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Producer Gas is a generic term referring to


Wood gas: produced in a gasifier to power cars with ordinary internal combustion engines.

Town gas: manufactured gas, originally produced from coal, for sale to consumers and

Syngas: used as a fuel source or as an intermediate for the production of other chemicals.
producer gas, also called suction gas, specifically means a fuel gas made
from coke, anthracite or other carbonaceousmaterial. Air is passed over the red-hot
carbonaceous fuel and carbon monoxide is produced. The reaction is exothermic and
proceeds as follows:
2C + O2 + 3.73 N2 → 2CO+ 3.73 N2
The nitrogen in the air remains unchanged and dilutes the gas, giving it a very low calorific
value. The concentration of carbon monoxide in the "ideal" producer gas was considered to
be 34.7% carbon monoxide (carbonic oxide) and 65.3% nitrogen.[1] After "scrubbing", to
remove tar, the gas may be used to power gas turbines (which are well-suited to fuels of low
calorific value), spark ignited engines (where 100% petrol fuel replacement is possible) or
diesel internal combustion engines (where 40% - 15% of the original diesel fuel is still used
to ignite the gas [2]). During the Second World War in Britain, plants were built in the form of
trailers for towing behind commercial vehicles, especially buses, to supply gas as a
replacement for petrol (gasoline) fuel.[3] A range of about 80 miles for every charge of
anthracite was achieved\

Wood gas is a syngas fuel which can be used as a fuel for furnaces, stoves and vehicles in
place ofgasoline, diesel or other fuels. During the production process biomass or other carboncontaining materials are gasified within the oxygen-limited environment of a wood gas generator to
producehydrogen and carbon monoxide. These gases can then be burnt as a fuel within an oxygen
rich environment to produce carbon dioxide, water and heat. In some gasifiers this process is
preceded by pyrolysis, where the biomass or coal is first converted to char,
releasing methane and tar rich inpolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.


producing solid ashes and soot (which have to be removed periodically from the gasifier) and wood gas. operated on wood chips A wood gasifier takes wood chips. The heating value of wood is typically 15-18 MJ/kg. these values can vary somewhat from sample to sample. The removal of tar is often accomplished by using a water scrubber. Running wood gas in an unmodified gasoline-burning internal combustion engine may lead to problematic build-up of unburned compounds.1 MJ/kg for gasoline. while single-reactor fluid-bed gasifiers may exceed 50. sawdust.Fluidized bed gasifier in Güssing. tar can be beneficial as well by increasing the heating value of the gas. can be engineered to produce essentially tar-free gas (less than 1 mg/m³). The same source reports the following chemical composition by volume which most likely is also variable: . Staged gasifiers. cooled and directed to an engine or fuel cell. where pyrolysis and gasification occur separately (instead of in the same reaction zone as was the case in e.9 MJ/kg for natural gas and 44. rubber or similar materials as fuel and burns these incompletely in a fire box. The quality of the gas from different gasifiers varies a great deal. to "crack") tars and particles. The heat of combustion of producer gas (a term used in the U. charcoal.e.7 MJ/kg versus 55. coal.000 mg/m³ tar. Presumably. The wood gas can then be filtered for tars and soot/ash particles.[11] Most of these engines have severe purity requirements of the wood gas.S. The fluid bed reactors have the advantage of being much more compact (more capacity per volume and price). meaning wood gas produced for use in a combustion engine) is rather low compared to other fuels. Depending on the intended use of the gas. Austria. Taylor [12]reports that "producer gas" has a lower heating value of 5. so the gas often has to pass through extensive gas cleaning in order to remove or convert (i.g. the WWII gasifiers).

0%  Oxygen O2: 0. Usage[edit] Internal combustion engine[edit] Wood gasifier on a Ford truck converted into a tractor Wood gasifier system . while updraft fixed bed gasifiers yield high tar loads.9%  Carbon monoxide CO: 27. downdraft fixed bed gasifiers yield high nitrogen concentrations and low tar loads.6%. It is pointed out.A charcoal gas producer at theNambassa alternative festival in New Zealand in 1981  Nitrogen N2: 50. oxygen or steam) and the fuel moisture. the gasification medium (air.0%  Carbon dioxide CO2: 4. that the gas composition is strongly dependent on the gasification process.0%  Hydrogen H2: 14.5%  Methane CH4: 3. Steam-gasification processes typically yield high hydrogen contents.

54 times higher compared to the energy demand of the same car on petrol (not including the energy needed to extract.[4] This can be considered to be a good result. In power generation reported demand of fuel is 1. so this can be considered a renewable fuel. cooking and furnaces[edit] Certain stove designs are in effect a gasifier working on the updraft principle—the air passes up through the fuel. Efficiency of the gasifier system is relatively high. so a mechanically regulated diesel engine's "stop" linkage and probably "throttle" linkage must be modified to always give the engine a little bit of injected fuel (Often under the standard idle per-injection volume). Combustion of wood gas generates no particulates.[9] Stoves. Wood can be used to power cars with ordinary internal combustion engines if a wood gasifieris attached. where 100% of the normal petrol can be replaced with little change to the carburation. which can be a column of rice husks.[5] Gasifiers have been built for remote Asian communities using rice husk. emission levels less than 20 ppm HC and 0.000 km drive with a wood gas-powered car. but it remains difficult to get clean gas from them.[7] Especially the HC emissions are low on wood gas. This was quite popular during World War II in several European. gasifiers have become less dependent on constant attention due to the use of sophisticated electronic control systems. if it didn't have it already. the energy consumption has been 1. The resulting gas is then burnt by heated secondary . and is combusted. African and Asian countries because the war prevented easy and cost-effective access to oil. This study also considers all possible losses of the wood gas system. like preheating of the system and carrying of the extra weight of the gas-generating system. or in a diesel engine.Wood gasifiers can power either spark ignition engines. The gasification stage converts about 75% of fuel energy content into a combustible gas that can be used as a fuel for internal combustion engines. This means that 1000 kg of wood combustible matter has been found to substitute 365 litres of petrol during real transportation in similar driving conditions and with the same otherwise unmodified vehicle.[8] A normal catalytic converter works well with wood gas. and the gas renders thus very little carbon black amongst motor oil. feeding the gas into the air inlet that is modified to have a throttle valve. and not including the energy to harvest.[6] The ash can be used as Biocharfertilizer. Exhaust gas emission from an internal combustion engine is significantly lower on wood gas than on petrol. Liquefaction by the Fischer–Tropsch process is another possibility. wood gas has been suggested as a clean and efficient method to heat and cook in developing countries. because no other refining of the fuel is required. then reduced to carbon monoxide by the residual char on the surface. transport and refine the oil from which petrol is derived. process. On diesel engines the diesel fuel is still needed to ignite the gas mixture.2% CO can be easily achieved by most automobile engines. or even to produce electricity when combined with an internal combustion engine. Compared to WWII technology. and transport the wood to feed the gasifier). Purification of the gas and feeding it into natural gas pipelines is one variant to link it to the existing refueling infrastructure. Based on long-term practical experiments and over 100. One installation in Burma uses an 80 kW modified diesel for about 500 people who are otherwise without power. In more recent times. which in many cases has no other use.1 kg wood combustible matter / kWh electricity. but even without it.

which alternates with the vapor stream. Coaxial downdraft gasification stove An alternative stove based on the downdraft principle and typically built with nested cylinders also provides high efficiency. gasification stoves carry lower health risks than conventional cooking fires.5 kJ/mol) Theoretically to make 6 L of water gas.[10] Water gas is a synthesis gas. energy can be provided by using pure oxygen to burn carbon into carbon monoxide. In order to do this. The gas mixes with additional incoming air to provide a secondary burn. 5 L of air is required. The gas is made by passing steam over a red-hot carbon fuel such as coke: H2O + C → H2 + CO (ΔH = +131 kJ/mol) The reaction is endothermic so the fuel must be continually re-heated to keep the reaction going. Most of the CO produced by gasification is oxidized to CO2 in the secondary combustion cycle. It is a useful product but requires careful handling because of the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning. therefore. This arrangement is also known as a Chinese burner. an air stream. is introduced for the combustion of carbon to take place.air coming up a concentric tube. O2 + C → CO2 (ΔH = −393. Or alternatively to prevent contamination with nitrogen. O2 + 2 C → 2 CO (ΔH = −221 kJ/mol) . containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Combustion from the top creates a gasification zone with the gas escaping downwards through ports located at the base of the burner chamber. Such a device behaves very much like a gas stove. Another application is the use of producer gas to displace LDO (light density fuel oil) in industrial furnaces.

and gasification plants were established quickly along the Eastern seaboard of the United States. the major source of coke gas. or coke gas.3 L of pure water gas Lowe's gas process[edit] In 1873. and cooking. and was able to run successful businesses in cold storage as well as products which operated on hydrogen gas.In this case 1 L of oxygen will create 5. with hydrogen. C. The resulting mixed gas was called carburetted water gas. The process spurred on the industry of gas manufacturing. heating. They were used for lighting. Thaddeus S. led to the manufacture of ammonia (NH3) by the combining of nitrogen. Lowe's process improved upon the chimney systems by which the coal could remain superheated thereby maintaining a consistently high supply of the gas. Coal gases were the primary source of gas fuel during the 1940s and 1950's until the adoption ofnatural gas. after subsequent removal of the carbon dioxide formed when carbon monoxide reacts with water. which was used in municipal service. This spurred on the refrigeration industry which long used ammonia as its refrigerant. Lowe developed and patented the water gas process by which large amounts of hydrogen gas could be generated for residential and commercial use in heating and lighting. This gas provided a more efficient heating fuel than the commoncoal gas. Similar processes. Coal gases are made by decomposing coal through heating it to a high temperature. Prof. Lowe also held several patents on artificial ice making machines. The reaction produced carbon dioxide and hydrogen which after a process of cooling and "scrubbing" produced hydrogen gas. Mond gas is a cheap coal gas that was used for industrial heating purposes. Semi-water gas[edit] Semi-water gas is a mixture of water gas and producer gas made by passing a mixture of air and steam through heated coke. The heat generated when producer gas is formed keeps the temperature of the coke high enough to allow water gas to be formed. found in air. The process used the water gas shift reaction: CO + H2O → CO2 + H2 The process was discovered by passing high-pressure steam over hot coal. Variations[edit] Carburetted water gas[edit] Water gas had a lower calorific value than coal gas so the calorific value was often boosted by passing the gas through a heated retortinto which oil was sprayed. Water gas shift reaction[edit] Pure hydrogen can be obtained from water gas by using the water gas shift reaction. typically [1] . like the Haber Process.

Its primary use in the latter half of the 19th century was for illumination of railroad cars. the first Mond gas plant began at the Brunner Mond & Company in Northwich. and boilers. beacons and unmannedlighthouses. The gas was used as fuel for street lighting and basic residential uses that required gas such as ovens. which was made up of mainly hydrogen. for example. Quintinshill rail disaster (1915).[ Pintsch gas was a compressed fuel gas derived from distilled naphtha used for illumination purposes during the 19th and early 20th centuries. the gas was limited for heating or lighting. Although it could be used for some industrial purposes and power generation. which allowed these devices to have the capability to remain lit for several months without servicing. in the Thirsk rail crash (1892). The gas produced was rich in hydrogen and poor in carbon monoxide. These lamps could also withstand vibration and rough usage without extinguishing the light. These features made Pintsch gas a popular solution for illumination of buoys. Lamps using Pintsch gas burned brighter and longer than the existing oil lamps they replaced.[4][5] Reaction[edit] Predominant reaction in Mond Gas Process: C + 2H2O = CO2+ 2H2[4] The Mond gas was composed of roughly:  12% CO (Carbon Monoxide)  28% H2 (Hydrogen)  2. In several railway accidents Pintsch gas lamps added fuel to any fire which started. It was invented in 1851 by German inventor and manufacturer Julius Pintsch (1815-1884). using around 182 tons of coal per week.being supplied to households through pipe distribution systems.[4] In 1902. Mond plants required a large amount of land in order to be profitable. and the Dugald rail accident (1947). kilns. . Cheshire. while recovering ammonium sulfate. The gas was named after its founder. Ludwig Mond Gas Production[edit] The Mond gas process was designed to convert cheap coal into flammable gas.2% CH4 (Methane)  16% CO2 (Carbon Dioxide)  42% N2 (Nitrogen)[3] Uses[edit] Mond gas could be produced and used more efficiently than other gases in the late 19th and early 20th century. furnaces.

due primarily to dilution with atmospheric nitrogen. in which the latter is converted to carbon monoxide. it was still used in lighthouses and beacons long after it was replaced elsewhere. Production chemistry[edit] The main reaction that produces syngas. then air etc. Syngas. When used as an intermediate in the large-scale. amine scrubbing. producing an exothermic reaction . The name comes from its use as intermediates in creating synthetic natural gas (SNG)[1] and for producing ammonia ormethanol. Producer gas has a much lower energy value. CO. forming "producer gas" (older terminology). to give an endless series of cycles until the coke is finally consumed. is endothermic with 206 kJ/mol methane needed for conversion. producing gas of much higher calorific value. it is also produced from natural gas (via the steam reforming reaction) as follows: CH4 + H2O → CO + 3 H2 In order to produce more hydrogen from this mixture. The overall reaction is exothermic.raising the temperature of the coke bed . The first reaction. and very often some carbon dioxide.Electricity and other artificial means of lighting eventually replaced Pintsch illumination. When the coke bed has cooled to a temperature at which the endothermic reaction can no longer proceed.followed by the second endothermic reaction. industrial synthesis of hydrogen (principally used in the production of ammonia).[2][3][4] It has less than half the energy density of natural gas. steam reforming. Steam can then be re-injected. the steam is then replaced by a blast of air. Syngas is combustible and often used as a fuel of internal combustion engines. The second and third reactions then take place. producing carbon monoxide (CO). between incandescent coke and steam. Syngas is also used as an intermediate in producing synthetic petroleum for use as a fuel or lubricant via the Fischer– Tropsch process and previously the Mobil methanol to gasoline process. . and hydrogen H 2(water gas in older terminology). Pure oxygen can be substituted for air to avoid the dilution effect. However. Production methods include steam reforming of natural gas or liquid hydrocarbons to produce hydrogen. carbon monoxide. This is primarily done by pressure swing adsorption (PSA). relative to water gas.forming initially carbon dioxide . is strongly endothermic. and in some types of waste-toenergy gasification facilities. and membrane reactors.. the gasification of coal.[5]biomass. more steam is added and the water gas shift reaction is carried out: CO + H2O → CO2 + H2 The hydrogen must be separated from the CO2 to be able to use it. is a fuel gas mixture consisting primarily of hydrogen. or synthesis gas.

It was non-explosive.[5] It had several advantages over liquid fuels such as gasoline. it can be used for any heating purpose. It was manufactured by decomposing mineral oils in retorts by heat and compressing the resulting naphtha until it liquefied.[6] Blaugas contains about 50% olefins (alkenes). 6%hydrogen and the rest is air. Chemically. In the UK. upon release it assumed the gaseous state again. hydrogen. the same way natural gas is compressed to CNG. moisture and siloxanes. municipal waste. such as cooking. eliminating the need to adjust buoyancy or ballast in-flight. like solar and wind energy. This energy release allows biogas to be used as a fuel. plant material. and crops. It can also be used in a gas engine to convert the energy in the gas into electricity and heat. burning it and replacing its volume with air did not lighten the airship. Dr. biogas can be produced from regionally available raw materials such as recycled waste and is environmentally friendly. Hermann Blau[1][2] of Augsburg. green waste. for example. sewage. named after its inventor. a less-pure form known as Pintsch gas fueledrailroad car lights and stoves in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. it was free from carbon monoxide. Biogas can be cleaned and upgraded to natural gas standards when it becomes bio methane. as the buoyancy compensating fuel for the LZ 127 Graf Zeppelin. Biogas is produced by anaerobic digestion with anaerobic bacteria or fermentation of biodegradable materials such as manure. it is similar to coal gas.[3] It qualifies for renewable energy subsidies in some parts of the world. but unlike coal gas.Blau gas (German: Blaugas) was an artificial illuminating gas similar to propane. but has a rather water-like color. Blau gas was most famous. 37% methane and other alkanes. Blau gas was burned for lighting and heating. Germany. The gases methane. . and because it weighed approximately the same as air.[3][4] Blau gas is not blue. Biogas typically refers to a gas produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. The heat of combustion is 122 MJ/m3 with a candle power of 3000 Hefner candles [3] (about 2710 candelas). and like LPG. however. It is a renewable energy source. and used to powermotor vehicles.[1] It is primarily methane (CH 4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) and may have small amounts of hydrogen sulphide (H 2S). It was stored in steel cylinders for shipment and had the advantage that it possessed the highest specific energy of all artificially produced gases. Furthermore. biogas is estimated to have the potential to replace around 17% of vehicle fuel. It was transported in this condition. and carbon monoxide (CO) can be combusted or oxidized with oxygen.[2] Biogas can be compressed.

electricity. The lower explosive limit is 5% methane and the upper is 15% methane. A biogas plant is the name often given to an anaerobic digester that treats farm wastes or energy crops. During the process. volatile organic compounds(VOCs) in landfill gas contribute to the formation of photochemical smog.[4] There are two key processes: mesophilic and thermophilic digestion.Production[edit] Main article: Anaerobic digestion Biogas production in rural Germany Biogas is practically produced as landfill gas (LFG) or digested gas.[9] The methane in biogas is 20 times more potent a greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide. This material prevents oxygen exposure thus allowing anaerobic microbes to thrive. an air-tight tank transforms biomass waste into methane producing renewable energy that can be used for heating. uncontained landfill gas. and many other operations that use an internal combustion engine. Landfill gas is hazardous for three key reasons:[which?] It becomes explosive when it escapes from the landfill and mixes with oxygen.[6] Landfill gas is produced by wet organic waste decomposing under anaerobic conditions in a landfill. In addition. Therefore.[7][8] The waste is covered and mechanically compressed by the weight of the material that is deposited above.[5] In experimental work at University of Alaska Fairbanks. It can be produced using anaerobic digesters. which escapes into the atmosphere may significantly contribute to the effects of global warming. such as GE Jenbacher gas engines. Applications[edit] . about 20%–30% of the output from digesters in warmer climates. This gas builds up and is slowly released into the atmosphere if the site has not been engineered to capture the gas. a 1000-litre digester using psychrophiles harvested from "mud from a frozen lake in Alaska" has produced 200–300 liters of methane per day. These plants can be fed with energy crops such as maize silage or biodegradable wastes including sewage sludge and food waste.

selexol absorption. Typical energy losses in natural gas transmission systems . the producer of the biogas may use their distribution networks. water heating. pressure swing absorption. and becomes biomethane. The corrosive nature of H 2S alone is enough to destroy the internals of a plant.[19] The most prevalent method is water washing where high pressure gas flows into a column where the carbon dioxide and other trace elements are scrubbed by cascading water running counter-flow to the gas. and process heating. It takes roughly between 3% and 6% of the total energy output in gas to run a biogas upgrading system. the electricity and the heat can be used for on-site generation[21] resulting in a reduction of losses in the transportation of energy. The solution is the use of biogas upgrading or purification processes whereby contaminants in the raw biogas stream are absorbed or scrubbed. If compressed. Gas must be very clean to reach pipeline quality and must be of the correct composition for the distribution network to accept. Carbon dioxide. it is not high quality enough to be used as fuel gas for machinery. and amine gas treating. space heating.A biogas bus in Linköping. where the waste heat from the engine is conveniently used for heating the digester. cooking. Biogas gas-grid injection[edit] Gas-grid injection is the injection of biogas into the methane grid (natural gas grid). Injections includes biogas[20] until the breakthrough of micro combined heat and power two-thirds of all the energy produced by biogas power plants was lost (the heat). [18] Methane in biogas can be concentrated via a biogas upgrader to the same standards as fossil natural gas.[17] in a CHP gas engine. Biogas upgrading[edit] Raw biogas produced from digestion is roughly 60% methane and 29% CO 2 with trace elements of H 2S. water. If the local gas network allows. hydrogen sulfide. which itself has had to go through a cleaning process. leaving more methane per unit volume of gas. using the grid to transport the gas to customers. it can replace compressed natural gas for use in vehicles. and particulates must be removed if present. Sweden Biogas can be used for electricity production on sewage works. where it can fuel an internal combustion engine or fuel cells and is a much more effective displacer of carbon dioxide than the normal use in on-site CHP plants. This arrangement could deliver 98% methane with manufacturers guaranteeing maximum 2% methane loss in the system. There are four main methods of upgrading: water washing.

it can be used in vehicle transportation. [25][26] In 2007. Switzerland. although there are single-point insertion thermal mass flow meters capable of accurately monitoring biogas flows with minimal pressure drop. They can handle moisture variations that occur in the flow stream because of daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations. The current energy losses on a large electrical system range from 5% to 8%. Gasification is a process that converts organic or fossil based carbonaceous materials intocarbon monoxide.000 vehicles were being fueled with upgraded biogas worldwide. Most thermal flow meters are unable to provide reliable data because the moisture causes steady high flow readings and continuous flow spiking. [22] Biogas in transport[edit] "Biogaståget Amanda" train near Linköpingstation. [23][24] Biogas powers automobiles. The resulting gas mixture is called syngas (from synthesis gas or synthetic gas) or producer gasand is itself a fuel. hydrogen and carbon dioxide. In 1974. and account for the moisture in the flow stream to produce a dry gas value. [27] Measuring in biogas environments[edit] Biogas is part of the wet gas and condensing gas (or air) category that includes mist or fog in the gas stream. an estimated 12. has been in service in Sweden since 2005. The power derived from gasification and combustion of the resultant gas is considered to be a source of renewable energy if the gasified compounds were obtained from biomass. Compressed biogas is becoming widely used in Sweden. without combustion. named Biogaståget Amanda. landfills.[1][2][3][4] . with a controlled amount of oxygen and/or steam. and animal feeding operations (covered livestock lagoons). Sweden If concentrated and compressed. This is achieved by reacting the material at high temperatures (>700 °C). Ultrasonic flow meters are one of the few devices capable of measuring in a biogas atmosphere. Biogas environments include wastewater digesters. A biogas-powered train. The mist or fog is predominately water vapor that condenses on the sides of pipes or stacks throughout the gas flow. mostly in Europe. a British documentary film titledSweet as a Nut detailed the biogas production process from pig manure and showed how it fueled a custom-adapted combustion engine. and Germany.range from 1% to 2%.

plasma. fluidized bed. partially destroyed the property. and the biological ecosystems coexisting simultaneously within most sites. Gasification of fossil fuels is currently widely used on industrial scales to generate electricity. producer gas gives greater control over power levels when compared to solid fuels. . Syngas may be burned directly in gas engines. Syngas can also be used for further processing to liquid fuels or chemicals. An accident causing two deaths occurred from an explosion in a house adjacent to Skellingsted landfill in Denmark in 1991. which in turn influence themicrobial populations within it. and free radical.[1][7] Current applications[edit] Syngas can be used for heat production and for generation of mechanical and electrical power. Due to the continual production of landfill gas. entrained flow. chemical make-up of waste. cocurrent fixed bed.The advantage of gasification is that using the syngas is potentially more efficient than direct combustion of the original fuel because it can be combusted at higher temperatures or even in fuel cells. thermal range of physical conditions. which was allowed to build up.[5] Gasification processes[edit] Several types of gasifiers are currently available for commercial use: counter-current fixed bed. leading to more efficient and cleaner operation. so that the thermodynamic upper limit to the efficiency defined by Carnot's rule is higher or not applicable. England in 1986. In addition to the risk of fire and explosion. allowing clean gas production from otherwise problematic fuels. The rate of production is affected by waste composition and landfill geometry. Gasification can also begin with material which would otherwise have been disposed of such as biodegradable waste. In addition. together with the frequently unclear nature of the contents. Landfill gas is a complex mix of different gases created by the action of microorganisms within a landfill. the increase in pressure within the landfill (together with differential diffusion) causes the gases release into the atmosphere.[2][3]Several accidents have occurred.[4] where migrating landfill gas. Such emissions lead to important environmental. makes landfill gas production more difficult to predict and control than standard industrial bioreactors for sewage treatment. [5] Due to the risk presented by landfill gas there is a clear need to monitor gas produced by landfills. for example at Loscoe. Production[edit] Landfill gas production results from chemical reactions and microbes acting upon the waste as the putrescible materials begins to break down[1] in the landfill. gas migration in the subsurface can result in contact of landfill gas with groundwater. the high-temperature process refines out corrosive ash elements such as chloride andpotassium. or converted via the Fischer–Tropsch process into synthetic fuel. Like other gaseous fuels. This heterogeneity. hygiene and security problems in the landfill. used to produce methanol and hydrogen.

Some inorganic contaminants.This. boiler (makes heat). (October 2012) Main article: Landfill gas utilization Figure 1[11] The gases produced within a landfill can be collected or flared off. Most of these landfills are composed of municipal waste. such as mercury. [12] The landfill gas can also be sold off site and sent into natural gas pipelines. This provides raw heat for processes. internal combustion engine (makes electricity). and carbon tetrachloride. hydrogen sulphide. or fuel cells. The landfill gas can be utilized directly on site by a boiler or any type or combustion system. In 1991. fluorine. convert the methane to methyl alcohol. and other contaminants. in turn. with the remainder being mostly carbon dioxide. These landfills are the largest source of anthropogenic methane emissions in the United States. including toxic chemicals like benzene.[8 Landfill gas use[edit] This section appears to be written like an advertisement.[7] The Environmental Protection Agency estimates that there are approximately six thousand landfills in the United States. therefore. steam turbines. the gas has several different pathways it can take. the US EPA identified ninety-four non-methane organic compounds. General options for managing landfill gas are: flaring. Please help improve it by rewriting promotional content from a neutral point of view and removing any inappropriateexternal links. such tritium) found in landfill gas. are also present in the gas of some landfills. toluene. clean it enough to pipe it to other industries or into natural gaslines. orbromine. Electricity can also be generated on site through the use of micro turbines. and. The non-methane organic compounds usually make up less than one percent of landfill gas. At least forty one of the non-methane organic compounds are halogenated compounds (chemicals containing halogens. Most of these other contaminants are known as "non-methane organic compounds" or NMOCs. produce methane. This requires the gas to be processed . vinyl chloride. There are sometimes also contaminants. such as chlorine. Landfill gas also contains varying amounts of nitrogen and oxygen gas. can result in contamination of groundwater by organic compounds present in nearly all landfill gas. These landfills will contribute an estimated four hundred and fifty to six hundred and fifty billion cubic feet of methane per year (in 2000). gas turbine (makes electricity). Once collected. water vapour. chloroform.[6] Landfill gas is approximately forty to sixty percent methane.

Blast furnace gas is sometimes flared without generating heat or electricity. which has a fairly low heating value already. These projects also reduce greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. [17] Waste Management uses landfill gas as an energy source. about 93 BTU/cubic foot.[14] Figure 2[15] The number of landfill gas projects went from 399 in 2005. Particulate matter is removed so that it can be burned more cleanly. oxygen and any other trace contaminants. which are not flammable.into pipeline quality by removing the water. It has a very low heating value. (Methane gas has twenty times the global warming potential of carbon dioxide. These projects collect the methane gas and treat it. to 594 in 2012[16] according to theEnvironmental Protection Agency. It is commonly used as a fuel within the steel works. another byproduct of the landfill process. carbon dioxide. This energy production offsets almost two million tons of coal per year.This is a good substitute of natural gas and run the vehicles more efficiently. Their landfill gas-to-energy projects create enough energy to power four hundred thousand homes every day. This pressure is utilized to operate a generator (Top-gas-pressure Recovery . 18-20% carbon dioxide and someoxygen. It may be combined with natural gas or coke oven gas before combustion or a flame support with richer gas or oil is provided to sustain combustion. so it can be used for electricity or upgraded to pipeline-grade gas. hydrogren. buildings. Blast Furnace Gas is generated at higher pressure and at about 100 °C (212 °F)-150 °C(302 °F) in a modern Blast Furnace. This displaces another fuel that was previously used for the same thing. [13] Landfill gas can also be used to evaporate leachate.[18] Blast furnace gas (BFG) [1] is a by-product of blast furnaces that is generated when the iron ore is reduced with coke to metallic iron. These projects are popular because they control energy costs and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Once in the general supply of natural gas. The rest is mostly carbon monoxide.) These projects power homes. nitrogen. but it can be used in boilers and power plants equipped to burn it. it can be used at power plants producing electricity or in home boilers. and vehicles. Waste Management currently has 110 landfill gas-to-energy facilities. because it consists of about 60 percent nitrogen.

.e. Higher concentration of carbon monoxide makes the gas hazardous. Auto ignition point of blast furnace gas is approximate 630 °C (1.Turbine . which can generate electrical energy up to 35 kwh/t of pig iron without burning any fuel. TRT in short).166 °F)-650 °C (1.202 °F) and it has LEL (Lower Explosive Limit) of 27% & UEL (Upper Explosive Limit) of 75% in an air-gas mixture at normal temperature and pressure. Dry type TRTs can generate more power than wet type TRT.i.