determine the ground rules. what is desired from the negotiation. who's involved and what are their perceptions of the conflict. the history leading up to the negotiation. After the planning and preparation phase. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 470-471 Topic: Negotiation Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Definition of Ground Rules Quest. the parties will also exchange their initial proposals or demands. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 6 26 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education.52) During which phase of the negotiation process do the parties exchange their initial proposals or demands? A) opening and initiating B) definition of ground rules C) clarification and justification D) bargaining and problem-solving E) integration of preferences Answer: B Explanation: After planning and having developed a strategy. . During this phase. it is important to begin defining with the other party the ground rules and procedures of the negotiation itself. and what are your goals. Inc. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 6 53) Which of the following is not a consideration during the preparation and planning phase of the negotiation process? A) the nature of the conflict B) the history before the conflict C) who is involved in the conflict D) defining the ground rules E) your goals for the outcome Answer: D Explanation: Before negotiating it's important to prepare by considering the nature of the conflict.

but not the new hire. Answer: E Explanation: People who feel good about the process of a job offer negotiation are more satisfied with their jobs and less likely to turn over a year later regardless of their actual outcomes from these negotiations. amplify. At this point documentation that helps support each position is presented. In which phase of the negotiation process is Carisa? A) preparation and planning B) definition of ground rules C) clarification and justification D) bargaining and problem solving E) closure and implementation Answer: C Explanation: The clarification and justification phase is the opportunity for both parties to explain. Category: Application LO: 6 55) Carisa is negotiating for the labor union. the cost of health care for the average worker. Today she is presenting the evidence and papers that demonstrate the true living wage in the area. Inc. clarify. and justify their original demands. and how the initial demands were determined. Which is the most likely affect of Irma's negotiating process? A) Irma's new recruits will be more satisfied. A company that is very successful in negotiating terms of employment that satisfy it. E) Irma's new recruits will be less committed to the relationship.54) Irma is an HR manager that values "winning" during the salary and benefits negotiation process when recruiting new hires. pays a price in its long-term relationship with the employee. D) Irma's new recruits will be less aggressive negotiators for raises. B) Irma's new recruits will be less likely to turn over. Category: Application LO: 6 27 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 471 Topic: Negotiation Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: The Negotiation Process Quest. It's an opportunity for educating and informing each other on the issues. . C) Irma's new recruits will begin their jobs with a positive relationship. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 426 Topic: Negotiation Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: The Negotiation Process Quest. why they are important. bolster. and a pie graph demonstrating how these costs affect the new salary request.

. Inc. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 471 Topic: Negotiation Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Individual Differences Quest. In which phase of the negotiation process is Antonio? A) preparation and planning B) definition of ground rules C) clarification and justification D) bargaining and problem solving E) closure and implementation Answer: E Explanation: Antonio is in the final step in the negotiation process in which he is formalizing the agreement that has been worked out and developing any procedures necessary for implementation and monitoring. mood/emotions. This requires hammering out the specifics in a formal contract.56) Antonio is filling out the paperwork to select his health care benefits from a package. and gender. Meanwhile the HR manager is discussing with the department head the location of Antonio's office. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 471 Topic: Negotiation Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: The Negotiation Process Quest. Category: Application LO: 6 57) Which of the following is not an individual factor that influences the effectiveness of a negotiator? A) personality B) mood C) gender D) age E) emotions Answer: D Explanation: Three factors influence how effectively individuals negotiate: personality. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 7 28 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. which will have a window.

Extroverts are friendly and share too much information. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 7 59) Alberto. for those in a less powerful position. Inc. Which of the following best explains how Alberto's emotions will affect the negotiation process? A) negative affect / equal status / integrative bargaining B) positive affect / position of power / distributive bargaining C) negative affect / subordinate employee / distributive bargaining D) positive affect / subordinate employee / distributive bargaining E) negative affect / position of power / distributive bargaining Answer: C Explanation: Alberto is a subordinate employee in a distributive bargaining situation. When his boss tells him that he might not be able to take two weeks off in April. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 471 Topic: Negotiation Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Individual Differences Quest.58) Which of the following personality types is generally recognized as the best type of distributive negotiator? A) agreeable extrovert B) disagreeable extrovert C) disagreeable introvert D) agreeable introvert E) personality does not affect negotiating Answer: C Explanation: Negotiators who are agreeable or extroverted are not very successful in distributive bargaining. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 472 Topic: Negotiation Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Individual Differences Quest. is negotiating his vacation schedule with his boss. The best distributive bargainer appears to be a disagreeable introvert. Category: Application LO: 7 29 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. In distributive negotiations. an hourly employee. . it appears that negotiators in a position of power or equal status who show anger negotiate better outcomes. Alberto gets angry and begins to justify why he should be given the vacation time. displaying anger leads to worse outcomes. Agreeable people desire to cooperate. On the other hand. someone more interested in the outcome than in pleasing the other party.

Both Beatrice and Hubert feel that the client has highly unreasonable deadline expectations. Hubert is negotiating the terms for a different part of the project with the client as well. . E) Beatrice refuses to take the project due to the unreasonable deadline. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 8 30 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. but Beatrice gets a two day extension. Inc. Multicultural and Diversity Objective: Individual Differences Quest. It is unlikely that Beatrice would walk away from the project because she values the relationship with the client. it is likely that Beatrice would not negotiate an extension. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 474 Topic: Negotiation Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Mediation Quest. Category: Application LO: 7 61) Which of the following is most likely to promote the success of mediation? A) high motivation of the disputing parties B) extensive experience of the mediator C) high level of conflict intensity D) shared perceptions of the mediator as coercive E) shared perceptions of the mediator as biased Answer: A Explanation: The situation is the key to whether mediation will succeed. the conflicting parties must be motivated to bargain and resolve their conflict. but Hubert gets a two day extension. therefore. Answer: B Explanation: Evidence shows that men have been found to negotiate better outcomes than women. but that Hubert would. Based on gender differences in negotiating. D) Neither Beatrice or Hubert are able to negotiate more time from the client. which of the following outcomes is most likely? A) Hubert is not able to change the deadline.60) Beatrice is negotiating the terms of a project with a new client. B) Beatrice is not able to change the deadline. C) Beatrice and Hubert are both able to negotiate a two day extension. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 472-473 Topic: Negotiation Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills.

The big plus of arbitration over mediation is that it always results in a settlement. Inc.62) Which of the following methods of third-party negotiation always results in a settlement? A) mediation B) consultancy C) arbitration D) conciliation E) execution Answer: C Explanation: An arbitrator is a third party with the authority to dictate an agreement. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 8 31 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 8 63) What factor would most likely increase the negative impact of an arbitration session? A) limited options of the arbitrator B) heavy-handedness of the arbitrator C) compulsory nature of the arbitration D) voluntary nature of the arbitration E) establishment of an agreement that is non-binding Answer: B Explanation: Whether or not there is a negative side depends on how heavy handed the arbitrator appears. Arbitration can be voluntary or compulsory. . Diff: 2 Page Ref: 474 Topic: Negotiation Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Arbitration Quest. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 474 Topic: Negotiation Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Arbitration Quest. that party is certain to be dissatisfied and unlikely to graciously accept the arbitrator's decision. If one party is left feeling overwhelmingly defeated.

conciliators typically act as more than mere communication conduits. collectivists will avoid direct expression of conflicts. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 475 Topic: Negotiation Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Conciliator Quest. Whereas U. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 475 Topic: Negotiation Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills. Inc. managers are more likely to use competing tactics in the face of conflicts. In practice. and persuade disputants to develop agreements. a third party who provides an informal communication link between the negotiator and the opponent is known as a(n) ________. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 8 65) A Chinese manager is more likely to use which of the following techniques of conflict management? A) direct confrontation B) authoritative command C) avoidance D) communication E) competing tactics Answer: C Explanation: To preserve peaceful relationships. A) mediator B) arbitrator C) consultant D) conciliator E) executor Answer: D Explanation: A conciliator is a trusted third party who provides an informal communication link between the negotiator and the opponent. Category: Application LO: 9 32 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. compromising and avoiding are the most preferred methods of conflict management in China.64) In third-party negotiations. Multicultural and Diversity Objective: Global Implications Quest. .S. preferring to use more indirect methods for resolving differences of opinion. They also engage in factfinding. interpret messages.

From which country is the other negotiator? A) China B) Japan C) U. it must be active and significant. and frequently pats you on the back. it must be kept low. increase the time to complete tasks. or clutches your arm. the Brazilians on average said "no" much more often. Answer: FALSE Explanation: One school of thought has argued that conflict must be avoided. interrupts often. were never silent.66) You are negotiating a parts contract with a foreign man who represents a foreign supplier. Japanese. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 454 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Traditional View of Conflict Quest. that it indicates a malfunctioning within the group. Category: Application LO: 9 67) The traditional view toward conflict seeks to retain the functional conflict in a group. Intense arguments about who should do what become dysfunctional when they create uncertainty about task roles. This is called the traditional view.5 to 3 times more often. D) Canada E) Brazil Answer: E Explanation: In a study that looked at verbal and nonverbal negotiation tactics exhibited by North Americans. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 2 68) For process conflict to be productive. and lead to members working at cross-purposes. Multicultural and Diversity Objective: Global Implications Quest. and Brazilians during half-hour bargaining sessions. interrupted 2. Inc.S. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 476 Topic: Negotiation Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills. Answer: FALSE Explanation: Process conflict relates to how the work gets done. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 455 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Process Conflict Quest. the man constantly shakes his head "no". Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 2 33 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. and touched each other almost 5 times every half hour. During the negotiation. For process conflict to be productive. .

. Examples of avoiding include trying to ignore a conflict and avoiding others with whom you disagree.69) The potential for conflict can actually be increased if too much information is communicated. with a resultant increase in the potential for conflict. an increase in communication is functional up to a point. and it may have no effect whatsoever on A's affection toward B. Answer: FALSE Explanation: In the definition of conflict. but it may not make A tense or anxious. one or more of the parties must be aware that antecedent conditions exist. . Diff: 2 Page Ref: 458 Topic: The Conflict Process Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Communication Quest. it is automatically personalized." Diff: 2 Page Ref: 459 Topic: The Conflict Process Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Personalization Quest. after which it is possible to overcommunicate. Answer: FALSE Explanation: Avoiding is when a person may recognize a conflict exists and want to withdraw from or suppress it. . Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 3 34 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. Apparently. In other words. because a conflict is a perceived conflict does not mean it is personalized. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 462 Topic: The Conflict Process Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Conflict-Resolution Techniques Quest. "A may be aware that B and A are in serious disagreement . Smoothing is playing down differences while emphasizing common interests between the conflicting parties. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 3 70) Once a conflict is perceived. Answer: TRUE Explanation: Research has further demonstrated a surprising finding: The potential for conflict increases when either too little or too much communication takes place. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 3 71) Avoidance of conflict involves playing down differences while emphasizing common interests between the conflicting parties. Inc. However.

Groups that resolve conflicts successfully discuss differences of opinion openly and are prepared to manage conflict when it arises. so groups that disagree with one another don't become too entrenched in their points of view and start to take the conflicts personally. Answer: TRUE Explanation: There are two general approaches to negotiation. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 5 35 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 465 Topic: The Conflict Process Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Creating Functional Conflict Quest. interests. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 4 74) There are two general approaches to negotiation: distributive bargaining and integrative bargaining. Managers need to emphasize shared interests in resolving conflicts. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 3 73) Negotiation is a process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected. Answer: FALSE Explanation: We can define negotiation as a process that occurs when two or more parties decide how to allocate scarce resources. or is about to negatively affect. it also allows groups to work toward a mutually acceptable solution. focus. information sharing. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 465 Topic: Negotiation Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Negotiation Quest. They differ in their goal and motivation. . distributive bargaining and integrative bargaining. something that the first party cares about.72) One common ingredient in organizations that successfully create functional conflict is that they reward dissent and punish conflict avoiders. and duration of relationship Diff: 2 Page Ref: 466 Topic: Negotiation Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Bargaining Strategies Quest. Answer: TRUE Explanation: This statement is true. An open discussion makes it much easier to develop a shared perception of the problems at hand. Inc.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 473 Topic: Negotiation Skill: AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity Objective: Gender and Conflict Quest.75) If the aspiration ranges of two parties overlap. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 467 Topic: Negotiation Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: The Bargaining Zone Quest. The area between these two points makes up each one's aspiration range. there exists a settlement range in which each one's aspirations can be met. female managers demonstrate less confidence in anticipating their negotiations and are less satisfied with their performance after the process is complete. Inc. even when their performance and the outcomes they achieve are similar to those for men. Managerial women demonstrate less confidence in anticipation of negotiating and are less satisfied with their performance afterward. Each also has a resistance point. Answer: TRUE Explanation: Each party in a negotiation has a target point that defines what he or she would like to achieve. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 5 76) Even when their performance and the outcomes they achieve are similar to men. As long as there is some overlap between A's and B's aspiration ranges. which marks the lowest outcome that is acceptable. then a settlement range for the conflict exists. Answer: TRUE Explanation: Evidence also suggests women's own attitudes and behaviors hurt them in negotiations. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 7 36 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. the point below which the party would break off negotiations rather than accept a less favorable settlement. .

that it indicates a malfunctioning within the group. One colleague has suggested that you. In this school of thought conflict is viewed negatively and discussed with such terms as violence. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 475 Topic: Negotiation Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Consultant Quest. the consultant tries to help the parties learn to understand and work with each other. .77) In third party negotiations. Category: Application LO: 2 37 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc. are responsible for eliminating the conflict so that your work group can function harmoniously. aided by a knowledge of conflict management. to improve relations between the conflicting parties so that they can reach a settlement themselves. and irrationality to reinforce its negative connotation. destruction. as the supervisor. you are supporting which of the following views of conflict? A) the traditional view B) the human relations view C) the interactionist view D) the moderated acceptance view E) the positivistic view Answer: A Explanation: The traditional view has argued that conflict must be avoided. Another colleague has suggested that conflict is good for stimulating creativity and productivity within the work environment. 78) If you support the idea that conflict should be eliminated. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 455 Topic: Application of Transitions in Conflict Thought and Functional Conflict Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Traditional View of Conflict Quest. Instead of putting forward specific solutions. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 8 It seems that your work group is in conflict much of the time. Answer: TRUE Explanation: A consultant is a skilled and impartial third party who attempts to facilitate problem solving through communication and analysis. the consultant does not try to settle the issues but rather works to improve relationships between the conflicting parties so they can reach a settlement themselves. a consultant's role is not to settle the issues. but. You are unsure about whether you should try to eliminate the conflict within your group or learn to deal with it positively. Unlike other third parties. rather.

This view is termed ________.79) You decide to do more research on the view that conflict should be encouraged as a means to achieve change and innovation. and creative. . Diff: 1 Page Ref: 455 Topic: Application of Transitions in Conflict Thought and Functional Conflict Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Dysfunctional Conflict Quest. A) the traditional view B) the human relations view C) the interactionist view D) the acceptance view E) the promotional view Answer: C Explanation: The interactionist view of conflict encourages conflict on the grounds that a harmonious. and unresponsive to needs for change and innovation. The major contribution of this view is recognizing that a minimal level of conflict can help keep a group viable. self critical. Category: Application LO: 2 38 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. peaceful. Category: Application LO: 2 80) You have decided to allow the conflict to exist so long as it doesn't hinder group performance. and cooperative group is prone to becoming static. apathetic. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 455-456 Topic: Application of Transitions in Conflict Thought and Functional Conflict Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Interactionist View of Conflict Quest. A) functional B) dysfunctional C) task D) individualized E) non-communicative Answer: B Explanation: A conflict that hinders group performance is a destructive or dysfunctional conflict. tranquil. Inc. You will try to eliminate ________ conflict.

outcomes. . 82) Last month. encourages interest and curiosity among group members. Inc. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 462 Topic: Application of Functional and Dysfunctional Outcomes Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Functional Outcomes of the Conflict Process Quest. as well as dysfunctional. provides the medium through which problems can be aired and tensions released. Which of the following is not an outcome of this functional conflict? A) the quality of decisions is improved B) creativity and innovation are stimulated C) tensions are released D) groupthink is increased E) interest and curiosity are encouraged Answer: D Explanation: Conflict is constructive when it improves the quality of decisions. Category: Application LO: 3 39 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. A) task conflict B) relationship conflict C) process conflict D) traditional conflict E) reactive conflict. Answer: C Explanation: Process conflict relates to how the work gets done. Category: Application LO: 2 Jennifer has come to realize that conflict has both functional. The type of conflict experienced by your group is ________. Jennifer's department experienced constructive conflict during a meeting. and fosters an environment of self-evaluation and change. She has observed examples of both in her organization. the disagreements usually concern how the group's work should be accomplished.81) When your work group disagrees. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 455 Topic: Application of Transitions in Conflict Thought and Functional Conflict Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Process Conflict Quest. stimulates creativity and innovation.

Category: Application LO: 3 40 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc. Many companies. Jennifer might recommend a system such as IBM's. ________ outcomes are likely to result. create a dysfunctional situation with negative outcomes. such as that of GM. Category: Application LO: 3 84) Jennifer's boss asks for her recommendations on strategies for promoting functional conflict within the company. have a formal system that encourages dissension. employees can question their boss with impunity and. such as IBM. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 464 Topic: Application of Functional and Dysfunctional Outcomes Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Creating Functional Conflict Quest.83) When "yes" people are hired and promoted. A) improved organizational B) functional C) dysfunctional D) enhanced policy E) harmonious Answer: C Explanation: Diversity can usually improve group performance and decision making. "Yes people. the system provides a third party for counsel. Which of the following is Jennifer most likely to recommend? A) punishing individuals who support beliefs that management has rejected B) empowering employees to question their bosses with impunity C) implementing a policy of promoting personnel who are conflict avoiders D) training managers to discourage devil's advocates in the decision-making process E) encouraging managers to reward employees who keep their opinions to themselves Answer: B Explanation: Organizations that don't encourage and support dissent may find their survival threatened. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 463 Topic: Application of Functional and Dysfunctional Outcomes Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Dysfunctional Outcomes of the Conflict Process Quest. . if the disagreement can't be resolved." loyal to the point of never questioning company actions.

Each side feels that what one side wins. formalized feedback to their supervisors. A) integrative bargaining B) distributive bargaining C) mediation D) BATNA E) arbitration Answer: B Explanation: The essence of distributive bargaining is negotiating over who gets what share of a fixed pie. The drivers are threatening to strike. which improves organizational performance. because the evaluations will promote relationship conflict. which breeds discontent. Category: Application LO: 5 41 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. they tend to bargain distributively. Probably the most widely cited example of distributive bargaining is labor management negotiations over wages. is this policy likely to benefit Jennifer's company? A) No. which is always dysfunctional.85) Jennifer's boss decides to implement a new policy whereby employees provide regular. D) No. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 467 Topic: Application of Bargaining Strategies Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Distributive Bargaining Quest. Inc. B) Yes. but no agreement seems to be possible. The two sides are engaged in ________. because the evaluations will generate dysfunctional conflict. or parties believe it is. Category: Application LO: 3 Labor and management at DJ Trucking cannot agree upon a contract for the truck drivers. because the evaluations will encourage groupthink. Answer: E Explanation: This plan should work because one common ingredient in organizations that successfully manage functional conflict is that they reward dissent and punish conflict avoiders. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 464-465 Topic: Application of Functional and Dysfunctional Outcomes Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Creating Functional Conflict Quest. which increases turnover. . Employees are encouraged to evaluate and criticize their superiors. Each side contends that they are bargaining fairly. C) No. When the pie is fixed. Based on your understanding of functional conflict. 86) Both sides agree that they are competing over a fixed amount of resources. and management knows that such a strike would be very costly. because the evaluations will create a climate of insecurity for the company's management. because the evaluations will encourage functional conflict. E) Yes. the other loses.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 466-467 Topic: Application of Bargaining Strategies Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Integrative Bargaining Quest. Parties A and B have target points at opposing ends of a scale and must negotiate to find the overlap. You are attempting to engage in ________. you win B) long-term focus C) convergent or congruent interests D) opposed interests E) high information sharing Answer: D Explanation: In distributive bargaining. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 497 Topic: Application of Bargaining Strategies Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Distributive Bargaining Quest. Inc. the parties try to expand the pie so that both possible parties are satisfied and conclude with a win-win situation. the interests of the parties are opposed. . A) integrative bargaining B) distributive bargaining C) mediation D) BATNA E) arbitration Answer: A Explanation: In integrative bargaining. Category: Application LO: 5 88) You have decided to try to find a win-win situation to help labor and management resolve their differences. Category: Application LO: 5 42 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education.87) Which of the following is a characteristic of distributive bargaining? A) I win.

89) At first. Answer: B Explanation: One successful distributive bargaining tactic is revealing a deadline. D) No. The labor representative tells management that a deal needs to be made within twenty-four hours. Category: Application LO: 5 90) The labor group decides to make use of the "deadline" strategy to improve their leverage in the negotiations. because deadlines will make the management team reconsider their position. Category: Application LO: 5 43 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. each party has a target point that defines what he or she would like to achieve. or the point below which the party would break off negotiations rather than accept a less favorable settlement. They are each highly focused on their demands in the negotiation. B) Yes. otherwise known as their ________. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 468 Topic: Application of Bargaining Strategies Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Integrative Bargaining Quest. Negotiators who reveal deadlines speed concessions from their negotiating counterparts. A) bargaining chips B) distribution points C) resistance points D) settlement ranges E) target points Answer: E Explanation: With distributive bargaining. . the disputing parties resist your offer to help create a win-win situation for both groups. in reality. C) Yes. or they're going on strike. just in work structure. which marks the lowest outcome that is acceptable. Inc. negotiators who reveal deadlines do better. And even though negotiators don't think this tactic works. E) No. but only if the deadline is set with a 24 hour time frame. because the consequences of the deadline are not an urgent concern for management. because deadlines don't work in negotiations. Based on your understanding of bargaining tactics. because the trucking company's management team is likely to reject any threats. is this approach likely to be successful? A) No. Each also has a resistance point. making them reconsider their position. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 467 Topic: Application of Bargaining Strategies Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Target Point Quest.

B) Recent research has shown that extroverts are less effective negotiators than introverts. C) High risk takers will be better negotiators. who prevails. A) mediator B) arbitrator C) conciliator D) consultant E) officiant Answer: A Explanation: A mediator is a neutral third party who facilitates a negotiated solution by using reasoning and persuasion. Answer: B Explanation: Negotiators who are agreeable or extroverted are not very successful in distributive bargaining. The employees are struggling over deciding who will negotiate for them. Both Alpha and the home buyer want to avoid the expense of going to court. to a large extent. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 471 Topic: Application of Issues in Negotiation Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Personality Traits in Negotiations Quest. is a company that hires culturally diverse people to perform Shakespearean plays for high school students. Mediators are widely used in labor-management negotiations and in civil court disputes. E) Individuals who are concerned with appearing competent make excellent negotiators. suggesting alternatives. Agreeable people are more interested in finding ways to cooperate rather than to butt heads. D) Individuals with an internal locus of control will be better negotiators. suggesting alternatives. The actors and actresses have joined together to ask Playbill for higher salaries. persuasion. Category: Application LO: 8 44 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. The company employs actors and actresses from all over the world. 91) Which of the following statements is true pertaining to the role of personality traits in negotiations? A) Personality of the negotiators will determine. This person is a(n) ________. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 474 Topic: Application of Third-Party Negotiations Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Mediator Quest. Inc. Category: Application LO: 7 Alpha Construction is having a dispute with a home buyer about some of the terms of their building contract. and the like. they tend to share more information than they should. Extroverts are outgoing and friendly. and the like.Playbill. . 92) Alpha wants to bring in a neutral third party who will facilitate a negotiated solution by using reasoning. Inc. but they cannot agree on how to settle their disagreement.

and persuade disputants to develop agreements. The big plus of arbitration over mediation is that it always results in a settlement. interpret messages. Inc. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 475 Topic: Application of Third-Party Negotiations Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Conciliator Quest.93) The home buyer wants to bring in a third party who will have the authority to dictate an agreement. Category: Application LO: 8 45 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. This person is a(n) ________. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 474 Topic: Application of Third-Party Negotiations Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Arbitrator Quest. In practice. A) mediator B) arbitrator C) conciliator D) consultant E) officiant Answer: C Explanation: A conciliator is a trusted third party who provides an informal communication link between the negotiator and the opponent. They also engage in factfinding. . conciliators typically act as more than mere communication conduits. an attorney and trusted friend. Arbitration can be voluntary or compulsory. to help them informally to solve their problem. A) mediator B) arbitrator C) conciliator D) consultant E) officiant Answer: B Explanation: An arbitrator is a third party with the authority to dictate an agreement. Sam's role is that of a(n) ________. Category: Application LO: 8 94) The two parties eventually agree to ask Sam Jones.

reward systems. the history leading up to the negotiation. and help determine the kind of bargaining that will be done (integrative or distributive)? Answer: The first step of the negotiating process is planning and preparation. integrative bargaining is preferable to distributive bargaining because the former builds long-term relationships. 6 96) Describe a functional conflict and dysfunctional conflict that could exist because of structure. degree of specialization in the tasks assigned to group members. there are conflicts that hinder group performance. these are functional. 2 46 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. because tasks are not adequately defined in a work group. you may want to consider a more aggressive style. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 466-471 Topic: Negotiation Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: The Negotiation Process Quest. it is functional because it is supportive of the overall group performance. for example. these are dysfunctional or destructive forms of conflict. The group would always be at odds and would not be advancing the goals set and the tasks would be hindered. Category: Synthesis LO: 1. If preserving the relationship will make you seem weak and easily exploited. the salesperson wishing to make the highest number of sales. and the credit manager needing to insure that all the sales will be paid. Before negotiating it's important to prepare by considering the nature of the conflict. Integrative bargaining bonds negotiators and allows them to leave the bargaining table feeling they have achieved a victory. Structural conflict includes variables such as size. however. Relationships can change as a result of a negotiation. In terms of intraorganizational behavior.95) Describe the first step of the negotiation process. How does the negotiating parties' relationship affect this step. A functional structural conflict that could exist in a longterm situation would be that of a salesperson and a credit manager that are in constant conflict because they have differing goals. leaves one party a loser. jurisdictional clarity. Additionally. 458 Topic: The Conflict Process Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Functional Conflict and Dysfunctional Conflict Quest. Answer: Some conflicts support the goals of the group and improve its performance. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 455. member–goal compatibility. . constructive forms of conflict. and the degree of dependence between groups. leadership styles. and what are your goals. Although there is conflict. It might be wiser to pursue a more compromising style. what is desired from the negotiation. all things being equal. who's involved and what are their perceptions of the conflict. Category: Synthesis LO: 5. so that's another outcome to take into consideration in the planning and preparation phase. Distributive bargaining. A dysfunctional structural conflict could exist. If one side completely "wins" a negotiation it can push the other side into resentment or animosity. Inc.

The evidence doesn't support this belief. Women would be best when involved in integrative bargaining. Inc. as it is geared toward building long term relationships. . A popular stereotype is that women are more cooperative and pleasant in negotiations than are men. These traits. People who are highly interested in having positive relationships with other people.97) Explain how gender and personality affect negotiating. men have been found to negotiate better outcomes than women. while slightly helpful in integrative negotiations. because extroverts are outgoing and friendly and they tend to share more information than they should. Category: Synthesis LO: 5. So the best distributive bargainer appears to be a disagreeable introvert. and describe the types of bargaining that are best for each gender and personality type. However. Women do focus more on relationships and possibly place different values on the outcome because of the relationship factor. Agreeable people are more interested in finding ways to cooperate rather than to butt heads. Answer: Negotiators who are agreeable or extroverted are not very successful in distributive bargaining. someone more interested in his or her own outcomes than in pleasing the other party and having a pleasant social exchange. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 466-470. These people tend to be very anxious about disagreements and plan to give in quickly to avoid unpleasant conflicts even before negotiations start. 471-473 Topic: Negotiation Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Individual Differences Quest. 7 47 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. and who are not very concerned about their own outcomes. although the difference is relatively small. are especially poor negotiators. are liabilities when interests are opposed.

define vocabulary and strategy parameters to work with on a project to help reduce communication problems and potential opposition in stage one. when conflict behavior begins to emerge a resolution-focused manager would apply conflict management techniques such as problem solving and compromise. A resolution-focused manager could. and advice members of idiosyncracies. a resolution-focused manager would strive for a collaborating intention. 3 48 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 456-465 Topic: The Conflict Process Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Process Conflict Quest. in which cognition and personalization play a role in the conflict process. Inc. and facilitating open discussion. a resolution-focused manager would need to know the personality differences of the teams that work together. in which members cooperate. Answer: The five stages of the conflict process are: a) potential opposition or incompatibility b) cognition and personalization c) intentions d) behavior e) outcomes In the resolution-focused school of thought the focus is more on managing the whole context in which conflicts occur. thus minimizing the negative effects of conflict by focusing on preparing people for conflicts. and provide an example of how a manager from the resolution-focused school of thought would apply each stage of the conflict process in the workplace. A resolution manager would strive for a functional outcome in which the conflict isn't avoided. Category: Synthesis LO: 2. In stage two. to keep the team functional. In stage four. both before and after the behavioral stage of conflict occurs. for example. In the stage three of intentions. developing resolution strategies. . but allowed to stimulate creativity and foster good solutions.98) Identify the five stages of the conflict process.

a neutral third party who facilitates a negotiated solution by using reasoning and persuasion. 475-476 Topic: Application of Global Implications Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Global Implications Quest. which acts to dissolve common ties. To preserve peaceful relationships. 9 100) Discuss what is meant by dysfunctional outcomes of conflict. A Chinese manager would most likely call in a mediator. collectivists are more likely to seek to preserve relationships and promote the good of the group as a whole than individualists. collectivists will avoid direct expression of conflicts. Category: Critical Thinking LO: 3 49 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. preferring to use more indirect methods for resolving differences of opinion. and subordination of group goals to the primacy of infighting between members. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 457-465.99) Describe the preferred negotiating techniques that would be implemented by a manager from China. What conflict management techniques would he use? What role would a third party negotiator be likely to have if not agreement could be reached. Smoothing. Answer: Destructive outcomes of conflict include the following: uncontrolled opposition breeds discontent. Among the most undesirable consequences are a retarding of communication. Collectivists such as the Chinese may also be more interested in demonstrations of concern and working through third parties to resolve disputes. and eventually leads to the destruction of the group. As a result. Category: Synthesis LO: 3. earlier in the negotiation process in order to avoid conflict and maintain a relationship with all parties. conflict can bring group functioning to a halt and potentially threaten the group's survival. Compromising and avoiding are the most preferred methods of conflict management in China. or playing down differences while emphasizing common interests between the conflicting parties is also a good technique to maintain relationships. Answer: Collectivist cultures see people as deeply embedded in social situations. Conflict can also reduce group effectiveness. reductions in group cohesiveness. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 464 Topic: The Conflict Process Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Dysfunctional Outcomes of the Conflict Process Quest. At the extreme. Inc. .

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 455 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Traditional View of Conflict Quest. therefore. and creative. destruction. Conflict. and irrationality to reinforce its negative connotation. Category: Critical Thinking LO: 2 102) Define and describe the interactionist view of conflict. and nonresponsive to needs for change and innovation. and the failure of managers to be responsive to the needs and aspirations of their employees. The early approach to conflict assumed that all conflict was bad. and cooperative group is prone to becoming static. and it was used synonymously with such terms as violence. Answer: This school of thought has argued that conflict must be avoided–that it indicates a malfunctioning within the group. Category: Critical Thinking LO: 2 50 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. Conflict was seen as a dysfunctional outcome resulting from poor communication. Conflict was viewed negatively. self-critical. . Diff: 2 Page Ref: 455-456 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Interactionist View of Conflict Quest.101) Define and describe the traditional view of conflict. Given the interactionist view–and it is the one that our author takes–it becomes evident that to say conflict is all good or bad is inappropriate and naive. apathetic. Answer: The interactionist approach encourages conflict on the grounds that a harmonious. was harmful and was to be avoided. tranquil. a lack of openness and trust between people. peaceful. The traditional view was consistent with the attitudes that prevailed about group behavior in the 1930s and 1940s. Whether a conflict is good or bad depends on the type of conflict. by definition. The major contribution of the interactionist approach. Inc. is encouraging group leaders to maintain an ongoing minimum level of conflict–enough to keep the group viable.

. that party may be willing to place the opponent's interests above his or her own. e) In order for the relationship to be maintained. regardless of the impact on the other parties to the conflict. The potential for conflict increases when either too little or too much communication takes place. and personal variables. Category: Critical Thinking LO: 3 51 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. member-goal compatibility.103) Discuss the three general categories of conditions which may be the sources of conflict. insufficient exchange of information. f) In compromising. Category: Critical Thinking LO: 3 104) Identify the behaviors to be expected from persons who exhibit each of the five primary conflict-handling intentions. jargon. Differing word connotations. Answer: a) When one person seeks to satisfy his or her own interests. c) In avoiding. a) Communication represents those opposing forces that arise from semantic difficulties. jurisdictional clarity. b) Structure includes variables such as size. degree of specialization in the tasks assigned to group members. Rather. there is no clear winner or loser. c) Personal variables include individual value systems that each person has and the personality characteristics that account for individual idiosyncrasies and differences. he or she is competing. leadership styles. and noise in the communication channel are all barriers to communication and potential antecedent conditions to conflict. resulting in a compromised outcome. d) When one party seeks to appease an opponent. and "noise" in the communication channels. there is a willingness to ration the object of the conflict and accept a solution that provides incomplete satisfaction of both parties' concerns. the intention of the parties is to solve the problem by clarifying differences rather than by accommodating various points of view. reward systems. Inc. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 459-460 Topic: The Conflict Process Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Conflict-Handling Intentions Quest. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 457 Topic: The Conflict Process Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Sources of Conflict Quest. Answer: The three general categories of conditions which may be the sources of conflict are communication. Each party to the conflict seeks to give up something and sharing occurs. one party is willing to be self-sacrificing by accommodating. structure. b) In collaborating. misunderstandings. and the degree of dependence between groups. a person may recognize that a conflict exists and want to withdraw from it or suppress it.

They should encourage their people to challenge the system and develop fresh ideas. . Conflict is an antidote for groupthink. They can reward dissenters by recognizing those who go against the grain. organizations must encourage and support dissent. encourages interest and curiosity among group members. particularly the ones that are unusual or held by a minority. Companies can encourage unruly and disruptive meetings to create friction and stimulate creative ideas. One common ingredient in organizations that successfully create functional conflict is that they reward dissent and punish conflict avoiders. It doesn't allow the group passively to "rubber stamp" decisions that may be based on weak assumptions. and fosters an environment of selfevaluation and change. Category: Critical Thinking LO: 3 106) How can functional conflict be created? Answer: To create functional conflict. Some may build devil's advocates into the decision process. stimulates creativity and innovation. Category: Critical Thinking LO: 3 52 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. provides the medium through which problems can be aired and tensions released. or other debilities. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 464-465 Topic: The Conflict Process Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Creating Functional Conflict Quest. to be weighed in important decisions. Conflict challenges the status quo and therefore furthers the creation of new ideas. Inc.105) When is conflict functional? Answer: Conflict is functional when it improves the quality of decisions. Managers have to learn to take the bad news without flinching. They can criticize their bosses and question without impunity. promotes reassessment of group goals and activities. and increases the probability that the group will respond to change. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 464-465 Topic: The Conflict Process Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Creating Functional Conflict Quest. Conflict can improve the quality of decision making by allowing all points. inadequate consideration of relevant alternatives.

c) A conciliator is a trusted third party who provides an informal communication link between the negotiator and the opponent.107) Distinguish between the roles of mediator. aided by his or her knowledge of conflict management. Category: Critical Thinking LO: 2 53 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. both before and after the behavioral stage of conflict occurs. Conflict indicates a malfunctioning within the group. Inc. and consultant. Students should describe their own views and clarify how they fit and do not fit with each of the views given here. b) The interactionist view of conflict encourages conflict on the grounds that a harmonious. and unresponsive to needs for change and innovation. to improve relations between the conflicting parties so that they can reach a settlement themselves. Answer: a) The traditional view of conflict argues that conflict must be avoided. and facilitating open discussion. and the like. tranquil. and consultant. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 473-475 Topic: Negotiation Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Third-Party Negotiations Quest. and most recent perspective called the resolution focused view of conflict. suggests we can minimize the negative effects of conflict by focusing on preparing people for conflicts. c) The third. self critical. conciliator. Analytic Skills Objective: Views of Conflict Quest. apathetic. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 454-457 Topic: Transitions in Conflict Thought Skill: AACSB: Reflective Thinking. and cooperative group is prone to becoming static. d) A consultant is a skilled and impartial third party who attempts to facilitate problem solving through communication and analysis. developing resolution strategies. Describe how your view fits or differs from these views. . peaceful. conciliator. rather. arbitrator. which we review later. and creative. arbitrator. Category: Critical Thinking LO: 8 108) Compare and contrast the three schools of thought regarding conflict in groups and organizations. A growing body of research. Answer: There are four basic third-party roles: mediator. a) A mediator is a neutral third party who facilitates a negotiated solution by using reasoning and persuasion. The consultant's role is not to settle the issues but. b) An arbitrator is a third party with the authority to dictate an agreement. has started to focus more on managing the whole context in which conflicts occur. suggesting alternatives. The major contribution of this view is recognizing that a minimal level of conflict can help keep a group viable.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 466-470 Topic: Negotiation Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Bargaining Strategies Quest. behavior. d) When most people think of conflict situations. Category: Critical Thinking LO: 5 54 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education.the point below which they would break off negotiations rather than accept a less favorable settlement. b) Stage II is cognition and personalization. This is where conflict issues tend to be defined. If the conditions cited in Stage I negatively affect something that one party cares about. Category: Critical Thinking LO: 3 110) Discuss the two general approaches to negotiation. These outcomes in Stage V may be functional in that the conflict results in an improvement in the group's performance. intentions intervene between people's perceptions and emotions and their overt behavior. and a willingness by both parties to maintain flexibility. . As long as there is some overlap between A and B's aspiration ranges.distributive bargaining and integrative bargaining. the conflict. Both parties must be open with information and candid about their concerns. The area between these two points makes up each one's aspiration range. intentions. Inc. These conditions are communication. The behavior stage includes statements. These intentions are decisions to act in a certain way. c) In Stage III. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 457-465 Topic: The Conflict Process Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: The Conflict Process Quest. the ability to trust one another. there exists a settlement range where each one's aspirations can be met. Each negotiator has a target point that defines what he or she would like to achieve. have a sensitivity to each other's needs. They need not lead directly to conflict. actions. and personal variables. The antecedent conditions can only lead to conflict when one or more of the parties are affected by. and aware of. structure. they tend to focus on Stage IV because this is where conflicts become visible. Each also has a resistance point. Answer: The conflict process can be seen as comprising five stages: potential opposition or incompatibility. then the potential for opposition or incompatibility becomes actualized in the second stage. e) The action-reaction interplay between the conflicting parties results in consequences.109) Outline and discuss the conflict process. cognition and personalization. and reactions made by the conflicting parties. a) The first step in the conflict process is the presence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise. or dysfunctional in that it hinders group performance. Answer: There are two general approaches to negotiation . which marks the lowest outcome that is acceptable . b) Integrative bargaining operates under the assumption that there exists one or more settlements that can create a win-win solution. a) Distributive bargaining is characterized by zero-sum conditions. and outcomes. but one of these conditions is necessary if conflict is to surface.