THE NOUN

Substantivul
1.Substantive numarabile - (countable nouns);
Exemple : a book - two books; a dress - two dresses
Obs. Au forma atat la singular, cat si la plural.
Pluralele sunt de doua feluri :
a) regulate ;
b) neregulate ;
a) Pluralele regulate
- se formeaza adaugand un -s la sfarsitul formei de singular ;
Exemple : hat - hats; head - heads;
country - countries; boy - boys;
Obs. 1. Consoana + y => ie + s la plural;
2. Vocala + y => y + s la plural;
-se formeaza adaugand -es :
-la substantivele terminate in :-s,-x,-z,-ch,-sh;
-la substantivele terminate in :-f,-fe (sunt si exceptii);
-la substantivele terminate in consoana+'o' (sunt si exceptii);
Exemple : bus-buses ; box-boxes; watch-watches; life-lives;
roof-roofs; hero-heroes; potato-potatoes;
piano-pianos; photo-photos;
Obs. -f sau -fe devin cateodata v+es;
b) Pluralele neregulate
man-MEN; woman-WOMEN; foot-FEET; tooth-TEETH;
mouse-MICE; ox-OXEN; child-CHILDREN;
Exemple : a man - two men; a tooth - two teeth;
Nota: Compusii cu substantivul man au aceeasi pronuntie la
singular si la plural,desi ortografia difera .
2. Substantive ce se folosesc numai la singular :
a) -news;
-nume de boli (measles) +altele ;
-nume de stiinte si obiecte de studiu }=> + verb la singular ;
terminate in -ics
(Mathematics, Physics, Accoustics)
b) advice furniture information
knowledge money
1

fear. a bottle of. London. Family class crew public team audience committee 5. b) cu verbul la singular: cand se denumeste colectivitatea ca un intreg. advice. knowledge. a bunch of. a kilogramme of. Substantive ce se folosesc dupa inteles cu: a) verb la plural: cand referirea este la membrii colectivitatii. love. Exemplu: Paul's family are at home . Substantive cu forma de plural trouses glasses (a pair of) pyjamas }=> +verb la plural Nota: Substantive cattle si people . 4. se face cu ajutorul cuvintelor: A PIECE OF 3. courage.1 Felul substantivelor Substantivele în limba engleza se pot împarti în patru categorii:  substantive comune: cat. boy. Mary  substantive abstracte: beauty.2. team 1.THE NOUN  luggage }=> +verb la singular Nota: Cuantificarea (numararea) substantivelor news. -Cuantificarea (numararea) lor se face cu ajutorul cuvintelor: a piece of. information. luggage. girl. lamp  substantive proprii: England. joy  substantive colective: crowd. Genul Substantive de genul masculin sunt fiintele si animalele de sex masculin: Ex. Exemplu: Paul's family is large. Substantive nume de materie si substanta -sunt numarabile. lion. group. Mr Smith.: man. a spoon of. dog 2 . 1. a slice of.desi au doar forma de singular se acorda cu verbul la plural.

box+es=boxes 1. baby babies 3 . factory .: boy . peace.girl. dog . bush+es=bushes. Numarul Numarul este forma pe care o ia un substantiv pentru a arata ca ne referim la unul sau mai multe obiecte sau fiinte. storm  Pluralul substantivelor se formeaza prin adaugarea unui s la forma de singular: Ex.mother. husband . Substantivele de genul comun sunt o particularitate a limbii engleze.daughter.wife.: church+es=churches. mouse. potato+es=potatoes.: woman.sister. bull . world. în majoritatea cazurilor si autovehiculele sau alte vehicule sunt de genul feminin. cook (bucatar.1. world+s=worlds  Pluralul substantivelor teminate în ch. bush+es=bushes.queen 1. father .THE NOUN  Substantivele de genul feminin sunt fiintele si animalele de sex feminin: Ex.aunt. Substantivele care intra în aceasta categorie au aceeasi forma pentru ambele sexe: Ex.3. copila). teacher (profesor. day+s=days. king . x se formeaza adaugând es la singular. cat.: world. sh. class+es=classes.3. girl.cow.: child (copil. o. wife.  Singularul coincide cu forma de baza a unui substantiv: dog.: cat+s=cats. bucatareasa).factories. animale sau fiinte al caror sex nu este cunoscut (pronume: it/they): Ex. Ex. Unele substantive au forme diferite pentru genul masculin si cel feminin: Ex. profesoara). baby Exceptii: tarile.bitch. plantele.companies. son . brother . uncle . s. Pluralul neregulat  Substantive terminate în consoana+y fac pluralul în ies: Ex.: company . house. navele. girl. giraffe Substantive de genul neutru sunt lucrurile.

sopranos.wharfs/ wharves  Câteva substantive formeaza pluralul prin schimbarea unei vocale interne Ex.photos  Unele substantive terminate în f sau fe vor suferi la plural schimbarea în ves. women teachers.2 Pluralul substantivelor compuse  În cazul substantivelor compuse numai ultimul cuvânt va trece la plural. runners-up  Abrevierile sau initialele vor forma pluralul prin adaugarea unui s Ex. VIPs (very important persons) 1.men. fish 1.4. substantivul de baza va primi semnul pluralului. Substantivele unice (uncountable nouns)  4 .teeth  Pluralul substantivului child este children.THE NOUN  Unele substantive terminate în o fac plural prin adaugarea unui s. series. species.roofs. Ex.wives.pianos. piano . handkerchief .: men drivers.: foot . wolf . half .leaves. self . man .: leaf . Ex.selves.wolves Exceptii: roof . photo . life . men-of-war. Ex. break-ins. deer.: sisters-in-law.lives.: MPs (Members of Parliament). sheep.feet. wife . passers-by. men servants  În cazul substantivelor compuse formate din constructii de genul substantiv + prepozitie / adverb + substantiv. hangers-on.: soprano .gulfs. Ex. travel agents Exceptii: substantivele compuse al caror prim element este man sau woman vor primi semnul pluralului pentru ambele substantive componente.3.: boy-friends. wharf .halves.: aircraft.handkerchiefs. lookers-on.  Unele substantive ramân identice la plural Ex. tooth . Ex. gulf .

gold. luggage. Ex.5. (Parul ei este negru.) She found a hair in the milk.) 1. reading. The piece of advice you gave me helped.: This coffee is cold. (Casa lor este din lemn. theory.) Their house was made of wood. horror. notiuni abstracte. wood  Abstractiuni: earth. pot avea plural). Nota: Multe dintre substantivele unice pot avea si sensuri care se pot numara. piece of. knowledge. slice of.THE NOUN  Sunt substantive care nu se pot numara (uncountable) deoarece reprezinta fie unicate. oil. stone. glass. news. (A gasit un fir de par în lapte. friendship. cloth. Nu sunt precedate de a/an. astfel devenind substantive comune si comportându-se ca atare (primes a/an la singular. etc. bit. advice. pentru a exprima o unitate din aceste substantive se foloseste: some. paradise. This slice of bread is hard. experience.  Nume de substante: bread.: I do not want any help. beauty. weather Substantivele unice sunt întotdeana la singular si vor lua un verb la singular: Ex. any. literature  Alte substantive: baggage. information. the present. paper.: a child's voice.) We picnicked in the woods. parking. shopping. Forma posesiva  Se adauga 's la forma de singular a substantivelor care nu se termina în s: Ex. nature. help. death. the people's choice. coffee. Sens Unic / Sens Comun Her hair is black. a little. obiecte puternic individualizate. a horse's mouth. no. The weather was dreadful. women's clothes 5 . damage. I need some information. (Am mers la picnic în padure.

Mary bought her tickets at the travel agent's (office). ten minutes' break o În expresii construite dupa modelul bani + worth Ex.: a boys' school. fie 's Ex.  Ideea de posesie se poate exprima si cu ajutorul constructiei of+substantiv.  6 .: for heaven's sake. a shilling's worth of stamps o În alte expresii uzuale: Ex. Aceasta constructie se foloseste mai ales pentru lucruri sau fiinte umane sau animale atunci cand acestea sunt urmate de o propozitie subordonata. Henry the Eighth's wives  's se foloseste si dupa initiale sau abrevieri. in five years' time.: My father-in-law's guitar. birouri. Yeats's / Yeats' poems  În cazul substantivelor compuse si a titlurilor ultimul cuvânt va primi 's Ex. The kids went to Bobby's (house).THE NOUN  Vom folosi doar apostroful (') cu formele de plural ale substantivelor care se termina în s. casa.: ten dollars' worth of bananas. the plane's wings. oficii. este uzuala omisiunea substantivului urmator atunci când sensul comunicarii este clar (magazine. Se foloseste de asemenea în urmatoarele cazuri: o În expresii temporale Ex.: You can buy this at the baker's (shop). animale. Ex. Ex.: yesterday's newspaper.: The CEO's assistant. the Johnsons' residence  Numele proprii terminate în s vor primi fie doar apostrof ('). the PM's speech  Forma posesiva se foloseste în general când vorbim de oameni. a winter's day. tari. Ex. locuinta). the water's edge.: Mr Jones's / Mr Jones' car. the train's departure  În cazul anumitor substantive folosite la posesiv.

Poet----. Traitor----. Negro----. Nephew----.Benefactress 15.Niece 8. Jew----.Bitch 5.Spinster 2. Lion----.Lioness 21. Monk----. Dog----. Benefactor----. Sultan-----Sultana EXERCISES 7 . Gentleman----. Actor----. Horse----.Mayoress 24.Traitress 19.Cow 23.Actress 26. Prince----. Ox----. Manager----.Princess 20.Nun 29. Masculine genders-----Feminine genders 1.Huntress 16. Wizard----. Emperor----. Bull----. Shepherd----.Cow 22.Duchess 31.Tigress 25. Tiger----. Bachelor----.Empress 18.: the walls of the town.Mare 7.Lady 30.Shepherdess 14.Negress 17. Bullock----. Eg: I took the advice of the girl I met on the bus and went to buy the book. the keys of the house.Heifer 4.Hostress 27. Hunter----.Aunt 28.Heiress 11.Witch 10.Jewess 9.Manageress 12. Bachelor----. Uncle----. Heir----.Bee 6.THE NOUN  Ex. Host----. the roof of the church.Maid 3.Poetess 13. Mayor----. Duke----. Drone-----.

many) people on the ship (was. child. leaf. That knife shouldn’t be used any more. 3. (much. His luggage (was. thief. 12. woman. 5. wife. 2. key. The farmer has a hen. 7. many) chairs here. cousin. A (little. The chicken was eaten by a fox. storey. manager. The news printed in that paper (is. were) here a few minutes ago. 6. doctor. guide. 7. 9. dog. photo. loaf. are) his favorite game. few) advice. lion. My sister-in-law is a teacher. are) several means of accomplishing our purpose. 11. nephew. there (is. 8. Have you seen this interesting phenomenon? 3. My cat never catches a mouse. The housewife and the middle-aged woman are the principal consumers of this product. assistant. There (is. II. elephant. are) a dangerous thing. The businessman is considering the new tariff. She has lost the key to that door. Choose the right word from the brackets: 1. bachelor. driver. The scissors (was. You didn’t give me (much. 3. shelf. sheep. man. 8. Smith The luggage belonging to the VIP The flat belonging to her son-in-law The canteen used by the workers – I. foot. We don’t need to buy so (much. Turn the italicized nouns into the plural and make all the other necessary changes in the sentences: 1. 2.The traveller's luggage The room belonging to the child The clothes belonging to the children The car belonging to Mr. son. 9. were) lost yesterday. few) knowledge (is. widower. piano. teacher. bull. player. and very (little. 4. bridegromm. host. many) ideas about the job.THE NOUN  1. are) never accurate. 10. waiter. camel. tooth. country. 2. The child in that family has bad manners. Scrie femininul urmatoarelor substantive: actor. Scrie pluralul urmatoarelor substantive: knife. aircraft. snake. 6. 8 . We are looking for the witness who has seen the accident. Yesterday a house was robbed by a thief. How (much. Billiards (is. are) (much. and a sheep. were) getting seasick from the waves. 4. kilo. baby. many) information do you need? 10. Rescrie urmatoarele constructii conform modelului: The luggage belonging to the travellers . a goose. uncle. many) furniture.

thought long. strength. We have no . not even a bed or a table.brotherhood. sale. 2.Form Abstract Nouns from the following: man. I’m sure it will help me. king . strong. 6. 9 .THE NOUN  Fill in the blanks with one of the following words: bar. She cut several … of bread for lunch. 'What does Alan look like?' He's got a long beard and very short . sell. 3. They are going to give you a lot of .knowledge. 1. Just two small bags. think . lose.manhood. 2. You can have that … of cold beef left over from yesterday’s dinner. There is room for everybody to sit down. 5. Each passenger is allowed to take three … of luggage. 8. greatness A) Fill in the blanks with the correct forms of the given nouns for the following exercise. slice. scholarship. chair job experience information hair luggage progress furniture permission work 1. 5. wisdom brother. piece. Don’t forget to buy a … chocolate on your way home. I don't have much . They are going to tell you all you want to know. There are a lot of . wise . 4. Exercise:Name the gender of each of the following nouns son daughter brother sister father cousin mouse boy general house ship mother tree apple goose drake brush uncle Douglas Anne niece England clock pitcher leaf cow friend George mom road EXERCISE . 7.length. great . We want to buy a new … of furniture for the sitting room. There are two interesting … of news in today’s paper. 3. This is a … of good advice. 4. Use each noun only one time. With a…of luck we can get rid of them. loss. scholar. bit. item. kingdom know.

Write the correct form of the possessives into the gaps (apostrophe 's). (Susan . 10. If you want to leave work early. (children) 4) sister is twelve years old. (parents) CD player is new. George is unemployed. Shakespeare’s are wonderful. She hasn't got enough . (John) 5) and 6) shoes are on the second floor. (boys) 1) (a glass) milk 2) (my friend) bike 3) (the window) room 4) (Mr Smith) car 5) (ten minutes) walk - 10 . . (Peter) 2) Let's go to the 3) The . (men) 7) My 8) school is old. (Smiths) room is upstairs. 1) This is book. He's looking for a . Carla's English is very bad. 8. you have to ask for 9.Steve) car was not expensive. (boy) pencils.THE NOUN  6. (Charles) 9) This is the 10) These are the bike. I don't think Ann will get the job. She must make 7. .

tennis and form meaningful phrases. 4.This tooth hurts and so do my other ………………. rice. meat. chocolate.One woman wants a hamburger and the other want salads. lemonade. tea.THE NOUN  6) (the headteacher) office 7) (the number) house 8) (two days) work 9) (the waiter) shoes 10) (Britain) economy Fill in the following words advice. 11 . And also give more examples to each one.This mouse is for a Macintosh. 5.. but the other are fine.One child is here and the other are outdoors. 1) a piece of 2) a packet of 3) a bar of 4) a glass of 5) a cup of 6) a bottle of 7) a slice of 8) a barrel of 9) a game of 10) a jar of Determine which form is the correct plural form for the noun in the sentence. 3. . 2.This foot of the chair is broken. oil. jam. milk. The other are for PCs. 1.

27. but a cat. 13. 12. 9.One analysis was well-written.Type one zero here and type three there. but the other are out of focus.My thesis is different from their ………….A bread knife and several butter were left in the sink.A bacterium multiplies to create more in seconds. 20. 19. has nine ……… . 22. used in the past. 8.I ate one grapefruit . The World Series this year was more exciting than all the …. like so many fought for freedom.. 21. The basis of his research is built upon the of many other researchers' work.This red fish and those green.Your first photo is focused.I want this video and those too. but the wooden all caught fire. 14. 18. and park the other in the back lot.One memorandum was lost. 16. The course curriculum this year is more complete than the ………. 18. and black are beautiful..Take out one parenthesis and leave the other two there. 17.This red fish and those green.Park that auto here. before.People have one life.Here is the syllabus for Art 101 and the for Math I & II. blue. Martin Luther King Jr. the other two were poorly written. 26. but the other two were caught. 15.THE NOUN  6. it is said. but not the other two ……. 24.My belief and your may differ. 11.Peel one potato and put the other two away... One wolf will fight to control the other in the pack. 28.An earthquake is a phenomenon unlike any other in nature. 23. but the other are not ripe yet.I found the chapter in one index .One hero. 30. 10. 29. but the other were in his notebook.One thief got away. 12 . and black are beautiful.The tile roof didn't burn. . 7. 25. blue.